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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

LIBRARY

OF THE

DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS

Received

Accessions No

tt.r/

JAN.11.1.910.

^

Book No

/

Iff*

PHYSICS

FOR

SECONDARY SCHOOLS

BY

CHARLES F. ADAMS, A.M.

HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT OF PHYSIC8,

DETROIT CENTRAL HIGH SCHOOL

NEW YORK .-

CINCINNATI : CHICAGO

AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY

.A

niYS-IOB DEFT,

COPYRIGHT, 1908, BY

CHARLES F. ADAMS.

ENTERED AT STATIONERS' HALL, LONDON.

PHY61C8.

W. P.

I

PREFACE

PHYSICS deals with phenomena in which every child

interesting successful is interested study and ; it practical, treats requires of subjects clear and it thinking should with which and afford accurate all men the best and ex-

women have more or less to do in practical life ; and its

pression.

The study of physics should,

therefore, be

of mental discipline. ^The subject should be so presented

that the pupil's interest is maintained not merely because

he is entertained by a wonder-working magician, but be-

cause he is conscious of successfully exerting his mental

powers in mastering what he desires to know.

This book is the outgrowth of many years of experience

in teaching physics to both boys and girls. I have made

a constant study of the difficulties which beset young

pupils in their attempts to understand the subject. It

has been my chief aim to write a teachable book.

I have

endeavored especially to present the subject with such

simplicity and clearness of expression and fullness of

illustration that the average secondary school pupil will

readily comprehend it.

A large number of problems have been included in the

text for the They purpose have been of giving selected the with teacher great a latitude care, espe- of

choice.

cially with a view to emphasizing and illustrating the

principles I believe involved, that the the material numbers for being laboratory_jvork so chosen that should the

actual arithmetical work shall be easy.

be contained in a separate

book.

Such material overloads

673276

4

PREFACE

a text-book; and, moreover, the teachershould havegreater

range and freedom in the prosecution of that work than

would be possible if he were limited to such material as

could be presented in a book of this character. Syllabus.

trance Examination Board and the New York State

I wish here to acknowledge my deep obligations to those

whohave read the proof or the manuscript fortheir valua-

ble criticisms and suggestions, especially to Dr. Karl E.

to Guthe, Dr. Paul of the R. State Heyl, University of the Central of Iowa, High Iowa School City, of Phila- Iowa ;

year, and it meets the requirements of the College En-

The text can be mastered by ordinary classes in a school

delphia, Pennsylvania ; to Mr. C. E. Spicer, of the Joliet

Township High School, Joliet, Illinois ; to Mr. Herbert C.

Wood, of the East High School, Cleveland, Ohio ; and

to Mr. C. H. Slater, of the William McKinley High

School, St. Louis, Missouri.

I assume all responsibility,

however, for any errors that may remain in the text.

CONTENTS

CHAPTER

CONTENTS

v.

Refraction of light

vi. Deviation and dispersion

vn. Color

vin. Kinds of spectra

ix. Interference and diffraction

IV.

x.

Imagesformed by plane mirrors ii. Expansion by heat

xi. Images formed by spherical mirrors

xu. Lenses and images formed by lenses

xin. Optical instruments

i.

Temperature and thermometers

HEAT

in. Heat and energy

iv. The steam engine

v.

vi.

vn.

Measurement of heat

Transmission of heat

Change of state

.

.

.

.

.

.

V. ELECTRICITY PART I. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETISM

i.

ii.

Electrical charges

Induced charges

.

.

.

,

.

in. Electrical distribution

iv.

Potential

v. Electrical condensers

^PART II. MAGNETISM

i. Magnets PART. III. CURRENT ELECTRICITY

ii.

in.

iv.

Terrestrial magnetism

Magnetic induction

Magnetic field

i.

The voltaic cell

in. Magnetic Galvanometers effects of the current Chemical effects of the electric current .

ii.

iv.

v.

vi.

Current Resistance induction .

Ohm's law

vn. The dynamo and electric motor

vin. Currents induced by currents

ix. Telephone

x.

xi.

xu.

Energy of the current

heat effects

Rontgenrays

wireless telegraphy

.

.

APPENDIX

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

227

274 244 255 266 235

249

259

282

292

292

297

806

310

.816

822

831

349 349

349

354

359

361

365

380 373 369 369 412 410

406

391

424

430

437

448 456 446

.465

475

380 375

377

PHYSICS FOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS

INTRODUCTION

1. Physics is the science of matter and energy.

Each

of these is as important as the other. We know nothing

of matter except through the agency of energy and noth-

ing of energy except through the agency of matter.

Physics is one of the exact sciences. son.

2.

Unit of measure.

In its investiga-

tions constant use is made of mathematics, and the most

refined and accurate instruments known to man are often

required. It may be said to be a science of measurements.

Everymeasurement is a compari-

The thing with which the measured quantity is

compared is the unit of measure.

If you measure the

length of the table by your pencil, you may say the table

is ten pencils long.

You have compared the length of

the table with that of the pencil, and the length of the

pencil is the unit of measure.

A unit is the first essential

in A all unit measurements. must always be The of magnitude the same nature of any as quantity the thing is

the ratio of that quantity to the unit.

measured. A unit with which length is measured must

volume, a force to We measure must a use force, a an volume area to to measure measure an a

possess length. to measure other quantities of heat.

If we wish to measure heat, we must select a

area. certain definite quantity of heat for a unit with which

Generally, but not

always, a name is given to the quantity selected for the

unit.

7

8

INTRODUCTION

Sometimes quantities are measured indirectly by meas-

uringsome other quantitywhich is proportional to the first

For example, we may measure the strength of

quantity. the stick becomes his unit of length for the time being.

He might keep the stick, give a name to its length, and

aiid useivin'mrasimfrg the length of a log; the length of

a man by measuring;what he can do.

is wholly4ina*bi^ra^y*matter. Aman The may selection pick up of a a stick unit

'Jfc^StandardkncLlegal units.

make use them. others of equal length, persuading other people to

Thus in time it might become an established sometimes become established by custom or use; but if a States and Great

Britain, the

There are two systems of units

unit.

When a unit has a fixed and definite value and is

Units

used by many people, it becomes a standard unit.

law is enacted by a government adopting any unit, the

unit so adopted becomes a legal unit.

4.

Systems of United units.

in

the

in use

English, and the French or metric.

The English system

is used for general purposes, while the metric is used for

scientific purposes in these countries.

the metric system is used almost

exclusively In other countries for all

purposes. The great advantage of the metric system lies

in the fact that it is a decimal system and that the

various units bear simple relations to one another.

5. Fundamental and derived units.

Units selected

and defined without reference to other units are termed Thus the unit of area is a square, one unit in length, as

one square inch ; and the unit of volume may be a cube

whose edge is one unit in length, as the liter, which is a

may be expressed in terms of these fundamental units.

Nearly all quantities with which physical science deals

of length, mass, and time.

fundamental units.

Those used in science are the units

INTRODUCTION

9

cube whose edge is 10 cm. long.

Thus we see that the

unit of area and the unit of volumemay be derived from

the unit of length.

Such units as may be defined and

expressed in terms of the fundamental units are called

derived units. lengths are reduced to centimeters, all masses to grams,

and time to seconds, to express a quantity in absolute

units. This system of measurement is often called the

are taken as the fundamental units ; and therefore all

scientific work the centimeter, the gram, and the second

6. Absolute units.

Whenever any quantity is ex-

pressed wholly in terms of the units of length, mass, and

time, it is said to be expressed in absolute units.

In all

C.G.S. (Centimeter-Gram-Second) system.

7. The unit of length.

In the metric system the unit

Themeter is the distance between

of length is the meter. Meter.

two lines on a platinum-iridium bar (at 0C.) which is

kept at the International Bureau of Weights and Meas-

ures in France and is called the International Prototype millimeter, the 1000th part of a meter, are thesubdivisions

The centimeter, the 100th part of a meter, and the

is ington, a similar called bar the National in the Bureau Prototype of Standards Meter. at Wash-

Palace of the Archives ofthe French government. There

It is an exact copy of the original meter in the

of the meter usually used in physics.

The yard, the unit of length in the English of system, a meter. is

inch is ^ of a meter and a meter is 39.37 inches.

legally defined in the United States as ^

An

The foot and the inch are to be considered as fractions of

the quantity yard. ofmatter in a body.

8. Definition of mass.

Mass has been defined as the

This has been the accepted

definition of mass for many years, but it is not considered

10

INTRODUCTION

satisfactory chiefly because of the uncertainty existing The unit of mass.

about the nature of matter.

We do not know what

matter really is and cannot define it in any satisfactory

way.

We shall, however, use for the present the old

definition of mass.

of a body is usually Weights and Measures and called the International Proto-

der of platinum-iridiumkept at the International Bureau of

9.

The mass

determined by weighing it, that is, by comparing it with

certain standard masses or "weights." In the metric

system, the standard mass is the kilogram.

It is a cylin-

type Kilogram.

It is an exact equivalent of the original

kilogram of the Palace of the Archives of the French

government. A similar cylinder in the Bureau of Stand- The gram, which is the thousandth part of the kilogram,

unit of length.

is the unit of mass in the'metrie system.

The unit of mass in the English system is the avoirdu-

ards at Washington is called the National Prototype

Kilogram. The kilogram has the same weight as a cubic

decimeter or liter of water at its temperature of greatest

density, 4

C.

It has therefore a certain relation to the

pois pound.

The pound is a certain piece of metal kept In 1875 most of

the nations of the civilized world agreed to

establish and maintain a scientific and permanent International

2.2046 Ib.

pound equals ^& of a kilogram or a kilogram equals

by the British government. The United States govern-

ment has 110 standard pound mass worthy of the name,

but defines the pound in terms of the kilogram.

One

Bureau the greatest of Weights possible and accuracy. Measures. After they had been compared with

Standard meters and kilograms were preparedby this bureau with

those of the Palace of the Archives of France and with one another,

INTRODUCTION

11

one of each was selected for the international prototypes, and the

rest, called national prototypes, were distributed by lot among the

several nations maintaining the bureau. Those of the United States the mean solar day.

The second, the unit of time used in physics, is ^eiw ^

Jan. 2, 1890.

were received by President Harrison with considerable ceremony on

10. Weight.

If a mass of anything is held in the

hand, force tending a force to is felt pull pulling the mass it to toward the earth the earth. is the weight

This

of the mass ; or, more accurately, the weight of a body is

the force that attracts the body to the earth.

For example, the weight of a pound mass is the pull

which the earth exerts upon it.

The mass itself (the

matter in it) is called a pound, and the weight of the

mass (the pull of the earth) is also called a pound.

Likewise the weight of a kilogram mass is called a kilo-

gram, and the weight of a gram mass is called a gram.

Thus all the terms, kilogram, gram, pound, ounce, etc.,

have two meanings, each being the name for a mass and

This makes it difficult to dis-

the cult weight because of in that ordinary mass. language it is customary to use

tinguish between weight and mass.

It is still more diffi-

the word weight in the same sense in which the word

mass is used in physics.

Thus, an iron mass is called

an iron weight, and we always say a " set of weights " places, being least at the equator and increasing as the

poles are approached. If the kilogram mass of the Bu-

the earth for bodies upon it differs slightly at different

reau of Standards at Washington were taken to the equa-

when strictly speaking we should say a "set of masses."

Weight means a force, and mass means a quantity of

matter.

11. The weight of a body variable.

The attraction of

12

INTRODUCTION

tor, its weight there would be less than at Washington,

although its weight would be called a kilogram at both

pending places or upon wherever the place it might in which be. it happens to be.

Hence the weight of

any mass is not a constant, but a variable quantity, de-

at If Havana, a wire were would just it strong withstand enough a pull to withstand of 100 Ib. a at pull New of 100 York? Ib.

Why?

English system is the pound, The weights not the of mass of metal

12.

Units of weight.

the units

of

mass are taken as the units of weight and have the

For example, the unit of weight in the gram, we may mean a mass or we may refer to a

called a pound, but the pull

of the earth upon

that

Therefore, when we use

say "pound mass" and "gram mass" the when word using pound such

metal.

or

weight.

The beginner will find it helpful if for a time he will

same names.

words as pound and

to signify mass ; and " pound

gram

weight " and " gram weight " when using them to express

weight or force.

13.

Relation of weight to mass. It follows from the definition of the unit of weight

Under the same con-

ditions weights of bodies are proportional to their masses.

This means that if one body weighs three times as much

as another at the same place, its mass is also three times

as great.

It is because of this principle that masses can

be compared and measured by comparing their weights,

and upon this principle the practice of weighing things

rests.

given above ( 11) and from the proportionality of mass

and weight, that the weight of a body and its mass are

expressed 14. The by density the same of a substance number ; if is the the number mass of of a unite body

is 5 Ib., its weight is also 5 Ib.

INTRODUCTION

13

of

of

its mass per unit volume.

For example, a cubic foot

water weighs 62.4 Ib. or has a mass of 62.4 Ib. ; hence

its density is 62.4 Ib. per cubic foot.

Its density may

also be stated in ounces

per cubic inch, or in grams

per cubic centimeter, being 0.578 oz. per cubic inch, or

is 1 g. usually per cubic stated centimeter. in grams per cubic centimeter, and it is to 7.8 grams Relationbetween per cubic centimeter. mass, volume, and density.

divide the number that represents the mass of a body in

grams by the number that represents its volume in cubic

centimeters, we obtain the number that represents the

mass in grams in jpne cubic centimeter, which is by defini-

tion the density of the body ; therefore, briefly the density

of a body equals its mass divided by its volume. 1 Letting

m, v, and d represent respectively the mass, volume, and

density of a substance, this relation may be expressed stance to the density of a standard substance, water being

16 . Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of a sub- foot.

Since the metric system is in

almost universal use in science, the density of a substance

be so taken unless stated to the contrary.

Thus, when

the density of iron is given as 7.8, it is understood as

15.

If we

algebraically by the equation

d=

v

, or m= v x d, or v =

.

d

the standard

for solids and liquids, and air for gases.

Thus when we say that the specific gravity of iron is 7.8,

wemean that it is 7.8 times as dense as water. In English

units the density of water is 62.4 Ib. per cubic foot; there-

fore the In density C.G.S. of units iron the is (7.8 density x62.4) of 486.7 water Ib. is 1; per there- cubic

1 The common use of brief expressions like this is justified by its con-

venience. The readermust keep constantly in mind the fact that terms

likedensity, r/iass, volume) etc., when used in equations, standfor numbers.

14

INTRODUCTION

fore the density of iron is (7.8 x 1) 7.8.

Thus it is seen

that with C.G.S. units the specific gravity of a solid or

liquid and its density are expressed by the same number.

For this reason the term specific gravity is falling more

or less into disuse, density taking its place.

The specific

gravity of a substance is the same with all systems, but

the density of a substance is expressedby different numbers

in different systems.

Problems

1. A piece of marble 2 ft. square and 5 ft. longweighs 3370 Ib.

What is its density? Its specific gravity?

2. A mass of iron havinga density of 486 Ib. per cu. ft. weighs 20

tons.

What is its volume ? '

(c) in grams A cube per of cubic copper centimeter? 6 in. on a side weighs 69 Ib.

3.

What is its

density () in ounces per cubic inch, (6) pounds per cubic foot, and

4. A glass globe 18 cm. in diameter held 3.95 g. of air.

What

was the density of the air ?

5. A cylinder 4 cm. deepand 6 cm.in insidediameter held 1538 g.

of mercury when exactly full. What is the density of mercury ? 0.001293 its density? ? What is its specific gravity, the density of air being

8. If coal gas has a specific gravity of 0.4, what is its density in

grams per cubic centimeter? out reducing any metric units to English units or English to metric

units.)

theweight of a cubicfoot of it ? (Thisproblem should be solvedwith-

gravity? The density of gold is 19.3 g. per cubic centimeter. What is

The density of hydrogen is 0.0000896. What is its specific

6.

7.

A gallon of hydrogen weighs 0.339 g. What is its density ?

If 4.5 liters of

carbon dioxide gas weigh 8.883 g., what is

9.

10.

CHAPTER I

MECHANICS AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER

I. MOTION AND FORCE

17. Mechanics treats of the two effects of force on mat-

ter:

(1) change of motion, called acceleration, and (2)

change of size or shape, called strain.

Dynamics treats of the first, or the motive effect of force.

18. Motion is continuous change of position. Since the

position of a body cannot be given except with reference an object on the deck of a moving ship may be at rest reference to the earth's axis or to the sun it is moving journey, or v= -.

For instance, if a train goes 90 mi. in 3

divided by the number of units of time taken for the

measured by the number of units of distance passed over

to some other point or position, so change of position of

a body can be conceived only with reference to some

other body ; that is, all motion is relative.

For example,

relatively ship, while to it the is in ship motion itself relatively and to other to the bodies water in or the the

shore.

A body on

the earth may be at rest with refer-

ence to the earth's surface, while at the same time with

through space at a very rapid rate.

19. Velocity is the rate of motion of a body.

It is

t

hr., it is said to travel at the rate of 30 mi. per hour; its

velocity is 30 mi. per hour (-^-=30). Its velocity may 3 x 60 x 60

15

also be said to be 44 ft. per second

90 x 5280

= 44.

1C

MECHANICS AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER

The motion of a body may be

It is uniform when the body passes

uniform or variable. with a constant velocity, or to vary its speed greatly, at

above the train may be imagined to traverse the 90 mi.

20. Uniform motion.

over equal spaces in equal and consecutive units of time ;

it is variable when the spaces traversed in equal intervals

of time are unequal.

When the motion of a body is uni-

form, its velocity is termed constant.

21.

Average and actual velocity.

In the example given

times In the going first slowly, case, however, at times with going uniform very fast, motion, and at 30 times mi.

standing still at stations.

In either case, whether having

uniform or variable motion, its velocity is 30 mi. per hour.

per hour is its actual velocity at each instant throughout

three hours ; in the second case, 30mi. per hour is its velocity actually 30 mi. per hour.

that for no length of time during the three hours was its

average velocity for the whole time, while it is possible

the

The formula, v= -> applies to both cases, giving the

t

actual velocity when the Problems body has uniform motion, and

the average velocity when the motion is variable.

1. A man walked 20 mi. in 4| hours. What was his velocity?

2. A body having uniform motion passed over 50 m. in 20 sec.

What was its velocity in meters per second? In centimeters per

second?

4. Express How long a velocity will it take of 60 a mi. body per having hour in a feet velocity per second. of 22 ft. per

3.

second to go a mile ?

5. By means of the answer to the last problem reduce a velocity

of 30 mi. per hour to velocity in feet per second.