MOTION IN TWO DIMENSIONS
Learning Outcomes and Assessment Standards
Learning Outcome 1: Practical Scientific inquiry and problem solving skills The learner is able to confidently explore and investigate phenomena relevant to Physical Science by using enquiry, problem solving, critical thinking and other skills. We know this when the learner is able to: • Interpret data to draw conclusions. • Solve problems. • Communicating and presenting information and scientific arguments. Learning Outcome 2: Constructing and applying Scientific knowledge The learner is able to access, interpret, construct and use Physical Science concepts to explain phenomena relevant to Physical Science.We know this when the learner is able to: • Recall and state specified concepts. • Indicate and explain. • Apply scientific knowledge.
Requirements for this section of the curriculum
Projectile motion represented in words, diagrams, equations and graphs For vertical projectile motion (near the surface of the Earth if air friction is ignored)
Explain that projectiles: ◦ fall freely with gravitational acceleration ‘g’ ◦ accelerate downwards with a constant acceleration whether the projectile is moving upward or downward ◦ have zero velocity at their greatest height ◦ take the same the time to reach their greatest height from the point of upward launch as the time they take to fall back to the point of launch ◦ can have their motion described by a single set of equations for the upward and downward motion. Use equations of motion, e.g. to determine: ◦ the greatest height reached given the velocity with which the projectile is launched upward (initial velocity) ◦ the time at which a projectile is at a particular height given its initial velocity ◦ the height relative to the ground of the position of a projectile shot vertically upward at launch, given the time for the projectile to reach the ground. Draw position vs time (x vs t), velocity vs time (v vs t) and acceleration vs time (a vs t) graphs for projectile motion. Give equations for position versus time and velocity versus time for the graphs of motion of particular projectiles and vice versa: Given x vs t, v vs t or a vs t graphs: ◦ determine position, displacement, velocity or acceleration at any time t ◦ describe the motion of the object e.g. graphs showing a ball bouncing or ◦ thrown vertically upwards thrown vertically downward, and so on.
Links to Grade 10 (motion in one dimension) Links to Grade 11 (Newton’s Second Law and the Law of Universal Gravitation)
01 MECHANICS.indb 1
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Often words take on new meanings due to localised or fashionable usage. The acceleration of gravity always points downwards.● ●
● ● ●
The equations of motion are identical to the equations introduced in Grade 10. Some problems with calculations. v = √vi2 + v f2. because words are used to describe precise concepts. In science.
FOUR EQUATIONS OF MOTION
A body in motion in a straight line. s and t are variables. in any direction. vx
In this lesson … Projectile motion in words. alternative meanings due to the way the word is commonly used. depending on direction convention used) a = acceleration (can be + or –. with constant acceleration …
needs five parameters (one is a constant and four are variables) to describe its motion: vi or u = initial velocity (can be + or –. Select positive and negative directions and make sure that the signs of the displacement. depending on direction convention used) t = time (period over which the motion is examined). depending on direction convention used) x or s = displacement (can be + or –. diagrams and equations. we must be very careful that our chosen words convey ideas precisely and that they are not contaminated by confusing. velocity and acceleration are consistent with the chosen direction. Use the general equations and set a = g for the vertical component of the motion and a = 0 for the horizontal component. When the velocity has a horizontal and a vertical component _ Use Pythagoras.
01 MECHANICS. u.
PROJECTILES AND MISSILES
The English language is full of words with more than one meaning. depending on direction convention used) vf or v = final velocity (can be + or –.indb 2
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. to calculate the magnitude of the velocity and vy θ = tan–1 __ to calculate the angle of elevation. Four equations can be derived to describe the body’s motion: vi + v u+v (equation independent of a) average displacement s = _·t or x = _f ·t 2 2 final velocity v = u + at or vf = vi + at final velocity v² = u² + 2as or vf = vi + 2ax
(equation independent of s) (equation independent of t) (equation independent of v)
1 1 displacement s = ut + __at² or x = vit + __at² 2 2
a is a constant and v.
then. continuous source of propulsion.
Thrown horizontally with an initial.
Thrown at an angle of depression. and an initial vertical component of velocity. the force on a stone being thrown lasts only while the stone and the thrower’s hand are in contact.
01 MECHANICS. A2: A projectile is launched. FORCES ON A PROJECTILE
For our purposes.
HOW PROJECTILES MOVE
[In these examples we will choose the “direction convention” as being positive (+) for the upwards direction. horizontal component of velocity. (But the effect of this force ceases once the projectile is in motion. thrown. catapulted or projected by a force which lasts only as long as the actual launching/projection is in process e. uv = 0. Here. +u.g. upward velocity.) The only force apart from gravity that could have an effect during the flight of a projectile is air resistance. uv < 0. as in a rocket. are projectiles and missiles in the context of the physical sciences?
A1: A missile has its own. Since air resistance is a small force we usually ignore it in our calculations. The only other force that acted on the object was the force that caused it to move in the first place.For example: “The protesters threw missiles at the police …” “More and more countries are developing anti-aircraft missiles. a stone) has been propelled the force of propulsion (from the thrower’s hand) is removed. uh ≠ 0 and uv ≠ 0. Q: What. neither component of the initial velocity will be zero i.g. the only force acting on a projectile while it is in flight is the force of gravity.e. In the first sentence we are referring to something that is thrown or propelled by a force. In the second sentence we are referring to a rocket whose engines provide a continuous force of propulsion as the object travels through the air.” Here we see two meanings for the word “missile”. uh.
Thrown vertically downwards with an initial velocity.indb 3
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. Once the object (e.]
Thrown vertically upwards with an initial. -u.
e. In the vertical direction a projectile obeys Newton’s Second Law of Motion.
01 MECHANICS. when a projectile moves upwards. the acceleration is opposite to its motion.8 m·s–2 (more accurate) ● The horizontal and vertical components of motion of a projectile are independent of one another. it maintains a constant velocity (equal to the horizontal component of the initial velocity) since it is not acted upon by a force in the horizontal direction. The acceleration of a projectile is the acceleration due to gravity. ● The acceleration due to gravity is ALWAYS downwards.uh
– u v
Thrown at an angle of elevation.
The horizontal component of a projectile’s velocity is NOT affected by gravity. Here.
POINTS TO NOTE ABOUT PROJECTILE MOTION 1. uh ≠ 0 and uv ≠ 0. neither component of the initial velocity will be zero i.e. ● In other words. The only force acting on a projectile is the force of gravity. In the horizontal direction.indb 4
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. g = 10 m·s–2 (approximation) or g = 9. a projectile obeys Newton’s First law of Motion i. uv > 0. The vertical component of a projectile’s motion is motion in a straight line with constant acceleration (a = g). the acceleration is in the same direction and hence it causes the body to accelerate downwards. and is hence a negative (retarding) acceleration.
2. regardless of the direction the body is moving. ● When the projectile moves downwards.
In other words.
A large gun fires a shell at an angle of 60°. vh When calculating projectile motion
The horizontal component of velocity remains constant regardless of what happens in the vertical direction. the magnitude and direction of the velocity can be calculated.2 m high table. Horizontal distance depends on Vh and t
Activity 1. a) b) c) How long does the ball take to reach the ground? How far from the foot of the table does the ball land? What is the velocity of the ball when it strikes the ground?
Activity 1. its time-of-flight has nothing to do with the horizontal component of motion.
If the horizontal and vertical components of velocity are known.1
A snooker ball rests on the edge of a 1. If the shell leaves the barrel at 144 m·s–1: a) b) What distance away did the shell land? What was the maximum height achieved by the shell on its trajectory? Note: Ignore the effects of air resistance and the curvature of the Earth. __ ● From Pythagoras we see that v = √vh2 + vv2 and therefore … vv ● θ = tan–1 __ gives the angle of elevation or depression. The motion of the projectile in the vertical direction can be described by using three of the equations for motion in a straight line under constant acceleration: ◦ vv = uv + gt ◦ vv² = uv² + 2gh
1 ◦ h = uvt + __gt² 2 In the three equations h is the vertical height of the projectile. It is struck hard with a snooker cue and moves horizontally off the table with a speed of 4 m·s–1.3. the horizontal and vertical motions of the projectile can be calculated separately.indb 5
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01 MECHANICS.e. The time that a projectile spends in the air depends only on its motion in the vertical direction i.