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ABSTRACT

Concrete made with Portland cement has certain amazing Characteristics that it relatively strong in
compression but weak in tension and tends to be brittle. The weakness in tension can be overcome by the
use of conventional rod reinforcement and to some extent by the inclusion of a sufficient volume of certain
FIBERs. The use of FIBERs also alters the behavior of the FIBER-matrix composite after it has cracked,
thereby improving its toughness. This leaflet aims to provide information on the properties of the more
commonly available FlBERs and their uses to produce concrete with certain characteristics. Some new
developments are discussed like how much compressive strength increases by adding 2% of steel FIBER.
FIBER reinforced concrete (FRC) is a new structural material which is gaining increasing importance.
Addition of FIBER reinforcement in discrete form improves many engineering properties of concrete.
Currently, very little research work is being conducted within the Kingdom using this new material. This
paper describes the different types of FIBER and the application of FRC in different areas. It also presents
the result of research about the mechanical properties of FRC using straight, crimped as well as hooked
steel FIBERs available in the region. so we discussed in this project about how much % there is increased
in the compressive strength of concrete as compare to p.c.c cubes.
INTRODUCTION OF FIBER REINFORCEMENT CONCRETE
INTRODUCTION
Concrete is a composite material containing
hydraulic cement, water, coarse aggregate
and fine aggregate. The resulting material is
a stone like structure which is formed by the
chemical reaction of the cement and water.
This stone like material is a brittle material
which is strong in compression but very
weak in tension. This weakness in the
concrete makes it to crack under small
loads, at the tensile end. These cracks
gradually propagate to the compression end
of the member and finally, the member
breaks. The formation of cracks in the
concrete may also occur due to the drying
shrinkage. These cracks are basically micro
cracks. These cracks increase in size and
magnitude as the time elapses and the
finally makes the concrete to fail. The
formation of cracks is the main reason for
the failure of the concrete. To increase the
tensile strength of concrete many attempts
have been made. One of the successful and
most commonly used methods is providing
steel reinforcement. Steel bars, however,
reinforce concrete against local tension only
Cracks in reinforced concrete members extend freely until encountering are bar. Thus need for
multidirectional and closely spaced steel reinforcement arises. That cannot be practically possible. FIBER
reinforcement gives the solution for this problem So to increase the strength of concrete a technique of
introduction of FlBERs in concrete is being used. These FIBERs act as crack arrestors and prevent the
propagation of the cracks. These FIBERs are uniformly distributed and randomly arranged. This concrete
is named as FIBER reinforced concrete.
FIBER reinforced concrete (FRC) is concrete containing fibrous material which increases its structural
integrity. So we can define FIBER reinforced concrete as a composite material of cement concrete or mortar
and discontinuous discrete and uniformly dispersed FIBER.
FIBER is discrete material having some characteristic properties. The FIBER material can be anything. But
not all will be effective and economic Some FIBERs that are most commonly used are:
Steel
Glass
Carbon
Natural
NBD
Steel FIBER is one of the most commonly used FIBERs. Generally round FlBERs are used. The diameter
may vary from 0.25 to 0.75mm.The steel FIBER sometimes gets rusted and lose its strength. But
investigations have proved that FIBERS get rusted only at surfaces It has high modulus of elasticity. Use

of steel HBERS makes Significant improvements in flexure, impact and fatigue strength of concrete. It has
been used in various types of structures
LITERATURE REVIEW
THE USES OF FIBER:
For the effective use of FIBERs in hardened concrete:

 FIBERs should be significantly stiffer than the matrix, (i.e. have a higher modulus of elasticity than
the matrix.)
 FIBER content by volume must be adequate.
 There must be a good FlBER-matrix bond FIBER length must be sufficient.
 FIBERs must have a high aspect ratio, (i.e. hey must be long relative to their diameter)
TYPES OF FIBER INCLUDE

 Steel
 Plastic
 Polyester Polypropylene,
Polyethylene
 Glass
 Natural materials Wood
cellulose, Bamboo, Elephant
grass(All are available is
different shapes sizes And
material

FIBER USED IN CUBE:


STEEL FIBER:
Steel FIBERS have been used in concrete Since the early 1900s. The early FlBERS were round and smooth
and the wire was Cut or chopped to the required lengths. The use straight, Smooth FIBERs has largely
disappeared and modern FIBERs have either rough surfaces, hooked ends or are crimped or Undulated
through their length. Modern commercially available steel FIBERS are manufactured from drawn steel wi
from slit sheet steel or by the melt-extraction process which Produces FIBERs that have a crescent-shaped
cross section. Typically steel FIBERS have equivalent diameters (based on cross sectional area) ot trom
0,15 mm to 7 mm and lengths from 7 to 75 mm Aspect ratios generally range from 20 to 100. (Aspect ratio
is defined as the ratio between FlBER length and its equivalent diameter, which is the diameter of a circle
with an area equal to the cross-sectional area of the FlBER). Carbon steels are most commonly used to
produce FIBERS but FIAFRs made from corrosion-resistant alloys are available ta inless shee FIBERs have
been used for high-temperature applications. So e FIBERs are collated intu bundles using water soluble
glue to facilitate handling and mixing. Steel FIBERS have modulus of elasticity (20n GPa a ductile/plastic
high tensile strength (0,5 2 GPa] and stress-strain characteristic and low creep. Steel FIBERs aver been
used in conventional concrete mixes, SHOTCRETE and slurry-infiltrated FlBER concrete. Typically,
content of steel FIBER ranges from 0,25% to 2,0% by volume. FlBER contents in excess of 23% by volume
generally result in poor workability and FlBER distribution, but can be used successfully where e paste
content of the is increased and the size of coarse aggregate is not larger than about 10 mm. Steel-FIBER-
reinforced concrete containing up to 1,5% FIRFR by volume has been pumped successfully using pipelines
of 125 tn 150 mm diameter. Steel FIBER contents up to 2% by volume have been used in SHOTCRETE
applications using both the wet and dry processes. Steel FIBER contents of up to 25% by volume been
obtained in slurry infiltrated FIBER concrete.
TYPES OF STEEL FIBER:

 Straight
 Crimped
 irregular
 Glued hooked
 Deformed Paddled ends diameter range from (0.25 to 0.76mm.)

STEEL BER USED IN CUBE

 GLUED HOOKED STEEL FIBER (HKG 65/35 )


 CRIMPED STEEL FIBER
ADVANTAGES OF STEEL FIBER:

 Improves toughness of concrete


 Flexural strength is improved by up to 30% by decreasing the propagation of cracks
 Improves tensile strength More economical than steel reinforcement Less prone to corrosion
 Gives an alternative way to reinforce concrete rather than traditional steel rebar
APLLICATION OF STEEL FIBER

 Pipes
 Tilt-up Panels
 Shotcrete
 Slab
 Bath tube
 Tiles
MIXTURE COMPOSITIONS AND PLACING
Mixing of FRC can be accomplished by many methods. The mix should have uniform dispersion of the
FIBERs in order to prevent segregation or balling of the FlBERs during mixing. Most balling occurs during
the BER addition process Increase of aspect ratio volume percentage of FlBER, and size and quantity of
coarse aggregate will intensify the balling tendencies and decrease the workability. To coat the large surface
area of the FIBERs experience indicated that a water cement ratio between 0.4 and 0.6, and minimum
cement content of 400 kg/m[3] are required. Compared to conventional concrete, FIBER reinforced
concrete mixes are generally characterized by higher cement factor, higher fine aggregate content and
smaller size coarse aggregate. A FIBER mix generally requires more vibration to consolidate the mix.
External vibrations preferable to prevent FIBER segregation. Metal trowels, tube floats, and rotating power
floats can be used to finish the surface.
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FRC
Addition of FlBERs to concrete influences its mechanical properties which significantly depend on the
type and percentage of FIBER. FIBERs with end anchorage and high aspect ratio were found to have
improved effectiveness. It was shown that for the same length and diameter, crimped-end FIBERs can
achieve the same properties as straight FIBERs using 40 percent less FlBERS.
COMRESSIVE STRENGTH
The presence of FlBERs may alter the failure mode of cylinders, but the FIBER effect will be minor on the
improvement of compressive strength values (0 to 15 percent)
MODULUS OF ELASTICITY
Modulus of elasticity of FRC increases slightly with an increase in the FIBER s content. It was found that
for each 1 percent increase in FIBER content by volume there is an increase of 3 percent in the modulus of
elasticity.
FLEXURE
The flexural strength was reported 2j to be increased by 2.5 times using 4 percent FIBERS
TOUGHGNESS
For FRC, toughness is about 10 to 40 times that of plain concrete. Splitting Tensile Strength The presence
of 3 percent FlBER by volume was reported to increase the splitting tensile strength of mortar about 2.5
times that of the unreinforced one.
FATIGUE STRENGTH The addition of FlBERs increases fatigue strength of about 90 percent and 70
percent of the static strength at 2 x 106 cycles for non-reverse and full reversal of loading respectively.
STRUCTURAL BEHAVIOUR OF FIBER
combined with reinforcing bars in structural members will be widely used in the future. The following are
some of the structural behavior
A) FLEXURE
The use of FIBERs in reinforced concrete flexure members increases ductility, tensile strength, moment
capacity, and stiffness. The FlBERs improve crack control and preserve post cracking structural integrity
of members
B) TORSION
The use of FIBERs eliminates the sudden failure characteristic of plain concrete beams. It increases
stiffness, tensional strength, ductility, rotational capacity, and the number of cracks with less crack
width.
C) SHEAR
Addition of FIBERs increases shear capacity of reinforced concrete beams up to 100percent. Addition
of randomly distributed FlBERs increases shear-friction strength, the first crack strength, and ultimate
strength.
D) COLUMN.
The increase of FlBER content slightly increases the ductility of axially loaded specimen. The use of
FIBERs helps in reducing the explosive type failure for columns.
HIGH STRENGTH CONCRETE FIBERs
increase the ductility of high strength concrete. The use of high strength concrete and steel produces slender
members. FlBER addition will help in controlling cracks and deflections.
CRACKING AND DEFLECTION
Tests have shown that FIBER reinforcement effectively controls cracking and deflection, in addition to
strength improvement. In conventionally reinforced concrete beams, FIBER addition increases stiffness,
and reduces deflection.
APPLICATIONS
The uniform dispersion of FlBERs throughout the concrete mix provides isotropic properties not common
to conventionally reinforced concrete. The applications of FlBERs in concrete industries depend on the
designer and builder in taking advantage of the static and dynamic characteristics of this new material. The
main area of FRC applications are,

EXPERHVIENTAL INVESTIGATION
EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM
In order to study the interaction of steel fibres with concrete under compression, split tension, flexure and
static load, 45 cubes, 45 cylinders,15 beams, 30 panels was casted respectively. The experimental program
was divided into five groups.Each group consists of 9 cubes, 9 cylinders, and 3 beams, 3 panels of
50mm thickness and 3 panels of 100 mm thickness.

 The first group is the control (Plain) concrete with O% fibre (PCC)
 The second group consisted of hooked end steel fibre of Vr 0.5%(HSFRC 0.5)
 The third group consisted of hooked end steel fibre of Vf l.0%(HSFRC 1.0)
 'The fourth group consisted of corrugated steel fibre of Vr O.5%(CSFRC 0.5)
 The fifth group consisted of corrugated steel fibre of Vr 1.0%(CSFRC 1.0)
A schematic representation of the current experimental has been shown in
the figure
EXPERMENTAL SETUP
CUBE COMPRESION TEST
This test was conducted as per IS 516-1959. The
cubes of standard size
150x150x150mm were used to find the
compressive strength of concrete. Specimens
were placed on the bearing surface of UTM, of
capacity 300tones without eccentricity and a
uniform rate of loading of 140 Kg/cm2 minute
was applied till the failure of the cube. The
maximum load was noted and the compressive
strength was calculated. The results are tabulated
in Table 5.1
Cube compressive strength (ccc) in MPa = Pf/Ab
Figure A Cube testing machine
SPLIT TENSION TEST
This test was conducted as per IS 5816-1970. The cylinders of standard size 150mm diameter and 300 mm
height was placed on the UTM with capacity 200tones, with the diameter horizontal. At the top and bottom
two strips of wood where placed to avoid the crushing of concrete specimen at the points where the bearing
surface of the compression testing machine and the cylinder specimen meets. The maximum load was noted
down. The results are tabulated in Table
The spilt tensile strength (Tsp) = 2P/ndl (MPa)
Figure 4.3 Compression testing machine for cylinder
FLEXURAL TEST
SFRC beams of size 150x150x700mm were tested using a servo
controlled UTM (MTS) as per the procedure given in ASTM C-78.
The specimen was turned on its side with respect to its position as
moulded and centered on the bearing block. The beam was simply
supported over span of 600mm, and a two point loading system was
adopted having an end bearing of 50mm from each support. The load
applying block was made into contact with the surface of the specimen
at the third point between the supports. The UTM was operated at a
rate of 0.1mm/min, load and displacement was recorded constantly.
The first crack load and the corresponding deflection were noted. The
loading was continued up to six times the first crack deflection. The
maximum load was measured. It took about 40 minutes to complete
the test on each specimen. The results are tabulated in Table 5.3
The modulus of rupture was calculated using the formula,
The modulus of rupture (fb) =Pl/bd2

Figure Beam test setup


TOUGHNESS
Toughness was calculated as the energy equivalent to the area under the load deflection curve as per the
procedure given in the American society for testing and material's ASTM C-1018.Toughness index was
calculated as the number obtained by dividing the area up to a specified deflection by the area up to the first
crack deflection. The first crack is the point on the load deflection curve at which the curve first becomes
non linear (approximately the on set of cracking on the matrix). Toughness indices 15 and 110 were
calculated as area up to 3.0 times and 5.5 times the first crack deflection by the area up to a first crack
deflection respectively. Toughness indices are tabulated in Table 5.4.
STIFFNESS
Stiffness is an important property which determines the rigidity of the material. Stiffness is the ability of
the material to resist deformation under the applied load. Stiffness of the beam specimen was found as the
slope of the load-deflection curve up to the elastic region of the curve.
EMPIRICAL EQUATION
The empirical equations for finding the toughness indices were found using the Is and [lo values from the
experimental results using Microsoft Excel office program. If the toughness was known the percentage of
fibres required can be calculated easily. Empirical Equations for CSFRC and HSFRC are given in the Figure
5.4 and Figure 5.5 respectively.
STATIC LOAD TEST
Static load test was performed on panels of dimension 500 mmx500mmx50 mm and 500 mmx500 mm
xlOOmm. The specimen was placed on a simply supported condition on all four sides and a concentrated
load was applied over an area of 6lsq.cm.
The actuator as operated at a rate of l.5 mm/min and the corresponding load & deflection was measured as
per the European Specification for Sprayed Concrete (EFN ARC). The bottom deflection was also
monitored using a Linearly Variable Differential Transducer (LVDT). The testing was continued till a
deflection of 25mm or failure which ever occurred earlier. The energy absorption up to the deflection of
25mm was calculated as area under load deflection curve for that deflection, with an increment of 2mm.
DUCTILITY INDEX
Ductility index was calculated as the ratio of the deflection upto the ultimate load to the deflection upto the
first crack load. The ultimate deformation has been considered as the deformation corresponding to 15%
load drop i.e. 85% of the ultimate load drop. The ductility so calculated is called the displacement ductility.
Ductility pd: SMS,The results are tabulated in the Table 5.8
SECANT STIFFNESS
Modulus of elasticity most commonly used in practice is secant modulus. There is no standard method of
determining the secant modulus. Hence in this investigation secant modulus was calculated for selected
points on the load deflection curve for concrete panels and was called secant stiffness. Straight line was
drawn from the origin to the selected points; the slope of that line gives the secant stiffness. Secant stiffness
was calculated for first crack load, ultimate load and0.5%ultimate load drop. The results are tabulated in
the Table 5.9
MATERIALS USED IN EXPERIMENT
The materials used and their specifications are as follows:
CEMENT
Ordinary Portland cement was used and its specific gravity is 3.15'.
The brand used was "UltraTech" with P53 grade.
The cement was continuing to IS 269-1976'.
FINE AGGREGATE
River sand was used and tests were conducted as per IS 2386 (PARTI).
Specific gravity of fine aggregate is 2.65.
Water absorption 0.9996
Dry loose bulk density 1502 Kg/m3
COARSE AGGREGATE
Crushed granite stone aggregates of maximum size of 20 mm was used
tests were conducted as per IS 2386 (part III) of 1963.
Specific gravity of coarse aggregate is 2.73.
Water absorption 0.2596
Dry loose bulk density 1500 Kg/m3
WATER
As per IS 456-2000 recommendations, potable water was used for mixing
of concrete.
Note: • as per the manufacturers report.

STEEL FIBRES

HOOKED END STEEL FIBRES


Hooked end steel fibres commercially called as Dramix steel fibres manufactured by Bekaert Corporation
were used which had a length of30 mm and a diameter of 0.55 mm resulting in an aspect ratio of about
55 and conforms to American standard ASTM A820 and Belgium standard 1857'.The tensile strength of
fibre is in the range of 1100 N/mmz'
CORRUGATED STEEL FIBRES
Corrugated steel fibres from Stewols & Co were used which had a length of 25 mm and a diameter of 0.45
mm resulting in an aspect ratio of about55 and conforms to American standard ASTM A820'.The tensile
strength of fibre is in the range of 1200 N/mm2.

CASTING OF SPECIMENS
The materials were weighed accurately using a digital weighing instrument. For plain concrete, fine
aggregates, coarse aggregate, cement, water were added to the mixture machine and mixed thoroughly for
three minutes. Steel fibres were mechanically sprinkled inside the mixture machine after thorough mixing

of the ingredients of concrete. For preparing the specimen for compressive, tensile, and flexure strength
permanent steel moulds were used. Wooden moulds were fabricated to cast the test specimens for panel
testing. Six wooden moulds were fabricated to facilitate simultaneous casting of test panels. Two different
thicknesses were adopted for the panels; the panel sizes adopted were 500x500x50mm and
500x500x100mm.Before mixing the concrete the moulds were kept ready. The sides and the bottom of the
all the mould were properly oiled for easy demoulding.The panel was kept at an angle of 45" and then the
concrete was splashed over the panel from a distance of one metre. Then the top surface was given a smooth
finish.

Figure SF RC using corrugated fibre


Figure SF RC using hooked fibre
CURING OF SPECIMENS
The test specimens were stored in place free
from vibration and kept at a temperature of
27'22'C for 24 hours t 56 hour from the time of
addition of water to the dry ingredients. After
this period, the specimen were marked and
removed from the moulds and immediately
submerged in clean fresh water and kept there
until taken out prior to test. The specimens were
allowed to become dry before testing. The
panels were cured by dry curing method, i.e.
moist gunny bags were covered over the panels.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
RESULTS
COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

TENSILE STRENGTH
FLEXURAL STRENGTH
BAR CHART OF FLEXURAL STRENGTH
TOUGHNESS INDICES
Empirical Equation For CSFRC

Empirical Equation for HSFRC


STIFFNESS FOR BEAM
ENERGY ABSORBED BY CINTROL PANEL Commented [1]:
ENERGY ABSORBED BY SFRC PANEL
Energy Absorption for 50 mm panels

Energy Absorption for 100mm panels


DUCTILITY INDEX FOR PANELS
SCANT STIFFNESS FOR PANEL SPECIME
Crack propagation of SFRC Panel
failure pattern in 50mm panels
DISCUSSIONS
Compressive Strength
The Compressive strength of concrete mixed with steel fibres was found to vary marginally, the variation
was about -1% to 196 at 28 days. The 3 days strength of CSFRC with volume fraction 0.5% and 1% was
8% and 27% greater than that of control concrete. 50% of the 28 days strength of CSFRC was obtained in
3 days. The compressive strength of ordinary concrete and fibre reinforced concrete are tabulated in Table
5.1and bar chart is plotted in Figure 5.1.
Split Tensile Strength
The tensile strength was found to be increased as the percentage of fibre was increased. For the hooked
fibre with volume fraction of 0.5% and1.0% the increase in tensile strength was 8 % and 32.4%
respectively. The increase was about 30%for corrugated fibres with volume fraction of 1.0% and there was
no increase in case of CSFRC of volume fraction0.5% . The 28 days strength of 0.5% volume fraction of
HSFRC was 7% greater than that of CSFRC of same volume fraction. In all the SFRCcylinders, the
specimen was not broken into two as that of control concrete. The comparison of tensile strength of ordinary
concrete andfibre reinforced concrete and the results are tabulated in Table 5.2 and bar chart is plotted in
Figure 5.2.
Flexure Strength
The flexure strength was found to decrease marginally. The failure was brittle in case of plain concrete and
failure was ductile in case of steelfibre reinforced concrete. When the ultimate load was reached the
concrete matrix failed, the first crack appeared on the beam. In all the SFRC beams the failure was only by
pullout of fibres at the maximum deflection and not by tearing of fibres. In all the specimens (with and
without steel fibre) the failure was between the mid•third points. The results are tabulated in table 5.3 and
bar chart is plotted in Figure 5.3.
Toughness Indices
The addition of steel fibre resulted in a consistent increase in ductility of the beams. The toughness index
for all the control beams was found to be 1. For all the SFRC beams the Is and [lo values are greater than
2.75and 4 respectively. The toughness indices 15 and [lo for 1.0%volume fraction of HSFRCis 13% and
27% more than that of 0.5%volume fraction of CSFRC.The toughness indices Is and 110 for 1.0% volume
fraction of CSFRCis 13% and 30% more than that of 0.5% volume fraction of CSFRC.The toughness
indices Is and [10 for 0.5% volume fraction of HSFRCis 18% more than that of 0.5%volume fraction of
CSFRC.For 1%volume fraction there is only a marginal difference between the two types of fibres. The
toughness indices were calculated for all the specimens and are tabulated in Table 5.4.
Ductility Index
The failure of the control panels was brittle and all the panels failed at deflection of about 3 mm. In 100mm
thick panels with corrugated fibres all the panels failed at a deflection of about lSmm.The ductility index
was calculated for all panels and the results are tabulated in Table 5.8. The ductility index for control
concrete was found to be 1.00• The ductility index for all SFRC panels was found to vary between 4-5 for
all 50mm thick panels and 2-3 for 100mm panels.
CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
CONCLUSIONS
The following results are inferred based on the experimental results discussed on the previous chapters.
1. Addition of steel fibres to concrete increases the compressive strength of concrete marginally.
2. The addition of steel fibres increases the tensile strength. The tensile strength was found to be maximum
with volume fraction of 1%.
3. By the addition of steel fibres the flexure strength was found to decrease marginally.
4. The addition of fibres to concrete significantly increases its toughness and makes the concrete more
ductile as observed by the modes of failure of specimens.
5. The stiffness of beams was studied and was found to be maximum for hooked end fibre with 1% volume
fraction.
6. The empirical equations developed in this experiment can be used for calculating the toughness indices
or percentage of fibre whichever is required.
7. The ductility of steel fibre reinforced concrete was found to increase with increase in volume fraction of
fibres and the maximum increase was observed for hooked fibres with 1% volume fraction.
8. The improvement in the energy absorption capacity of steel fibre reinforced concrete panels with
increasing percentage of steel fibre was clearly shown by the results of the static load test on panels.
9. The 100m thick panel absorbed the maximum energy of l010Nm with Hooked end steel fibre with
volume fraction 0.596 for a deflection of 20mm.
10. Secant stiffness was found to be maximum for conugated fibre with volume fraction 196.
SUGGESTIONSFOR FUTURE WORK
1. The aspect ratio and types of fibres can be varied and studied.
2. Admixture can be added and the properties can be studied.
3. Reinforced concrete specimens can be tested along with fibres of various proportions.
4. Stress-strain curve can be plotted and their behaviour can be studied.
5. The crack pattern can be studied using fracture mechanics.