This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

BooksAudiobooksComicsSheet Music### Categories

### Categories

### Categories

Editors' Picks Books

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Editors' Picks Audiobooks

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Editors' Picks Comics

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Editors' Picks Sheet Music

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Top Books

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Audiobooks

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Comics

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Sheet Music

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Welcome to Scribd! Start your free trial and access books, documents and more.Find out more

three sides of a right triangle. The theorem is named after the Greek mathematician Pythagoras, who by tradition is credited with its discovery and proof,[1] although knowledge of the theorem almost certainly predates him. The theorem is as follows: In any right triangle, the area of the square whose side is the hypotenuse (the side opposite the right angle) is equal to the sum of the areas of the squares whose sides are the two legs (the two sides that meet at a right angle). This is usually summarized as follows: The square of the hypotenuse of a right triangle is equal to the sum of the squares on the other two sides. If we let c be the length of the hypotenuse and a and b be the lengths of the other two sides, the theorem can be expressed as the equation:

or, solved for c:

If c is already given, and the length of one of the legs must be found, the following equations can be used (The following equations are simply the converse of the original equation):

or

This equation provides a simple relation among the three sides of a right triangle so that if the lengths of any two sides are known, the length of the third side can be found. A generalization of this theorem is the law of cosines, which allows the computation of the length of the third side of any triangle, given the lengths of two sides and the size of the angle between them. If the angle between the sides is a right angle it reduces to the Pythagorean theorem

History

**This section needs additional citations for verification.
**

Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2008)

The history of the theorem can be divided into four parts: knowledge of Pythagorean triples, knowledge of the relationship between the sides of a right triangle, knowledge of the relationship between adjacent angles, and proofs of the theorem. Megalithic monuments from circa 2500 BC in Egypt, and in Northern Europe, incorporate right triangles with integer sides.[2] Bartel Leendert van der Waerden conjectures that these Pythagorean triples were discovered algebraically.[3] Written between 2000 and 1786 BC, the Middle Kingdom Egyptian papyrus Berlin 6619 includes a problem whose solution is a Pythagorean triple. During the reign of Hammurabi the Great, the Mesopotamian tablet Plimpton 322, written between 1790 and 1750 BC, contains many entries closely related to Pythagorean triples. The Baudhayana Sulba Sutra, the dates of which are given variously as between the 8th century BC and the 2nd century BC, in India, contains a list of Pythagorean triples discovered algebraically, a statement of the Pythagorean theorem, and a geometrical proof of the Pythagorean theorem for an isosceles right triangle. The Apastamba Sulba Sutra (circa 600 BC) contains a numerical proof of the general Pythagorean theorem, using an area computation. Van der Waerden believes that "it was certainly based on earlier traditions". According to Albert Bŭrk, this is the original proof of the theorem; he further theorizes that Pythagoras visited Arakonam, India, and copied it. Pythagoras, whose dates are commonly given as 569–475 BC, used algebraic methods to construct Pythagorean triples, according to Proklos's commentary on Euclid. Proklos, however, wrote between 410 and 485 AD. According to Sir Thomas L. Heath, there is no attribution of the theorem to Pythagoras for five centuries after Pythagoras lived. However, when authors such as Plutarch and Cicero attributed the theorem to Pythagoras, they did so in a way which suggests that the attribution was widely known and undoubted.[4] Around 400 BC, according to Proklos, Plato gave a method for finding Pythagorean triples that combined algebra and geometry. Circa 300 BC, in Euclid's Elements, the oldest extant axiomatic proof of the theorem is presented.

Written sometime between 500 BC and 200 AD, the Chinese text Chou Pei Suan Ching (周髀算经), (The Arithmetical Classic of the Gnomon and the Circular Paths of Heaven) gives a visual proof of the Pythagorean theorem — in China it is called the "Gougu Theorem" (勾股定理) — for the (3, 4, 5) triangle. During the Han Dynasty, from 202 BC to 220 AD, Pythagorean triples appear in The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art, together with a mention of right triangles.[5] The first recorded use is in China, known as the "Gougu theorem" (勾股定理) and in India known as the Bhaskara Theorem. There is much debate on whether the Pythagorean theorem was discovered once or many times. Boyer (1991) thinks the elements found in the Shulba Sutras may be of Mesopotamian derivation.[6] [edit]

Proofs

This is a theorem that may have more known proofs than any other (the law of quadratic reciprocity being also a contender for that distinction); the book Pythagorean Proposition, by Elisha Scott Loomis, contains 367 proofs. Some arguments based on trigonometric identities (such as Taylor series for sine and cosine) have been proposed as proofs for the theorem. However, since all the fundamental trigonometric identities are proved using the Pythagorean theorem, there cannot be any trigonometric proof. (See also begging the question.) [edit]

Proof using similar triangles

Proof using similar triangles.

Like most of the proofs of the Pythagorean theorem, this one is based on the proportionality of the sides of two similar triangles. Let ABC represent a right triangle, with the right angle located at C, as shown on the figure. We draw the altitude from point C, and call H its intersection with the side AB.

The new triangle ACH is similar to our triangle ABC, because they both have a right angle (by definition of the altitude), and they share the angle at A, meaning that the third angle will be the same in both triangles as well. By a similar reasoning, the triangle CBH is also similar to ABC. The similarities lead to the two ratios..: As

so

These can be written as

Summing these two equalities, we obtain

In other words, the Pythagorean theorem:

[edit]

Euclid's proof

Proof in Euclid's Elements

In Euclid's Elements, Proposition 47 of Book 1, the Pythagorean theorem is proved by an argument along the following lines. Let A, B, C be the vertices of a right triangle,

with a right angle at A. Drop a perpendicular from A to the side opposite the hypotenuse in the square on the hypotenuse. That line divides the square on the hypotenuse into two rectangles, each having the same area as one of the two squares on the legs. For the formal proof, we require four elementary lemmata: 1. If two triangles have two sides of the one equal to two sides of the other, each to each, and the angles included by those sides equal, then the triangles are congruent. (Side - Angle - Side Theorem) 2. The area of a triangle is half the area of any parallelogram on the same base and having the same altitude. 3. The area of any square is equal to the product of two of its sides. 4. The area of any rectangle is equal to the product of two adjacent sides (follows from Lemma 3). The intuitive idea behind this proof, which can make it easier to follow, is that the top squares are morphed into parallelograms with the same size, then turned and morphed into the left and right rectangles in the lower square, again at constant area. The proof is as follows: 1. Let ACB be a right-angled triangle with right angle CAB. 2. On each of the sides BC, AB, and CA, squares are drawn, CBDE, BAGF, and ACIH, in that order. 3. From A, draw a line parallel to BD and CE. It will perpendicularly intersect BC and DE at K and L, respectively. 4. Join CF and AD, to form the triangles BCF and BDA.

Illustration including the new lines

1. Angles CAB and BAG are both right angles; therefore C, A, and G are collinear. Similarly for B, A, and H. 2. Angles CBD and FBA are both right angles; therefore angle ABD equals angle FBC, since both are the sum of a right angle and angle ABC. 3. Since AB and BD are equal to FB and BC, respectively, triangle ABD must be equal to triangle FBC. 4. Since A is collinear with K and L, rectangle BDLK must be twice in area to triangle ABD. 5. Since C is collinear with A and G, square BAGF must be twice in area to triangle FBC.

6. Therefore rectangle BDLK must have the same area as

**square BAGF = AB2.
**

7. Similarly, it can be shown that rectangle CKLE must

**have the same area as square ACIH = AC2.
**

8. Adding these two results, AB2 + AC2 = BD × BK + KL ×

KC 9. Since BD = KL, BD* BK + KL × KC = BD(BK + KC) = BD × BC

10. Therefore AB2 + AC2 = BC2, since CBDE is a square.

This proof appears in Euclid's Elements as that of Proposition 1.47.[7] [edit]

Garfield's proof

James A. Garfield (later President of the United States) is credited with a novel algebraic proof[1] using a trapezoid containing two examples of the triangle, the figure comprising one-half of the figure using four triangles enclosing a square shown below.

Proof using area subtraction.

[edit]

Similarity proof

From the same diagram as that in Euclid's proof above, we can see three similar figures, each being "a square with a triangle on top". Since the large triangle is made of the two smaller triangles, its area is the sum of areas of the two smaller ones. By similarity, the three squares are in the same proportions relative to each other as the three triangles, and so likewise the area of the larger square is the sum of the areas of the two smaller squares. [edit]

Proof by rearrangement

Proof of Pythagorean theorem by rearrangement of 4 identical right triangles. Since the total area and the areas of the triangles are all constant, the total black area is constant. But this can be divided into squares delineated by the triangle sides a, b, c, demonstrating that a2 + b2 = c2 .

A proof by rearrangement is given by the illustration and the animation. In the illustration, the area of each large square is (a + b)2. In both, the area of four identical triangles is removed. The remaining areas, a2 + b2 and c2, are equal. Q.E.D.

Animation showing another proof by rearrangement.

Proof using rearrangement.

A square created by aligning four right angle triangles and a large square.

This proof is indeed very simple, but it is not elementary, in the sense that it does not depend solely upon the most basic axioms and theorems of Euclidean geometry. In particular, while it is quite easy to give a formula for area of triangles and squares, it is not as easy to prove that the area of a square is the sum of areas of its pieces. In fact, proving the necessary properties is harder than proving the Pythagorean theorem itself (see Lebesgue measure and Banach-Tarski paradox). Actually, this difficulty affects all simple Euclidean proofs involving area; for instance, deriving the area of a right triangle involves the assumption that it is half the area of a rectangle with the same height and base. For this reason, axiomatic introductions to geometry usually employ another proof based on the similarity of triangles (see above). A third graphic illustration of the Pythagorean theorem (in yellow and blue to the right) fits parts of the sides' squares into the hypotenuse's square. A related proof would show that the repositioned parts are identical with the originals and, since the sum of equals are equal, that the corresponding areas are equal. To show that a square is the result one must show that the length of the new sides equals c. Note that for this proof to work, one must provide a way to handle cutting the small

square in more and more slices as the corresponding side gets smaller and smaller.[8] [edit]

Algebraic proof

An algebraic variant of this proof is provided by the following reasoning. Looking at the illustration which is a large square with identical right triangles in its corners, the area of each of these four triangles is given by an angle corresponding with the side of length C.

The A-side angle and B-side angle of each of these triangles are complementary angles, so each of the angles of the blue area in the middle is a right angle, making this area a square with side length C. The area of this square is C2. Thus the area of everything together is given by:

However, as the large square has sides of length A + B, we can also calculate its area as (A + B)2, which expands to A2 + 2AB + B2.

(Distribution of the 4) (Subtraction of 2AB)

**Proof by differential equations
**

[edit] One can arrive at the Pythagorean theorem by studying how changes in a side produce a change in the hypotenuse in the following diagram and employing a little calculus.[9]

Proof using differential equations.

As a result of a change in side a,

by similar triangles and for differential changes. So

upon separation of variables. which results from adding a second term for changes in side b. Integrating gives

When a = 0 then c = b, so the "constant" is b2. So

As can be seen, the squares are due to the particular proportion between the changes and the sides while the sum is a result of the independent contributions of the

changes in the sides which is not evident from the geometric proofs. From the proportion given it can be shown that the changes in the sides are inversely proportional to the sides. The differential equation suggests that the theorem is due to relative changes and its derivation is nearly equivalent to computing a line integral. These quantities da and dc are respectively infinitely small changes in a and c. But we use instead real numbers Δa and Δc, then the limit of their ratio as their sizes approach zero is da/dc, the derivative, and also approaches c/a, the ratio of lengths of sides of triangles, and the differential equation results. [edit]

Converse

**The converse of the theorem is also true:
**

For any three positive numbers a, b, and c such that a2 + b2 = c2, there exists a triangle with sides a, b and c, and every such triangle has a

right angle between the sides of lengths a and b.

This converse also appears in Euclid's Elements. It can be proven using the law of cosines (see below under Generalizations), or by the following proof: Let ABC be a triangle with side lengths a, b, and c, with a2 + b2 = c2. We need to prove that the angle between the a and b sides is a right angle. We construct another triangle with a right angle between sides of lengths a and b. By the Pythagorean theorem, it follows that the hypotenuse of this triangle also has length c. Since both triangles have the same side lengths a, b and c, they are congruent, and so they must have the same angles. Therefore, the angle between the side of lengths a and b in our original triangle is a right angle. A corollary of the Pythagorean theorem's converse is a simple means of determining whether a triangle is right, obtuse, or

**acute, as follows. Where c is chosen to be the longest of the three sides:
**

1. If a2 + b2 = c2, then the triangle is right. 2. If a2 + b2 > c2, then the triangle is acute. 3. If a2 + b2 < c2, then the triangle is obtuse.

[edit]

**Consequences and uses of the theorem
**

Pythagorean triples

[edit] Main article: Pythagorean triple A Pythagorean triple has 3 positive numbers a, b, and c, such that a2 + b2 = c2. In other words, a Pythagorean triple represents the lengths of the sides of a right triangle where all three sides have integer lengths. Evidence from megalithic monuments on the Northern Europe shows that such triples were known before the discovery of writing. Such a triple is commonly written (a, b, c). Some well-

known examples are (3, 4, 5) and (5, 12, 13).

**List of primitive Pythagorean triples up to 100
**

[edit] (3, 4, 5), (5, 12, 13), (7, 24, 25), (8, 15, 17), (9, 40, 41), (11, 60, 61), (12, 35, 37), (13, 84, 85), (16, 63, 65), (20, 21, 29), (28, 45, 53), (33, 56, 65), (36, 77, 85), (39, 80, 89), (48, 55, 73), (65, 72, 97)

**The existence of irrational numbers
**

[edit] One of the consequences of the Pythagorean theorem is that irrational numbers, such as the square root of 2, can be constructed. A right triangle with legs both equal to one unit has hypotenuse length square root of 2. The Pythagoreans proved that the square root of 2 is irrational, and this proof has come down

to us even though it flew in the face of their cherished belief that everything was rational. According to the legend, Hippasus, who first proved the irrationality of the square root of two, was drowned at sea as a consequence.[10]

**Distance in Cartesian coordinates
**

[edit] The distance formula in Cartesian coordinates is derived from the Pythagorean theorem. If (x0, y0) and (x1, y1) are points in the plane, then the distance between them, also called the Euclidean distance, is given by

More generally, in Euclidean n-space, the Euclidean distance between two points, and , is

defined, using the Pythagorean theorem, as:

[edit]

Generaliz ations

The Pythagorean theorem was generalized by Euclid in his Elements:

If one erects similar figures (see Euclidean geometry) on the sides of a right triangle, then the sum of the areas of the two smaller ones equals the area of the larger one.

The Pythagorean theorem is a special case of the more general

theorem relating the lengths of sides in any triangle, the law of cosines:

where θ is the angle between sides a and b. When θ is 90 degrees, then cos(θ) = 0, so the formula reduces to the usual Pythagorean theorem.

**The Pythagorean theorem in non-Euclidean geometry
**

The Pythagorean theorem is derived from the axioms of Euclidean geometry, and in fact, the Euclidean form of the Pythagorean theorem given above does not hold in non-Euclidean geometry. (It has been shown in fact to be equivalent to Euclid's Parallel (Fifth) Postulate.) For example, in spherical geometry, all three sides of the right triangle bounding an octant of the unit sphere have length equal to violates the Euclidean Pythagorean theorem because . ; this

This means that in non-Euclidean geometry, the Pythagorean theorem must necessarily take a different form from the Euclidean theorem. There are two cases to consider — spherical geometry and hyperbolic plane geometry; in each case, as in the Euclidean case, the result follows from the appropriate law of cosines: For any right triangle on a sphere of radius R, the Pythagorean theorem takes the form

By using the Maclaurin series for the cosine function, it can be shown that as the radius R approaches infinity, the spherical form of the Pythagorean theorem approaches the Euclidean form.

For any triangle in the hyperbolic plane (with Gaussian curvature −1), the Pythagorean theorem takes the form

where cosh is the hyperbolic cosine. By using the Maclaurin series for this function, it can be shown that as a hyperbolic triangle becomes very small (i.e., as a, b, and c all approach zero), the hyperbolic form of the Pythagorean theorem approaches the Euclidean form. In hyperbolic geometry, for a right triangle one can also write,

where is the angle of parallelism of the line segment AB that where μ is the multiplicative distance function (see Hilbert's arithmetic of ends). In hyperbolic trigonometry, the sine of the angle of parallelism satisfies

Thus, the equation takes the form

where a, b, and c are multiplicative distances of the sides of the right triangle

The Pythagorean Theorem is a geometrical expression used often in math and physics. It used to 2 2 2 find the unknown side of a right triangle. The

exponential form of this theorem a + b = c . That is the equation you use when you are looking for the unknown side of a right triangle, and it is what I’ll demonstrate on the attached exhibit. The upside down capital L in the bottom of the left hand corner indicates that sides A & B are the legs of the triangle. Since we know side A = 5 inches and B = 3 inches we may fill that in to 2 2 2 or equation for step one. (1) 5 + 3 = c What the theorem will help us find is the c side of this triangle. 2. 25 + 9 = c All we do is distribute 5 to the second power and 3 to the second power as seen is step two. Next, we add these two numbers together to get 34, 25+9=34, in step three. 3. 25+9=34 Then, in step four we find the square root of 34. 4. 34 In step five we see that 5.83 is the unknown side of the right triangle. 5. c= 5.83 We found this answer by using the Pythagorean Theorem as taught in geometrical form. This theorem may also be summed up by saying that the area of the square on the hypotenuse, or opposite side of the right angle, of a right triangle is equal to sum of the areas of the squared on the legs. The Pythagorean Theorem was a studied by many people and groups. One of those people being Euclid. Sometimes the Pythagorean Theorem is also referred to as the 47th Problem of Euclid. It is called this because it is included by Euclid in a book of numbered geometric problems. In the problem Euclid studied he would always use 3, 4, and 5 as the sides of the right triangle. He did this because 5 x 5 = 3 x 3 + 4 x 4. The angle opposite the side of the legs was the right angle, it had a length of 5. The 3:4:5 in the right triangle was known as a Pythagorean triple or a three digits that could be put in a right triangle successfully. These three numbers were also whole numbers and were used in the Egyptian string trick, which I will talk about later. This Pythagorean triple, 3:4:5, are the smallest integer series to have been formed, and the only consecutive numbers in that group that is important. These numbers can be, and often were, studied from a philosophical stand point. The symbolic meanings of the 3:4:5 triple told by modern writers such as Manly P. Hall say 3 stands for spirit, 4 stands for matter, and 5 stands for man. Using Hall’s study the symbolism of this arrangement is as follows: “Matter” (4) lays upon the plane of Earth and “Spirit” (3) reaches up to the Heaven and they are connected by “Man” (5) who takes in both qualities. A process similar to that of Euclid's 47th Problem was the Egyptian string trick. Egyptians were said to have invented the word geometry (geo = earth, metry = measuring.) The Egyptians used

the 3:4:5 right triangle to create right triangles when measuring there fields after the Nile floods washed out there old boundary markers. The Egyptians used the same theory of Euclid, 5 x 5 = 3 x 3 + 4 x 4, to get there boundaries marked correctly. Although Euclid and the Ancient Egyptians studied the theorem, the true inventor of it ( or the person most people believed invented it first ) was Pythagoras of Samos and his group the Pythagoreans. Pythagoras was a man born in 580 B.C. on the island of Samos, in the Aegean Sea. It is said Pythagoras was a man that spent his life traveling the world in search of wisdom. This search for wisdom led him to settle in Corona, a Greek colony in southern Italy, in about 530 B.C. Here Pythagoras gained famous status for his group known as the Brotherhood of Pythagoreans. This group devoted there lives to the study of mathematics. The group, as led by Pythagoras, could be described as almost cult-like because that it had symbols, rituals, and prayers. The group was also cultlike because of there odd ways of not writing down any of there discoveries. It was also said that Pythagoras himself sacrificed a hecatomb, or an ancient Greek ritual of 100 oxen, when he discovered the Pythagorean Theorem. The group was also said to have vowed to secrecy. One day the Pythagoreans discovered irrational numbers. They referred to these numbers as “algon” or unutterable. They were so shocked by these numbers they killed a member of the group that mentioned them in public. The group believed in many things had to do with numbers. They said “all things are numbers,” and also “numbers rule the universe,” Pythagoreans believed that numbers were divine. He also thought numbers one through ten, those of a decade, were especially sacred. Pythagoreans also thought that numbers had characteristics: 2 was female, 3 was male, odd numbers were good, and even numbers were evil. This belief by the Pythagoreans led to many discoveries including the Pythagorean Theorem. The Pythagoreans first discovered numbers could be associated with shapes. Numbers six, ten, and fifteen were all triangular numbers because they can be arranged in equilateral triangles. This study of numbers and shapes eventually led to the discovery of many different and important theory having to do with geometry. Although, nobody is really positive who invented the theorem, Pythagoras or the Pythagoreans? This is unknown because of there vow so secrecy and there neglect of writing there discoveries down. So now nobody is even sure if Pythagoras had anything to do with the discovery. The puzzle

of who invented the Pythagorean Theorem, Pythagoras or his followers, is so confusing because the group studied such a wide variety of different topics. Studies of the group includes many geometric proofs, astronomy, and music. The Pythagoreans believed that all these things had to do with numbers. If you would ask my opinion on the theorem, I would have to say the original inventors were the Egyptians. They used the theorem, but the Pythagoreans were the first ones to write about and describe it more thoroughly. I think that the theorem was an important discovery for the future . I say this because the theorem was studied by so many great thinkers. The theorem is complex but simple because it is easy to use with right angles after you learn it, but it also has many philosophical meanings and parts to it. In all I think the Pythagorean Theorem is a confusing, but an important part to the past, present, and future of geometry.

Pythagoras

Pythagoras lived in the 500's BC, and was one of the first Greek mathematical thinkers. He spent most of his life in the Greek colonies in Sicily and southern Italy. He had a group of followers (like the disciples of Jesus) who followed him around and taught other people what he had taught them. The Pythagoreans were known for their pure lives (they didn't eat beans, for example, because they thought beans were not pure enough). They wore their hair long, and wore only simple clothing, and went barefoot. Both men and women were Pythagoreans. Pythagoreans were interested in philosophy, but especially in music and mathematics, two ways of making order out of chaos. Music is noise that makes sense, and mathematics is rules for how the world works. Pythagoras himself is best known for proving that the Pythagorean Theorem was true. The Sumerians, two thousand years earlier, already knew that it was generally true, and they used it in their measurements, but Pythagoras is said to have proved that it would always be true. We don't really know whether it was Pythagoras that proved it, because there's no evidence for it until the time of Euclid, but that's the tradition. Some people think that the proof must have been written around the time of Euclid, instead. Here is the proof:

The Pythagorean Theorem says that in a right triangle, the sum of the squares of the two rightangle sides will always be the same as the square of the hypotenuse (the long side). A2 + B2 = C2. Try it yourself: if Side A is 4 inches long, and Side B is 3 inches long, then 4x4=16, and 3x3=9, and 9+16=25, and so Side C will be 5 inches long. Try it with other size triangles and see if this is still true (you can use a calculator, or your computer, to figure out the square roots). But how can you know that this is always true, every single time, no matter what size the triangle is? Take a straight line and divide it into two pieces, and call one piece a and the other piece b, like this:

Now make a square with this line on each side, like this:

and draw in the lines where A meets B on each side to make four smaller shapes. So now you have one square with area AxA (the big yellow one) and one square with area BxB (the little green one) and two rectangles with area AxB (the light blue ones). So the area of the whole square is (A+B) x (A+B) or the area is (AxA) + 2(AxB) + (BxB). Or you might say that (A+B)2 = A2 + 2AB + B2

Now draw diagonal lines across the blue rectangles, making four smaller blue triangles. Call those lines C. Do you see that you have made four blue right triangles, whose sides are A, B, and C? Now imagine that you take these triangles and rearrange them (or if you print it out you can cut them up with scissors and really rearrange them) around the edges of the square like this: The little triangles take up part of the square. The area of all four triangles together is the same as the two blue rectangles you made them from, so that is 2AB.

The area of the pink square in the middle is CxC or C2. And the area of the whole big square is, as we have already seen, A2 + 2AB + B2 So A2 + 2AB + B2 = 2AB + C2 We can subtract 2AB from both sides, so that gives (ta da!) A 2 + B2 = C 2

By using the Maclaurin series for the cosine function, it ca be shown tha as the radius approaches infinity, the spherical form of the Pythagorean theorem approaches th Euclidean form.

For any triangle in the hyperbolic plane (with Gaussian curvature −1) the Pythagorean theorem takes the form

where cosh is hyperbolic co

By using the Maclaurin ser this function, be shown tha

hyperbolic tria becomes very small (i.e., as and c all appr zero), the hyperbolic for the Pythagore theorem approaches th Euclidean form

In hyperbolic geometry, for right triangle o can also write

where is the parallelism of segment AB t

wher multiplicative function (see arithmetic of e

In hyperbolic trigonometry, the angle of p satisfies

Thus, the equ form

where a, b, an multiplicative sides of the ri (Hartshorne, 2

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd