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June 29. 2010

Copyright ©IKS





Report
Unleashing Change
Voices of Kosovo’s Youth 2010
20 October 2010
unite for children
Copyright © UNICEF
The Author of this report is Kosovar Stability Intiative (IKS)
ISBN 978-9951-600-00-2








Unleashing Change
Voices of Kosovo’s Youth 2010


20 October 2010




















This report was produced with generous support from UNICEF, and with funds from
Luxemburg Government







The views and opinions expressed in this study do not necessarily reflect those of
UNICEF.



www.iksweb.org 1
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ............................................................................................................................................. 2 
ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS .................................................................................................. 3 
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ....................................................................................................................... 5 
INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................... 7 
RECOMMENDATIONS ........................................................................................................................... 9 
METHODOLOGY .................................................................................................................................. 11 
EDUCATING KOSOVO’S YOUTH: ANOTHER LOST GENERATION? ..................................... 13 
THE LEGACY OF THE 1990S .................................................................................................................... 14 
YOUTH SATISFACTION WITH EDUCATION IN KOSOVO ............................................................................ 16 
LEARNING WITHOUT BOOKS OR COMPUTERS ......................................................................................... 17 
LACKING THE BASICS ............................................................................................................................ 22 
ATTITUDES TOWARDS EDUCATION: TO CONTINUE OR NOT CONTINUE ................................................... 27 
BRIDGE TO THE FUTURE OR A STUMBLING BLOCK? ................................................................................ 30 
NO JOBS, NO PERSPECTIVE .............................................................................................................. 33 
UNEMPLOYMENT: YOUTHS’ GREATEST CONCERN ................................................................................ 34 
EDUCATION DOES NOT PREPARE ONE FOR WORK ................................................................................... 38 
PEOPLE I KNOW ..................................................................................................................................... 42 
THE GOVERNMENT’S RESPONSE? ........................................................................................................... 44 
TO LEAVE OR NOT TO LEAVE! ................................................................................................................ 45 
ENCOURAGING YOUTH PARTICIPATION .................................................................................... 47 
DEVELOPING A NEW GENERATION OF ACTIVE CITIZENS: PARTICIPATION IN THE FAMILY ....................... 47 
YOUTHS’ EAGERNESS TO PARTICIPATE IN DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES .............................................. 49 
TOO LITTLE, TOO LATE!?........................................................................................................................ 52 
YOUTHS’ STRUGGLE TO MAKE THEIR VOICES HEARD ............................................................................. 54 
TURNING PROMISES TO PRACTICES ........................................................................................................ 57 
KOSOVAN YOUTH FACE THEIR FUTURE ..................................................................................... 59 
MY FUTURE LOOKS BRIGHT? .................................................................................................................. 59 
KOSOVO THROUGH MY EYES .................................................................................................................. 61 
MIGRATION: YOUTHS’ SAFETY VALVE................................................................................................... 62 
‘KOSOVO: THE YOUNG EUROPEANS’ ..................................................................................................... 65 
AREAS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH ................................................................................................. 69 
ANNEX I. ADDITIONAL GRAPHS RESULTING FROM THE KOSOVO-WIDE SURVEY ...... 70 
ANNEX II. QUESTIONNAIRE FOR YOUTH AGES 10-14 .............................................................. 81 
ANNEX III. QUESTIONNAIRE FOR YOUTH AGES 15-24 ............................................................. 96 
ANNEX IV. FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSION GUIDE ........................................................................ 109 
ANNEX V. EU-FUNDED PROJECTS ................................................................................................ 112 
TABLE 4. SUPPORTING THE EDUCATION SECTOR IN KOSOVO 2004-2009 ............................................ 112 



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FOREWORD


About one-fourth of the world's population comprises of young people between the ages
10 to 24. With 50% of its population under the age of 25 Kosovo is known for having
the youngest population in Europe. However, young people's participation in the
decision making processes in all areas remains a major challenge. The fact that the
young largely feel excluded from public debates has prompted UNICEF to address their
participation by engaging different stakeholders and ministries in conceiving and
implementing better social inclusion policies, giving priority to young persons. The
participation of youth in decision making processes and the associated societal shifts
can form an integral part of shaping Kosovo's future prospective. Yet, at central or local
levels, young people's voices fade prior to reaching the right ear. Their mobilization and
empowerment has to become a priority for Kosovan institutions, civil society and
stakeholders to realise the full potential that a young population represents in Europe
and beyond.

The Voice of Kosovo Youth study you have in your hands reveals the views and
experiences of young people in Kosovo. The study explores young people's challenges
and hopes about the educational system, employment opportunities, future prospects
and the Kosovan society in general, highlighting the circumstances that impede their
participation in public life. Youth expressed their frustration about future prospects with
regards to poor education and associated unemployment, including the unavailability of
study materials, unqualified teaching staff or the lack of up to date methodologies.
However, they express their desire to be given the opportunities to contribute more
actively and shape Kosovo's presence and future.

UNICEF will continue to monitor and advocate for the rights of children and youth in
all countries. The recommendations deduced from the empirical findings in the report
should guide stakeholders and policy makers as they engage in the fight to build and
make an inclusive and vibrant society and in providing a better present and future for all
young people in Kosovo.




Johannes Wedenig
UNICEF Kosovo Head of Office,
Prishtina, October 2010








www.iksweb.org 3
ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS


ADA Austrian Development Agency
ALMP Active Labour Market Program
AUK American University in Kosovo
CIDA Canadian International Development Agency
CYAC Central Youth Action Council
EC European Commission
ESOMAR European Society for Opinion and Market Research
ETF European Training Foundation
EU European Union
FSDEK Finish Support to the Education Sector in Kosovo FSDEK
GDP Gross Domestic Product
GTZ German Technical Cooperation
IKS Kosovar Stability Initiative (Iniciativa Kosovare per Stabilitet)
ILO International Labour Office
KEC Kosovo Education Centre
KEDP Kosovo Education Development Plan
KYEAP Kosovo Youth Employment Action Plan
KYN Kosovo Youth Network
LYAC Local Youth Action Council
MEST Ministry for Education, Science and Technology
MCYS Ministry of Culture, Youth and Sports
MLSW Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare
NGO Non-Governmental Organisation
OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
PEC Public Employment Centre
PES Public Employment Services
SDC Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation
SIDA Swedish International Development Agency
SOK Statistical Office of Kosovo
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation
UNDP United National Development Programme



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UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund
USAID United States Agency for International Development
USG United States Government
VET Vocational Education Training










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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Approximately half of Kosovo’s population is under age 25. Kosovo is thus the
youngest state in Europe both in terms of age and its newborn statehood. Educating,
empowering and employing Kosovan youth remain key challenges for Kosovo in its
quest towards European integration. In 2001, UNICEF carried out a Young Voices
Opinion Poll to promote the participation of children and young people. It gave them
the opportunity to have their opinions and concerns heard and widely shared with their
families, the government and public at large. The present report seeks to identify the
problems and issues that young people consider priorities.

Kosovan youths’ concerns and hopes have changed little since UNICEF’s first Young
Voices Opinion Poll in 2001. Nearly a decade ago, 43 percent of youth believed that
Kosovo would become a better place to live. They liked their country, and 87 percent
wanted to continue living in Kosovo. They hoped for an improved standard of living,
fewer social problems and a better political situation.

In 2010, neither international assistance nor the declaration of independence has
brightened future prospects for Kosovan youth. Kosovo must invest more in its young
people towards becoming a competitive economy within the larger European market.
Investment must begin in the education sector. The legacy of the 1990s, outdated
teaching methodologies and poor infrastructure have left youth disenfranchised with
Kosovo’s education sector. The positive relationship between education and
employment mean that a strong education sector is crucial for reducing unemployment
and poverty towards greater social stability.

Kosovo remains the poorest economy in South East Europe. Youth under age 25 have
been among the most affected, with an estimated unemployment rate of 73 percent. In a
labour market in which labour demand is already very low, 95.5 percent of youth have
no prior work experience. This affects long-term unemployment among youth; 81.8
percent have been seeking a job for more than 12 months. Informalities and nepotism in
hiring practices further disadvantage the unemployed. With such bleak prospects, some
consider migration the best way to improve their lives.

Youth still have limited impact on decision-making processes for two reasons:
institutions rarely feel obliged to respect youths’ right to participate, and young people
do not consider participation a civic responsibility. Failing to involve youth in decision-
making processes may easily contribute to future instability.

In the eyes of young people, economic and social conditions serve as a yardstick for
measuring quality of life in Kosovo. Like previously surveyed youth, respondents hoped
for a better economic situation and standard of living in Kosovo. Kosovan Serb youth
tended to be more uncertain about their futures than other youths.




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INTRODUCTION

Given the high levels of youth unemployment, education is a key priority for Kosovo.
1

With approximately half the population under age 25,
2
Kosovo is the youngest state in
Europe both in terms of age and its newborn statehood. Together with natural resources,
the newborn country’s youth have been identified as one of its two strengths.
3
Kosovo’s
young labour force can be an asset amidst Europe’s aging population and is a crucial
factor in Kosovo’s hopes for European integration. Indeed, the European Commission
has emphasised the importance of youth employment and empowerment in progress
reports, as have the World Bank and USAID.

Yet, despite Kosovan leaders’ vocal commitment to European integration, minimal
attention has been given to youth. For example, in the Government’s 55-page strategy
reflecting national priorities for 2008 thru 2011, youth are mentioned only eight times.
4

As the United Nations Development Programme noted in its 2006 Human Development
Report, Kosovo youth had little impact on decision-making institutions for two reasons:
first, institutions do not feel obliged to respect the rights of youth to participate, and
second, young people do not consider their participation a civic responsibility.

In 2001, UNICEF carried out a Young Voices Opinion Poll to promote the opinions,
views and concerns of children and young people. The survey was conducted with 400
children and young people between nine and seventeen years old. In 2004, UNICEF
carried out another youth opinion poll that focused on health education, employment,
development, protection and participation in civil society. The survey was conducted
with 600 young people between nine and twenty-five years old. It also involved a series
of focus group with youth.

This present report seeks to assess opinions, views and concerns of young people and
share them with the government, key stakeholders and the public at large. It makes
comparisons with the prior surveys on youth, where relevant. The data and findings
presented in this report will be used by UNICEF to establish baseline and progress
indicators in order to inform the development of a comprehensive situation analysis of
young people; to monitor the impact of UNICEF programme interventions; and to
strengthen the monitoring and evaluation of the Kosovo Youth Action Plan.

The 2010 Young Voices Opinion Poll, funded by UNICEF and carried out by the IKS
team involved mixed research methods, including a Kosovo-wide survey of 1,300
respondents; in-depth interviews with youth across Kosovo; and 10 focus groups with
youth of diverse education levels, ethnicities and geographic areas. In-depth interviews
were also conducted with policy makers, practitioners, donors and other relevant
stakeholders.

In this resulting report, the first chapter deals with youths’ opinions and satisfaction
with Kosovo’s education system. Chapter two examines youths’ opinions regarding

1
European Commission (EC), Kosovo-Fulfilling its European Perspective, Brussels, October 2009.
2
U.S. Census Bureau, International Data Base, Population Pyramid Kosovo 2010. Kosovo’s total population is estimated to be
1,815,048, out of which 864,170 (47.6 percent) are under age 24. At http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/idb/country.php.
3
Republic of Kosovo, Medium Term Expenditure Framework 2009-2011, June 12, 2008. Prishtinë/Priština, p. 6.
4
Government of Kosovo, Program of the Government of Republic of Kosovo 2008-2011, Prishtinë/Priština, April 2008.



8 www.iksweb.org
employment opportunities in Kosovo; their readiness for the labour market; and links
between education and employment. Chapter three looks into youth participation in
decision-making processes and the institutional provisions for youth involvement in
decision-making. The fourth chapter focuses on youth perceptions of life in Kosovo and
their satisfaction with life in general; measures their willingness to migrate; and
presents the views of Kosovan youth in relation to their future and European
integration.




www.iksweb.org 9
RECOMMENDATIONS

Education
 A comprehensive approach and efforts to the education system are
evident. This, nonetheless, requires extensive investment over a
considerable period of time. Current efforts must be complemented by
strong leadership, including strategic government commitment and
increased budget allocation for education sector.
 Inter-ministerial coordination is crucial for synchronizing labour
market demands with opportunities for the education sector to supply
labour, particularly vocational training. MLSW should make
identifying skills required by the labour market a priority.
Subsequently, such needs should be reflected in MEST’s sector-wide
strategic approach.
 Promoting foreign exchange for private and public tertiary students and
lecturers would accelerate education reform by introducing new
methods employed in other countries of the region and Europe.
Additionally, skills and knowledge gained during a semester abroad
would contribute to furthering the quality of current teaching at the
university level.
Employment

 The infusion of a young labour force is essential for filling the jobs left
open by Europe’s ageing population. The Government of Kosovo can
enter into bilateral agreements with interested EU countries in order to
identify labour market demands and establish programs for providing
labour. Short-term migration can be coordinated, controlled and
regulated bilaterally. MLSW should take the lead in establishing such a
program on behalf of the Government of Kosovo. The MSLW project
was pioneering in this regard.
 Compulsory internships, mandated as part of University level curricula
could better prepare graduates for the labour market. AUK is an
exceptional example in this regard. Opportunities for youth to intern with
international organisations in Kosovo should be examined. MEST should
explore additional opportunities for initiating internship agreements
between universities in Kosovo and the region.
 Web-portals where youth can upload their CVs and employers can
announce vacancies can marry labour market demands with existing
skills. This is a widely used, successful practice in other countries. It can
help reduce informalities during selection and recruitment processes.
Such a website could be accessible by youngsters throughout Kosovo.
MLSW in close cooperation with businesses could initiate such a project.

Participation

 For the Prime Minister of Kosovo and the Government to prove their
commitment to Kosovo’s ‘Young Europeans,’ the year 2011 should be



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declared a ‘Year for Youth.’ This should be translated into actions,
including increasing budget lines towards facilitating youth participation
and stimulating their activism. Such a national level decision should
trickle down to affect the municipal level.
 School principals should identify avenues for encouraging students’
participation and activism. They could identify youths’ interests and
opinions regarding their future, via computer-based social networks,
which are very popular among youth.

Future Perspective

 Initiatives for opening more EU information and cultural centres in other
places outside of Prishtinë/Priština should be encouraged. As a matter of
fact, both EU and Government of Kosovo should utilize this momentum
of the positive attitudes of young Kosovans towards EU. In addition, to
more centres, the government and EU could support draft the curricula
and organize compulsory classes of EU integration (institutions and
values) for the secondary school attendees, as part of the relevant subject
of the social sciences.









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METHODOLOGY

The findings presented here draw from mixed research methods involving both
quantitative and qualitative data. An initial literature review illustrated the dearth of
accurate and current data available in order to respond to the research objectives, that of
assessing opinions, views and concerns of young people and share them with the
government, key stakeholders and the public at large. Therefore, IKS decided to use
multiple methods, data sources and researchers for triangulation, towards enhancing the
reliability and validity of the research findings.

A primary data source was the Kosovo-wide survey of 1,300 youth ages 10 to 24.
Disproportionate, multi-stage random sampling was employed. The sample was
stratified by municipality, age and ethnicity. UBO Consulting was commissioned to
carry out the structured face-to-face interviews, which took place between March 29
th

and April 7
th
2010. Two different surveys were employed to assess the views and
concerns of young people ages 10 to 14 and 15 to 24 years old, respectively. The
interviews were administered in line with the ‘guidelines on Interviewing Children and
Young People’ issued by the European Society for Opinion and Marketing Research
(ESOMAR)
5
in 1999. According to these guidelines, all children were interviewed in
their own language and in their homes with permission from their parents or guardians.
Though, the interviewer and child were alone during the interview to encourage the
child to answer all questions freely and candidly. All field researchers attended a one-
day training led by a specialized psychologist.

As Figure 1 illustrates, 900 Kosovo Albanians, 200 Kosovo Serbs, and 200 respondents
of other ethnicities including Turks, Gorani, Bosnians, Roma, Ashkali and Egyptians
took part. UBO Consulting controlled the data through 35 percent back-checking;
entered the data into SPSS; and performed consistency controls. The data analysis
involved both descriptive statistics and regression with a 95 percent confidence interval.
Particular attention was paid to variables such as age, gender, region and ethnicity.

The quantitative survey data was supplemented by in-depth interviews with young
people and ten focus group discussions with high school students, university students,
job-seekers and employed youth. The focus groups were held in Prishtinë/Priština,
Prizren, Gjakovë/Đakovica, Dragash/Dragaš, Mamuşa/Mamushë/Mamuša, Gračanica/
Graçanicë and Mitrovicë/Mitrovica. In-depth interviews with youth as key informants
were a defining feature of the research methodology, as illustrated by the use of
quotations and anecdotes. The report was further enriched by interviews with more than
50 policy-makers, international donors, youth organisations and youth centres. These
interviews assessed existing initiatives and programs targeting youth towards
empowerment, education, employment opportunities and participation in decision-
making processes.

Triangulation was used to identify converging themes and seemingly contradictory
findings were investigated. IKS team analysed the quantitative and qualitative data and
compiled the findings in a report according to four chapters. IKS shared the preliminary

5
The European Society for Opinion and Marketing Research (ESOMAR) is the world organisation for enabling better research into
markets, consumers and societies. ESOMAR promotes the value of market and opinion research in illuminating real issues and
bringing about effective decision-making on a global level. ESOMAR’s mission is to promote the highest standards in market
research for improving decision-making in the public and private sectors. For more information, see: www.esomar.org.



12 www.iksweb.org
findings in a workshop with key stakeholders in areas of education, employment and
participation in decision-making and incorporated amendments and suggestions in this
report.


Figure 1. Sample Demographics

Total sample size: n = 1300

Unit Percentage Frequencies
Gender Male
Female
50.7%
49.3%
658
642

Age 10-14 years
15-24 years
34%
66%
444
856

Ethnicity Albanian
Serb
Other*
69.6%
15.5%
14.9%
900
200
200

Region Prishtinë/Priština
Pejë/Peč
Prizren
Gjilan/Gnjilane
Gjakovë/Đakovica
Mitrovicë/Mitrovica
Ferizaj/Uroševac
24%
14%
18%
12%
5%
16%
11%
313
182
230
167
61
208
139

* ‘Other’ includes Roma, Ashkali, Egyptians, Gorani, Bosnians and Turks.


























www.iksweb.org 13
EDUCATING KOSOVO’S YOUTH: ANOTHER LOST
GENERATION?














‘Education is their bridge to the world.’
- Alyssa Milano, UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador


Children from Kosovo painted this picture for the UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador,
Alyssa Milano, who visited on Children’s Day in 2010. The open book represents the
foundation of education and knowledge, from which the red flowers (Kosovo’s
children) grow into the world. The painters, Kosovan youth, were born after 1999 and
have no memory of the conflict. They look towards a better future, eager to change
Kosovo. For this, education is their ‘bridge to the world.’

In 2010, approximately half of Kosovo’s population was under age 25, and around 54
percent of them were enrolled in the education system.
6
High hopes were placed on
education as the backbone of economic development and progress but problems
remained.
7
As the European Commission Progress report noted, Kosovo’s education
system continued to be affected by resource constraints, inadequate facilities (including
basic sanitary services and potable water), poor quality teaching and low enrolment
(lower than the regional average). The implementation of the Law on Education at the
municipal level had been hampered by inadequate financial and administrative
capacities in municipal education directories.
8
Faced with all these challenges, will
Kosovo’s Young Europeans
9
be able to realise their dreams and be catalysts for social
and economic change?
This chapter first observes how the legacy of the 1990s affected the quality of education
in Kosovo. Following an overview of youth satisfaction with the education sector,
issues with learning materials, teachers and classroom infrastructure are discussed.
Finally, recommendations for improving the education sector are made.

6
IKS calculation using data from the Statistical Office of Kosovo on total school enrolment (469,631 students) at all levels and the
estimated number of youth under age 25 in Kosovo (865,170), according to the U.S. Census Bureau, International Data Base,
Population Pyramid Kosovo 2010, http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/idb/country.php. The last census in Kosovo was held in 1981,
so accurate population data is unavailable.
7
Government of Kosovo, Program of the Government of Republic of Kosovo 2008-2011, Prishtinë/Priština, April 2008.
8
European Commission, Kosovo under UNSCR 1244/99 2009 Progress Report, Brussels, October 2009.
9
‘Kosovo: The Young Europeans’ is the slogan of a government-sponsored promotional campaign for Kosovo launched on 26
October 2009. The campaign aired on six stations in Europe and the United States, including CNN, BBC, Euronews, Bloomberg
and Eurosport, aiming at branding Kosovo as a new nation, focusing strongly on the power of young people.



14 www.iksweb.org
The legacy of the 1990s

In 2008, the Government of Kosovo identified education as one of ‘the 4 E’s,’ the
priority sectors towards Kosovo’s development: Economy, Energy, Education and
Europe. Nonetheless, the education system has remained one of Kosovo’s greatest
weaknesses. For nearly twenty years Kosovo’s education system has been in a state of
emergency, providing only basic necessities. ‘Even nowadays we can’t talk about
reforms,’ said Lida Kita, a European Training Foundation (ETF) expert on Kosovo’s
education system. ‘We still talk about priorities.’
10
Insufficient education among
teachers, outdated teaching methodologies, lack of space, overcrowded schools, reduced
class hours and low salaries have hampered the quality of the education provided.

Such problems have been due in part to the legacy left by decades of discrimination and
the destruction of schools during the conflict. About half a million young Kosovan
Albanians were forced by the Serb authorities to leave the formal education system after
Kosovo’s decision-making autonomy over education was abolished in 1989. This led to
the creation of an Albanian parallel education system.
11
In 1991, secondary education
moved almost entirely underground as only 6,000 official seats were made available for
36,000 Albanian students finishing primary education.
12
By 1992 Albanian students
were entirely excluded from schools in Kosovo. Hundreds of Albanian head-teachers
were dismissed. All of the teachers at the University of Prishtinë/Priština who refused to
teach according to the newly introduced curriculum, with Serbian as the sole language
of instruction, were ‘deemed to have resigned.’
13
Most Kosovan Albanian staff and
students were removed from the University of Prishtinë/Priština.
14


From 1989 to 1999 the Albanian parallel education system struggled to survive. In 1995
386,511 students were enrolled
15
in this system that suffered from dire limitations.
Lessons were held in improvised classrooms in private houses and garages. Textbook
production was prohibited in Kosovo so some materials were smuggled from Albania.
Other books were produced illegally in Kosovo, but could not reflect new developments
in science and technology.
16
Dated curricula were applied by unqualified volunteer
teachers. Insufficient infrastructure and Serb harassment meant that the number of
students attending school halved by 1996.
17
Then, the 1998-1999 conflict destroyed half
of the schools; damaged about 17 percent of schools; and left most without running
water and sanitary equipment.

Although 110 schools had been rebuilt by 2010,
18
many children still attended school in
overcrowded classrooms in morning, afternoon and sometimes even evening shifts.
Initially adopted as a necessity after the conflict, about 70 schools still taught three

10
IKS interview with Lida Kita, European Training Foundation, 1 July 2010.
11
In March 1990 Belgrade enacted ‘Temporary Measures’ which included ‘The Programme for the Attainment of Peace, Freedom
and Prosperity in the Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo’, and the ‘Law on the Activities of Organs of the Republic in
Exceptional Circumstances’. The Temporary Measures led to the suspension of the Provincial Parliament, the removal of Kosovo’s
autonomous control over education and the introduction of Serbian as the only official language of education (Sommers &
Buckland, Parallel Worlds: Rebuilding the Education System in Kosovo: UNESCO, 2004, p. 42).
12
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Thematic Review of National Policies for Education –
Kosovo, June 2001.
13
Alva et al., 2002, in Sommers & Buckland, 2004.
14
Bellamy, A., ‘Human Wrongs in Kosovo: 1974-99’, The International Journal of Human Rights, 2000, 4 (3), pp. 105-126.
15
Bache, J. & Taylor, A. ‘The Politics of Policy Resistance: Reconstruction Higher Education in Kosovo.’ Journal of Public Policy,
2003, 23 (3), pp. 279-300.
16
Sommers & Buckland, Parallel Worlds: Rebuilding the Education System in Kosovo: UNESCO, 2004, p. 42.
17
OECD, Thematic Review of National Policies for Education – Kosovo, June 2001.
18
Data on MEST investments in school infrastructure from 2004 to 2010 were taken from the Department of Infrastructure and
Technical Services, MEST, September 2010.



www.iksweb.org 15
‘shifts’ per day in 2007. Most others had two.
19
Schools teaching in three shifts were
forced to shorten class hours to only 35 to 40 minutes per class, instead of 45 minutes.
This has had consequences for the quality of education that youth receive. Milot a 22-
year-old student recalled:

We were a lot of students in high school. It was impossible for the teacher to
deal with each of us individually. We could not do any presentations; write
essays and learn many other things that are crucial to know in the modern
world.
20


The number of schools with three shifts was reduced to 20 in 2010.
21
Even so, others
continued to have two shifts. Shortened classes thus remained a reality in many Kosovo
schools. Lack of space, an issue that continues to hinder the quality of education in the
most crowded faculties of Prishtinë/Priština University, remains a problem.
Since the end of 2001 and in accordance with the New Curriculum Framework,
22
the
Kosovo education system has undergone reforms that introduced nine years of
compulsory education as according to Bologna Process:
23
five years of primary school
followed by four years of lower secondary education. In addition to the first nine years,
it includes either general secondary education that lasts four years and prepares students
for university, or vocational secondary education that typically lasts three years. Starting
in 2011, higher secondary education also is expected to become mandatory. It’s crucial
to mention as well, that the New Curriculum outlines a significant change in how the
education and schooling is viewed, the shift from a content focus to a more learning
oriented and competency based approach is emphasised and its implementation is
pushed by in particular by the current Ministry of Education, Science and Technology
(MEST) Minister.
The post-independence legislation has been favourable for further reforms in education.
It included a new structure for the education system; mainly a new institutional set up
and further curriculum development. UNMIK has fully transferred all competencies in
the education sector to the Government of Kosovo. Further, the basis for transferring
responsibilities from national to municipal government authorities was established by
the 2008 Law on Education in Municipalities of the Republic of Kosovo
24
and the Law
on Local Governance,
25
in practical terms it means that the Directorate of Education
within municipality undertakes the selection of school directors and administrative staff.
Nevertheless, for some of the observers of the education system this is clearly not
enough. As one of the education experts put it, poor leadership at the national level has
meant a lack of inter-ministerial coordination in pushing forward reforms: ‘The

19
Lida Kita, HDR Country Analysis - Kosovo, ETF working paper, May 2008.
20
IKS interview with Milot Rexhepi, student of political sciences, Prishtinë/Priština, 9 April 2010.
21
MEST data and CHF International fieldwork. IKS email correspondence with Valbona Dushi, Partner Relations Manager, CHF
International, 17 September 2010.
22
UNMIK Department of Education and Science (DES), ‘The New Kosovo Curriculum Framework – Discussion white paper,’
Prishtinë/Priština, September 2001.
23
The Bologna Process is a European reform process aiming at establishing a European Higher Education Area (EHEA) by 2010.
The Bologna Declaration of June 1999 has put in motion a series of reforms needed to make European Higher Education more
compatible and comparable, more competitive and more attractive for Europeans and for students and scholars from other
continents. http://www.ehea.info
24
Law on Education in the Municipalities, Law No. 03/L-068; Republic of Kosovo. 2008, Article 4.
25
Law on Local Self Government, Law No. 03/L-040, Republic of Kosovo. 2008.



16 www.iksweb.org
government needs to coordinate, and the inter-ministerial coordination should be a
single voice. There is a lot to be done in this respect.’
26

In 2008 and 2009, donors demonstrated an interest in supporting the development of the
education system. The education sector-wide approach project (SWAP) was launched in
May 2010 by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MEST) and
European Commission Liaison Office (ECLO). The three million euro, EU-funded
project aimed to contribute to enhancing the management and quality of the education
system. The project planned ‘to support the curriculum development and teacher
training development in Kosovo.’ It also sought to support MEST and Municipal
Education Departments across Kosovo ‘to improve the systems of planning,
implementation and evaluation in education at all levels of government.’
27

With financial support from the Swedish International Development Agency (SIDA)
through the Capacity Building and Education Reform Project (CBERP), MEST was
undertaking donor mapping at the time of writing this report ‘in order to feed this
information into MEST Strategic Planning.’
28

Numerous other donors have financed Kosovo’s education sector to date. The World
Bank (WB) is the longest standing supporter of Kosovo’s education sector, financing
the sector since 1999. EU-funded projects totalled 76.6 million euros for 2004 thru
2009.
29
The United States Government (USG) funded projects in education and the
youth sector roughly amounting to 19 million USD between 2000 and 2008. Further, the
USG has set aside an estimated 13 million USD for the fiscal year 2011 (October 1,
2010 to September 30, 2011) for education and youth projects and school
construction.
30
The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), Danish
Danida, Austrian Development Agency (ADA), German GTZ, Swiss Agency for
Development and Cooperation (SDC), Norwegian Government, UNICEF and other
United Nations agencies also have contributed substantially, primarily in the form of
grants.
It now seems hopeful that donor coordination, which has been an issue until recently,
will help in avoiding overlapping of projects by different donors. MEST, supported by
SIDA will harmonize donors’ initiatives and will accommodate the financial and human
resources according to the needs and demands in the ground. Still, more needs to be
done in this aspect as many donors have pointed out the weak capacities of MEST and
limited number of staff.
Youth satisfaction with education in Kosovo

Most Kosovan youth recognised the value of education. The reasons 15- to 24-year-old
respondents to IKS’s survey most commonly cited for getting an education were to

26
IKS interview with Dukagjin Pupovci, Director of Kosovo Education Center (KEC), 3 June 2010.
27
ECLO Press Release, EU support measures to promote quality education in Kosovo, 27 May 2010,
http://www.delprn.ec.europa.eu/?cid=2,103,873.
28
IKS interview with Lovisa Ericson, SIDA Education Programme Officer, 17 June 2010; IKS e-mail correspondence with Lovisa
Ericson, SIDA Education Programme Officer, 18 August, 2010.
29
IKS interview with Sophie Beaumont, ECLO Education Program Manger, 9 June 2010; IKS e-mail correspondence with Sophie
Beaumont, 24 August 2010. For details see Table 4 in Annex V.
30
IKS e-mail correspondence with Inez Andrews, USAID Senior Education and Youth Advisor, 30 July 2010.



www.iksweb.org 17
‘develop themselves’ and to make their families proud (84.2 percent agreed with each
statement, respectively).

When asked about their overall satisfaction with the quality of education, most
respondents to the Kosovo-wide survey replied that they were ‘satisfied’: 89.4 percent
of 10- to 14-year-olds, 74 percent of 15- to 19-year-olds, and 61.1 percent of 20- to 24-
year-olds. As Graph 1.1 illustrates, overall satisfaction thus seemed to decrease with age
and the corresponding education levels of primary, secondary and tertiary education.


Graph 1.1 Youths’ overall satisfaction with the quality of education, by age


A statistically significant relationship existed between ethnicity and overall satisfaction
with the quality of education.
31
On average, Kosovo Albanians were more satisfied than
other ethnic groups. More specifically, Kosovo Serb respondents tended to be less
satisfied than other youth with desks, chairs, and classroom equipment; hygiene; and
heating.
32

Despite surveyed youths’ general satisfaction with the quality of education, more
specific survey questions and in-depth interviews indicated dissatisfaction with
elements of the education system, as the following sections detail.
Learning without books or computers
The current Kosovan Curriculum Framework, dating from 2001, promotes a school
curriculum that remains subject-based rather than skills-based.
33
Thus the education
system has taught few if any skills that would assist youth in transitioning from
education to employment, such as problem-solving or teamwork. Indeed, more than half
(52.8 percent) of the 15- to 24-year-old survey respondents considered school curricula
old and without practical application. Similarly, 63.7 percent felt that school was very

31
It was statistically significant at the 5 percent level of significance (p < 0.001).
32
A statistically significant relationship existed at the 5 percent level of significance (p < 0.001).
33
UNMIK Department of Education and Science (DES), ‘The New Kosovo Curriculum Framework – Discussion white paper,’
Prishtinë/Priština, September 2001.



18 www.iksweb.org
theoretical and had little practical orientation. For example, Bert, a knowledge-hungry
10-year-old from Prishtinë/Priština, explained:
I can hardly wait to go to school. [But] sometimes I fall asleep during the
classes because I already know what the teacher is explaining. The teacher then
calls my mom and tells her that I am dreaming during the class hour. I can
hardly wait to go to the fifth grade to learn physics. My father finds websites on
the internet where I read about gravity and a lot of other things.
34

The outdated curriculum could be viewed in stark contrast to some of Kosovo’s
technologically advanced youth. Milan, a 21-year-old student of Art at the University of
Mitrovicë/Mitrovica, said attending classes was not enough:
I study graphic design, which is a recent thing and highly related to technology.
My professors are old and their programs for this faculty most probably date
from the ‘90s. I am lucky that I have internet, and I can do my own research. I
am planning to go to Belgrade after graduation to attend some main courses that
I could not do here.
35

For Bert and his classmates, a group of lively 10-year-olds, Kosovo’s education system
could hardly keep up with their desire to learn. Seventy percent of their cohort used a
computer with internet at home.
36
However, few schools seemed to utilize modern
learning methodologies.
Although many schools were equipped with computer labs, not all students had the
opportunity to use them. Drilon, a 17-year-old gymnasium student in Gjakovë/
Đakovica, explained that his school was recently equipped with new computers: ‘Before
we had Pentium 1, the weakest computers ever. We could hardly learn the easiest
programs such as Word, let alone go further. We don’t have internet yet, even though it
is necessary.’
37
Gentiana, an 18-year-old student of the Technical High School in
Prizren, complained that the one computer in her school was shared by 30 students.
38

Teachers also lacked materials and aids towards more inclusive and varied teaching
methodologies. For example, teachers were encouraged during trainings organized by
Kosovo Education Centre (KEC), to use listening comprehension exercises. However,
an English teacher explained that he did not have a tape recorder or any audio-visual
aids to apply the modern teaching techniques he had learned.
39

Without textbooks at secondary vocational schools, students said that teachers
continued to dictate lessons. They rarely taught critical thinking skills or assigned
exercises to solve. ‘We learn only theory; there is no practice at all,’ complained Dona,
an 18-year-old student. Her friend Burak agreed, ‘Instead of solving exercises we are

34
IKS interview with Bert, Prishtinë/Priština, 9 April, 2010.
35
IKS Focus Group with Kosovo Serb youth in Gračanica/Graçanicë, 12 May, 2010.
36
IKS Young Voices Opinion Poll - Kosovo 2010.
37
IKS Focus Group with students from gymnasium and professional schools in Gjakovë/Đakovica, 29 April, 2010.
38
IKS Focus Group with Students from gymnasium and Professional Schools in Prizren, 28 April, 2010.
39
USAID, Assessment of Basic Education/Pre-University Education in Kosovo, July 2009, p. 25.



www.iksweb.org 19
dictated lessons; there are no books.’
40
An 18-year-old girl from the Technical High
School in Prizren explained further:
We don’t have books. We are divided in two groups because we are 29 students
in the class and 15 students have a lesson for one hour and the other 14 hold a
lesson the second hour. Architecture as a branch needs space. We are not at all
satisfied with the teaching methods; the professor talks and we write.
41


The same concerns were shared by other students attending professional schools in
Prizren. A senior student at the Economy and Law High School complained that
students’ appeals for books had been ignored:

In my branch we have books for only half of the courses. In the other half we
use the notes that teachers dictate. We have had this problem for four years. We
complained, but nothing has happened. One professor has drafted his own book,
which has been licensed by the Ministry of Education, whereas the others don’t
even care. They take notes from the internet or God knows where.
42


The situation with books seemed worse for minorities. The medicine branch at Ataturk
High School in Mamuşa/Mamushë/Mamuša opened four years ago, but of the 14
courses, only two had books, a student said. His friend who studied science at the same
high school agreed, ‘It is the same situation for us. The teachers dictate and we write.
This is the situation for most of our courses. We have no books. We have books only for
Turkish and English courses.’
43

In April 2009 the National Council for Curriculum and Textbooks was established to
review and approve a new Curriculum Framework. The curriculum was to align Kosovo
with European education standards. The revised curriculum aimed to promote a
balanced approach in teaching and learning ‘with regard to providing students with
valid and updated knowledge while also helping them develop valuable skills.’
44
Still,
as students comments indicate the extent to which these reforms will be implemented
remains to be seen. According to Dukagjin Pupovci, Director of KEC, ‘Preparing
teachers is the key; if teachers are not prepared to implement the new methods, the
curricula serve no purpose.’
45

Teachers educated before the 1990s only received two and sometimes three years of
education at what used to be the Higher Pedagogical Institute. About 70 percent of the
teachers presently in primary schools had two years of this pre-service training.
46

Further teacher training has been divided into pre-service and in-service training to
reach both new generations of teachers and those currently serving. From 2001 to 2009
approximately 11,000 of the 24,824 active teachers in Kosovo attended teacher training
programs.
47
MEST officials are fully aware of the need for massive teacher training in
order to ensure teachers have capacities for implementing the new curricula. In addition,

40
IKS Focus Group with Turkish students from Ataturk High School in Mamuşa/Mamushë/Mamuša, 6 May, 2010.
41
IKS Focus Group with students from gymnasium and professional schools in Prizren, 28 April, 2010.
42
Ibid.
43
IKS Focus Group with students of Ataturk High School in Mamuşa/Mamushë/Mamuša, 6 May, 2010.
44
MEST,‘Curriculum Framework for pre-school, primary, secondary and post-secondary education’ Second Draft,
Prishtinë/Priština, April 2010, p. 12.
45
IKS interview with Dukagjin Pupovci, Director of Kosovo Education Center (KEC), 3 June, 2010.
46
IKS interview and email correspondence with Ardita Hima, KEC, Prishtinë/Priština, August 2010.
47
IKS email correspondence with Nehat Mustafa, Political Advisor to the Minister of MEST, 23 July, 2010.



20 www.iksweb.org
MEST in close cooperation with University of Prishtinë/Priština have taken necessary
arrangements to start re-training all teachers who have a former 2 years of Higher
Pedagogical Institute pre-service training enabling them to upgrade their qualification to
a four year degree. The program is scheduled to start by the end of October 2010 given
that University has made all necessary preparations.
The Canadian Agency for International Development (CIDA) was the first to invest in
teacher training programs in Kosovo. Other donors followed, such as UNICEF, Kosovo
Education Development Fund (KEDP), Finish Support to the Education Sector in
Kosovo (FSDEK), KEC and MEST itself. KEC alone has trained more than 10,000
teachers to date in in-service teacher training. Pre-Service teacher training is provided
by Faculty of Education in the University of Prishtinë/Priština, in-service teacher
training was offered by many different organizations to date, and has not been regulated
by law. MEST is in the process of completing the legislation regarding teacher training,
which entails that only MEST accredited institutions can provide teacher training in
Kosovo.
Despite efforts by both MEST and international donors to improve teachers’ knowledge
and methodology, problems remained. While 80.8 percent of 10- to 14-year-olds and
64.8 percent of 15- to 24-year-olds were generally content with their teachers, more
specific survey questions, interviews and focus groups revealed areas of dissatisfaction.
More than 66 percent of 10- to 14-year-olds and 62.5 percent of 15- to 24-year-olds
considered teachers’ behaviour towards students overly authoritative and strict. Thus
only marginally fewer students seemed more satisfied with teachers than in the 2004
UNICEF Kosovo-wide survey, when 72 percent of respondents said teachers had very
authoritative behaviour.
48

During interviews, students detailed their experiences with poor teaching at all levels.
An 18-year-old explained, ‘in case you ask the wrong question, the teachers tell us to
“shut up” and “sit down.”’ University students described similar experiences. A 22-
year-old from the Faculty of Architecture commented:
I am not at all satisfied with the quality of education. The profession I have
chosen needs a lot of work and dedication and requires the professor to be very
prepared and up to date. Unfortunately in my faculty the professors are
communists, come drunk to classes and harass girls.
49

Similarly, Drin, a lively 16-year-old, said:
Teachers are very conservative and not professional in their work. They are not
at all close to students; sometimes they have even beaten us. Due to the low
salaries they have, teaching has been a second job for them. I remember teachers
not coming to classes because they were working somewhere else privately.
50

Deniza, a young woman from Gjakovë/Đakovica, summarized her experienced: ‘The
teacher enters the classroom, explains what he/she has to explain, asks whether we

48
UNICEF, Youth in Kosovo, June 2004, p. 27.
49
IKS interview with a 22-year-old student of Architecture in Univeristy of Prishtinë/Priština, Prishtinë/Priština, 5 April, 2010.
50
IKS interview with Drin, student, Prishtinë/Priština, 7 April, 2010.



www.iksweb.org 21
understood and leaves the classroom. Nothing interesting.’
51
Overall, more than 15
percent of the 10- to 14-year-olds and 19 percent of 15- to 24-year-olds said they were
‘undecided’ as to whether their teachers were qualified to teach their subjects. Another
youth reflected:
One thing that concerns me regarding the education system in Kosovo is the
mixture of new methods with old ones. Most of the old teachers pretend to be
teaching us according to the new reforms, but what they really do is confuse us.
I felt so ashamed when I came to the faculty. [W]hen I was asked to write an
essay or do a presentation, I had no idea of what an essay was, let alone writing
one. Recently, new, young staff is coming in, and I hope that things will
improve. We had the opportunity to learn from the new staff who were educated
abroad and who try to prepare us for the labour market.
52

The difference between ‘younger’ and ‘older’
53
teachers’ approaches was a common
theme among youth. As a law student at Prishtinë/Priština University commented, ‘The
young professors are enthusiastic and try to make the class hour attractive. Their
knowledge and approach is modern. Whereas the old professors are very conservative
and work with outdated methods, regardless of their attempts to reform.’
54


Young Kosovo Serbs in Gračanica/Graçanicë also complained about the teaching
methodologies employed.
55
‘There are still old professors, and it is hard to tell the
professor to use new technology’ said Miloš, a student of English literature at the
University of Mitrovicë/Mitrovica.
56
Kosovo Serb youth said that the Bologna process
was functional on paper, but that its implementation remained an issue. Teachers either
continued with their old methods or improvised something in between. Ivana, a student
of medicine at the University of Mitrovicë/Mitrovica explained:
There are cases when a professor has understood the Bologna system and the
way it functions. What happens then is that in one faculty you have one course
being lectured according to the Bologna system and other courses continuing
with the old methods.
57

While such problems may reflect ongoing transitions as part of the current educational
reform process, the quality of teachers’ lessons and approach must be tackled at their
root.
The Faculty of Education at the University of Prishtinë/Priština, where future
generations of teachers are schooled, was established in 2002 by MEST and the
University of Prishtinë/Priština. However, it struggles to recruit and adequately prepare
new teachers. Teachers’ salaries remain low, despite the 30 to 40 percent increase in

51
IKS Focus Group with students from the gymnasium and professional schools in Gjakovë/Đakovica, 29 April, 2010.
52
IKS interview with Milot Rexhepi, student of political sciences, Prishtinë/Priština, 9 April, 2010.
53
Answers are based on students’ perceptions of ‘old’ and ‘young.’ They likely based definitions on age and the time period in
which teachers were educated.
54
IKS interview with Hereza Sefaj, student of Law at Prishtinë/Priština University, Prishtinë/Priština, 6 April, 2010.
55
The schools in Serb communities are under the authority of the Ministry of Education in Belgrade. Kosovo Serb students are
educated according to the curricula of Republic of Serbia and do not receive any instruction in the Albanian language. See: OSCE,
Kosovo Non-Majority communities within the Primary and Secondary Educational Systems, April 2009.
56
IKS Focus Group with Kosovo Serb youth in Gračanica/Graçanicë, 12 May, 2010.
57
Ibid.



22 www.iksweb.org
2009. With salaries ranging from 230 to 260 Euros per month,
58
teachers are underpaid
compared to other professions. Thus, a profession that was prestigious during the years
of the parallel system has become less attractive.
Students still choosing to attend the Faculty of Education were not satisfied with the
education they received. ‘A teacher who was supposed to lecture once a week, lectured
only once a month and nobody would hold him responsible,’ explained Valdet, a 24-
year-old student who left the Faculty of Education to register in Banking and Finance at
a private university. ‘Professors do as they like, without taking into account students’
needs. Recently, we had to wait six hours to enter the exam,’ complained Edona, a 20-
year-old student at the Faculty of Education who planned to transfer into the Economics
Faculty. Students complained that some of the teachers had been teaching for more than
30 years and were too old to adapt to new methods.
59

Students were not the only ones disappointed in the Faculty of Education. According to
the President of the Board of the Kosovo Accreditation Agency, Ferdije Zhushi Etemi:
The Faculty of Education is not preferred for good or excellent students. The
whole concept of the Faculty of Education is wrong. There are too few and
unqualified staff. There are teachers who are 72 years old. The concept of
education is not implemented at all. There is a lack of methodology, strategy and
didactics. Only two people in the administration have educational backgrounds;
the others come from other disciplines.
60

Similar concerns were voiced by MEST. Kushtrim Bajrami, Director of the Department
for International Cooperation, Coordination of Development and European Integration,
agreed, ‘The academic staff of the Education Faulty needs to be better.’
61

Lacking the Basics

In addition to teachers, ‘The reform process depends substantially on the physical space
of schools,’ according to MEST.
62
Despite investments made by MEST and
international donors, school infrastructure has remained a problem. Although MEST is
charged with policy development and monitoring the system, it has noted that ‘the
school infrastructure for the successful implementation of [new teaching] programs is
still lacking.’
63
Insufficient infrastructure can impact the quality of education.

In IKS’s Kosovo-wide survey, school infrastructure was among the issues with which
young people were least satisfied.



58
ETF, Mapping Policies and Practices for the Preparation of Teachers for Inclusive Education in Contexts of Social and Cultural
Diversity, Country Report for Kosovo (under UNSCR 1244/99) working document, 2010.
59
IKS Focus Group with university and college students in Prizren, 28 April, 2010.
60
IKS Interview with Ferdije Zhushi Etemi, President of the Board of the Kosovo Accreditation Agency, Prishtinë/Priština, 22 June,
2010.
61
IKS interview with Kushtrim Bajrami, Director of the Department for International Cooperation, Coordination of Development
and European Integration, MEST, Prishtinë/Priština, 9 June, 2010.
62
MEST, Infrastruktura e Objekteve Arsimore [Infrastructure of School Buildings], at http://www.masht-gov.net/advCms/#id=57.
63
MEST, Department for Development of Pre-University Education, second round of workshops with teachers in pre-university
education, held in six municipalities (Podujevë/Podujevo, Mitrovicë/Mitrovica, Ferizaj/Uroševac, Suharekë/Suva Reka,
Kaçanik/Kačanik and Skenderaj/Srbica), 16 July, 2010.



www.iksweb.org 23

Graph 1.2 Percentage of surveyed youth dissatisfied with school infrastructure
64

As Graph 1.2 illustrates, approximately 25 percent of the respondents said they were
dissatisfied with the classrooms, labs, and sports equipment in their schools. About 16
percent were dissatisfied with hygiene and about 15 percent with classroom equipment.
About 12 percent were dissatisfied with their schools’ heating systems. Youth from
Ferizaj/Uroševac and Gjilan/Gnjilane were more likely to express concern regarding
infrastructure issues than students from other regions.

According to survey respondents, many schools also lacked basic equipment and
services, such as laboratories, libraries, sport facilities, computers and healthcare. Some
laboratories had been transformed into classrooms to hold other classes for the
multitude of students.
65
Libraries were poorly equipped and sports facilities consisted
mainly of cement squares outdoors with little to no sports equipment. They could not be
used during the winter. As Dona, an 18-year-old student from Mamuşa/
Mamushë/Mamuša, commented, ‘There are no laboratories for chemistry, physics, etc.
There is no gym for physical education. When it’s raining we can’t go outside.’
66










64
For youth age 15-24-year-old, only the answers of respondents who were attending school have been calculated.
65
Kosovar Stability Initiative - IKS, Mitrovicë/Mitrovica: One City, Two Realities, December 2009.
66
IKS Focus Group with Turkish students, Ataturk High School in Mamuşa/Mamushë/Mamuša, 6 May, 2010.



24 www.iksweb.org
Graph 1.3 Availability of school facilities for youth ages 10-14

As Graph 1.3 illustrates, 38 percent of surveyed 10- to 14-year-olds had no healthcare at
school, 33.2 percent had no laboratories, 20.5 percent had no internet, 13 percent had no
sport facilities, 11.6 percent had no library and 7.9 percent had no computers. Compared
to other regions, Ferizaj/Uroševac and Gjilan/Gnjilane seemed to have the least
adequate school facilities. The regions where the most students said their schools lacked
healthcare were Ferizaj/Uroševac and Prizren.


Graph 1.4 Availability of school facilities for youth ages 15-24 attending school

The survey suggested that 15- to 24-year-old respondents had less access than 10- to 14-
year-olds to laboratories, computers, internet and libraries. As Graph 1.4 illustrates,
more than 36 percent of the 15- to 24-year-old respondents attending school said there
were no laboratories in their school, 18.9 percent had no computers and 28.8 percent
had no internet. Further, 26.8 percent had no healthcare at school, 12.8 percent had no
library and 9.7 percent did not have sports facilities.




www.iksweb.org 25
More Albanian respondents said they attended schools without healthcare (41.7 percent)
than Serb (30.9 percent) or other respondents (25 percent). More Albanian (36.2
percent) and other respondents (30.4 percent) lacked laboratories compared to Serb
(19.1 percent) respondents. However, more Serb respondents did not have internet (26.5
percent) than Albanians (20.4 percent) and other ethnic groups (14.3 percent). Slightly
more Serb respondents were without libraries (14.7 percent) than Albanians (12.5
percent) or other minorities (1.8 percent). Nine percent of Albanian respondents did not
have computers at school, whereas 4.4 percent of Serb and 5.4 percent of youth of other
ethnicities did.

Youth attending schools in particular regions seemed to have less access to laboratories
than others, as Graph 1.5 illustrates. About 57 percent of 15- to 24-year-old respondents
in Ferizaj/Uroševac, 41.8 percent in Pejë/Peć and 36.2 percent in Gjilan/Gnjilane said
they did not have laboratories in their secondary schools.


Graph 1.5 Percentage of 15-24-year-olds without laboratories in at school, by region

More than 61 percent of 15- to 24-year-old respondents in Ferizaj/Uroševac, 50.7
percent in Gjilan/Gnjilane and 43.7 percent in Prizren said they did not have healthcare
at school. Overall, the regions of Ferizaj/Uroševac and Gjilan/Gnjilane seemed to have
the least adequate infrastructure in schools.
67


In addition, classroom space has been a serious issue for youth. More than 58 percent of
the 10- to 14-year-old respondents and 50.3 percent of the 15- to 24-year-olds stated
that there were too many students in their classrooms. Again, differences appeared to
exist by region, as illustrated by Graph 1.6. In Ferizaj/Uroševac, Pejë/Peć and Prizren,

67
In Ferizaj/Uroševac, 38.6 percent of respondents did not have computers at school; 47.7 percent did not have internet; 29.5
percent had no library and 29.9 had not sports facilities. In Gjilan/Gnjilane, 40.6 percent had no internet; 17.4 percent had no library
at school; and 37.7 percent had no sports facilities.



26 www.iksweb.org
the lack of classroom space was noted by similarly high percentages of respondents in
each age group. In Gjakovë/Đakovica and Mitrovicë/Mitrovica, nevertheless,
differences in classroom sizes seemed to exist between the two age groups. The region
of Gjakovë/Đakovica had the highest number of respondents ages 10 to 14 stating that
classrooms were over-crowded (89.5 percent).


Graph 1.6 Percentage of youth who said their classroom was over-crowded,
by region and age



A statistically significant relationship existed at the five percent significance level
between ethnicity and whether youth felt schools were overcrowded.
68
On average,
Kosovo Albanians of all ages were more likely than Kosovo Serb youth to feel that their
schools were overcrowded.
In 2008/2009, the average number of students per classroom was 23 for primary and 30
for secondary schools.
69
This is considerably higher than in other countries in the region
such as Slovenia (18.5 and 20.4, respectively), Hungary (21.1 and 22.6) and the OECD
average (21.6 and 23.7).
70
Rural-urban migration has decreased classroom sizes in some
rural schools. However, the number of students per class in some schools remained
high. The number of overcrowded classrooms exceeded the number of under-crowded
classrooms.

68
p < 0.001
69
Statistical Office of Kosovo, Educational Statistics 2008/09, July 2010.
70
OECD, Education at a Glance 2010: OECD Indicators for 2008, 2010.



www.iksweb.org 27
As a senior student from Prizren Medical High School explained: ‘We are about 45
students in one class; it has been very difficult these four years to learn in such a
crowded environment.’ Another student from Prizren Economics and Law High School
explained: ‘The maximum number of students in my class was supposed to be 32, but
we were 46. We could not find chairs to sit. Every day we had to fight over chairs. Now
we are 35, as some [students] left school; they had enough.’
71

MEST has sought to provide additional educational space. While 800 damaged and 61
destroyed schools have mostly been repaired and rebuilt, the pre-war total of 1,220
schools has not been reached.
72
In any case, considering Kosovo’s large youth
population and the expansion of mandatory schooling to 13 years in 2010,
73
the space
required has grown faster than MEST’s construction efforts. With a total of 985 primary
and 108 secondary schools in 2010, Kosovo still faced severe shortages in classroom
space.
74

Despite the aforementioned infrastructural deficiencies, MEST’s budget was reduced
significantly from 56.5 million in 2008 to 36 million in 2010. This affected the budget
for capital outlays; the Ministry’s budget for school construction declined from 38.5
million in 2008 to 24.5 million in 2010. Despite the increase in teachers’ salaries, the
operational budget from which teachers’ salaries and school maintenance are paid
decreased from 17.6 million in 2008 to 6 million in 2009. While the budget increased to
11.5 million in 2010, it remained less than in 2008. Budget cuts call into question the
government’s dedication to improving education in Kosovo. They dually place at risk
youths’ opportunities for the future.
75

Attitudes towards education: To continue or not continue

Many youth recognized the value of education, as evidenced by both the Kosovo-wide
survey and in-depth interviews. ‘My future depends on the education I receive. I will
continue my studies until the last grade even though I still have not decided what to
study,’ said Drin, a 16-year-old high school student from Prishtinë/Priština.
76
For 18-
year-old Gentiana, ‘School is everything; without school one has no job security, and
does not know what to expect in the future.’
77
Nineteen-year-old Hana agreed, ‘School
is a necessity, like bread.’
78
Tellingly, youth of Kosovo is aware where their priorities
lie.

While the number of youth enrolled in mandatory primary and lower secondary
education has fluctuated slightly from year to year, the number of students enrolled in
upper secondary education has increased steadily, as illustrated in Table 1.1.





71
IKS Focus Group with students from gymnasium and professional schools in Prizren, 28 April, 2010.
72
European Commission Damage Assessment Kosovo, Building Assessment Kosovo, International Management Group, April 2004.
73
MEST, ‘Curriculum Framework for pre-school, primary, secondary and post-secondary education,’ Second Draft,
Prishtinë/Priština, April 2010.
74
MEST, Educational Statistics 2009/10.
75
Ministry of Economics and Finance, Central Budget Tables for 2008 and 2009, Budget of the Republic of Kosova for 2010,
January 2010.
76
IKS interview with Drin, student, Prishtinë/Priština, 7 April, 2010.
77
IKS Focus Group with students from gymnasium and professional schools in Prizren, 28 April, 2010.
78
IKS Focus Group with high school students in Dragash/Dragaš , 5 May, 2010.



28 www.iksweb.org
Table 1. Number of Kosovan students enrolled in education, 2004 to 2010

School year 2004/05 2005/06 2006/07 2007/08 2008/09 2009/10
Primary & lower secondary 327,207 322,180 324,618 326,911 322,975 311,744
Upper secondary 60,760 74,781 88,691 90,207 96,172 104,053
Source: MEST Education Statistics, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010.

Students attending upper secondary education choose between the traditional
gymnasium and vocational school. In the 2008/09 academic year, 41,692 students
attended gymnasia, the majority of them girls. The same year, 55,073 students were
enrolled in vocational schools with the majority being male.
79
Traditionally, gymnasia
have been a pre-requisite for university.
80
Although more students have enrolled in
vocational education training (VET), it has been considered an option for low
performing students. Many students not accepted into their gymnasium of choice attend
vocational school instead.
81
Apart from a bad image, there are additional problems with
VET education in Kosovo.
Vocational schools have been meant to prepare students for the labour market, in
contrast to gymnasiums that offered more theoretical education. VET’s are supposed to
have a more practical approach to education, as well as offer business internships. In
Kosovo, arguably, vocational schools have not been aligned with labour market
demands. Few such institutions partnered with businesses, and this undermined the
purpose of vocational education. Students completing vocational education could not
attend post-secondary vocational education, as it did not exist in Kosovo.
82
Thus
students had to either enter the job market or transfer to the university. More practical
tertiary vocational education like a technical college or university could offer many
youth additional opportunities.
Increased rates of enrolment in higher education have been influenced by shifting
gender roles. Traditionally, the transition rate from obligatory lower secondary school to
optional upper secondary education has been higher for boys than girls. However, girls’
rates of continuing education have increased in recent years. While 75.6 percent of girls
transitioned to higher education in the 2004/05 academic year, 80.4 percent continued
on in 2008/09.

In some areas of Kosovo, girls remained disadvantaged in accessing upper secondary
education. More girls abandoned elementary school in Ferizaj/Uroševac, Malishevë/
Mališevo and Dragash/Dragaš than in other municipalities.
83
For example, Anjeza
attended primary school in her village in Dragash/Dragaš. Though, only four of the
twelve girls from her class continued on to secondary school. ‘The other girls stay at
home because of their families’ mentalities,’ she said. The lack of public transport from
Dragash/Dragaš’s villages to the high school caused concern for some parents who

79
Statistical Office of Kosovo, Educational Statistics 2008/09, July 2010, pp. 52-53.
80
UNICEF – IKS stakeholders’ workshop, Prishtinë/Priština, 13 July, 2010.
81
European Training Foundation, ETF Country Plan- Kosovo 2009, p. 5.
82
MEST, ‘Curriculum Framework for pre-school, primary, secondary and post-secondary education’ Second Draft,
Prishtinë/Priština, April 2010.
83
Statistical Office of Kosovo, Educational Statistics 2008/09, July 2010, pp. 38, 64-65.



www.iksweb.org 29
worried whether their children, particularly girls, would be safe travelling to and from
school.
84


Other youth agreed that poor transportation inhibited many girls from continuing their
education after primary school, particularly young woman in villages. Hana, an 18-year-
old student in Gjakovë/Đakovica explained, ‘Girls from villages decide not to continue
secondary school when they are in the ninth grade mainly because there is no
transportation during the wintertime or evening. Parents are afraid to send their girls to
school.
85


In Mamuşa/Mamushë/Mamuša, some girls did not want to further their education. For
example, Ahmet explained how her older sister had finished elementary education, but
did not want to attend high school.
86
Some of Ahmet’s friends and acquaintances in
Mamuşa/Mamushë/Mamuša said their parents took them out of school. Still, after one
year they had convinced their parents to permit them to continue. Seda explained, ‘My
dad did not allow me to come to school. He said, “What will you be if you go to school?
Stay at home.”’ Her friend Sibel had a similar experience: ‘My mother did not allow me
to go to school. She said that girls don’t go to school. Later my friend came and
convinced my mother to send me to school. My father did not say anything. He wanted
me to continue.’
87
The focus group participants explained that starting a family was
very important for girls in Mamuşa/Mamushë/Mamuša. Staying at home and not
attending school was considered a sign that girls were prepared for marriage. ‘The year
that I stayed at home people came to ask me to marry, but I did not want to,’ Seda
continued. ‘My mother wanted me to get married, but I always refused and told her that
I wanted to go to school. Now that I am in school nobody mentions marriage
anymore.’
88


Attitudes towards education are slowly changing in Mamuşa/Mamushë/Mamuša. This is
due in part to the fact that education has become more accessible. Ali explained, ‘When
there was no high school in Mamuşa/Mamushë/Mamuša people had to go to Prizren.
Even the number of boys who attended school was not very high. Only five to six boys
would attend school in Prizren.’ His friend Burak agreed: ‘With the opening of the high
school many things changed; the mentality of people changed. More girls go to school
nowadays.’
89


In addition to geographical location and access, ethnicity also appeared to be a
determining factor influencing whether youth continued their education after primary
school. Roma and Romani girls in particular faced challenges in continuing their
education. According to SOK, Roma, Ashkali and Egyptian (RAE) girls have the lowest
level of education in Kosovo.







84
IKS Focus Group with high school students in Dragash/Dragaš , 5 May, 2010.
85
IKS Focus Group with students from gymnasium and professional schools in Gjakovë/Đakovica, 29 April, 2010.
86
IKS Focus Group with students of Ataturk High School in Mamuşa/Mamushë/Mamuša, 6 May, 2010.
87
Ibid.
88
Ibid.
89
Ibid.



30 www.iksweb.org
Table 2. Number of Kosovan students enrolled in education by ethnicity, 2008/2009

Ethnicity
Primary & Lower
secondary
Upper secondary
Total Female Total Female
Albanian 306,427 147,191 94,572 42,456
Bosnian 3312 1641 1025 419
Roma 1519 685 75 25
Ashkali 3412 1554 203 43
Egyptian 1670 750 89 23
Turk 1618 808 746 348
Goran 960 444 41 6
Source: SOK Education Statistics, 2008/2009

Only two of the four girls participating in IKS’s focus group in a Roma neighbourhood
of Mitrovicë/Mitrovica had completed elementary education. One girl had dropped out
at various stages. One girl had never attended school; she relied on her friend to write
her name on the participants’ list. The girls explained that they quit schooling because
their families felt girls did not need to be educated and because many Roma girls marry
at an early age.

Adelina did not want to tell her age. She had always wanted to go to school and had
attended upper secondary school after finishing lower secondary school in the Serb
language. However, she quit after only three months because she was the only Roma
child in her class. Roma boys tended to drop out of school because they had to work to
help support their large families.
90

Clearly, improved free public transportation for youth to and from school could enable
more young women and men to continue their education. Awareness-raising campaigns
may help address conservative attitudes and encourage youth in general to continue
their education.
Bridge to the future or a stumbling block?
In order for education to be a ‘bridge to the world’ for Kosovo’s youth, an effective
educational system that enables graduates to continue their studies further or smoothly
transition into the labour market is required. Yet, more than a decade after the conflict,
institutions barely provided basic educational infrastructure and continued to face a host
of quality and infrastructural challenges. While educational reforms pertaining to
curricula development and teacher training were underway, much work remained for the
effects to be felt by the average student. Needless to say, education reforms are
measured in generations and not in individual academic years. This has been
particularly true considering the challenging task of rebuilding post-war Kosovo’s
devastated education sector. Despite the understandably extensive financial and
temporal commitments required to reconstruct this sector, its present state does not bode
well for the future of Kosovo’s youth. Kosovo’s education sector may well be described
more as a stumbling block than a bridge to the world.

90
IKS Focus Group with Roma youth community in Mitrovicë/Mitrovica, 21 May, 2010.



www.iksweb.org 31
While some of the challenges identified through IKS’s research have already begun to
be addressed, the education reform process is still far from producing the desired
results. Reform efforts have been stretched thin in an expansive sector that requires
ongoing investment over a considerable period of time. Current efforts must be
complemented by serious and strategic government commitment, demonstrated to
increasing budget allocation.
Additionally, inter-ministerial coordination is crucial. Labour supply, particularly in
vocational education training, must be synchronized with labour market demands.
MLSW should make identifying skills needed in the labour market a priority and
subsequently liaise with MEST to ensure that these needs are reflected in the
education sector.
Finally, as it will be elaborated in the next chapter, promoting foreign educational
exchange for private and public tertiary students and lecturers would accelerate
education reforms by introducing new methods employed in other countries of the
region and Europe. Additionally, skills and knowledge gained during a semester
abroad would contribute to furthering the quality of current teaching at the university
level.



32 www.iksweb.org














































www.iksweb.org 33

NO JOBS, NO PERSPECTIVE


‘I think it is very difficult for a young
person to find a job, regardless of how qualified
he or she is. In Kosovo nothing works without
knowing the right people.’
- Drin, 16-year-old student from Gjakovë/Đakovica

Unemployment is a structural problem with a long history in Kosovo. Even during the
height of Kosovo’s industrialization in the late 1980s, unemployment wavered around
36 percent.
91
It steeply increased as the Serbian authorities dismissed en masse Albanian
workers from the state-run factories in the early 1990s.
92
The factories fell into disrepair
and many suffered further destruction during the war. The sluggish post-conflict
privatisation process has since resulted in few new jobs, far from enough to
accommodate the increasing population.

In 2009, unemployment continued to plague 45.4 percent of Kosovo’s population.
Youth have been among the most affected. The young, working population aged 15 to
24 comprised 20 percent of Kosovo’s labour force (48.1 percent) and 73 percent of
them were unemployed. Such high unemployment rates are unsustainable. Not only is
high youth unemployment positively related to social instability and higher crime rates,
but it also means that youth lack reasons for remaining in Kosovo. As the World Bank
has concluded, ‘Kosovo’s difficult labour market conditions have been especially severe
for youth, with obvious implications for social stability.
93


‘Unemployment in Kosovo is destroying youth,’ said Milot, a 22-year-old student
attending a private university in Prishtinë/Priština.
94
His concern was echoed widely by
young people throughout Kosovo. While youth ages 15 to 24 comprised nearly 20
percent of Kosovo’s labour force, they represented 40 percent of the country’s
unemployed.
95
With a youth unemployment rate of approximately 73 percent, higher
among young women (81.8 percent), Kosovo possessed both the highest unemployment
rate and the highest youth unemployment rate in the region.

Finding employment has been particularly difficult for youth because 95.5 percent of
them have no prior work experience. In a labour market in which labour demand has
been very low, insufficient work experience has been a key factor influencing long-term
unemployment among youth.
96
Long-term unemployment, seeking a job for more than
12 months, affected 81.7 percent of Kosovo’s youth in 2009.
97


Kosovo’s economic growth spurted double-digits after the conflict due to international
aid and remittances.
98
Though, it has decreased to less than five percent since 2005,

91
World Bank, Kosovo, Unlocking Growth Potential: Strategies, Policies, Actions, April 2010, p. 12.
92
Malcolm, N., Kosovo: A Short History, 1998, p. 429.
93
World Bank, Interim Strategy Note for Republic of Kosovo for the period FY10-11, December 2009, p.14.
94
IKS interview with Milot Rexhepi, student of political sciences, Prishtinë/Priština, 9 April, 2010.
95
World Bank, Kosovo, Youth in Jeopardy: Being Young Unemployed, and Poor in Kosovo, September, 2008, p. iv.
96
Ibid, p. 12.
97
Statistical Office of Kosovo (SOK), Series 5: Social Statistics, Results of the Labour Force Survey 2009, Prishtinë/Priština, July
2010, p.5.
98
World Bank, Kosovo, Unlocking Growth Potential: Strategies, Policies, Action, April 2010, p. v.



34 www.iksweb.org
further aggravating the labour market. In addition, Kosovo’s economic growth has not
been reflected in the labour market, which has been characterized by low labour demand
and stagnation. With a per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of €1,760, Kosovo has
remained the poorest state in the Western Balkans. In 2010, micro-businesses in low-
skilled occupations and low value-added sectors still comprised 90 percent of the weak
private sector.
99
They could neither absorb the backlog of unemployed persons nor
employ the steady stream of 25,000 to 40,000 new graduates entering the labour market
every year.
100
In order to decrease the unemployed rate, real GDP growth would have to
be more than six percent for at least a decade, not the 0.9 percent average that existed
between 2002 and 2007.
101


This chapter aims at placing youth unemployment at the heart of debate about the future
of Kosovo. It analyses young people’s preoccupation with unemployment and the ways
they find to adapt to it. Further, it considers the impact education has on employment
and the challenges young people face in transiting from education into the labour
market. The chapter also evaluates youth career strategies and the government response
to high rates of unemployment among youth. At the heart of this chapter lies the core
thesis that young people are as much preoccupied with unemployment as adults.
Unemployment: Youths’ Greatest Concern

Among the new entrants to the labour market was Selda, a 21-year-old Turkish student
who was lucky to have found a job as a translator. ‘Unemployment is a big concern in
Kosovo,’ she said. ‘All these youth wander up and down the streets; I think that no
incentive to work has remained in them.’
102
The bleak economic situation has taken its
toll on both youth and their adult counterparts. For years, young people had watched
their parents and family members struggle to make ends meet. They were sensitized to
unemployment at an early age. Ten-year-old Bert already understood the value of
planning ahead: ‘Of course school is good for my future, without school I will be on the
street.’
103


Like Bert, most surveyed youth ages 10 to 14 identified unemployment (47.3 percent of
respondents) and poverty (28.2 percent) as the greatest threats facing Kosovo. In
comparison, few youth mentioned other potential threats like corruption (7.4 percent),
drug abuse (6.1 percent), organised crime (5.4 percent) and environmental pollution (5.6
percent).












99
Ibid, p. ix.
100
Medium Term Expenditure Framework 2009-2011, 12 June 2008, p.6.
101
World Bank, Kosovo, Youth in Jeopardy: Being Young Unemployed, and Poor in Kosovo, September, 2008, p. 2.
102
IKS interview with Selda Sylejmani, student, Prishtinë/Priština, 8 April, 2010.
103
IKS interview with Bert, Prishtinë/Priština, 9 April, 2010.



www.iksweb.org 35
Graph 2.1 Greatest threats facing Kosovo for surveyed 10-14-year-olds

Youth ages 15 to 24 felt similarly; 47.8 percent of respondents named unemployment as
the main threat to Kosovo and 24.5 percent identified poverty. Indeed unemployment
and poverty are related; unemployed people in Kosovo face a higher risk of poverty or
extreme poverty.
104


The risk of being unemployed and extremely poor was particularly high for Roma in
Kosovo. ‘I started working when I was 13 years old,’ said 22-year-old Armend, who
lived in the newly-built Roma Mahalla in south Mitrovicë/Mitrovica.
105
‘First I worked
as a loader, and then I did whatever job was out there. Now I dig trenches. I would like
to have a permanent job, maybe as an auto mechanic.’ Armend’s friends and neighbours
faced similar issues. Senad, who dropped out of school after the fifth grade, believed
that ‘poverty and unemployment are the main problems. We need to make our own
living, and we work wherever we can.’
106
His friend Artan explained that dropping out
of school to work is typical for Roma boys: ‘Difficult conditions and poverty oblige
Roma children to work. Senad, for example, works as a taxi driver. It is difficult to
maintain his family, so he had to drop out of school and start to work. Poverty forces
young people to drop out of school.’
107


Regardless of whether youth were still enrolled in school, already working or seeking
work, they were concerned by unemployment. As Graph 2.1 illustrates, 56.3 percent of
surveyed youth ages 15 to 24 said they were ‘very preoccupied’ with unemployment,
while 31.1 percent were ‘preoccupied.’




104
World Bank, Kosovo, Youth in Jeopardy: Being Young Unemployed, and Poor in Kosovo, September, 2008, p. vii.
105
IKS Focus Group with Roma youth in Mitrovicë/Mitrovica, 21 May, 2010.
106
Ibid.
107
Ibid.



36 www.iksweb.org

Graph 2.2 Extent to which 15-24-year-olds were preoccupied with unemployment

A statistically significant relationship existed between ethnicity and preoccupation with
unemployment. Albanian youth and youth from other minorities tended to be more
preoccupied with unemployment than their Serbian counterparts.
108
Whereas 60.2
percent of Albanian respondents and 72.4 percent of other minorities stated that they
were ‘very preoccupied’ with unemployment, only 23.3 percent of the Serbian youth
stated the same.

Even so, in a focus group held with Serb youth in Gračanica/Graçanicë, unemployment
surfaced as a great concern. Alexander, a student at the University of Mitrovicë/
Mitrovica explained: ‘Many generations have been educated in the last ten years, but
they have worked nowhere. They have looked for jobs and they have found nothing.’
His colleague Bujana argued that a reason for not finding a job is because they don’t
look for one, especially in Prishtinë/Priština: ‘We have to keep in mind that when young
people graduate they do not even think about applying for jobs in Prishtinë/Priština,
mainly because, the Serb community is not fully integrated in the larger Kosovo
society.’ Ivan, a 24 year old graduate from the University of Mitrovicë/Mitrovica argued
that ‘youth who have a university degree would not look for jobs in any Kosovan
institution because the salaries are very low,’ compared to what the Serbian government
offers. According to a recent study on local reforms in Kosovo, public employees in the
Serb parallel system receive relatively high salaries: the gross monthly income of €892
is much above the typical Serbian salaries of €508.
109
When asked if they would want to
go work in Serbia, the participants replied that the same situation would await them
there.

108
Albanian youth (p = 0.001), Serb (p = 0.01), other minorities (p = 0.011).
109
Most of the public employees are financed by three agencies of the Serbian government: Ministry of Education, the Health
Insurance Fund and the Ministry of Kosovo and Metohija. György Hajnal and Gábor Péteri, Local reform in Kosovo: final report/
Forum 2015 (ed.) Prishtinë/Priština, Forum 2015, 2010, pp.77-78.



www.iksweb.org 37

A statistically significant relationship also existed between geographic region and
preoccupation with unemployment. On average youth in Mitrovicë/Mitrovica,
Gjakovë/Đakovica and Gjilan/Gnjilane tended to be slightly less preoccupied with
unemployment than youth in Prishtinë/Priština.
110
For example, in Mitrovicë/Mitrovica
only 23.9 percent stated they were ‘very preoccupied’ with unemployment compared to
67.3 percent of respondents in Prishtinë/Priština. This was surprising as Mitrovicë/
Mitrovica had the highest rate of youth unemployment in the country. The data may
illustrate young people’s acquiescence to being jobless in Mitrovicë/Mitrovica.
111


Acknowledging the pervasiveness of unemployment, some youth have found ways to
adapt. For example, Agon, a 17-year-old student at Hajdar Dushi Gymnasium in
Gjakovë/Đakovica, planned to study physiotherapy:

There are not a lot of physiotherapists in Gjakovë/Đakovica and they will be
needed in the future. It is a profession that provides a better financial situation
even though it takes longer to finish the studies. I am more interested in knowing
where I am going to work; it is not that I really want this profession, but I know
that it offers a better future. And if I work hard I can gain a reputation.
112


Whether one’s preferred profession will pay the bills is a question youth everywhere
face. However, due to the limited and underdeveloped labour market, such choices have
been much more constrained for Kosovo’s youth. Many have forfeited their dreams at
an early age for what they perceive to be better future prospects. For example, 22-year-
old Rona was studying architecture at the University of Prishtinë/Priština, but she was
having second thoughts: ‘I am thinking of registering at a private college or university
[to] study banking and finance as I think that will help me find a job in the future. I love
architecture but I do not see a good future as an architect.’
113


Without reliable information on labour market demands, students chose occupations
based on perceptions rather than market needs. Insufficient communication between
educational institutions and businesses has made it difficult for students to make
informed choices regarding their studies; they have lacked information about
businesses’ needs. Despite young peoples’ common perception that a tertiary education
degree would offer the best chances of employment, employers actually prefer
vocational education mixed with work experience. In the USAID survey, 69.7 percent
of employers stated that they preferred vocational education for manual jobs and still
45.4 percent preferred vocational education for professional positions. This shows a
clear mismatch between the perceptions of students and the preferences of employers
for the educational background of applicants.

On the other hand, the International Labour Organisation (ILO) has found that poor
evaluation frameworks for qualifications have meant that employers use university

110
(p ≤ 0.01).
111
Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare, Labour and Employment 2007, p. 12.
112
IKS Focus Group with students from the gymnasium and professional schools in Gjakovë/Đakovica, 29 April, 2010.
113
IKS interview with Rona Binakaj, student, Prishtinë/Priština, 5 April, 2010.



38 www.iksweb.org
degrees as a yardstick for screening recruits; jobs may not have any connection to their
degree.
114
This has led to graduates performing jobs below their qualifications.

The small labour market and limited employment possibilities further influenced the
choices available to Kosovan youth. Indeed the World Bank has identified low labour
demand as the main reason for poor labour market performance. A second reason was
the low level of skills within the population. Education remained crucial for securing a
job.
115
The findings of the 2009 Household Budget Survey indicated that higher
education leads to more income from regular employment compared to those with
primary and secondary education who to a considerable extent had to live by per diem,
pensions from abroad, own business and support from outside.
116
The education system
is hence particularly relevant for the labour market.
Education does not prepare one for work

Unemployment rates in Kosovo varied substantially by level of education.
Unemployment has been highest among those who finished less than upper secondary
education (64 percent).
117
Graduates of tertiary education have had the lowest
unemployment rate (14.9 percent).
118
The positive correlation between educational
attainment and finding employment was acknowledged by many Kosovan youth; 63
percent of the survey respondents ages 15 to 24 stated that completing education
positively influences a person’s employability. Since youth are aware of the difficulty of
finding a job, remaining in the education system has been an alternative to
unemployment rather than a specific choice for some.
119


The perceived value of finishing their education was also clear. Youth were asked if
they were offered a job while attending school, whether they would choose to take the
job or finish their education; 50 percent replied that they would finish their education.

Graph 2.3 Percentage of 15-24-year-old respondents attending school, who would continue
school or take a job offer












114
International Labour Organisation, Young People’s Transition to Decent Work: Evidence from Kosovo, April 2007, p. 44.
115
World Bank, Kosovo, Unlocking Growth Potential: Strategies, Policies, Actions, April 2010, p. ix.
116
Statistical Office of Kosovo (SOK), Series 5: Social Statistics, Household Budget Survey 2009, Prishtinë/Priština, June 2010,
p.21.
117
Statistical Office of Kosovo (SOK), Series 5: Social Statistics, Results of the Labour Force Survey 2009, Prishtinë/Priština, July
2010, p.37.
118
Ibid.
119
USAID, A Modern Workforce Development System is Key to Kosovo’s Growth, May 2009, p. 32.



www.iksweb.org 39

A major concern among young people was that their education failed to prepare them
for the labour market. Youth were concerned that curricula included little professional
practice, both at university and vocational schools. ‘After four years of studying
architecture, I think we are only able to clean offices. We can do nothing,’ complained
Mirand, a 19-year-old student at the Technical High School in Prizren.
120
Vocational
schools were meant to offer a combination of school-based education and in-company
training, achieved through close links with the labour market and businesses. In Kosovo
no such links existed between vocational schools and businesses, however, which
undermined the point of vocational education.

The absence of practical training was not limited to vocational secondary school
education. Yllka, a 23-year-old student at the University of Prishtinë/Priština’s Faculty
of Law, was also concerned about the insufficient practical training that she received:

We have no practice at all. I am graduating from the Law Faculty, and I have
never attended a hearing. The only time we arranged to go to the Assembly, the
professor did not show up […]. If we have no practice, how are we supposed to
prepare for the labour market? If we go to the court, a technician is going to be
better than me because he practiced his profession. […] If you ask students in
the Law Faculty what an ‘amendment’ is, they will answer by heart. If you ask
them to change one, they are stuck as they have never practiced such a thing.
121


Transitioning into the labour market is never easy. However, in Kosovo it has taken an
average young male ten years, whereas the same person would have taken only four to
five years in Macedonia.
122
Preparedness can enable a smooth transition into the labour
market. This does not solely involve knowledge about their profession, but also
transferable skills and soft skills. The latter includes skills such as writing and
presenting a CV; experience with teamwork; and the ability to communicate with
colleagues and superiors. Such skills also include the ability to think critically, solve
problems, make calculations and grasp new things.

Graph 2.4 Extent 15-24-year-olds agreed or disagreed that education does
not equip one for work


120
IKS Focus Group with students from gymnasium and professional schools in Prizren, 28 April, 2010.
121
IKS Focus Group with university students and graduates in Gjakovë/Đakovica, 29 April, 2010.
122
World Bank, Kosovo, Unlocking Growth Potential: Strategies, Policies, Actions, April 2010, p. 60.



40 www.iksweb.org
Most young people acknowledged the importance of education for their future career, as
noted previously. Nevertheless, as Graph 2.4 illustrates, 14 percent of the 15- to 24-
year-olds surveyed ‘strongly agreed’ and 26.3 percent ‘agreed’ that education does not
equip one for work. Conversely, 28.4 percent ‘disagreed’ or’ strongly disagreed’ with
the graph’s statement. Sixteen percent neither agreed nor disagreed and 15.3 percent did
not know how to respond. The high percentage of ‘don’t know’ responses could be due
to the way in which the question was formulated: youth may not have understood if the
question meant in theory or in practice. This could benefit from further research,
including some more specific follow-up questions.

One way to improve one’s chances of finding a job could be to study abroad. More than
71 percent of the respondents agreed that studying abroad could positively influence
one’s employability. Arbër, a 19-year-old student at Prizren Medical High School,
commented:

I think that young people who study abroad have better chances when it comes
to getting a job. If you graduate in accounting in Kosovo you can be an
accountant at Ben-af [supermarket] or some other market. But if you have
studied abroad you get employment in the ministry or some other prestigious
place.
123


Still, few students could afford to study abroad. Instead, they had the choice of studying
at the University of Prishtinë/Priština or at one of the private tertiary education
institutions that have sprouted like mushrooms throughout Kosovo in recent years.
124


Practice and internships can play a pivotal role in preparing youth for the labour market.
Successful programmes enable youth readiness and confidence in taking initiatives. The
students of Gjon Nikolle Kazazi Professional High School in Gjakovë/Đakovica were
more satisfied with their education. They felt better prepared for the labour market than
their counterparts in other professional schools because hands-on practice was included
in the curriculum. Shpejtim, an 18-year-old student of Gjon Nikolle Kazazi, talked about
his future with certainty and confidence:

I am planning to continue my studies in computer science, and I plan to set up
my own business for office supply repairs as I specialize in computer repairs.
There are plenty of these businesses around, but they lack the proper education
and work with old methods. They don’t know the things we have recently
learned.[…] I feel prepared to work and no different from somebody who
already has such a business.
125


Gjon Nikolle Kazazi Professional High School has been financed by Swiss Caritas. The
school has labs for all six of the professions it offers. Ekzotina, a 17-year-old student of
business administration, commented:

We have all the conditions we need. Business administration has its own
laboratory, so does computer science. Students who study agriculture have their

123
IKS Focus Group with students from the gymnasium and professional schools in Prizren, 28 April, 2010.
124
Private tertiary education institutions, after the 2008 accreditation process conducted by the British Council, exist in the form of
‘colleges,’ institutes,’ and ‘higher professional schools’ depending on their capacities and profiles.
125
IKS Focus Group with students from gymnasium and professional schools in Gjakovë/Đakovica, 29 April, 2010.



www.iksweb.org 41
small greenhouse in the school yard and so on. We have two computer labs
where we can do research or practice what we have learned. [During] the last
two years of school, we have to do our practice once a week outside the school
in different companies.
126


Ekzotina wanted to study marketing and to set up her own business.

Similarly, one of the main differences between students from the University of
Prishtinë/Priština and the most prestigious private university, the American University
in Kosovo (AUK), has been the mandatory inclusion of internships in the curriculum.
At AUK students must complete 400 hours of internships within the four years of study
and 85 percent of students have been offered a job as a result of an internship. The
University of Prishtinë/Priština, on the contrary, has not required internships for most
study programs. Interested students have relied on their own contacts or the engagement
of supportive professors.
127


Internships or in-business training can offer students the opportunity to learn about their
profession in a realistic environment, as well as to understand labour market demands.
According USAID’s survey of employers throughout Kosovo, ‘All firms believed
generally that secondary schools, and even universities (with a couple of notable
exceptions among the private universities) were outmoded, and were preparing students
for obsolete jobs.’
128
Based on their experience interviewing potential employees, the
firms stated that very few candidates ‘possessed the adequate levels of technical skills
for the jobs presented; all needed further training.’ Another problem was reportedly the
lack of ‘soft skills’. Such skills were generally absent among existing workers and new
recruits. Several firms stated that they were offering internships, and all were interested
in being part of an internship program, but had not been approached by universities.
129


To further increase the relevance of education for employment, USAID suggested
including representatives from local businesses on school boards. This could enable
their input into curriculum design and focus. Linkages between regional businesses and
education have so far been entirely absent. For example, IKS’s research in the
municipality of Rahovec/Orahovac found that despite the strong regional focus on wine
production, no vocational schools offered specialisations in wine-production related
professions.
130
Tailoring vocational education to the needs and provisions of each
municipality and including respective businesses in this process, would allow students
to work in their home municipality, potentially decreasing rural-urban migration to
Prishtinë/Priština. Further, it could enable local businesses to train the next generation
of workers with the exact skills required.

In order to make education more relevant to the labour market and thus facilitate the
transition from education to employment, the curricula of the schools and universities
must be adapted to labour market demands. Career guidance plays an important part in
young people’s decisions about their future. Information about different options after
school, such as additional educational opportunities, internships, work experience or

126
Ibid.
127
USAID, A Modern Workforce Development System is Key to Kosovo’s Growth, May 2009, p. 32.
128
Ibid, p. 22 and p. 34.
129
Ibid, p. 23.
130
IKS, The Rahovec – Brussels Express, November 2009.



42 www.iksweb.org
professional courses, can be useful for youth in making informed career choices. Such
choices must be informed by an accurate analysis of labour market demands.

Anyhow, career guidance for students and graduates has been almost non-existent in
Kosovo. The few existing career guidance initiatives were donor run and financed. They
therefore could not offer a sustainable solution for every municipality. Kosovo still
lacked reliable data about the labour market and the economy. Both the Statistical
Office of Kosovo and the relevant ministries did not have adequate financial and human
capacities for collecting such data. The installation of career guidance counsellors in
higher secondary schools and universities, as in other countries, could provide youth
with the information needed to make informed decisions about their future careers.
Information and training could include career guidance, learning to write CVs,
practicing interviews and mandatory internships, especially at vocational schools and
universities. Web-portals where youth can upload their CVs and employers can
announce job vacancies can marry labour market demands with existing skills. This is a
widely used, successful practice in other countries.
People I Know

Informality in hiring was another concern among young people. Granit, a disillusioned
22-year-old, explained: ‘Unfortunately, in Kosovo a person’s qualifications are not
taken into consideration. Nobody asks you what you know, but rather who you are and
who you know, or in which party you are. I found the job I am doing right now through
personal connections as well.’
131
The 22-year-old Milot expressed similar sentiments:

It does not matter how qualified you are; it is very difficult to find a job in
Prishtinë/Priština without personal connections. I have applied for every
vacancy I saw but nobody ever got back to me or called for an interview. I can
freely say that none of my friends who are working got their job by applying to a
vacancy or through an interview; all of them got their jobs through their personal
connections, and I am no exception.
132


Valdet, a 24-year-old student of banking and finance at a private college, also agreed,
‘In general, businesses are family businesses and getting a job there requires [one] to be
related to those people.’
133
Numerous youth felt similarly. Of the survey respondents
ages 15 to 24, 76.5 percent agreed that contacts through family and acquaintances
enhance a person’s employability. Further, as Graph 2.5 illustrates, 38.3 percent of
respondents ages 15 to 24 identified ‘knowing the right people’ as a career strategy,
while 45.7 percent said ‘hard work’ and 40.9 percent said ‘have good education’ were
career strategies.









131
IKS interview with Granit Abdullahu, Prishtinë/Priština, 9 April, 2010.
132
IKS interview with Milot Rexhepi, student of political sciences, Prishtinë/Priština, 9 April, 2010.
133
IKS Focus Group with university and college students in Prizren, 28 April, 2010.



www.iksweb.org 43
Graph 2.5 Top three career strategies among surveyed youth ages 15-24


Youths’ job-searching strategies and personal anecdotes illustrated their lack of trust in
the effectiveness of Public Employment Services (PES). Edona recalled, ‘for years now,
whenever we went out, my mother always stopped by the employment office and said
she needed to register. Now I have developed the opinion that you just go to the
employment office to register formally.’
134
Indeed, of all the firms surveyed by USAID,
only one reported having hired through an official vacancy posting with the Public
Employment Services (PES).
135


The PES consists of seven regional centres, 23 municipal offices and six employment
sub-offices. They have been tasked with collecting vacancy notes and matching job-
seekers to these vacancies as well as informing and advising the unemployed. On the
other hand, their rate of success in actually securing jobs for the unemployed has been
low due to their weak capacities in terms of human and financial resources. In 2009, one
Kosovan employment officer had to take care of 1,862 unemployed, which is 12 times
more than the European average.
136
Further, most vacancies were not posted at the PES.
The ones that were, on average per every month, 490 unemployed have competed per
vacancy.
137
Thus, the role of the PES in finding jobs has been negligible.
138
This may
account for the low registration rates of unemployed people. In 2006, 84 percent of the
young unemployed had never registered with PES. Among those who had, 88 percent
reported receiving no assistance.
139


Insufficient data regarding labour market needs coupled with the inefficiency of the PES
has meant that the process of matching job-seekers to vacant positions has not happened
through the institutional channels of the PES, but rather through informal social
networks. This does not constitute a sustainable and equitable job search mechanism as
it advantages people with the ‘right’ connections. Increasing the effectiveness of the
PES may contribute to a decrease in this phenomenon. As an important link between job
seekers and the labour market, the PES needs to be strengthened. The PES requires a
sufficient budget for offering training courses, career guidance and labour market
information. They also need qualified and able staff who have a track record of self-
starters and active in seeking out employment.

134
Ibid.
135
USAID, A Modern Workforce Development System is Key to Kosovo’s Growth, May 2009, p. 23.
136
Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare, Labour and Employment 2009, p. 9.
137
Ibid, p. xii.
138
European Training Foundation, HRD Country Analysis Kosovo, Draft Working Paper, July 2009, p. 8.
139
Kuddo, A., Labour Market and Employment Policy Options for Youth in Kosovo, Washington, D.C.: World Bank, 2008.



44 www.iksweb.org
The government’s response?

The government’s mid-term priority for 2006 to 2008 was to reduce unemployment and
create jobs for the quickly growing, young labour force. In order to reach this goal,
macroeconomic and fiscal strategies were geared towards developing the private sector
and increasing international competitiveness. Though, the government has failed to
deliver on this priority as the rising unemployment rates in Table 3 demonstrate.
140

Overall, the unemployment rate has increased from 41.4 percent in 2005 to 45.4 percent
in 2009. Among youth ages 15 to 24, it has increased from 70.5 percent to 73 percent.

Table 3.

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Unemployed (15-64) 41.4% 44.9% 43.6% 47.5% 45.4%
Unemployed (15-24) 70.5% 75.5% 70% 73% 73%
Source: SOK, Labour Force Surveys, 2005-2008
Although youth unemployment has remained high, government priorities for the mid-
term period of 2008 to 2011 changed. Thus, the budget line of the Department of
Labour and Employment Affairs within the Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare
(MLSW) shifted as well. In 2009 the government allocated €159.9 million for MLSW,
which meant an increase of 1.4 percent compared to the 2008 budget. However, the
increase was not reflected in the budget of the Department of Labour and Employment,
responsible for youth policy design. On the contrary, the budget of this department in
2009 (€2.7 million) was reduced by 36 percent compared to 2008 (€4.2 million). The
same was true for the PES, which was the lead agency for implementing the Kosovo
Youth Employment Action Plan 2007-2010 (KYEAP), the flagship document for youth
labour policy in Kosovo.
KYEAP contained the government’s main strategy for tackling youth unemployment by
‘promoting employment,’ ‘increasing decent work opportunities’ and ‘preventing social
exclusion through targeted labour market measures.’ These targets were to be
administered and coordinated by MLSW and implemented through the PES. The Plan
foresaw the inclusion of non-governmental institutions and the creation of an Inter-
Ministerial Committee on Youth Employment to oversee the implementation of the
document and report to the individual ministries. Despite or perhaps because of its
ambitions aims, the implementation mechanism was never established. The
implementation of the action plan on youth employment was hampered by a lack of
inter-ministerial coordination. The administrative capacity of MLSW has remained
poor.
141

So far no new strategy has been created as a follow-up to KYEAP, which ended in
2010. The ambitious aims of the government, commendable as they are, have failed to
produce relevant outcomes in the fight against youth unemployment and no structural
developments are visible. The shift in focus and shrinking of the Labour and

140
For factors contributing to failures, see International Labour Office, Young People’s Transition to Decent Work: Evidence from
Kosovo, April 2007, p. 43.
141
European Commission, Kosovo under UNSCR 1244/99 2009 Progress Report, Brussels, October 2009.



www.iksweb.org 45
Employment Department’s budget raises questions regarding the government’s long-
term commitment to economic and labour market reform more broadly and to curbing
youth unemployment specifically.
International donors in Kosovo have also sought to reduce youth unemployment, mainly
by providing training courses and internships. Several donors have operated active
labour market programmes, the largest of which have been run by the United Nations
Development Programme (UNDP), German Technical Assistance (GTZ), European
Commission (EC) and Lux Development.

Active Labour Market Programmes (ALMP) aimed to support unemployed and
vulnerable groups such as youth, the disabled and elderly to find jobs by stimulating the
labour market. The programmes can be roughly divided into active and passive
programmes. Passive programmes included unemployment benefits and employment
subsidies whereas active programmes involved training, internships and public work
programmes.
142
Such programmes should be tailored to the specific needs and
conditions of the country. Yet, past experience has shown that neither employment
subsidies nor large public works schemes have succeeded in Kosovo due to the weak
capacities of the public administration and the lack of coordination between ministries,
employers’ associations and social partners.
143


In Kosovo the implementation and financing of ALMPs have been mainly in the hands
of donor agencies. However, some have worked with or through MLSW as the relevant
ministry, the PES or Municipal Employment Offices (MEO). Despite the fact that about
€7 million have been spent on ALMPs in Kosovo every year, with 19 programmes since
2000, the coverage of the programmes has remained limited.
144
Since most programmes
have been small-scale, the cost of training each individual beneficiary has been around
€700 per year. Poor donor coordination in programme approach and implementation, as
well as the absence of MLSW as a central organising force has precluded attention to
systematic programmes that could benefit more people and reduce costs. Although
approximately 10,000 youth benefited from ALMPs in 2007, this number only
represents roughly 6.3 percent of all unemployed youth ages 15 to 24.

Most ALMPs in Kosovo have tackled the Vocational Education Training sector (10
programmes). On the other hand, the long-term success of these programmes has been
undermined by the continuously low demand for labour. Thus few trainees have
obtained jobs.
145
The low demand for labour and poor educational attainment must be
addressed simultaneously in order to increase youths’ chances of securing employment.
While the later can be supported by concerted, sustainable and long-term government
and donor action, the former requires broader business reforms, including increasing
incentives for businesses in Kosovo.
146

To leave or not to leave!

Unemployment is not a novelty for Kosovans, even in Yugoslav times unemployment
rate was highest for Kosovo, hence the region was the least developed, leaving many

142
Mukkavilli, S., Evaluation of Active Labour Market Programme for Youth in Kosova, 2008, pp. 9-10.
143
European Training Foundation, HRD Country Analysis Kosovo, Draft Working Paper, July 2009, p. 9.
144
World Bank, Kosovo Youth in Jeopardy, Being Young, Unemployed and Poor in Kosovo, September 2008, pp. 37-38.
145
Ibid, p. 40.
146
World Bank, Doing Business 2010, 2010, p. 2.



46 www.iksweb.org
people to look towards migration as early as 1970s. Migration has long enabled
Kosovo’s small labour market to release pressure.
147
Europe’s ageing population may
require a young labour force in the very near future. The Government of Kosovo can
enter into bilateral agreements with interested EU countries to identify labour market
demands and establish programs for providing labour. Short-term migration can be
coordinated, controlled and regulated bilaterally. MLSW should take the lead in
establishing a program on behalf of the Government of Kosovo. MSLW has already run
a pilot project and as such was pioneering in this regard.

Resulting from the survey, unemployment was youth’s greatest concern; the rate
reaches 73 percent for age group 19-24 years old. Kosovan youth make their choices for
further education mainly according to their perception of the labour market needs,
lacking any professional advice or guidance regarding their careers choices. Thus, there
is an urgent need for career guidance to be set up in schools, followed by a base line
study of labour market needs in Kosovo.

Labour market demands need to be married with the existing skills. Web-portals where
youth can upload their CVs and employers can announce job vacancies are a matching
path, widely used as a successful practice in other countries. It can help reduce
informalities during the selection and recruitment processes. Such a website could be
accessible by youngsters throughout Kosovo. MLSW, in close cooperation with
businesses, could initiate such a project.

Further, to better prepare graduates for the labour market, compulsory internships must
be part of the curricula at the university level. AUK has been an exceptional example in
this regard. Opportunities with international organisations present in Kosovo should be
considered in terms of internship agreements. Other opportunities for initiating
internship agreements between universities in Kosovo and the region should be
explored by MEST.

The University of Prishtinë/Priština together with other private tertiary institutions in
Kosovo should arrange ‘Career Days.’ This initiative will serve as a platform that brings
together businesses and potential future labour force - students. Students will have an
opportunity to know companies and be properly informed about the labour market. In
this way they can better identify what courses and internships they need. Companies, at
the same time, will promote their work and will become familiar with the potential
labour force. Internship opportunities in those companies could also be promoted during
the ‘Career Days.’ This initiative should not be limited only to business in Kosovo but
should be a platform connected to other businesses in the region and Europe. The role
of the embassies in Kosovo should be further explored.

147
World Bank, Kosovo, Unlocking Growth Potential: Strategies, Policies, Actions, April 2010, p. 56.



www.iksweb.org 47

ENCOURAGING YOUTH PARTICIPATION

‘There are a lot of things that don’t go right for youth in
Kosovo. The most concerning are prevailing
unemployment and the exclusion of young people from
decision-making processes.’
- Ilir, 22-year-old student from Prishtinë/Priština

Without official channels for representing their interests, disillusionment with the status
quo, including poor education and widespread unemployment, could make Kosovo’s
youth brokers of instability rather than positive change. The improved integration of
young people in society and working life is essential for ensuring a return to consistent
and sustainable growth.
148


In 2006 the UNDP Human Development Report argued that Kosovo’s youth had little
impact on decision-making institutions for two reasons. First, institutions often do not
feel obliged to respect the rights of youth to participate, and second, young people do
not consider their participation a civic responsibility.
149


This chapter considers both youths’ eagerness to participate in decision-making
processes and the government’s involvement of youth. It first examines early
participation in decision-making within the family, which may impact youths’ broader
participation as active citizens. Second, it discusses youths’ eagerness to be involved in
decision-making processes and their participation in youth organisations. Third, the
chapter considers government’s response to youth and youths’ struggle to make their
voices heard. Finally, some challenges for the future are reviewed.
Developing a new generation of active citizens: Participation in the family

Within their homes, children learn whether their voices count. The extent to which
children are involved in decision-making within their families may affect their
participation in decision-making processes later in life. Therefore, IKS examined
youths’ participation within their families. Youth ages 10 to 14 were asked, ‘When a
decision that concerns you is taken at home, do your parents take into consideration
your opinion?’ The children interpreted for themselves which decisions ‘concerned’
them. As Graph 3.1 illustrates, 36.3 percent of respondents felt their opinion was always
considered. Most respondents (46.4 percent) said their opinion was sometimes
considered, and 15.8 percent felt their opinion was never considered. Thus, most youth
believed they had a say in decisions made within their families.








148
European Commission, Communication from the Commission to the Council, Annex to the “Addressing the concerns of young
people in Europe – implementing the European Youth Pact and promoting active citizenship,” SEC (2005) 693, Brussels, 30 May,
2005.
149
UNDP, Youth: A New Generation for Kosovo. Human Development Report, 2006, p. 75.



48 www.iksweb.org
Graph 3.1 Participation in decision-making at home among 10-14-year-olds

More girls (41.8 percent) than boys (30.8 percent) felt that their opinion was always
taken into consideration. Nonetheless, discussions during IKS’s focus groups suggested
that the situation differed for girls in Mamuşa/Mamushë/Mamuša where a Kosovan
Turkish majority resides and in the rural area of Dragash/Dragaš.

In Mamuşa/Mamushë/Mamuša, attitudes towards girls’ participation in decision-making
and leisure time activities remained conservative.
150
Decision-making norms within the
family influenced how girls from the local high school spent their free time. Seda, an
18-year-old science student explained, ‘For boys it is not a problem. They can do what
they want and go where they want. We finish school, and we go straight to home.’ The
boys from her school are members of the local youth club, Aplerenler Genclik Dernegi
(Alperenler Youth Club), which organises activities such as language and computer
courses. Still, Ayşe remarked, ‘Girls do not go there. [...] We stay home, do the
housework, make lace or go to Koran courses.’ The girls expressed an interest in
attending courses offered by the youth club, but explained that they could not go on
their own. Thus, girls’ attendance of youth activities appeared to be a collective action
problem: if more young women could organise to go together, they could have the
opportunity to participate in social and learning activities outside the home.

A similar situation existed in Dragash/Dragaš municipality.
151
While boys were allowed
the freedom to do as they pleased, girls had to go straight home after school. In
Dragash/Dragaš, this was due in part to conservative attitudes towards girls’ behaviour,
but was also related to security concerns. Limited public transportation made it difficult
for students to travel from school back to their villages, and parents did not want their
daughters walking home unaccompanied or after dark.
152


Thus, gender norms in certain areas of Kosovo seemed to influence some youths’
opportunities to participate in decision-making processes at home. This was particularly
true for girls in rural areas and impacted upon their public participation. Better,
affordable public transportation to and from schools and youth activities specifically

150
IKS focus group with high school students from Ataturk High School in Mamuşa/Mamushë/Mamuša, 6 May, 2010.
151
IKS focus group with high school students from Ruzhdi Berisha High School, Dragash/Dragaš municipality, 5 May, 2010.
152
For more see education chapter.



www.iksweb.org 49
targeting young women could lessen concerns among parents and enable girls’ greater
participation in after-school activities.
Youths’ eagerness to participate in decision-making processes

It goes without saying that youth organizations can play an important role in
encouraging young women’s and men’s participation in public life.
153
School councils,
youth groups and extracurricular activities can enable youth from an early age to
develop skills in collective decision-making, democracy, leadership and advocacy. In
spite of this, IKS’s Kosovo-wide survey provided evidence to suggest that few Kosovan
youth participate in such activities. Only 16 percent of respondents ages 10 to 14 and 14
percent of 15- to 24-year-olds participated in an organisation or club. In both age
groups, fewer female than male respondents participated.

Among those who participated in organisations, sports, dance and music seemed to be
the most attractive activities for youth ages 10 to 14. As Graph 3.1 illustrates, 6.5
percent participated in a sports club, 4.1 percent in a dance club and 3.2 percent in a
music club. About 2 percent were members of local youth clubs, 1.6 percent served on a
school council, 1.1 percent were involved in artistic organisations and 0.2 percent in
religious groups.


Graph 3.2 Types of organisations in which youth ages 10-14 participated


Similar trends existed among 15- to 24-year-olds. In the midst of the 14 percent who
participated in organized groups, sports clubs were also the most frequently attended
(7.6 percent). Fewer youth were members of youth clubs (2 percent), artistic clubs (1.6
percent), school councils (1.2 percent), NGOs (1.1 percent), political parties (0.2
percent) and religious groups (0.2 percent).

Overall, if so few youth participate in extracurricular activities, what do Kosovan youth
do with their free time? Oktay, an 18-year-old high school graduate, confirmed the

153
Annica Holmberg, Secretary General of Forum SYD, Speech at the Forum Syd Second Regional Conference on Youth Policies
and Youth Civic Participation, 13-14 April, 2010.



50 www.iksweb.org
impression that any visitor to Kosovo might have: ‘Like every passive young person, I
spend my free time sitting in coffee houses. [T]here is no alternative.’
154
When they
were outside their homes, cafes seemed to be the locale of choice for Kosovan youth to
gather with friends. Nearly 48 percent of youth ages 15 to 24 said that meeting friends
was their most common leisure-time activity.

Youth also spent a great deal of time on computers, either at home or at internet cafes.
IKS found that 23.2 percent of 10- to 14-year-olds enjoyed surfing the internet during
leisure time, and 60 percent of youth ages 15 to 24 spent two to three hours daily in
front of a computer. More than 48 percent used computers for social networking,
primarily for Facebook and MSN instant messenger.

Although few Kosovan youth seemed to be involved in extracurricular activities,
Engelbert, a young activist heading a successful youth organisation in Peja, believed
that youth wanted to participate. Yet, youth hesitated because they did not think that
they had a right to participate, he said. He offered an example of a recent experience his
organisation had:
The initiative was to test young people for creative ideas […] for setting up
businesses that might help them in the future. Young people from all over the
city were applying to take the test, except for the young people of the
neighbourhood where the test was taking place. They […] had no courage to
come and ask what all this was about. I felt bad as I know many of the people in
the neighbourhood, and [I] asked them why they were not applying. The answer
I got was, ‘Nobody told me. Nobody asked me to go.’
155

The organisation had a very good information campaign. They placed posters around
the city and advertised the event on local radio. Engelbert elaborated:
Young people of the neighbourhood had heard of it, but they simply did not
think that they could be part of it, that the massage counted for them as well.
Youth lack education regarding participation. They are not aware of the value
and importance of their inclusion in processes that affect their lives. Youth
hesitate to be part of processes [and] developments not because they don’t want
to, but because they don’t think that their opinion counts.
Youth have not always hesitated to participate in decision-making. On the contrary,
during the 1980s and 1990s, youth were at the forefront of civil resistance in Kosovo,
demanding better conditions at the University of Prishtinë/Priština, access to education
for all and an end to human rights abuses.
156
Then again, qualitative evidence suggests
that youth participation has decreased with time.

After the conflict, aid money flooded into Kosovo funding thousands of NGOs. As of
2005 approximately 20 percent of all registered NGOs were youth organisations.
157

Alban, a former youth leader, described the spirit of activism and voluntarism that
existed immediately after the war:

154
IKS interview with Oktay Pomak, 18 year old, high school student, Prizren, 25 April, 2010.
155
Engelbert Zefaj, IKS roundtable discussion with youth organisations, 20 May, 2010, Prishtinë/Priština.
156
Clark, H., Civil Resistance in Kosovo, London: Pluto Press, 2000.
157
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Youth: A New Generation for Kosovo, Human Development Report, 2006, p.
77.



www.iksweb.org 51
My first engagement started as an initiative of eight students in Malisheva. [W]e
opened the youth centre, which was previously destroyed during the war. Swiss
KFOR helped us build a small wooden house. […] The centre was a gathering
point for youth activists. We organized recreational activities mainly. There
were about 300 to 500 young people benefiting, yet it was logistically
impossible to register all of them. We all worked voluntarily. It’s important to
mention the enthusiasm of work back in those days.
158

Immediately after the war both youth activism and donor aid were available in
abundance. The Kosovo Youth Network (KYN) was started as an umbrella organisation
for the various local youth organisations. KYN held its first congress in 2001. It
gathered momentum until 2004 when it was formerly registered. At the time, the
network had around 130 NGO members. The United Nations Development Programme
(UNDP) supported the network, which provided a forum for discussions among
members, disseminated information and implemented projects at the local and national
levels.

Nevertheless, after 2005 KYN began to crumble. Albion, a former KYN director,
explained, ‘In 2005/2006 the donors retreated and stopped their funding. This weakened
civil society in general and youth organisations as well.’
159
Youth organisations
struggled to maintain, let alone increase their membership. As international donors
lacked adequate exit strategies, cutbacks in funding forced many youth organisations to
close, including KYN members. For those that remained open, funding became tight
and competition for resources intense. KYN’s decline coincided with a decrease in
youth activism throughout Kosovo, mainly due to frustration, according to Alban:

[KYN] promoted mainly voluntarism and solidarity. The enthusiasm faded
though after 2004 […]. That’s where the problems started. Youth issues were
not included in the agenda of decision-makers. More important than this reason
[was] the international support. Priorities for the youth sector were not made
according to the needs and demands of youth. Priorities were not youth-oriented
but donor-oriented. Elements such as multi-ethnicity, peace and tolerance were
prioritized, not youth development.
160


Political decision-makers’ and donors’ failures to address needs identified by youth
have contributed to youth discouragement and disillusionment. The donor-driven
programmatic focus, heavy reliance on young activists’ undying volunteerism and
government sluggishness in attending to youths’ priorities left the active youth
frustrated and disillusioned. The ups and downs of the youth sector have left Kosovan
youth disaffected by the decision making institutions closely related to their life. Even
though they do not feel that their voice counts, young Kosovans have not lost the
optimism and enthusiasm about Kosovo’s future and their willingness to build their
country. Youth eagerness to participate, though, is closely dependent on Kosovan
institutions establishing channels to engage youth to advocate for their interests.

158
IKS interview with Alban Krasniqi, former Director of the Kosovo Youth Network (KYN), 04 March 2010, Prishtinë/Priština.
159
IKS interview with Albion Zeka, former Director of KYN, 25 February, 2010. Prishtinë/Priština.
160
IKS interview with Alban Krasniqi, former Director of KYN, 04 March, 2010. Prishtinë/Priština.



52 www.iksweb.org

Too little, too late!?

Since the establishment of the Ministry of Culture, Youth and Sports (MCYS) in 2002,
youth issues have fallen under the authority of the Department for Youth within MCYS.
The Department is small with only four administrative and four managerial staff.
161

According to the Law on Empowerment and Participation of youth, each municipality
should establish a Youth Official and a Directorate of Culture, Youth and Sports. In
spite of this, it has not been achieved in all municipalities.
162
‘The problems [regarding
youth sector] are big and this is only the start of a sustainable institutional approach to
the challenges,’ said Fatmir Hoxha, former director of the Youth Department.

In 2006, MCYS initiated a three-year Kosovo Youth Development Project with support
from the World Bank. One of the project’s components was to improve the performance
and sustainability of existing youth centres.
163
In 2010, there were 13 active youth
centres in Kosovo, seven of which lacked the necessary conditions for functioning.
164

Since the MCYS project began, fewer than five thousand youth have benefited from the
youth centres, a low figure considering that about half of Kosovo’s population is under
25.
165
Youth centres faced structural problems that made it difficult and sometimes
impossible for them to reach out to young people. Without their own budget, they relied
on funds from MCYS and international organisations. They depended on municipal
support for free use of facilities and utilities. Very few of the municipalities offered
them office space and covered certain expenses like electricity and water.

For example, in Prishtinë/Priština the municipality paid the youth centre’s rent, so it
could operate in a private building. Even so, the youth centre fell upon troubled times in
2006 due to cutbacks in funding from international donors. Linda, Director of the
centre, recalled:
In 2006 and 2007 there was almost nobody frequenting the youth centre.
Prishtinë/Priština youth centre has had a lot of difficulties with space. If one
provides the adequate space, young people do come and spend time in the
centre. [But] if young people don’t feel comfortable in the centre, they prefer to
go and sit in cafes.
166

This and other youth centres have begun charging five to seven euros per month for
foreign language courses in order to cover office expenses. Insufficient financial

161
IKS interview with Fatmir Hoxha, former director of the Youth Department, Ministry of Culture, Youth and Sports (MCYS), 25
February, 2010.
162
GTZ study 2010, forthcoming.
163
Without a clear statute, these centres were initially registered as NGOs. The new Law on Empowerment and Participation of
Youth (discussed later in this chapter) defines youth centres as spaces ‘functionalized for development of youth activities licensed
by the municipal Directorate responsible for youth.’ The new law foresees that they will be licensed by municipal directorates of
culture, youth and sports (Article 12). Local Youth Action Councils are to assist the centres in securing financial resources and
space.
164
IKS interview with Fatmir Hoxha, former director of Department of Youth, MCYS, 25 February, 2010.
165
IKS interview with Ilir Hoxha, Kosovo Youth Development Project Coordinator, funded by World Bank, implemented by
MCYS, 04 March, 2010, Prishtinë/Priština.
166
Ibid.



www.iksweb.org 53
resources have impacted the quality of staff recruited by the centres,
167
as well as the
services they are able to offer to youth.

Beyond the World Bank funds for youth centres, the overall budget allocated to the
Youth Department within MCYS has been miniscule. In 2006 the Government of
Kosovo allocated €6.4 million to the MCYS out of which only 4.5 percent, a total of
€289,454 went to the Department of Youth. In 2008, the Ministry’s budget increased to
€9.4 million. Of this budget the Department of Youth received €342,040, which, at 3.6
percent, represented a proportional decrease compared to the previous year.
168
The
government’s minimal investment has meant that most youth organisations and centres
have had to rely on donor funding, an uncertain and unsustainable source of income.
Thus, at least historically, youth do not seem to have been a priority for the government.

Recent developments suggest that the tide may be changing. About the time that youth
activism had begun to disintegrate and youth centres were scrambling for funds, the
government initiated efforts towards institutionalising youth policy and development. In
2005, the Youth Policy Secretariat was established within the government. Enver Gashi,
a local consultant, described this as a change in attitude by the government:

After the war, the great number of young people was viewed as a disadvantage
for the development of the country. Only recently has there been a development
of youth strategies and action plans in order to channel youth actions in a more
positive direction.
169


The main indicator of this change was the government’s initiative to begin drafting in
2005 the Law on Youth Empowerment and Participation. The Law was drafted with
extensive participation of many youth NGOs and civil society stakeholders.
170
It has
four main objectives: defining responsibilities for strengthening Kosovo’s youth sector
and increasing youth participation; establishing youth consultation mechanisms and
institutions; defining voluntary work; and licensing youth centres.
171


The Law on Empowerment and Participation of Youth, adopted in September 2009,
represented the strongest commitment by the government to youth development and
inclusion to date. It has been complemented by the Kosovo Youth Strategy and the
Kosovo Youth Action Plan, passed in November 2009. Through the adoption of
administrative directives in the near future, the Law foresees the establishment of
Central and Local Youth Action Councils. The Central Youth Action Council (CYAC)
will be an advisory structure to national government institutions and will represent the
concerns and needs of youth representatives.
172
The Local Youth Action Councils
(LYAC) will operate at the municipal level, sending representatives to the CYAC to
represent municipal priorities. The LYAC will represent NGOs active at the municipal
level, youth centres and students’ councils from local schools.

167
Linda Loshi, Director of Prishtinë/PrištinaYouth Centre. IKS roundtable discussion with youth organisations, 20 May, 2010,
Prishtinë/Priština
168
In 2007 the budget for the Ministry of Culture, Youth and Sport was €7,267,852, and the budget allocated to the Department of
Youth was €331,166 (4.5 percent).
169
Enver Gashi, speech at the Forum Syd Second Regional Conference on Youth Policies and Youth Civic Participation, 13-14
April, 2010, Prishtinë/Priština.
170
IKS interviews with Albion Zeka, former Director of KYN, 25 February 2010, Prishtinë/Priština and Fatmir Hoxha, former
director of the Department of Youth, MCYS, 25 February 2010, Prishtinë/Priština. The Department of Youth held more than 80
meetings with young people, including representatives of youth organisations, NGOs and youth centres.
171
Law on Empowerment and Participation of Youth, No. 03/L-145; Republic of Kosovo, 2009, Article 2.
172
Law on Empowerment and Participation of Youth, No. 03/L-145; Republic of Kosovo, 2009 Articles 8 and 10.



54 www.iksweb.org

In order to promote youth participation from an early age, the draft Law on Pre-
University Education has also foreseen the establishment of Pupils’ Councils within
lower and upper secondary schools. Councils will be comprised of a class president
from each class, elected annually.
173
The Council will represent students’ needs and
concerns to the school governing board. In order to increase the link between school and
broader youth participation, representatives of these Pupils’ Councils will be
represented at the municipal LYAC.
174


The Law on Empowerment and Participation of Youth has envisioned that LYAC and
CYAC will create a clear chain of communication from these student councils, youth
centres and youth organisations at the municipal level through the CYAC to the national
government. The exact responsibilities and working mechanisms of the CYAC and
LYAC will be determined by administrative directives. Working groups responsible for
drafting the administrative directives commenced work in January 2010, but the results
of their labours have yet to be passed.
175


Many municipalities have proceeded in a proactive manner, establishing LYACs. In
2010, 20 LYACs had been created and seven other municipalities were in the process of
establishing LYACs. Without administrative directives to govern their work and supply
funding, the existing LYACs were inactive.
176
In order to establish goals for municipal
work, LYACs will eventually draft Local Youth Action Plans, which will have to be
approved by municipal assemblies together with an assigned budget to make the
LYACs functional.

Time will tell whether this ambitious and elaborate plan to filter youth priorities into
decision-making processes at the municipal and national levels will function as
foreseen. However, the Government of Kosovo Program (2008-2011) does not bode
well for the government’s future attention to youth; the 55-page document setting
government priorities for its mandate, mentions ‘youth’ only eight times.
177
Tellingly,
only four sentences dealt with youth.
Youths’ struggle to make their voices heard

The exclusion of youth from decision-making processes was a reoccurring theme
among youth during interviews and focus groups. ‘We have no access to decision-
making processes,’ said Hereza, a 19-year-old student from Prishtinë/Priština. ‘Our
interests and demands are hardly taken into consideration by decision-making
institutions. I think the problem rests with the leaders of our country who do not involve
youth.’
178
Naim, a young activist, agreed; he did not feel represented by the
municipality of Prishtinë/Priština or the Vetëvendosja (Self-determination) movement in
which he participated: ‘Nobody supports us,’ he said.
179



173
Draft Law on Pre-University Education; Republic of Kosovo, Article 18.
174
Albion Zeka, IKS Workshop with Key Stakeholders of Youth Participation, 13 July, 2010.
175
IKS interview with Fatmir Hoxha, former Director of the Youth Department, MCYS, 25 February, 2010.
176
Meeting between GTZ and the municipality of Prishtinë/Priština, Department for Culture, Youth and Sports and youth NGOs, 19
July, 2010.
177
Government of Kosovo, Program of the Government of Republic of Kosovo 2008-2011, Prishtinë/Priština, April 2008.
178
IKS interview with Hereza Sefaj, Law student at the University of Prishtinë/Priština, 06 April, 2010.
179
IKS focus group with young people in Prishtinë/Priština, 18 May, 2010.



www.iksweb.org 55
Other youth also felt that politicians did not take their opinions and concerns seriously.
Pal, a high school student from Prizren explained:

If you and I and another 100 young people agree that this road [by the school]
should be closed to car traffic, and we go to the mayor to hand in our request,
the answer will be, ‘This is not your job. Go and finish school and after
graduating come back and complain.’
180


Similarly, Albulena provided a concrete example: two years ago youth organized a
petition with the aim of opening a cinema in Prizren. The petition was signed and
handed over to the municipal authorities, but no action was taken. The lack of political
action seemed ironic considering the amount of money dedicated to establishing
Prizren’s reputation as a ‘Film City’ through the annual ‘Dokufest,’ an international
film festival held there.
181


Serb youth were similarly disenchanted. Ivan, an active youth leader in
Gračanica/Graçanicë, commented: ‘It is very hard to be part of the decision-making
process. Even though we are very young, we are trying to be active and to raise our
voice.’
182


Overall, as Graph 3.3 illustrates, only 5.5 percent of the survey respondents aged 15 to
24 believed that the interests and needs of young people were ‘very much’ considered
by decision-making institutions. Almost 32 percent felt that their concerns were
considered ‘to some extent.’ Though, 28.3 percent felt their concerns were ‘little’
considered, and 19.7 percent said their needs were not considered ‘at all.’ In comparison
to youth of other non-Albanian ethnicities, Serbs had far lower odds of feeling that
decision-makers considered their views.
183


A rather high percentage of respondents, 14.8 percent, did not know if institutions
considered their interests. The odds of answering ‘don’t know’ were 364 percent higher
for a Serb than an Albanian and 183 percent higher than for a youth of other
ethnicities.
184
Further research could examine more specifically such uncertainties
among youth, particularly Serb citizens.


Graph 3.3 Extent to which youth ages 15-24 believed their interests were considered by
decision-making institutions


180
IKS Focus Group with Students from Gymnasium and Professional Schools in Prizren, 28 April, 2010.
181
http://www.dokufest.com/2010/
182
IKS Focus Group with youth of Kosovo Serb community in Gračanica/Graçanicë, 12 May, 2010.
183
There was a statistically significant relationship at the five percent level between being Serb and all responses except ‘not at all’
(p ≤ 0.008). The relationship between being Albanian and responses to this question was not particularly clear.
184
For Serb respondents, there was a statistically significant relationship at the five percent level between ethnicity and not knowing
whether decision-makers considered youths’ interests (p = 0.001).



56 www.iksweb.org

An important element of citizens’ participation in decision-making is voting, which is
crucial for representation in political processes. During interviews and focus groups,
young people evidenced their belief in the importance of voting. As Erzen, an 18-year-
old high school student from Dragash/Dragaš, commented ‘The right to vote is one of
the most valuable rights that an individual earns in life. We can have a voice only when
we vote. [If] we don’t vote, we lose the right to ask for accountability from the
authorities.’
185
Albulena from Prizren agreed, ‘I believe that the vote of a citizen is very
valuable. Regardless of having choices [of candidates] or not, voting is an obligation
that we as citizens have to fulfil.’
186
Perhaps not all young people would describe the
significance of voting so impressively.

As Graph 3.4 illustrates, 46.5 percent of the respondents to the Kosovo-wide survey felt
voting was ‘very effective’ or ‘rather effective’ for improving their country. However,
18.8 percent said it was ‘neither effective nor ineffective’, 10.9 percent felt it was
‘rather ineffective,’ and 8.8 percent said it was ‘very ineffective.’ Albanians were much
more likely than youth of all other ethnicities to believe that voting in elections was
effective.
187
Compared to youth of other ethnicities, Serbs tended to be more apathetic;
only 1.5 percent of the Serb respondents thought that voting was effective, whereas 58.7
percent of Albanians and 36.2 percent of youth of other ethnicities thought it was
effective. Substantially, 15.1 percent of the respondents said they did not know whether
voting was effective or not. In comparison to other ethnic groups, a slightly higher
percentage of Serbs responded ‘don’t know.’

Discussions with Kosovo Serbs suggest that many still feel that their future in Kosovo
remains somewhat unclear politically. Since the war, both the Albanian majority
Government of Kosovo and the Government of Serbia have vied for their attentions in
the struggle over the governance of Serb-majority municipalities and villages of
Kosovo. This may contribute to apathy or lack of knowledge regarding the extent to
which any government really seeks to address their concerns (see p. 59), and thus their
belief in the usefulness of voting as well.


Graph 3.4 Youths’ belief in the effectiveness of voting for improving
their country, 15-24-year-olds



185
IKS Focus Group with high school students in Dragash/Dragaš , 5 May, 2010.
186
IKS Focus Group with students from the gymnasium and professional schools in Prizren, 28 April, 2010.
187
There is a statistically significant relationship between ethnicity and youths’ belief in the effectiveness of voting (for Albanians
believing that voting is effective, p < 0.001).



www.iksweb.org 57
In practice, the percentage of youth eligible to vote who participated in the 2004 general
elections was 49 percent,
188
roughly similar to the percent of respondents who felt their
vote was effective. Overall, voter turnout was low, at 53 percent. Youths’ comparatively
lower rate may be indicative of their doubts that voting is effective or disappointment
with politicians, though further research is needed to explore such relationships. If
youth do not trust that politicians will address their concerns, they may not have an
incentive to participate in elections. Indeed, as 22-year-old Milot said, ‘I don’t trust any
of these institutions. All they do is make promises during the elections. It has become
like a tradition, they promise, steal our votes and then forget us.’
189


The sporadic attention given to youth during election campaigns contributed to
frustration among youth.
190
Comprising a large percentage of the voting population,
election years were among the rare occasions that politicians reached out to youth, at
least discursively. Every election, candidates promised to pay greater attention to issues
facing youth, but their promises were regularly broken. Albulena, 19-year-old high
school student, fumed: ‘When it is time to collect votes, all the politicians come and ask
about our concerns [and] listen to us. Once the elections are over, they forget about us!’
Turning promises to practices

Empowering youths’ greater participation in decision-making processes remains a long-
term development challenge facing Kosovan society. If Kosovan youth are to be
entrusted with the future governance of the country, their leadership and participation
must be encouraged now. In their efforts to forge a stable democracy, the government
and key stakeholders, such as: donors, namely USAID, WB and SIDA, youth centres
and NGOs must be innovative. Evidence suggests that cafes are a good location for
targeting youth with information campaigns about participation opportunities or
reaching out to youth. Considering youths’ broad usage of modern communication
technologies, the internet could also be used more extensively to involve young people.

At the same time, the research findings suggest that securing young people’s trust will
be among the most crucial challenges to increasing their participation. Despite the
rhetoric, decision-makers’ assertions that youth are a priority have yet to be translated
into action. Kosovan youth still feel that they have very limited influence on decision-
making processes. In order to build trust with youth, decision-makers must follow
through with their promises and address youths’ identified needs. Such actions will
likely encourage greater youth involvement in decision-making processes in the future.

With the Law on Empowerment and Participation of Youth, the Government of Kosovo
has made a commendable attempt to institutionalize efforts towards empowering youth.
However, the commitments made on paper must now be put to practice. The insufficient
budget allocated to the Department of Youth to date has been one indicator that
government discourse remains separate from the reality. The Government needs to puts
its promises to practice by allocating a sufficient budget to the Department of Youth
within MCYS. Additionally, considering the lack of attention regarding youth into
current Government Program, the next Government Program could further follow-

188
Central Elections Commission, Election Results 2004.
189
IKS interview with Milot Rexhepi, student of political sciences, Prishtinë/Priština, 09 April, 2010.
190
IKS interviews and focus groups with young people in Prizren, Gjakovë/Đakovica, Dragash/Dragaš, Prishtinë/Priština, April-
May 2010.



58 www.iksweb.org
through on its commitments by giving more prominent attention to the needs and
priorities of youth.

Youth participation is about the meaningful influence of young people in institutions
and decision-making processes in particular processes related to their future, not about
their passive presence as attendants in a number of meetings. Simply, it is about the
quality of participation, as well as about quantity. In order to attain both qualitative and
quantitative participation of youth into relevant decision-making processes parallel
efforts should be made by both: institutions being pro-active in efforts to stimulate
youth participation; and youth channelling their energy towards this participation. This
also includes efforts by young people to plan programs of their own choosing and by
institutions to involve youth in their decision-making processes. Only the intertwining
of these efforts will enable youth to be the actors of change and take the lead in further
developing their country.



www.iksweb.org 59

KOSOVAN YOUTH FACE THEIR FUTURE

‘I don’t feel myself as a “Young European,”
maybe because I never had the chance to go to Europe.’
22-year-old student

This chapter considers Kosovan youths’ overall satisfaction with their lives and how
they see their future. The chapter first explores the extent to which youth are satisfied
with their lives and their optimism about the future. It then discusses youths’
perceptions of Kosovo and its future as a newborn country. Considering their previously
detailed dreary prospects in education and employment, as well as the history of
emigration from Kosovo, it then investigates youths’ propensity to migrate. Finally, the
chapter examines Kosovan youths’ opinions towards EU integration.
My future looks bright?

The youngest respondents, ages 10 to 14 years old, were asked if they were happy with
their lives. About 90 percent replied that they were happy. Most were happy ‘most of
the time’ (78.2 percent), 18.2 percent were happy ‘sometimes’, 2.3 percent did not
know, and 1.4 percent said they were never happy.

While ‘happiness’ and satisfaction with life are not exactly the same thing, the average
15- to 24-year-old seemed to view life more critically than the 10- to 14-year-old. As
Graph 4.1 illustrates, a majority were ‘satisfied’ (54.6 percent) or ‘very satisfied’ (20
percent) with their life. Still, 19 percent were ‘neither satisfied nor unsatisfied’, 3.9
percent were ‘unsatisfied’ and 2.2 percent were ‘very unsatisfied’. Only 0.4 percent said
they did not know.


Graph 4.1 Satisfaction with life youth ages 15-24


Follow-up questions asked youth about their satisfaction with their financial situation
and work. About half of the respondents said they were satisfied with each. However,
17 percent were dissatisfied with their financial situation and about 15 percent were
dissatisfied with their work.



60 www.iksweb.org

Graph 4.2 offers insight into how positively respondents ages 15 to 24 saw their future.
While the majority agreed that their future looked bright (52.8 percent), almost 26.9
percent were undecided, and five percent stated they did not know. More than 15
percent did not have a positive outlook on their future.


Graph 4.2 My future looks bright among youth ages 15-24



There is a statistically significant relationship between youths’ optimism about the
future and their ethnicity. While Albanian youth
191
as well as youth from other minority
ethnic groups
192
tended to agree that their future looked bright, young Serbs
193
tended to
disagree. Participants in the focus group in Gračanica/Graçanicë similarly expressed
uncertainty regarding their future. Ivan from Gračanica/Graçanicë explained: ‘We
learned that it is not so easy to achieve your own goals, and unfortunately in these ten
years we learned that somebody else is controlling our destinies. That is why it is also
very hard to plan your future.’
194
On average, Serb respondents mirrored Ivan’s
statement,
195
disagreeing that they had the freedom to control their future, 59.4 percent
disagreed with the statement that people in Kosovo can choose their own lives.

Youths’ optimism also varied from region to region. While young people in
Prishtinë/Priština tended to agree that their future looked bright,
196
young people in
Prizren
197
and Gjakovë/Đakovica
198
tended to neither agree nor disagree. The least
positive outlook was in Gjilan/Gnjilane
199
where young people, on average, disagreed
that their future would be bright.

A factor influencing optimism in Prishtinë/Priština may have been its comparatively
better employment opportunities. Perparim, a 24-year-old from Prizren, explained, ‘I
love to live in Prizren, but most probably I will have to go to Prishtinë/Priština.

191
p < 0.001
192
p = 0.048
193
p < 0.001
194
IKS Focus Group with Kosovo Serb youth in Gračanica/Graçanicë, 12 May, 2010.
195
p < 0.001
196
p < 0.001
197
p < 0.001
198
p = 0.012
199
p < 0.001



www.iksweb.org 61
Prishtinë/Priština offers more prospects. In Prizren you need to have networks. I have
three friends in Prishtinë/Priština that are doing quite well. I will go as well, as the job
market is in Prishtinë/Priština.’
200

Kosovo through my eyes

As the newest country in the world, Kosovo faces many challenges. Youths’ satisfaction
with their country can serve as an additional indicator of their overall life satisfaction
while providing an initial indication of youths’ propensity to migrate. When asked about
their satisfaction with the general situation in Kosovo, 36.1 percent of youth ages 15 to
24 said they were satisfied, 32.4 percent were dissatisfied, 29.9 percent were neither
satisfied nor dissatisfied, and 1.6 said they did not know.

Although some Kosovan youth were critical of the general situation in Kosovo, most
had faith that life would improve. As Graph 4.3 illustrates, approximately 67.5 percent
of 10- to 14-year-olds believed that Kosovo would be a better place to live in the future.
About eight percent did not expect any change, whereas less than six percent said
Kosovo would be a worse place to live. Nearly 19 percent said they did not know what
the future would hold.

Graph 4.3 Optimism regarding Kosovo’s future
















When asked why they thought Kosovo would be a better place to live in the future, 46
percent of 10- to 14-year-olds mentioned economic development, 21.3 percent better
standards of living, 15.3 percent that they liked their country, 7.7 percent less social
problems and four percent less pollution. As illustrated in Graph 4.4, about six percent
did not know.







200
IKS interview with Përparim Abrashi, 24 year old, Prizren, 25 April, 2010.



62 www.iksweb.org
Graph 4.4 Perceived reasons why Kosovo would be a better place to live in the future, among
youth ages 10-14

As Graph 4.3 has shown, most respondents ages 15 to 24 were also optimistic about
Kosovo’s future; 65.7 percent said Kosovo would be a better place to live.
Approximately 12 percent were sceptical that it would change, 12 percent stated that
they did not know and 10 percent believed Kosovo would be a worse place to live.
When asked why Kosovo would be a better place, approximately half of the optimistic
respondents similarly hoped for a better economic situation and 41.6 percent mentioned
better standards of living. The percentage of youth ages 15 to 24 believing that Kosovo
would be a worse place to live in, was relatively low in comparison to those who were
optimistic about the future of Kosovo. Less than 4 percent mentioned social problems
and 3.4 percent mentioned economic situation as the main reasons for Kosovo being a
worse place to live in the future.

A statistically significant relationship existed between ethnicity and optimism about
Kosovo’s future.
201
While Albanians and youth of other ethnicities tended to believe
that Kosovo would be a better place to live, on average Serb youth were more likely to
think Kosovo would remain unchanged or be a worse place to live. On the other hand, a
third of the Serb respondents said they did not know, which means that drawing
decisive conclusions in this regard is difficult. Further research could focus more
specifically on the priorities of young Serbs and investigate the tendency for a
comparatively high percentage of them to respond with ‘don’t know’ answers.
Migration: Youths’ safety valve

Migration has been a livelihood strategy for Kosovans for decades. Throughout the 20
th

century, Kosovan men lived abroad as migrant workers in construction, agriculture or
service industries. In the socialist era many emigrated to Zagreb or Belgrade. In the late
1960s, they emigrated to Europe as guest workers. In the 1990s migration accelerated
due to the conflict and culminated in 1999 when hundreds of Kosovan Albanians were

201
p < 0.001



www.iksweb.org 63
expelled from Kosovo. In 2010, Kosovo had one of the highest emigration rates among
the transition economies, with migrants moving primarily to Western Europe.
202


The prospects for continued emigration among Kosovan youth remain high.
Considering that half of Kosovo’s population is estimated to be under age 25, this could
potentially involve a sizeable percentage of the population. As Graph 4.5 illustrates,
13.7 percent of the 10- to 14-year-old respondents, 21.7 percent of 15- to 19-year-olds
and 23.6 percent of 20- to 24-year-olds hoped to live abroad in the future. Thus, youth
appeared more likely to consider migrating as they grew older. The difference may be
attributed to youth becoming more aware with age of the limitations to receiving a good
education and finding employment in Kosovo.


Graph 4.5 Percent of respondents who wanted to live abroad in the future


Young people of other minority communities were more interested in living abroad than
Kosovo Albanians and Kosovo Serbs; 40.2 percent wanted to live abroad compared to
20.3 percent of Kosovo Albanians and 10.5 percent of Kosovo Serbs. Interestingly, 18
percent of Kosovo Serbs said they did not know where they would like to live,
compared to 3.4 percent and 3.9 percent of Kosovo Albanians and respondents of other
ethnicities, respectively.

According to the World Bank, poverty and high unemployment rates have made
migration an attractive option for many people, especially youth.
203
Indeed these were
issues identified by youth during interviews and focus groups. ‘If I was given the
opportunity to study and work abroad, I would never come back to Kosovo,’ said
Albulena, a 19-year-old student who dreamed of becoming a successful economist.
204
‘I
don’t think I am going to stay in Kosovo. I want to go to my uncle in Switzerland,’ said
Mirand, a 19-year-old high school student.
205
He believed that his prospects there were
better than in his small village outside Prizren.

Like Mirand many young people have relatives living abroad; one in every four
households has at least one household member living outside Kosovo.
206
Having such

202
World Bank, Kosovo, Unlocking Growth Potential: Strategies, Policies, Action, April 2010, p. 71.
203
World Bank, Kosovo Youth in Jeopardy: Being Young, Unemployed and Poor in Kosovo, A report on Youth Employment in
Kosovo. Report No. 43596-XK, September, 2008, pp. 22-23.
204
IKS Focus Group with Students from Gymnasium and Professional Schools in Prizren, 28 April, 2010.
205
Ibid.
206
World Bank, Kosovo, Unlocking Growth Potential: Strategies, Policies, Action, April 2010, p. 71.



64 www.iksweb.org
social networks abroad could facilitate youths’ future migration. The main destinations
have traditionally been Germany and Switzerland. Perhaps unsurprisingly, about 30
percent of the 15- to 24-year-old respondents who wanted to migrate said they wanted
to live in Germany and 17 percent in Switzerland. Others hoped for destination
countries such as USA and UK (12.2 percent respectively) and Sweden, Italy and
France (4.9 percent respectively).

Nonetheless, migration may not offer youth the opportunities they have imagined. Not
all hopes of migration will be fulfilled; evidence suggests that strict immigration
policies and inadequate social networks abroad often prevent people from migrating,
particularly the poor.
207
Further, in recent years, migrants have been among the most
likely to be unemployed, which has impacted young people as well.
208


While unemployment and poverty may be driving forces behind emigration, youth also
migrated to acquire an education. Some youth did dream of moving abroad for good,
but others planned to return after attending higher education. For example, Pal, a 19-
year-old high school student from Prizren planned to continue his studies abroad, but
wanted to return to contribute to his country. ‘I want to live in Prizren, as it is a
beautiful city,’ he said. ‘Given the present situation I would not want to live in Prizren,
Prishtinë/Priština or Kosovo. But I live with the hope that things will get better.’
209

Naim, a university student from Prishtinë/Priština, shared a similar opinion, ‘If I decide
to go abroad it will be only for studies and to get a better education. But I will definitely
come back to Kosovo and contribute to my country.’ While many youth wanted to study
abroad, a persisting trend was returning to ‘contribute to Kosovo.’
210


A desire for higher education and better job opportunities were also recurring themes
among focus group participants living in the villages of Dragash/Dragaš. Few saw a
future in Dragash/Dragaš. Arber, a 19-year-old high school student, wanted to migrate
to Prishtinë/Priština to study computer science, ‘With the profession I have chosen I
don’t think that I will live in Dragash/Dragaš. I will live somewhere else in Kosovo.’
211

While his classmate Anesa remained undecided about her future profession, what she
chose would determine where she lived: ‘If I study psychology, I don’t think I will live
in Kosovo, but if I study literature, then I can work here as a professor.’ Filloreta
wanted to continue her studies abroad and then return to Kosovo: ‘I want to study
physiotherapy in Turkey. I want to come back and maybe live in Prishtina, but not in
Dragash/Dragaš.’
212
Youth mobility within the country or abroad was very much
depending on the opportunities offered in the labour market.

The World Bank has argued that migration has had positive effects on labour market
outcomes in Kosovo. Besides alleviating labour market pressures (as most migrants are
unskilled and unemployed), the economy has benefited from ‘brain gain’ from the (few)

207
For example, see Castles, S., International Encyclopaedia of the Social & Behavioural Sciences, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2001.
208
According to World Bank the average age of migrants has been raising since 1990; the average age used to be 19 years in the
early 1990s, and gradually increased to 29 in 2009. In the recent years, more than 90 percent of all migrants are 20–35 years old,
thus affecting a high number of youth. World Bank, Kosovo, Unlocking Growth Potential: Strategies, Policies, Action, April 2010,
p. 72.
209
IKS Focus Group with Students from Gymnasium and Professional Schools in Prizren, 28 April, 2010.
210
IKS focus groups and in-depth interviews with Kosovo youth, April-May, 2010.
211
IKS Focus Group with high school students in Dragash/Dragaš, 05 May, 2010.
212
Ibid.



www.iksweb.org 65
returning migrants.
213
However, given the high youth unemployment rate, ‘brain
drain’
214
may be more of a problem in the future, according to the World Bank.

Despite the magnitude and history of migration, migration policies are still lacking in
Kosovo. The Government of Kosovo should establish sound emigration policies, as well
as a strategic vision on the role that migration should play in Kosovo, such as regulated
and controlled migration. In-depth research should inform these strategies, drawing
from lessons learned historically and elsewhere but focusing on the specificities of
Kosovo today. Migration can play an important role in enhancing capacities and skills
in Kosovo. As research showed, for young Kosovans was the motive to migrate was
driven by the desire to acquire skills and education abroad. Thus the government can
assist by developing programs that support young people to study abroad and bring the
acquired skills and their potential back to Kosovo. Signing of a contract between the
government and the individual that would require youth to work for five years for the
government after the completion of the studies, would be a good controlling
mechanism.

Remittances have played an important role as a source of income for many Kosovan
families. While they have had a crucial impact on decreasing poverty, there is little
indication of their impact in stimulating economic activity. Remittances have been
mainly used for food and clothing.
215
A more business-friendly environment and
flexible financial sector could set the stage for remittances to be used for investment and
the creation of new jobs.
‘Kosovo: The Young Europeans’

EU accession has been a driving force behind reforms in Kosovo. Yet, Kosovo still
faces major challenges that make EU integration a distant dream. The 2009 European
Commission progress report identified an extensive list of areas in need of reform:
establishing and consolidating the rule of law; establishing a track record in the fight
against corruption; strengthening public administration; improving the business
environment; and establishing a macro-economic and fiscal policy.
216


The prominent political discourse in Kosovo suggests that hopes are high for Kosovo’s
future EU integration. Kosovo’s young population has been regularly featured at the
centre of such efforts. Most conspicuously, the international promotional campaign for
Kosovo, launched on 26 October 2009, aired its slogan, ‘Kosovo: The Young
Europeans’, on six stations in Europe and the United States, including CNN, BBC,
Euronews, Bloomberg and Eurosport. The campaign sought to brand Kosovo as a new
nation, focusing on the power of young people.

While they were labelled ‘Young Europeans’ by the campaign, some Kosovan youth
felt they were living the least of Europe. As Milot commented:

I don’t feel myself as a ‘Young European,’ maybe because I never had the
chance to go to Europe and see the similarities and differences between us and

213
World Bank, Kosovo, Unlocking Growth Potential: Strategies, Policies, Action, April 2010, p. 75.
214
Brain drain is the emigration of highly skilled or qualified people from a country. The return home of these people who gained
further education abroad is brain gain.
215
World Bank, Kosovo, Unlocking Growth Potential: Strategies, Policies, Action, April 2010, p. 79.
216
European Commission, Kosovo under UNSCR 1244/99 2009 Progress Report, Brussels, October 2009.



66 www.iksweb.org
my European counterparts. If I compare myself to the people who live abroad I
can say that they are more open to new things. They live in countries where
survival is not an issue and deal with their own things such as their education
and their personal development.
217


Indeed, few youth were alive or could remember the former Yugoslavia, when all
Kosovans could travel freely throughout Europe. Few have had the opportunities that
their parents had to travel abroad. The new Kosovo passport, first issued by the Kosovo
Government in July 2008, is one of the least useful travel documents worldwide. Its
holders can travel to only five countries without a visa: Albania, Montenegro,
Macedonia, Turkey and Haiti.
218
Thus, in 2010, Kosovo has remained among the most
isolated places on earth.

This isolation shaped many young Kosovans’ perceptions of their European
counterparts. As Rona, a 20-year-old student in Prishtinë/Priština, stated, ‘the
differences among Kosovan youth and European youth are huge, starting with the way
they live, the quality of education, their independence, not to mention economic and
technology development.’
219
For Maylinda, a 22-year-old reporter, living in a
developing and isolated country put youth in jeopardy:

In Europe youth have a lot of space. They live in economically developed
countries and are involved in all spheres of life. [They] have more developed
technology and have a different mentality. They are more open. They are not
isolated, and above all they are independent. For Kosovo youth none of these
exist.
220


Survey respondents similarly saw a gap between Kosovan and European youth. Nearly
seven percent of the 15- to 24-year-olds said they had nothing in common with their
European counterparts and 38.8 percent said they were ‘not so similar.’ As Graph 4.6
illustrates, one-third felt they were similar in some aspects. Only four percent thought
they were very similar, and 17.6 percent did not know whether they were similar or not.


Graph 4.6 Kosovan youths’ perceptions of similarities with European youth, among 15-24-
year-olds



217
IKS interview with Milot Rexhepi, student of political sciences, Prishtinë/Priština, 09 April, 2010.
218
European Stability Initiative, Isolating Kosovo? Kosovo vs. Afghanistan 5:22, Berlin, Prishtinë/Priština, November 2009.
219
IKS interview with Rona Kelmendi, student, Prishtinë/Priština, 06 April, 2010.
220
IKS interview with Maylinda Kosumovic, reporter, Prishtinë/Priština, 07 April, 2010.



www.iksweb.org 67

Regarding their commonalities, 34.7 percent of respondents said Kosovan youth were
similar to other European youth due to their age (e.g., ‘we are all young’). Others (21.5
percent) said they faced similar age issues. Yet, 22.2 percent of the respondents said
they did not know how Kosovan youth were similar to their European counterparts.

When asked how they differed, 45.4 percent said other European youth had a better
economic situation and were more developed. Others mentioned differences in culture
and tradition (43.3 percent). More than 40 percent said their European counterparts had
‘a better life’ and 37 percent mentioned ‘better education.
221
Other respondents said
European youth had ‘more opportunities’ (22.2 percent), were more informed (16.8
percent), dressed differently (10.7 percent) or differed in every aspect (9.8 percent).
Approximately 19 percent of the respondents did not know how they differed from
other European youth.

EU accession would decrease Kosovans’ isolation and offer new opportunities in
education and economic development. Most surveyed youth looked forward to joining
the EU. As Graph 4.7 illustrates, more than 80 percent of the 15- to 24-year-old
respondents agreed with Kosovo entering the EU. Less than 10 percent did not know
and few disagreed (5.6 percent) or were undecided (3.3 percent). Similarly, 70 percent
of 10- to 14-year-old respondents agreed with Kosovo entering the EU. Approximately
25 percent of the younger respondents said they did not know, likely due to lack of
knowledge about the EU at their young age.


Graph 4.7 Youths’ perceptions as to whether Kosovo should enter the EU,
among 15-24-year-olds

Some youth hoped that EU membership would help Kosovo. For example, Selda, a 21-
year-old student of marketing had never been to Europe. She drew her perception of
European youth from her friends who lived abroad:

I have a lot of friends and acquaintances who live abroad. Regarding education
they are way ahead of us. Their critical thinking is very developed, and [they]

221
This was a close-ended question where multiple responses were possible.



68 www.iksweb.org
have a broader horizon for their future […]. I think that we lack a lot of
opportunities as we are isolated, and our parents struggle for our survival. I think
that when Kosovo becomes a member of the EU then we will have a lot of
opportunities. The change is obvious with young people from Kosovo who go
and study abroad come back and share their experiences.
222


Indeed, by studying abroad and returning, many youth have gained the experience and
knowledge necessary for bringing Kosovo closer to joining the EU. During focus
groups, youth expressed hopes that Kosovan institutions would involve youth who had
been educated abroad so that they could share their knowledge and contribute to the
country. The Government of Kosovo may indeed do well to explore additional channels
for incorporating returning youths’ social capital
223
and stimulating ‘brain gain’.

In the end, EU accession depends on change from within the country. European policy-
makers have disputed the idea that the EU will help Kosovo solve its numerous
aforementioned problems.
224
Parliamentarians have declared that neither the financial
resources nor political commitment exist.
225
Yet, eventual EU accession will require a
combination of the Kosovan leadership meeting the criteria set forth and political
willingness on behalf of Europe. Kosovo can only pursue its European dream by
investing, empowering and unleashing the potential of its natural fountain of youth.

Even though young people expressed their strong belief that Kosovo should be an EU
member, many lacked basic information regarding EU institutions and values.
Therefore, initiatives for opening more EU information and cultural centres
226
in other
places outside of Prishtinë/Priština should be encouraged. As a matter of fact, both EU
and Government of Kosovo should utilize this momentum of the positive attitudes of
young Kosovans towards EU. In addition, to more centres, they could draft curricula
and organize compulsory classes of EU integration (institutions and values) for the
secondary school attendees, as part of the relevant subject of the social sciences or even
as a separate subject.

In the eyes of young people, economic and social conditions served as a yardstick for
measuring quality of life in Kosovo. Both age groups considered a better economic
situation and standard of living reasons why Kosovo would be a better place to live in
the future. Conversely, social problems and poverty were mentioned as reasons why
Kosovo might be a worse place to live. If Kosovo is to pursue its path towards European
Integration and be a competitive economy in the European market, the education,
integration and empowerment of the young generations is a ‘must’ it should fulfil. It is
high time for Kosovo to unleash the potential of its youth and placing them at the heart
of the government’s policies would give an opportunity for Kosovo to be transformed
from the only country in the region without a contractual relationship with the EU to a
‘fast tracked’ towards EU.

222
IKS interview with Selda Sylejmani, student, Prishtinë/Priština, 08 April, 2010.
223
In migration literature ‘social remittances are the ideas, behaviours, identities, and social capital that flow from receiving to
sending-country communities.’ See Levitt, P., ‘Social remittances: migration driven local-level forms of cultural diffusion,’
International Migration Review, 1998, 32(4), p. 926.
224
For example, see the speaking points of Ingeborg Grässle, Member of the European Parliament, Panel Discussion, ‘EU
Enlargement and the Western Balkans: A Fast Track or Slow Lane Approach?’ organized by London School of Economics and
Political Institute, LSEE - Research on South Eastern Europe, London, 18 March, 2010.
225
Ibid.
226
First EU Information and Cultural Centre opened in Prishtinë/Priština, on 05 October, 2010. For more information see:
http://www.delprn.ec.europa.eu/?cid=2,49,995.



www.iksweb.org 69
AREAS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH

Accurate analysis of labour market demands is imperative. In order to make education
more relevant to the labour market and thus facilitate the transition from education to
employment, the curricula of schools and universities must be adapted to labour market
demands.

Further qualitative research could explore in-depth reasons why few youth participate in
decision-making processes, as well as why decision-makers have seldom involved
them. This could result in more pointed recommendations on how to further empower
youth participation.

A detailed analysis of the Kosovo Budget could result in more specific
recommendations regarding where budget line adjustments could be made toward
improving education, the quality of the employment centres and financial support for
the Directorate of Youth. Clear recommendations could be used in advocacy campaigns
involving youth and other citizens in calling for changes to the present budget.

Within broader current debates surrounding the relationship between migration and
development, further attention is needed to the positive and negative effects of
emigration, including the particular results of youth migration.

Drug use and violence in schools are under-researched areas.

Finally, no research is perfect and all contains some margin of error. We sought to
minimize error as well as to estimate where possible the extent to which error was
present and why. Any known areas of sizeable error, uncertainty, and inconclusive
findings present opportunities for future research. For example, the percentage of non-
response and ‘don’t know’ answers was rather high on some questions. Also some
questions were double-barrelled
227
or poorly worded. Further research, perhaps with
more carefully worded questions, could reduce error. For future use, the questionnaire
could benefit from some revisions, particularly with assistance from an expert in survey
questionnaire design. This could enhance the reliability and validity of the research
findings. Carrying out the same survey using the same sampling strategy every five to
ten years could enable comparisons across years.












227
A double-barreled question asks multiple questions as a single question. This is problematic because respondents may not know
which part of the question to answer or may feel differently about different parts of the question.



70 www.iksweb.org
Annex I. Additional graphs resulting from the Kosovo-wide survey

Graph 1. Identity-shapers considered ‘very important’ among youth ages 15-24







Graph 2. The most important values youth ages 10-14 were encouraged to learn at home






www.iksweb.org 71

Graph 3. Values young people were ‘very much’ encouraged to learn at home,
among 15-24-year-olds




Graph 4. Important aspects that provide meaning in youths’ lives,
among 15-24-year-olds





72 www.iksweb.org


Graph 5. Extent to which youth agree that ‘There should be stricter rules...’




Graph 6. Easiness of discussing problems at school, among youth ages 15-24










www.iksweb.org 73



Graph 7. Young people discussed their problems with their…



Graph 8. The level of trust in the following institutions for youth ages 15-24







74 www.iksweb.org




Graph 9. TV usage during the week among youth ages 10-14


Graph 10. Parents’ control over children’s TV usage, ages 10-14




Graph 11. Programs most often watched on TV by youth ages 10-14






www.iksweb.org 75



Graph 12. Time spent on the computer each day among youth ages 10-14




Graph 13. Types of computer usage among youth








76 www.iksweb.org


Graph 14. Parents’ control of computer usage among youth ages 10-14
My parents...





Graph 15. Dissatisfaction with communal services, among youth ages 15-24



www.iksweb.org 77
Graph 16. Knowledge of children’s rights among youth ages 10-14








Graph 17. Percentage of youth ages 10-14 that were aware of children’s rights








78 www.iksweb.org

Graph 18. Places youth would prefer to live in the future

Graph 19. Preoccupation with unemployment by ethnicity for youth ages 15-24







www.iksweb.org 79



Graph 20. The difference between K-Albanian and K-Serb respondents ages 15-24 who
would choose continuing school or taking a job offer while studying




Graph 21. The difference between male and female youth ages 15-24 who would choose
continuing school or taking a job offer while studying










80 www.iksweb.org


Graph 22. Extent youth ages 15-24 of different ethnicity agreed or disagreed that education
does not equip one for work


Graph 23. Extent to which Kosovo Albanian and Kosovo Serb youth ages 15-24 believed their
interests were considered by decision-making institutions



www.iksweb.org 81
ANNEX II. Questionnaire for Youth Ages 10-14

Informed Consent has been provided by:
1. Mother 2. Father
3. Male guardian 4. Female guardian


PL1. Let’s talk about your everyday life, are you happy?
1. Yes, I am happy
2. I am neither happy nor unhappy
3. I am unhappy
4. Don’t know/no answer


PL2. How often you feel happy?
1. Most of the time
2. Only sometimes
3. Almost never
4. Never
5. Don’t know/ no answer


PL3. When/ in which occasions do you feel happier?
(Do not read out. Record first two mentions falling under the following categories.)

PL3a________
PL3b________

1. Free time/leisure time [free time/leisure time (not specified), holidays/sea, when
there is no school/weekends/ after school, pursuit of hobby
(all except sports), doing sports, watching TV/going to the
cinema, when I’m playing, computer/computer games, when
I go for trip/excursion/travelling, when I go for a walk,
others]
2. Family [when I am with my family, visits to/from relatives, family is
well/happy, family is at home, family celebrations, others]
3. Friends [when I am with friends, having fun with friends/playing
with friends, others]
4. School [at school (not specified), when I get good grades, good
performance at school, school activities, others]
5. Money [when I have money, when I get pocket money, others]
6. Praise/rewards/presents [when I am praised by parents or others, when I get rewards,
when I get presents, when someone buys me something,
others]
7. Other _____________________________(specify)
8. Don’t know, no answer










82 www.iksweb.org
PL4. When do you feel unhappy?
(Do not read out. Record first two mentions falling under the following categories.)

PL4a_________

PL4b_________

1. Problems with family [when there are problems/quarrels at home,
problems/quarrels with parents, problems/quarrels with
siblings, father/family member away from home, family
members feel sad/unwell, others]

2. Problems with friends [problems/quarrels with friends (not specified), when my
friends feel bad, when something bad happens to my friends,
when I don’t see my friends, others]
3. At school [at school (not specified), difficulties at school, quarrels at
school, bad grades/ when I am doing badly in school,
homework, exams, when I have to go to school, others]
4. Punishment/lack of freedom [when I am punished, when I am told off, not
allowed to…, forced to do something, other]
5. Negative feelings [I am alone, I am bored, I am teased, others laugh at me, my
feelings are hurt, physically hurt/beaten, unable to achieve a
goal, trouble/grief, wishes don’t come true, guilty/bad
conscience (done something bad/wrong),others]
6. Death/illness [a family member dies, someone I like dies, illness of family
member, illness of friend/someone I like, when I am ill,
others]
7. Other______________________________(specify)
8. Don’t know/ no answer


PA1. Why do you go to school?
(Do not read out. Record first two mentions falling under the following categories.)

PL5a________
PL5b________

1. To learn [to learn (not specified), to learn new things, to learn foreign
languages, to be able to go to university/higher education, to
learn for life/to be ready for life/for my future, to get good
grades/marks, to get a good education, to become
smart/clever/intelligent, others]
2. Improve personal skills [to be well educated/a cultivated person, to become a good
man/woman, to manage things in life, to be independent, to
be disciplined/well-bred/to always to well, to be
honest/diligent, not to be a fool/not to be stupid, not to stand
behind others/because of society, to become a responsible
person, others]
3. Professional ambitions [to get a profession (not specified), to get an interesting job,
to get training opportunities, to become somebody in life, to
become successful, others]
4. Better financial situation [to earn more money in the future, others related to financial
situation]
5. Family [to make my family proud, be ensure my family a better a
good/better life in the future, to take care of my family/future
family, other related to family]



www.iksweb.org 83
6. Other reasons_____________________________________ (specify)

7. Don’t know/ no answer


PA2. How is your relationship with:
Very good Good Average Bad Very Bad No answer
12.1 Teachers
12.2 Female schoolmates
12.2 Male schoolmates


PA3. Why do you consider that your relationship with your teachers is poor/very
poor? (Multiple response)
1. Lack of communication
2. Bad treatment
3. Too demanding
4. Bad teachers
5. I don’t like school
6. Other reasons___________________________ (specify)
7. Don’t know/ no answer


PA4. Why do you consider that your relationship with your male schoolmates is
poor/very poor? (Multiple response)
1. No mutual understanding
2. Don’t treat me well
3. Their character
4. I can’t trust them
5. They are bullying me
6. Other reasons________________________________ (specify)
7. Don’t know/ no answer


PA5. Why do you consider that your relationship with your female schoolmates is
poor/very poor? (Multiple response)
1. No mutual understanding
2. Don’t treat me well
3. Their character
4. I can’t trust them
5. They are bullying me
6. Other reasons________________________________ (specify)
7. Don’t know/ no answer

PA6. When you have problems in school who do you first talk to? (Multiple
response)
1. Friends
2. Teachers
3. Parents / family
4. School directory
5. Student Counsels
6. Other _____________________________________ (specify)
7. Don’t know/ no answer



84 www.iksweb.org

PA7. How satisfied are you with the quality of education you are receiving?
1. Very satisfied
2. Satisfied
3. Neither satisfied nor unsatisfied
4. Unsatisfied
5. Very unsatisfied
6. Don’t know/ no answer


PA8. How satisfied are you will the following issues regarding your school?
(1-very unsatisfied, 2-unsatisfied, 3-neither satisfied nor unsatisfied, 4-satisfied, 5-very
satisfied, 6 don’t know/no answer)

VU U NN S VS DK
a. Learning of new things 1 2 3 4 5 6
b. Hygienic/sanitary conditions 1 2 3 4 5 6
c. Schedule 1 2 3 4 5 6
d. Curricula 1 2 3 4 5 6
e. Classrooms/labs/sport equipment 1 2 3 4 5 6
f. Desks/chairs/class equipment 1 2 3 4 5 6
g. Books and learning material 1 2 3 4 5 6
h. Heating in classroom 1 2 3 4 5 6
i. Teachers’ conduct 1 2 3 4 5 6
j. Administrative personnel conduct 1 2 3 4 5 6
k. Directors conduct 1 2 3 4 5 6
l. Social activities 1 2 3 4 5 6


PA9. In your school do you have access to/do you use?

Yes No There is no Don’t Know
a. Computers 1 2 3 4
b. Internet 1 2 3 4
c. Library 1 2 3 4
d. Lab 1 2 3 4
e. Sports space 1 2 3 4
f. Health care (vaccination, etc.) 1 2 3 4

PA10. How strongly do you agree or disagree with the following statements?
(1-stronlgy disagree, 2-disagree, 3-neither agree nor disagree, 4-agree, 5 strongly
agree, 6 don’t know/no answer)

SD D NN A SA DK

a. Teachers are motivated for work 1 2 3 4 5 6
b. Teachers are well qualified to teach 1 2 3 4 5 6
their courses
c. The behavior of teachers with regards 1 2 3 4 5 6
to pupils is very authoritative
d. My teachers show interest in my progress 1 2 3 4 5 6
e. They are taking into account individual needs,1 2 3 4 5 6
my personal strengths and support my talent



www.iksweb.org 85
f. Teachers grade pupils fairly 1 2 3 4 5 6
g. Teachers treat girls and boys equally
h. There is enough cooperation with parents 1 2 3 4 5 6
i. There should be stricter rules against 1 2 3 4 5 6
smoking in schools
j. There should be stricter rules against
cell phone use in schools 1 2 3 4 5 6
k. There are too many students in the classroom 1 2 3 4 5 6
l. There should be stricter rules about wearing
student uniform 1 2 3 4 5 6


PA11. Do you take any training courses outside school?
1. Yes
2. No


PA11a. If yes, what kind of training courses do you take?
1. Foreign language course
2. Computer course
3. Music course
4. Dancing course
5. Other_______________________ (specify)


PI1. Are you part of any organized group, club, or association?
1. Yes
2. No


PI1a. If yes, what kind of group is it/are they?
(Do not read out. Record the mentions falling under the following categories.)
1. Sports club/group
2. Dance club/group
3. Musical group
4. Artistic club/group [painting, pottery, acting/theatre, book/literature]
5. Youth club
6. School counsels
7. Religious groups
8. Other______________________________ (specify)


PI2. How do you spend your free time? (Do not read out. Multiple response)
1. Playing with friends
2. Watching TV
3. Playing computer games
4. Navigating internet
5. Doing sports
6. Pursuit of a hobby [painting, acting, playing music]
7. Reading books
8. Other____________ (specify)





86 www.iksweb.org

PI3. How would you describe your relationship with:
Very Bad Bad Average Good Very Good
1. Mother 1 2 3 4 5
2. Father 1 2 3 4 5


PI4. Why do you say that your relationship with mother is good/very good?
(Do not read out. Record first two mentions falling under the following categories.)

PI4a________
PI4b________

1. Communication/understanding [good relationship, listens to me, understand me,
can discuss things freely/clearly/nicely, takes my
opinion into consideration, we share everything, we
are friends]
2. Treats me well [doesn’t make me do what I don’t want to do, no
quarrels/arguments, doesn’t shout at me if I do
something bad/a mistake, doesn’t forbid be
anything, let’s me do more things than my father,
let’s me do what I want/gives me freedom, is strict
but not rude/never pushes her will, raises me/is
proud, other]
3. Cares [is always there for me/always with me, takes care
of me, looks after me, worries about me/my
future/my health, does everything for me, gives me
advice/direction, works hard to look after me,
brought me up, educated me, other]
4. Gives me money/presents/things [gives me money/pocket money/is generous/finances me,
gives/buys me things/presents, I get what I want,
other]
5.Common activities [we do things together, spends time with me, we
have fun together, takes me everywhere/to places,
teaches me things, shows interest in my things,
other]
6.Love/good character [loves me, I love her, is important to me, has a good
character, is nice/the best/excellent
person/intelligent/perfect, good mood/happy/
joyful, other]
7. Other_______________________________(specify)
8. Don’t know/no answer


PI5. Why do you say that your relationship with father is good/very good?
(Do not read out. Record first two mentions falling under the following categories.)

PI5a________
PI5b________

1. Communication/understanding [good relationship, listens to me, understand me,
can discuss things freely/clearly/nicely, takes my
opinion into consideration, we share everything, we
are friends]



www.iksweb.org 87
2. Treats me well [doesn’t make me do what I don’t want to do, no
quarrels/arguments, doesn’t shout at me if I do
something bad/a mistake, doesn’t forbid be
anything, let’s me do more things than my mother,
let’s me do what I want/gives me freedom, is strict
but not rude/never pushes his will, raises me/is
proud, other]
3. Cares [is always there for me/always with me, takes care
of me, looks after me, worries about me/my
future/my health, does everything for me, gives me
advice/direction, works hard to look after me,
brought me up, educated me, other]
4. Gives me money/presents/things [gives me money/pocket money/is generous/finances
me, gives/buys me things/presents, I get what I
want, other]
5.Common activities [we do things together, spends time with me, we
have fun together, takes me everywhere/to places,
teaches me things, shows interest in my things,
other]
6.Love/good character [loves me, I love him, is important to me, has a
good character, is nice/the best/excellent
person/intelligent/perfect, good mood/happy/
joyful, other]
7. Other_______________________________ (specify)
8. Don’t know/no answer

PI6. Why do you say that your relationship with your mother
is average/bad/very bad?
(Do not read out. Record first two mentions falling under the following categories.)

PI6a_________
PI6b_________
1. Lack of communication/
No understanding [we have different opinion about things, lack of
(good)communication, don’t understand each
other/cannot discuss things, we have different
interests/opinions/tastes, doesn’t understand me/my
needs, doesn’t listen to me, doesn’t let me speak,
other]
2. Doesn’t treat me well [scolds me, shouts at me, is unfair to me, is too
strict with me, forbids me to do things, other]
3. Doesn’t care/help [doesn’t care about me, does not look after me,
doesn’t help me, doesn’t give me money, not
generous, other]
4. Character [has a bad temper, is too demanding/asks too much,
has no patience, worries too much about things,
interferes in everything, our character are ill
matched]
5.Never at home, no time for me [is never at home, see her too little, rarely spends
time with me/has no time for me, is at work most of
the time/works too much, is often stressed/wants to
be left alone, other]
6. Is not my real mother

7. Other_______________________________ (specify)
8. Don’t know/no answer




88 www.iksweb.org


PI7. Why do you say that your relationship with your father
is average/bad/very bad?
(Do not read out. Record first two mentions falling under the following categories.)

PI7a_______
PI7b_______
1. Lack of communication/
No understanding [we have different opinion about things, lack of
(good)communication, don’t understand each
other/cannot discuss things, we have different
interests/opinions/tastes, doesn’t understand me/my
needs, doesn’t listen to me, doesn’t let me speak,
other]
2. Doesn’t treat me well [scolds me, shouts at me, is unfair to me, is too
strict with me, forbids me to do things, other]
3. Doesn’t care/help [doesn’t care about me, does not look after me,
doesn’t help me, doesn’t give me money, not
generous, other]
4. Character [has a bad temper, is too demanding/asks too much,
has no patience, worries too much about things,
interferes in everything, our character are ill
matched]
5.Never at home, no time for me [is never at home, see her too little, rarely spends
time with me/has no time for me, is at work most of
the time/works too much, is often stressed/wants to
be left alone, other]
6. Is not my real mother
7. Other
8. Don’t know/no answer


PI8. When a decision that concerns you is taken at home, do your parents take in
consideration your opinion?
1. Yes, they always consider my opinion
2. It depends, sometimes yes, sometimes no
3. No, they never consider my opinion
4. Other____________________________ (specify)
5. Don’t know/no answer


PI9. On what subject would you like to be more consulted when a decision that
concerns you is taken at home?
(Do not read out. Record first two mentions falling under the following categories.)

PI9a_______
PI9b_______
1. General topics/
everything that concerns me [everything that concerns me, whether I agree with
something, my opinion, my feelings, my interests,
my needs, my private life, other]
2. School [whether I have to go to/continue school, which
school to go to, my home work, how much to learn,



www.iksweb.org 89
which lessons to attend/what I want to do at school,
school performance, my grades, other related to
school]
3. Family [family matters, relationship between my
parents/divorce, what the family does, where to
live/moving to another place, others related to
family]
4. Purchase decisions [shopping in general, purchase decisions
concerning me, purchase decisions concerning the
household, other]
5. Clothes/fashion & appearance [my clothes, how to dress, haircut, make up, other]
6. Don’t know/no answer



PI10. Do you have a TV set at home that you are allowed to use?
1. Yes
2. No


PI11. How much do you watch TV during the week?
1. As much as you want
2. A few hours a day
3. An hour or less a day
4. No special habits/ it depends
5. Not allowed at all
6. Don’t know/no answer


PI12. How much do you watch TV during the weekend?
1. As much as you want
2. A few hours a day
3. An hour or less a day
4. No special habits/ it depends
5. Not allowed at all
6. Don’t know/no answer


PI13. Do your parents
1. They allowed me to watch anything that I want
2. Select some of the programs watched on TV
3. Tell exactly what you should watch
4. Does not allow you at all to watch TV
5. Don’t know/no answer


PI14. What do you usually watch on TV?
1. Cartoons
2. Children programs
3. Movies
4. Anything
5. Other___________________________ (specify)
6. Don’t know/no answer



90 www.iksweb.org

PI15. Do you have a computer at home that you are allowed to use?
1. Yes
2. No



PI16. How many hours do you spend on the computer?
1. As much as you want
2. A few hours a day
3. An hour or less a day
4. No special habits/ it depends
5. Not allowed at all


PI17. What do you use computer for?
(Do not read out. Record first two mentions falling under the following categories.)

1. Play games
PI17a________
2. Navigate internet, specify: _____________
PI17b________
3. Networking [Chat rooms, facebook, msn)
4. Learning new things
5. Listening to music
6. Other___________________________ (specify)


PI18. Which of the following statesmen is valid for your parents?
1. My parents allow me to spend time on computer as much as I want
2. My parents allow me to spend limited time on computer
3. My parents spend time with me on computer
4. My parents do not know how to use the computer


PI19. From you point of view, what are the most important things, values,
principles that your family has taught you?
(Do not read out. Record first three mentions falling under the following categories.)
1. Hard work
PI19a_______
2. Responsibility
PI19b_______
3. Tolerance and respect for other people
PI19c_______
4. Thrift
5. Endurance
6. Religious faith
7. Unselfishness
8. Honesty
9. Loyalty
10. Self-discipline
11. Entrepreneurship



www.iksweb.org 91


PI20. Do you know who takes care of cleaning the streets, green areas/parks,
collecting the garbage, and transportation?
1. Yes, _______________________________ (specify)
2. No


PI21. Do you think that your opinion and your friends opinion is taken into
consideration when your municipal/local government, makes a decision that
concerns children in the neighborhood?
1. Yes, completely
2. Yes, partially
3. Not enough
4. Not at all
5. Don’t know/no answer


PI22. On what particular subject would you like your municipal/local government
to consult you?
(Do not read out. Record first three mentions falling under the following categories.)

PI22a________
PI22b________
PI22c________

1. Better offer of leisure activities [better offer of leisure activities regarding sports,
playgrounds, cultural activities, youth clubs, other]
2. Environment [protection of environment, pollution, more parks,
better protection of existing parks, site/building
development, cleanliness of the neighborhood/city,
other]
3. Traffic/infrastructure [public traffic, school bus, traffic regulations,
check/improve of roads]
4. Education/school [education/school (not specified), better education,
educational system, needs and problems at school,
better school equipment/facilities, others]
5. Children’s rights
6. Improvement of living conditions [improving of living conditions (not specified), to
have electricity/water, other]
7. Other___________________________ (specify)
8. Don’t know/no answer


PI23. Do you think voting in election is an effective way to improve things in your
country?
1. Very effective
2. Yes, rather effective
3. Neither effective nor ineffective
4. No, rather ineffective
5. No, very ineffective
6. Don’t know/I cannot say/no answer




92 www.iksweb.org
PI24. How much do you know about children’s rights?
1. A lot
2. Some
3. Very little
4. I don’t know anything


PI25. Which rights of the child are you aware of? (Do not read out. Multiple answer.)
1. Right of life
2. Right of education
3. Right of name and identity
4. Right to be raised by one’s family
5. Right to express their opinion freely
6. Right to play
7. Other_________________________________(specify)


PI26. In your opinion is your right (ask for each right mentioned in previous
question) respected in Kosovo?
1. Yes
2. No
3. Don’t know/no answer


PEA1. Thinking of your life in future, what kind of profession/job will you like to
have?
(Do not read out. Single answer.)

1. Scientist/engineer [scientist (not specified, computer engineer/IT, archeologist,
economist, engineer, other]
2. Medical Sector [doctor, nurse, vet, psychologist, pharmacist, other]
3. Protection/Security [policemen, firemen, soldier/officer, lawyer other]
4. Business person [businessman/business woman, manager, bank clerk, salesman/
saleswoman, accountant, other]
5. Artist [artist (not specified), singer/musician, actor/actress, painter,
writer, other]
6. Fashion [model, hairdresser, cosmetician/beautician, designer/stylist,
tailor, other]
7. Sports person [sportsman/sportswoman, professional athlete, football player,
basketball player, formula one driver, karate fighter, coach, other]
8. Education [teacher, professor, nursery school, kindergarten teacher, other]
9. Transport [car driver, crane driver, locomotive driver, pilot, other]
10. Politician [politician, diplomat, other]
11. Media [journalist, speaker,other]
12. Other____________________________ (specify)

PEA2. Do you think that in the future you will have better life than your parents?
1. Much better
2. Better
3. About the same
4. Worse
5. Much worse
6. Don’t know/ I cannot say/ no answer



www.iksweb.org 93


PEA3. Do you think that in the future Kosovo will be
1. A much better place to live in
2. A better place to live in
3. It will remain unchanged
4. A worse place to live in
5. A much worse place to live in
6. Don’t know/ I cannot answer/ no answer


PEA4. Why do you think that Kosovo will be a much better place/better place to
live in?
(Do not read out. Record first two mentions falling under the following categories.)
1. Better economic situation
2. Better standard of living
3. Less social problems
4. Less pollution
5. I like my country
6. Don’t know/no answer
7. Other___________________________(specify)


PEA5. Why do you think that Kosovo will be a much worse/worse place to live in?
(Do not read out. Record first two mentions falling under the following categories.)
1. Social problems
2. Economic situation
3. Politicians fight too much
4. Traffic infrastructure
5. More pollution
6. Don’t know/no answer
7. Other___________________________(specify)


PEA6. Which are the greatest threats to Kosovo in the future?
1. Environmental pollution
2. Poverty
3. Drug abuse
4. Unemployment
5. Organised crime
6. Corruption
7. Other___________________________(specify)


PEA7. What are the greatest potentials of Kosovo? Why is Kosovo a good
country?
1. Young people / Population
2. Mines / Natural resources
3. Energy
4. Beautiful country (tourism, etc.)
5. Other______________________________ (specify)





94 www.iksweb.org

PEA8. Where would you like to live in?
1. In the town I live in now
2. Somewhere else in my country
3. Live abroad
4. Abroad for periods, but will always return home
5. In the city
6. In countryside
7. In the capital city
8. Don’t know/no answer


PEA9. If you want to live abroad, in which country would you like to live? Please
tell me the most preferred.
_____________________________________

PEA10. How similar are Kosovan young people to their European counterparts?
1. Very similar/there is no difference
2. Similar in some aspects
3. Not so similar
4. Not similar at all/ have nothing in common
5. Don’t know/no answer


PEA11. In what ways are the Kosovan young people similar to their European
counterparts?
(Do not read out. Multiple answer)
1. Appearance and dressing
2. Opinions, wishes, aspirations
3. Have the same rights and freedom
4. We all get an education
5. Behavior, communication, character
6. We are all children
7. Way we have fun
8. Intelligence, information, knowledge
9. Traditions
10. Same age issues
11. Others__________________________ (specify)
12. No answer / don’t know

PEA12. In what ways are Kosovan young people different from their European
counterparts? (Do not read out. Multiple answer)
1. Culture/language/traditions
2. Have a better life
3. More polite/well behaved
4. Better Economy/Development/Higher technology
5. More opportunities
6. Appearance/dressing
7. Better education/better schools
8. More informed
9. Different in every aspect
10. Don’t know /no answer
11. Others_____________________________ (specify)



www.iksweb.org 95

PEA13. Do you agree with Kosovo entering EU?
1. Strongly agree
2. Agree
3. Neither agree nor disagree
4. Don’t agree
5. Strongly disagree
6. No answer / don’t know


PEA14. What does it mean for Kosovo entering EU?
(Do not read out. Multiple answer)
1. Economic development
2. Free movement to other countries
3. Freedom to study in other countries
4. Freedom to work in other countries
5. Better respect for human rights
6. More democracy
7. Cultural and social exchange
8. Better justice system
9. Open market
10. Don’t know
11. Others___________________________(specify)





96 www.iksweb.org
ANNEX III. Questionnaire for Youth Ages 15-24

Informed Consent has been provided by:
1. Mother 4. Female guardian
2. Father 5. The respondent aged 18-24
3. Male guardian

PL1. How satisfied or discontent are you with the following aspects of your life?
(1-very unsatisfied, 2-unsatisfied, 3-neither satisfied nor unsatisfied, 4-satisfied, 5-very
satisfied)
VU U NN S VS DK/NA
1. Your life as a whole 1 2 3 4 5 6
2. Your finances 1 2 3 4 5 6
3. Your health 1 2 3 4 5 6
4. Your education 1 2 3 4 5 6
5. Your work 1 2 3 4 5 6
6. Your leisure time 1 2 3 4 5 6
7. Your friends 1 2 3 4 5 6
8. Your family 1 2 3 4 5 6
9. The general situation in Kosovo 1 2 3 4 5 6


PL2. How important are the following in order to provide meaning in your life?
(1-very unimportant, 2- unimportant, 3-neither important nor unimportant, 4-important,
5 very important)
VU U NN I VI DK/NA
1. Work 1 2 3 4 5 6
2. Studies 1 2 3 4 5 6
3. Spare time 1 2 3 4 5 6
4. Family 1 2 3 4 5 6
5. Friends 1 2 3 4 5 6
6. Material possessions 1 2 3 4 5 6
7. Dreams and ambitions 1 2 3 4 5 6
8. Religion 1 2 3 4 5 6


PL3. Thinking about life in Kosovo today and comparing it to what you think it
was like 5 years ago, would you say that the situation today is
1. Much better
2. Better
3. About the same
4. Worse
5. Much worse
6. Don’t know/can’t say/no answer











www.iksweb.org 97
PL4. How important do you feel that the following factors are for your identity? 1-
5 scale
(1-very unimportant, 2- unimportant, 3-neither important nor unimportant, 4-important,
5 very important)
VU U NN I VI DK/NA
1. Nationality 1 2 3 4 5 6
2. Ethnic group 1 2 3 4 5 6
3. Religion 1 2 3 4 5 6
4. Education 1 2 3 4 5 6
5. Language 1 2 3 4 5 6
6. Family 1 2 3 4 5 6
7. Friends 1 2 3 4 5 6
8. Age 1 2 3 4 5 6
9. Marital status 1 2 3 4 5 6
10. Profession 1 2 3 4 5 6
11. Sexual orientation 1 2 3 4 5 6
12. Place of origin 1 2 3 4 5 5

PL5. Here is a list of qualities that young people can be encouraged to learn at
home. In your family how much were you encouraged to learn?
(1-very little, 2-little, 3-average, 4-much, 5-very much)
VL L A M VM DK/NA

1. Independence 1 2 3 4 5 6
2. Hard work 1 2 3 4 5 6
3. Responsibility 1 2 3 4 5 6
4. Tolerance & respect 1 2 3 4 5 6
for other people
5. Thrift 1 2 3 4 5 6
6. Endurance 1 2 3 4 5 6
7. Religious faith 1 2 3 4 5 6
8. Unselfishness 1 2 3 4 5 6
9. Curiosity 1 2 3 4 5 6
10. Honesty 1 2 3 4 5 6
11. Loyalty 1 2 3 4 5 6
12. Self-discipline 1 2 3 4 5 6
13. Entrepreneurship 1 2 3 4 5 6


PL6. A good life means that I…
(1-completely disagree, 2-disagree, 3-neither agree, nor disagree, 4-agree, 5-
completely agree)
CD D NN A CA DK/NA
1. am healthy and in good shape 1 2 3 4 5 6
2. become famous 1 2 3 4 5 6
3. can get an exciting and meaningful job 1 2 3 4 5 6
4. can have a family and children 1 2 3 4 5 6
5. can live and eat well 1 2 3 4 5 6
6. can realise my ideas 1 2 3 4 5 6
7. can spend time with my friends 1 2 3 4 5 6
8. have a lot of money 1 2 3 4 5 6
9. will not have to work 1 2 3 4 5 6



98 www.iksweb.org

PE1. Are you currently enrolled in school or another education program?
1. Yes
2. No

PE1.a If yes, where?

Public School Private School
1. Secondary (gymnasium) 1. Secondary (gymnasium)
2. Secondary professional 2. Secondary professional
3. Tertiary 3. Tertiary
3. Post graduate /master/PhD 3. Post graduate/master/PhD
4. Other type, __________________________________________ (specify)

PE2. What are the reasons for getting an education? For me, the most important
reasons to get an education are
(1-completely disagree, 2-disagree, 3-neither agree, nor disagree, 4-agree, 5-
completely agree)
SD D NN A SD DK/NA
1. To develop myself 1 2 3 4 5 6
2. To get an interesting job 1 2 3 4 5 6
3. To earn more money 1 2 3 4 5 6
4. To make my family proud 1 2 3 4 5 6
5. To get a better social status 1 2 3 4 5 6
6. Other _________________________________ (specify)


PE3. How satisfied are you with the quality of education you are receiving?
1. Very satisfied
2. Satisfied
3. Neither satisfied nor unsatisfied
4. Unsatisfied
5. Very unsatisfied
6. Don’t know/ No answer

PE4. How satisfied are you with the following issues regarding your
school/faculty?
(1-very unsatisfied, 2-unsatisfied, 3-neither satisfied nor unsatisfied, 4-satisfied, 5-very
satisfied)
VU U NN S VS DK/NA
1. Quantity of knowledge 1 2 3 4 5 6
2. Quality of knowledge 1 2 3 4 5 6
3. Hygienic/sanitary conditions 1 2 3 4 5 6
4. Schedule 1 2 3 4 5 6
5. Curricula 1 2 3 4 5 6
6. Classrooms/labs/sport equipment 1 2 3 4 5 6
7. Desks/chairs/class equipment 1 2 3 4 5 6
8. Books and learning material 1 2 3 4 5 6
9. Heating in classroom 1 2 3 4 5 6
10. Teachers’ conduct 1 2 3 4 5 6
11. Administrative personnel conduct 1 2 3 4 5 6
12. Directors conduct 1 2 3 4 5 6




www.iksweb.org 99

PE5. In your school do you have access to/do you use

Yes No There is no Don’t Know
1. Computers 1 2 3 4
2. Internet 1 2 3 4
3. Library 1 2 3 4
4. Lab 1 2 3 4
5. Sports space 1 2 3 4
6. Health care (dentist, etc.) 1 2 3 4
7. Don’t know/ no answer


PE6. When thinking about the work of teachers, tell me how satisfied are you with
their method of teaching/lecturing? (1-very unsatisfied, 2-unsatisfied, 3-neither
satisfied nor unsatisfied, 4-satisfied, 5-very satisfied)

VU U NN S VS DK/NA
1. Method of teaching/lecturing 1 2 3 4 5 6
2. Method of evaluation 1 2 3 4 5 6
3. Method of consulting 1 2 3 4 5 6



PE7. How strongly do you agree or disagree with the following statements?
(1-stronlgy disagree, 2-disagree, 3-neither agree nor disagree, 4-agree, 5 strongly
agree)

SD D NN A SA DK/NA
1. Teachers/professors are motivated for work 1 2 3 4 5 6
2. Teachers/professors are well qualified to teach 1 2 3 4 5 6
their courses
3. The behavior of teachers with regards 1 2 3 4 5 6
to students is very authoritative
4. Attendance in private courses organized by 1 2 3 4 5 6
school professors is a precondition
for earning a course grade at my school
5. My teachers show interest in my progress 1 2 3 4 5 6
6. Teachers treat girls and boys equally 1 2 3 4 5 6
7. The grading/assessment process is 1 2 3 4 5 6
real and objective
8. Subject contents that we learn in school l 2 3 4 5 6
are too old and don’t have a practical application
9. School is offering more theoretical and less l 2 3 4 5 6
practical skills
10. Education does not equips one for work l 2 3 4 5 6
11. It is much easier to find a job with courses l 2 3 4 5 6
than with a school degree
12. The school stays isolated from community 1 2 3 4 5 6
and there is no enough cooperation with parents
13. There should be stricter rules against 1 2 3 4 5 6
smoking in schools
14. There should be stricter rules against 1 2 3 4 5 6



100 www.iksweb.org
drug use in schools
15. There should be stricter rules against cell phone 1 2 3 4 5 6
use in schools
16. There are too many students in the classroom 1 2 3 4 5 6
17. The reforms till now were not successful l 2 3 4 5 6
greater changes are required
18. The reforms till now were successful l 2 3 4 5 6
we should continue this way
19. There should be stricter rules for using uniforms l 2 3 4 5 6
at school


PE8. Do you agree with “The education I have/am getting right now helped/will
help me…”
(1-stronlgy disagree, 2-disagree, 3-neither agree nor disagree, 4-agree, 5 strongly
agree)
SD D NN A SA DK/NA
1. find an interesting job 1 2 3 4 5 6
2. have a better future 1 2 3 4 5 6
3. have better financial situation 1 2 3 4 5 6
4. improve personal skills 1 2 3 4 5 6
5. fulfill my personal ambitions 1 2 3 4 5 6


PE9. How easy or difficult is it for you to discuss students’ problems and needs in
your school/faculty?
1. Very easy
2. Easy
3. Average
4. Difficult
5. Very difficult
6. Don’t know/no answer


PE10. When you have problems in school who do you first talk to? (Multiple
response)
1. Friends
2. Teachers/professors
3. Parents
4. School directory
5. Student Counsels
6. Other __________________________ (specify)
7. Don’t know/ no answer


PP1. Do you do any job (no matter what type of job) that you are paid for? If yes,
is it
1. A full time job
2. A regular part time job
3. Occasional job or occasional part-time job






www.iksweb.org 101
PP2. What is your main reason for working?
1. I have to earn my living
2. I have a family to take care of
3. I am just doing an internship / I want to develop and train my skills
4. I want to contribute to my country’s well-being and economy
5. I like the work that I do
6. Other ______________________________(specify)

PP3. If you are working, in which sector are you working?
1. Manufacturing industry
2. Public administration
3. Media
4. Retail
5. Childcare, healthcare, etc.
6. Police and justice
7. Travel and tourism
8. Construction
9. Professional services (management consulting, accounting, etc.)
10. Schooling and education
11. NGOs (social movements, labour organisations, etc.)
12. Research and development
13. Transportation and logistics
14. Banking, finance and insurance
15. Agriculture and forestry
16. Other

PP4. In Kosovo, how much do the following elements affect a person’s
employability?
(1-very little, 2-little, 3-average, 4-much, 5-very much)

VL L A M VM DK/NA
1. Completed education l 2 3 4 5 6
2. Family and acquaintances l 2 3 4 5 6
3. Studying in Kosovo l 2 3 4 5 6
4. Studying abroad l 2 3 4 5 6
5. Personal and social skills l 2 3 4 5 6
6. Political affiliations l 2 3 4 5 6


PP5. How much are you preoccupied with the problem of unemployment?
1. Very preoccupied
2. Preoccupied
3. Neither preoccupied nor not preoccupied/I don’t care
4. Not so preoccupied
5. Not preoccupied at all
6. Don’t know/no answer


PP6. If you are studying and you had a chance to get a good job, would you get
employed or you would continue schooling?
1. I would get the job
2. I would continue my studies
3. Don’t know/no answer



102 www.iksweb.org

PP7. Do you take any training courses outside school with the aim of improving
your future employment opportunities?
1. Yes
2. No


PP8. If yes, what kind of training courses do you take? (Do not read out. Multiple
response.)
1. Language course
2. Computer course
3. Course in trading
4. Course for professional subjects
5. Vocational training
6. Other_______________________ (specify)

PP9.What kind of courses do you think are more needed in Kosovo?
(Do not read out. Multiple response.)
1. Language course
2. Computer course
3. Course in trading
4. Course for professional subjects
5. Vocational training
6. Other_______________________(specify)


PP10. Which of the following aspects are important for your present/future
career?
(Read out. Multiple answer.)

1. To have a job with high status
2. Interesting and meaningful work
3. To have employment security
4. To have a job with high salary
5. To have a nice and healthy working environment
6. To have a job with a lot of holidays and free time
7. To have a job with a lot of responsibility
8. Other_______________________(specify)

PP11. What are your career strategies? To succeed in my life, I need to…
(1-stronlgy disagree, 2-disagree, 3-neither agree nor disagree, 4-agree, 5 strongly
agree)
SD D NN A SA DK/NA
1. Look good l 2 3 4 5 6
2. Take all the chances I get l 2 3 4 5 6
3. Have good education & right
qualifications l 2 3 4 5 6
4. Constantly renew myself l 2 3 4 5 6
5. Get along with other people l 2 3 4 5 6
6. Work hard l 2 3 4 5 6
7. Know the right people l 2 3 4 5 6
8. Live up to the expectations of others l 2 3 4 5 6
9. Other_______________________(specify)



www.iksweb.org 103

PP12. What are you planning on achieving in the next 5 years? You can choose
multiple options.
1. Starting a company
2. Earning a lot of money
3. Moving abroad
4. Completing a university degree or other postsecondary education
5. Completing a doctoral degree
6. Having children
7. Becoming a manager or team leader
8. Owning a house/flat
9. None of the above
10. Other_______________________(specify)
11. Don’t know


PPJ1. Are you part of any organized group, club, or association?
1. Yes
2. No[ Go to question PPJ2]


PPJ1a. If yes, what kind of group is it/are they?
(Do not read out. Record the mentions falling under the following categories.)
1. Sports club/group
2. Artistic club/group [music, dance, painting, pottery, acting/theatre, book/literature]
3. Youth club/center
4. School counsels
5. Political organisation
6. Political party
7. NGO
8. Religious Group
9. Other______________________________ (specify)

PPJ2. Do you have a computer at home?
1. Yes
2. No


PPJ3. How many hours do you spend on the computer? _________________ (specify)


PPJ4. What do you use computer for?
1. Play games
2. Navigate internet, specify: _____________
3. Networking [Chat rooms, facebook, msn)
4. Learning new things
5. Listening to music
6. Other___________________________(specify)








104 www.iksweb.org
PPJ5. How do you spend your free time?
(Do not read out. Record first three mentions falling under the following categories.)

1. Spending time with your family PPJ5a_______
2. Going out with friends PPJ5b_______
3. Watching TV PPJ5c_______
4. Playing computer games
5. Surfing internet
6. Doing sports
7. Pursuit of a hobby [painting, acting, playing music]
8. Reading books
9. Music
10. Going to movies/theatre/cultural activities
11. Other____________ (specify)


PPJ6. To what extent do you trust the following groups and institutions?
(1-very little, 2-little, 3-average, 4-much, 5-very much)
VL L A M VM DK/NA
1. Your family l 2 3 4 5 6
2. Your friends l 2 3 4 5 6
3. Your teachers/professors l 2 3 4 5 6
4. The religious authorities l 2 3 4 5 6
5. The national government l 2 3 4 5 6
6. The municipal government l 2 3 4 5 6
7. The president/head of state l 2 3 4 5 6
8. KFOR l 2 3 4 5 6
9. FSK l 2 3 4 5 6
10. Kosovo police l 2 3 4 5 6
11. Justice system/courts l 2 3 4 5 6
12. Media l 2 3 4 5 6

PPJ7. Do you think voting in election is an effective way to improve things in your
country?
1. Very effective
2. Yes, rather effective
3. Neither effective nor ineffective
4. No, rather ineffective
5. No, very ineffective
6. Don’t know/I cannot say/no answer


PPJ8. In your opinion, to what extent the interests and needs of young people
taken into consideration by the decision-making institutions in Kosovo?
1. Very much
2. Somewhat
3. A little
4. Not at all
5. Don’t know/no answer






www.iksweb.org 105
PPJ9. How active do you think are young persons in the decision-making processes
in political institutions?
1. Very much
2. Somewhat
3. A little
4. Not at all
5. Don’t know/no answer


PPJ10. How satisfied are you with the following communal services?
(1-very unsatisfied, 2-unsatisfied, 3-neither satisfied nor unsatisfied, 4-satisfied, 5-very
satisfied)
VU U NN S VS DK/NA
1. Water supply 1 2 3 4 5 6
2. Electricity 1 2 3 4 5 6
3. Sewage system 1 2 3 4 5 6
4. Buildings 1 2 3 4 5 6
5. Green areas/parks 1 2 3 4 5 6
6. Roads and transport 1 2 3 4 5 6
7. Garbage collection 1 2 3 4 5 6


PPJ11. To what extent do you agree with the following statements?
(1-stronlgy disagree, 2-disagree, 3-neither agree nor disagree, 4-agree, 5 strongly
agree)

SD D NN A SA DK/NA
1. My future looks bright 1 2 3 4 5 6
2. People in Kosovo have the 1 2 3 4 5 6
opportunity to choose their own lives 1 2 3 4 5 6
3. I have complete freedom and control 1 2 3 4 5 6
over my own future
4. I am confident I will have a good job 1 2 3 4 5 6
in the future
5. It is acceptable to break the law to defend 1 2 3 4 5 6
one’s rights or to fight injustice in society
6. Family is the foundation of society 1 2 3 4 5 6
7. I am prepared to pay the taxes needed 1 2 3 4 5 6
to pay the pensions of older generations


PPJ12. To what extent do you agree with the following statements?
(1-stronlgy disagree, 2-disagree, 3-neither agree nor disagree, 4-agree, 5 strongly
agree)

SD D NN A SA DK/NA
1. It is important for me to look good 1 2 3 4 5 6
2. It is important to live up to the 1 2 3 4 5 6
expectations of others
3. It is important for me to live up to 1 2 3 4 5 6
my own expectations
4. I always do what I want
5. It is important to have specific life 1 2 3 4 5 6



106 www.iksweb.org
goals to strive for
6. It is very important to me that I achieve 1 2 3 4 5 6
a better material standard than my parents
7. It is very important to me that I do not have 1 2 3 4 5 6
a lower material standard than my parents
8. It is important for me that my family 1 2 3 4 5 6
accepts my spouse/girlfriend/boyfriend


PPJ13. Regarding Kosovo, do you think that in the future Kosovo will be
1. A much better place to live in
2. A better place to live in
3. It will remain unchanged
4. A worse place to live in
5. A much worse place to live in
6. Don’t know/ I cannot answer/ no answer

PPJ14. Why do you think that Kosovo will be a much better place/better place to
live in?
(Do not read out. Record first two mentions falling under the following categories.)

1. Better economic situation PPJ14a______
2. Better standard of living PPJ14b______
3. Less social problems
4. Less pollution
5. I like my country
6. Don’t know/no answer
7. Other___________________________(specify)


PPJ15. Why do you think that Kosovo will be a much worse/worse place to live in?
(Do not read out. Record first two mentions falling under the following categories.)
1. Social problems PPJ15a______
2. Economic situation PPJ15b______
3. Politicians fight too much
4. Traffic infrastructure
5. More pollution
6. Don’t know/no answer
7. Other___________________________ (specify)


PPJ16. Which are the greatest threats to Kosovo in the future?
(Do not read out. Single response.)
1. Environmental pollution
2. Economic situation/ Poverty
3. Drug abuse
4. Unemployment
5. Organized crime
6. Corruption
7. Other___________________________ (specify)






www.iksweb.org 107
PPJ17. What are the greatest potentials of Kosovo?
(Do not read out. Single response.)

1. Young people / population
2. Mines / natural resources
3. Energy
4. Beautiful country
5. Other______________________________ (specify)


PPJ18. Where would you like to live in?
1. in the town I live in now
2. somewhere else in my country
3. live abroad
4. abroad for periods, but will always return home
5. in the city
6. in countryside
7. In capital City
8. Don’t know/no answer


PPJ19. If you want to live abroad, in which country would you like to live? Please
tell me the most preferred.
_____________________________________ (specify)


PPJ20. How similar are Kosovan young people to their European counterparts?
1. Very similar/there is no difference
2. Similar in some aspects
3. Not so similar
4. Not similar at all/ have nothing in common
5. Don’t know/no answer


PPJ21. In what ways are the Kosovan young people similar to their European
counterparts? (Do not read out. Multiple answer)
1. Appearance and dressing
2. Opinions, wishes, aspirations
3. Have the same rights and freedom
4. We all get an education
5. Behavior, communication, character
6. We are all children
7. Way we have fun
8. Intelligence, information, knowledge
9. Traditions
10. Same age issues
11. Others
12. No answer / Don’t know







108 www.iksweb.org
PPJ22. In what ways are Kosovan young people different from their European
counterparts? (Do not read out. Multiple answer)
1. Culture/language/traditions
2. Have a better life
3. more polite/well behaved
4. Better Economy/Development/Higher technology
5. More opportunities
6. Appearance/dressing
7. Better education/better schools
8. More informed
9. Different in every aspect
10. Others
11. No answer / Don’t know


PPJ23. Do you agree with Kosovo entering EU?
1. Strongly agree
2. Agree
3. Neither agree nor disagree
4. Don’t agree
5. Strongly disagree
6. Don’t know/no answer


PPJ24. What does it mean for Kosovo entering EU?
(Do not read out. Multiple answer)

1. Economic development
2. Free movement to other countries
3. Freedom to study in other countries
4. Freedom to work in other countries
5. Better respect for human rights
6. More democracy
7. Cultural and social exchange
8. Better justice system
9. Open market
10. Others
11. Don’t know




www.iksweb.org 109
ANNEX IV. Focus Group Discussion Guide

Young Voices Opinion Poll 2010
Focus Group
Discussion Guide
14 April 2010

I. Introduction by Moderator (10 min)

Greeting remarks
Present plans for the sessions
Brief outline of topics

II. Session I (50 min)

Education & Employment

1. Why do you think education is important? Are you satisfied with the
education you are receiving?

2. How would you evaluate your teacher’s methods of teaching, evaluation
and consulting? Are your teachers well qualified to teach their courses?
What about teachers conduct, are they authoritative, do they show
interest in your progress? Do they organize private courses outside of
school for the same subject? Is that a precondition to earn a course
grade?

3. Are you satisfied with conditions in your school? Do you have access to
computers, internet, library, labs, and sports facilities? Are you satisfied
with your classroom equipment, sanitary conditions, heating, chairs etc?
How strict are rules against smoking, drug use and cell phone use in
schools?

4. Are you satisfied with learning material, schedule and curricula in your
school? Do you think that the content of the curricula can be applied in
your life? How would you evaluate reforms until now? Have things
changed after the reforms? What do you think should be done and by
whom?

5. What are the main problems you face in your school? How do you
discuss problems in your school? What is being done to solve your
issues? Who deals mostly with students problems in your school? Do
you have student councils? How active and efficient are they?

6. Do you think that people who are graduated abroad are better prepared
than those graduated in Prishtinë/Priština University or other public
universities in Kosovo? Why? Do you think that those who are graduated
abroad have more chances to get employed than those who are graduated
in Kosovo?




110 www.iksweb.org
7. Do you think that the education you are receiving is enough to equip you
for work? Do you think that a school degree is enough to jet a job? How
preoccupied are you for your future employment? How do you evaluate
your future employment opportunities? What do you need to have in
order to get a good job? Are you confident that you will have a good job
in the future? Do you think that you will have a better material standard
than that of your parents? Why?

8. Do any of you work or have worked before? What type of work have
you done and what are/were the main reasons for working? If you had a
chance to work, would you continue your school or would you get the
job? Why? Have you ever taken any training courses outside school?
What kind of training? Do you think that informal education offers better
chances of employment than formal education? What kind of other
courses do you think are needed in Kosovo in order to better equip young
people and prepare them for the labour market? What are your plans for
next five years? Do you want to work in private or public sector?
Reasons?

III. Session II (50 min)

Participation in Decision-Making, Future Perspectives

1. Are you part of any organized, club or association? Are you part of any
youth center or NGO? What kind of group is it? Why did you choose to
go in these specific groups? What are the main activities you do within
the group? What are the needs that you have within the group? Do you
face any difficulties? Who are the main supporters of your organisation?
What are the beneficiaries of being part of these organisations?

2. How are decisions taken within your family? Is your opinion considered?

3. Do you think that voting in elections is an effective way to change things
in Kosovo? Do you think that the interest and the needs of young people
are taken into consideration by the decision-making institutions in
Kosovo? How active do you think you are in the decision-making
processes in political institutions? Are you member of any political party,
forum or other political organisation? How much is your voice heard
there?

4. Have you ever been consulted by your municipality on any issue? Are
you satisfied with the communal services that your municipality offers
(green areas, roads and transportation, garbage collection, sewage system
etc.) How much do you trust your municipality? How satisfied are you
with cultural and sports activities in your municipality? What should be
changed?

5. What are the main challenges that youth in Kosovo faces today?




www.iksweb.org 111
6. What do you think about your future in Kosovo? Why? Would you like
to live here or abroad? For what reasons? What do you think are the
greatest problem Kosovo faces now and will face in the future? What
potentials/ advantages do you think Kosovo has compared to other
countries in the region?

7. What do you think about you counterparts in Europe? How similar or
different you think you are with them? Why? Do you agree with Kosovo
entering EU? According to you what does it mean for Kosovo to enter
EU?

IV. Thanking and sharing incentives









112 www.iksweb.org
ANNEX V. EU-FUNDED PROJECTS
Table 4. Supporting the Education Sector in Kosovo 2004-2009
228

Project name Year Amount in Euro Programme Main Objective
Infrastructure
support at
municipal level
2004-07 16 million IPA (2007) Support for
municipal
infrastructure as
designed by
municipality
Support for
development of
economic and
social
infrastructure in
Municipalities
2008-09 8 million IPA (2007) Follow-up
infrastructure
programme to
upgrade a number
of schools
KOSVET III 2006-09 2 million European Agency
for Reconstruction
(EAR)
Support to
Vocational
Education Training
(VET)
KOSVET IV 2007-09 1.5 million EAR Support to VET
Strengthening civil
society and
networks
2004-08 2 million EAR Building the
capacity of
selected civil
society
organisations
Education in
Kosovo: Inter-
culturalism and the
Bologna Process
2008 1.55 million IPA (2007) Strengthening
intercultural
understanding
among all
communities
Education and
Employment
2008 10 million IPA (2008) Support to Kosovo
Government in
improving quality
and efficiency of
the provisions of
education and
training services
Municipal
infrastructure
2008 14 million IPA (2008) Infrastructure
development,
schools building
programme
Legal Education
System reform
2008 3.5 million IPA (2008) Support to
curricula
development
Erasmus-Mundus
External
Cooperation
Window
2008 0.5 million for
Kosovo
(6 million
allocated for
Western Balkans)
IPA (2008) To foster
institutional
cooperation in the
field of higher
education
The Tempus IV
program
2008 1.8 million for
Kosovo
(19.55 allocated
for Western
Balkans)
IPA (2008) To promote
voluntary
convergence with
EU developments
in higher education

228
As compiled by IKS referring to email conversation with Sophie Beaumont, ECLO and www.delprn.ec.europa.eu. EU Funded
Projects supporting the Education Sector in Kosovo 2010.




www.iksweb.org 113
The Tempus office
in Kosovo
2008 12.3 million IPA (2008) To utilise EC
funded higher
education
programs in
Kosovo
EU support to
Teacher Training
in Kosovo
2009 3.5 million IPA (2009) To strengthen and
improve quality of
higher education in
Kosovo
Total 2004-09 76.6 million EAR/IPA
























114 www.iksweb.org


ABOUT IKS

The Kosovar Stability Initiative (IKS) is an independent, not-for-profit think tank
focusing on empirical research and analysis of socio-economic developments in
Kosovo. Founded in 2004, IKS offers innovative and policy-relevant research with the
aim of initiating debates on issues of importance for Kosovo's future.

We believe that evidence-based public debates stand at the core of democratic decision
making.

Since summer 2004, IKS has expanded its team to eight full-time analysts and
researchers, with a growing network of part time researchers and associates. The work
of IKS is also supported by the Board of Directors including Kosovar and international
analysts and practitioners.

Since its inception IKS’s work has focused on issues of governance, economic
development, urban planning, corruption in post-war reconstruction, education,
environmental issues and Kosovo’s image problem. IKS is also part of an ESI-inspired
network of think-tanks across South East Europe.

All reports are freely available on our website.
























Kosovar Stability Initiative — IKS
Phone: + 381 38 222 321
E-mail: info@iksweb.org
www.iksweb.org
Address:
Rr. Garibaldi H11/6, Prishtinë, Kosovë

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