Propagating Orchids

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Propagating Orchids
There are six main techniques currently used to propagate orchids and these are: division, back bulbs, keiki, aerial cuttings, meristem or tissue culture, and seed . All of the techniques are discussed in detail below and all but two are commonly employed in the home or greenhouse. The two which aren't commonly employed at home are propagation by seed and meristem tissue culture as these need laboratory conditions to maintain sterility. Firstly we will take a look at division, the most commonly used method of propagating orchids

DIVISION Division simply means splitting the plant in to two or more parts each with at least one new shoot and each will produce a fully grown mostly flowering size plant that is capable of flowering the following season This is one of the simplest methods of producing more plants of the same variety or species. Many new to growing orchids are apprehensive about cutting their treasured plant in to two or more parts but there are reasons that this is not only useful in terms of increasing your stock but beneficial to the plant. Splitting a plant will often encourage the plant to produce more shoots of a better quality and with much more vigor than would be the case if left to it's own devises. The reason for this new vigor is entirely natural and is the plants response to being placed under threat and of course the introduction of new fresh potting medium which the plant will take full advantage of. Only divide plants where each division will have at least three back bulbs and each division should have at least one new growth. If your division has less than three back bulbs then it may not have enough strength to flower the following season and may take three or more years to come back to flowering size. Division of plants is best undertaken in the early spring just as new growth starts, this will ensure that each division has a full growing season to establish itself so that it can flower the following season.

Here we show you the step by step process of splitting a Beallara but the same process can be used on most of the orchids which have back bulbs such as Odontoglossum and types, Cymbidium, Coelogyne and Miltonia plus the clump forming varieties such as Dracula, Masdevallais and Paphiopedilums.

BACK BULBS Back bulb propagation is a method of producing a new plant from old previously flowered or unflowered back pseudobulbs which are usually leafless, plants grown this way may take 2 to 3 years or more to reach flowering size. Another simple method of propagation but this one may take many years to obtain a flowering size plant. Essentially the process involves the removal of older back bulbs - preferably at re potting time - and placing them under 'ideal' growing conditions to induce rooting. If you can induce a back bulb to throw out roots then you are half way to obtaining a new plant. It is important to remember though when removing back bulbs that in order to keep the parent plant at flowering size that it, or any divisions should still have at least two good back bulbs and a growth. Because the bulb is grown from the same plant what you will be left with is the same plant in two different pots, not strictly a clone but the idea is the same as both or all of the plants will be identical (they are actually all the same plant) and so this is an ideal way for the amateur to obtain many plants from their favourite Cymbidium for example.

KEIKI Keiki's are produced by Phalaenopsis orchids, a keiki is a small plant that grows on a node along the flower spike where under normal circumstances a new branch would develop.

AERIAL CUTTINGS Aerial cuttings are very common on many of the cane Dendrobiums such as Nobile. If placed under stressful growing conditions then some Dendrobiums will instead of developing flower buds will produce small plants in their place - fine for increasing your stock but not if you want flowers! Aerial cuttings are very easy to take as the plant is almost fully grown before being removed from the parent plant. Since this type of propagation does not involve fertilization the new plant will be the same as it's parent. MERISTEM OR TISSUE CULTURE

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Clearly the plant prefers this but when keeping it on a windowsill it quickly becomes obvious that it is not a tidy plant to look at . you can of course buy flasks of the finished tissue cultures for growing on but this process will take between 3 and 5 years to get a flowering size plant. dying leaves need tearing down the central vein in the leaf. This Phalaenopsis orchid is in desperate need of re potting. This method is often used to mass produce a specific hybrid for commercial purposes.the remedy is in hand! The first thing you need to do is remove the old flowering spikes and dead or dying leaves.com/on4/angelorchids/PropagatingOrchidsnew.htm Meristem culture is done under laboratory conditions as extreme cleanliness and sterility are required otherwise all attempts will fail. Meristem tissue culture is not really suitable for attempting at home as the sterility usually can't be achieved. They are quite resilient orchids and do not mind careful root trimming so long as they get the required temperature and humidity afterwards. in this case the plant also has a current spike which I am prepared to loose as it's almost finished anyway.Propagating Orchids http://www. Orchid seed is almost like dust and unlike ordinary seed which has a starchy food within it to sustain the growing seedling.19 months.angelfire. To do this you need to carefully make a small tear right at the tip of the leaf and then pull each half in opposite directions right down to the stem. orchid seed has none and so special techniques are required to sustain it during the formative early stages of its development. 2 de 15 08/09/2010 13:29 . This is a highly skilful and scientific method of propagation where the very growing centre of a new growth bud is taken and grown on by agitating constantly in a special nutrient rich liquid until the cell mass is large enough to be split in to small sections these are then either grown on in to plants or the process is repeated to produce even more tissue for growing on. SEED Again this is a technique better suited to laboratory conditions as absolute sterility is needed for success. a South American species Re Potting Orchids Most orchids will require re potting every 12 . the plant is on one side (as they tend to do) and the compost is beginning to break down Back to the top Re Potting Phalaenopsis Orchids Phalaenopsis orchids will require re potting every 12 . This plant is growing out of its pot in classic fashion. Any dead leaves are easily removed as they will have broken away from the plant on their own. note the excess of aerial roots and the leaves and flowers growing out at a strange angle.18 months as they continually strive to get out of their pots and assume the more natural 45 degree angle. DE FLASKING ORCHID SEEDLINGS If you have your own home grown seedlings or you've just bought a flask here are some guidelines for getting the small orchids out of the glass jar in a process known as 'de flasking' Here's a session De Flasking a jar of Cattleya jenmanii. Here we will show you the correct procedure and time of year you should do it.

The outer covering of live roots is also firmly attached to the core but a dead roots outer covering simply slips off whilst holding it leaving a kind of thin wire behind. You should add a small quantity of large chunks of bark to the base of the pot to act as a kind of pot crock. Once you have the plant out of the pot it is a good time to take a look and see if there are any pest on it. This is because they have formed an outer skin which is designed to take water from the atmosphere rather than in compost. use the very base of the plant to hold on to during this process.com/on4/angelorchids/PropagatingOrchidsnew. Phalaenopsis orchids will often have dead roots under the surface. this is perfectly normal and you can tell the difference easily. you could also use pieces of polystyrene. Tip the plant on its site and squeeze the sides of the pot to loosen the old compost then carefully but firmly pull out the plant.Propagating Orchids http://www. Any overly long aerial roots should be trimmed back as they will not function in the potting medium and may rot and kill the plant. the difference between bark and compost is that orchid compost has added peat and will need watering less often whereas bark is just the bark on its own.angelfire. Now that the plant is more manageable it is time to remove it from the pot. The 'compost' used in this procedure is large grade orchid bark or orchid compost. in this case all is clear. If your plant has any pests then you should remove them and treat the plant with the appropriate substance. 3 de 15 08/09/2010 13:29 .htm The old flowering spikes need removing as close to the stem as possible to prevent them from starting a rotting process. Live roots are white/grey and dead ones are brown.

Propagating Orchids http://www. 4 de 15 08/09/2010 13:29 . One thing that really helps with the stability of a newly potted orchid is making sure that the roots are in contact with the compost.htm Once you have established that the roots are alive and that there are no pests on the plant is it time to position it in the pot.com/on4/angelorchids/PropagatingOrchidsnew. Give the newly potted plant a good watering of fresh water and then again in 15 minutes time. The finished article.angelfire. make sure to compact is very well to hold the plant in position once you let go and that all the roots are in the compost. All that's needed now is labelling of the plant so you know what variety or species it is. Don't be tempted to over pot the plant as this will cause unused compost to sour and you could loose the plant. if in doubt use a smaller pot rather than a larger one. It is very difficult to over compact orchid bark or orchid compost so please don't be afraid to press firmly as a loose plant will have difficulty getting established. As the compost is very open you may need to go around the roots and add smaller chunks to pack in between the roots. Keep the newly potted plant out of direct sunlight and more humid (spray lightly twice a day at 9am and 3 pm) for around three weeks. don't use any fertilizer as you want the plant to send out roots rather than growing. In this case we have washed the pot and are re using it as it is the right size for the plant. in less than 5 minutes you will have extended the life of your Phalaenopsis orchid and given is a good foundation on which to flower again. Now is the time to add your preferred potting medium.

Some orchids don't have white roots though and it is important to be able to differentiate between the two. The reason for this is that the roots have died and the plant can not take up the water so it does indeed die due to lack of water!.Propagating Orchids http://www. Masdevallias and Paphiopedilums. 5 de 15 08/09/2010 13:29 . in the photograph opposite you can clearly see where the left part of the plant has grown away from the right side of the plant. Here we are dividing a Beallara City of Glasgow 'Langley Pride' AM/RHS but you can use this method on almost any plant which grows pseudobulbs such as Odontoglossum and types.angelfire. This loosening will show you where to divide the plant. Paphiopedilums have dark brown or even black roots naturally but the roots are firm to the touch and not soft as is the case with a rotten root. If in doubt leave it a week. This plant has reached the limit for this size pot and is in need of division or repotting. Gently pull the plant in opposite directions making sure that each part has at least 3 bulbs and one new growth. the aim of doing this is to establish where the plant has a natural split. Coelogyne and Miltonia plus the clump forming varieties such as Dracula. Cymbidium. It involves finding the natural break between the two or more parts of the plant and dividing down this natural split.htm Division is a very simple way of propagating your favorite species or variety of orchid. (see opposite) if your roots are not white then it could be due to over watering. The plant is in need of either dividing or repotting when the new growths have reached the very edge of the pot and any future growth has to take place outside the edge of the pot above left After removing the pot you should see plenty of white roots which have filled and used used the compost.com/on4/angelorchids/PropagatingOrchidsnew. Don't use this method with plants that are bulbless though as they have no water store built in and will wilt due to 'genuine' water loss. An orchid plant with bulbs can survive for quite some time without watering but will not tolerate being over watered and will in fact wilt giving the impression that it needs watering more.

6 de 15 08/09/2010 13:29 .Propagating Orchids http://www. That's the scary bit over with! You should now assemble the repotting kits which comprises of: Your division A pot with sufficient space for two seasons growth A suitable grade of orchid compost . if you want. Many of the ferns you may find growing in orchid pots are very suitable as house plants in their own right and can.com/on4/angelorchids/PropagatingOrchidsnew.weeds . Cut the dead roots off right up to the base of the plant and this will ensure that they don't rot upwards and affect the rhizome or bulbs. You will now be left with 2 or more divisions of the same plant each with at least 3 bulbs and one new growth . add some larger pieces of bark or some polystyrene chunks in to the bottom to allow swift drainage.for that is what they are should be removed otherwise they will quickly clog up the open compost mix with their 'normal' root system and use up and nutrients you give the plant. soggy.htm Once you have established where the natural split is you can apply stronger pressure to split the plant fully in to two or more parts. This is also the time to remove any ferns or other plants growing in the pot .see opposite Back to the top Re planting an Odontoglossum orchid. Coelogyne or Cymbidium You will now need to remove the old compost from around the roots and trim away any brown. preferably sterilized knife. If the plant has a strong rhizome connecting the two parts then you can use a sharp. Carefully trim back any white growing roots to about 4 inches and use them to help anchor the plant in the new compost. dead roots.more The label for the plant Starting with a clean pot. be potted and given to friends as gifts. to cut through it so that uncontrolled ripping doesn't occur.angelfire.

angelfire. An orchid which wobbles in it's pot will not root well and will not re establish itself. The open nature of the compost will prevent you from over compacting it so don't be afraid to apply pressure.htm Here we are using the former. thicker rooted orchids such as Cymbidiums will require a large grade compost. Using your thumbs press heavily on the compost to compact is sufficiently to hold the plant steady. do this twice with 2 hours between to ensure the compost is damp and then leave it for two to three weeks before watering again. Congratulations you have just divided your plant and you can use this technique on several varieties of orchid including: Cymbidiums Paphoiopedilums Odontoglossums and types Draculas Masdevalias and any other 'grassy' type orchids 7 de 15 08/09/2010 13:29 . Don't put the plant in the centre of the pot but position it in such a way that the new growth is in the centre. Make sure that the bulbs rest on the surface of the compost and are not buried in it.com/on4/angelorchids/PropagatingOrchidsnew. this will ensure that there is sufficient space in front of the plant to allow for 2 growing seasons. Ease the roots in to the pot and spread them evenly to ensure that the plant will be securely anchored. The easiest way of adding compost is to hold the plant in one hand whilst filling the pot with compost using the other. They may need pulling up a little to get the level just right. Finally label your new plant and give it a good soaking from the top. During the first 6 to 8 weeks keep the plant in a shady position and leave well alone (other than watering) to give the new brittle roots time to get a hold in the new compost After about 6 weeks you will see new roots emerging and the plant will be fully established after approximately 10 weeks. Use an appropriate grade of compost dependant on the type of orchid. here we are using a medium grade orchid compost as this plant has relatively thin roots and so they will be able to get hold of it easily.Propagating Orchids http://www.

Masdevallais and Paphiopedilums.see opposite After removing the pot you should see plenty of living roots which have filled and used used the compost. Because it is difficult to tell living roots from dead ones just by looking at them you must feel the roots. As the plant may have been in it's pot for a couple of years the root ball may be compacted with the roots following the shape of the pot. Coelogyne and Miltonia plus the clump forming varieties such as Dracula. It is important to note that most orchids have white roots and brown ones usually indicate that the root is dead or dying but in the case of Paphiopedilums this is normal.Propagating Orchids http://www.com/on4/angelorchids/PropagatingOrchidsnew. The plant is in need of either dividing or repotting when the new growths have reached the very edge of the pot and any future growth has to take place outside the edge of the pot . This loosening will show you where to divide the plant. gently squeeze the root ball turning it 45 degrees and squeezing it again. Cymbidium. This plant has reached the limit for this size pot and is in need of division or repotting.htm Masdevalias and any other grassy type orchids Back to the top Division of Paphiopedilum Orchids Division is a very simple way of propagating your favorite species or variety of orchid. Continue with this process until the root ball has loosened off.angelfire. (see opposite) . It involves finding the natural break between the two or more parts of the plant and dividing down this natural split. Living roots will be firm to the touch and be quite stiff. 8 de 15 08/09/2010 13:29 . in the photograph above you can clearly see where the left part of the plant has grown away from the right side of the plant. Here we are dividing a Paphiopedilum but you can use this method on almost any plant which grows pseudobulbs such as Odontoglossum and types. dead ones on the other hand will feel soft and floppy or even hollow. The roots of Paphiopedilums have brown or even black roots with lighter or white tips.

to cut through it so that uncontrolled ripping doesn't occur.weeds .com/on4/angelorchids/PropagatingOrchidsnew. soggy. be potted and given to friends as gifts.see opposite Repotting Paphiopedilum Orchids You will now need to remove the old compost from around the roots and trim away any brown. Cut the dead roots off right up to the base of the plant and this will ensure that they don't rot upwards and affect the rhizome.angelfire. Avoid breaking or cutting any shorter roots as these will be the ones that will establish the plant first. You will now be left with 2 or more divisions of the same plant each with at least 3 bulbs and one new growth . the aim of doing this is to establish exactly where the plant has a natural split. Carefully trim back any growing roots to about 4 inches and use them to help anchor the plant in the new compost.Propagating Orchids http://www. preferably sterilized knife. dead roots .see notes above.for that is what they are should be removed otherwise they will quickly clog up the open compost mix with their 'normal' root system and use up and nutrients you give the plant. Many of the ferns you may find growing in orchid pots are very suitable as house plants in their own right and can. See below If the plant has a strong rhizome connecting the two parts then you can use a sharp. if you want. See below That's the scary bit over with! You should now assemble the repotting kits which comprises of: Your division A pot with sufficient space for two seasons growth A suitable grade of orchid compost . Once you have established where the natural split is you can apply stronger pressure to split the plant fully in to two or more parts.htm Gently pull the plant in opposite directions making sure that each part has at least 3 old growths and one new growth.more The label for the plant 9 de 15 08/09/2010 13:29 . This is also the time to remove any ferns or other plants growing in the pot .

Propagating Orchids The label for the plant Starting with a clean pot. do this twice with 2 hours between to ensure the compost is damp and then leave it for two to three weeks before watering again. Keep both the 'cutting' and the parent in a higher humidity until new growth is seen. http://www.angelfire. Don't put the plant in the centre of the pot but position it in such a sufficiently to hold the plant steady. Add compost to fill in around Using your thumbs press heavily on the compost to compact is the roots as you are going. ALWAYS make sure that the plant you are using for propagation will be left with at least two back bulbs (or back growths) and a new growth. Congratulations you have just divided your plant and you can use this technique on several varieties of orchid including: Cymbidiums Paphiopedilums Odontoglossums and types Dracula's Masdevallais and any other 'grassy' type orchids Back to the top Back Bulb Propagation of Orchids Propagation by back bulb is an excellent way of increasing your stock of a particular variety or cultivar. This process involves the complete removal of the back bulbs either previously flowered or unflowered and so is quite a shock to the parent plant. During the first 6 to 8 weeks keep the plant in a shady position and leave well alone (other than watering) to give the new brittle roots time to get a hold in the new compost After about 6 weeks you will see new roots emerging and the plant will be fully established after approximately 10 weeks. Here we are using a Beallara which has become too large for it's pot and is need of repotting. a weak plant will probably not survive the shock of having its older food stores removed and it's roots trimmed. This is unlikely to occur in cultivation as we tend them all year round giving them the optimum conditions for growth and so really the back bulbs can be removed without too many problems provided a few basic rules are adhered to. thicker rooted orchids such as Cymbidiums will require a large grade compost. Finally label your new plant and give it a good soaking from the top. add some larger pieces of bark or some polystyrene chunks in to the bottom to allow swift drainage. Make sure that the bulbs rest on the surface of the compost and Ease the roots in to the pot and spread them evenly to ensure that are not buried in it. They may need pulling up a little to get the level just right. the back bulbs are the plants store of food and water for use in times of drought or a bad season. Only remove bulbs from plants which are healthy and strong. The process does have the advantage though of being straight forward.com/on4/angelorchids/PropagatingOrchidsnew. this will ensure that there compost will prevent you from over compacting it so don't be afraid to apply pressure. Often used with Cymbidiums it will take between 3 to 4 years to obtain a flowering size plant from a single back bulb. this will keep it at flowering size and it will be capable of flowering in the following season. The open nature of the way that the new growth is in the centre. Use an appropriate grade of compost dependant on the type of orchid. Any new roots and bulbs the plant 10 de 15 08/09/2010 13:29 . establish itself.htm The easiest way of adding compost is to hold the plant in one hand whilst filling the pot with compost using the other. is sufficient space in front of the plant to allow for 2 growing An orchid which wobbles in it's pot will not root well and will not re seasons. here we are using a medium grade orchid compost as this plant has relatively thin roots and so they will be able to get hold of it easily. the plant will be securely anchored. it is however a slow method if flowering sized plants are required.

There are now two choices open to you. see below If using the plastic bag method place the bulbs in individual bags If you are using the pot method use a bark mix is which is fine grade. this will kill off any bacteria which may be present. Place the bulbs in the pot by just pushing 11 de 15 08/09/2010 13:29 . if one bulb starts to rot then this will ensure it doesn't spread to the other bulbs also make sure you bulbs sitting in wet compost. . See opposite The clump of bulbs can now be separated in to individual bulbs by slicing carefully through the rhizome which connects the bulbs to each other. We are now left with some older back bulbs which in this instance are leafless. Remove the plant from it's pot and carefully remove the old compost and dead roots. You can now pot up the leading growths as described in the Division section. Here the plant has 2 good leading growths each with sufficient back bulbs to remain flowering size once the spare bulbs are removed. you can either place the cleaned bulbs individually in to clear plastic bags of moist (not wet!) compost or sphagnum moss and hang them in the highest and warmest part of the greenhouse (see opposite) or you can place the bulbs in individual pots of fine grade compost.angelfire. Wash the bulbs in a 5 percent solution of either household bleach or Milton Fluid. Remove any dead roots from the bulbs as these can cause rotting and the bulb may rot before any growth can start. Take care not to damage the dormant buds (eyes) which are at the base of the bulb. Carefully examine the plant and establish which bulbs you will be leaving on the main plant and which bulbs you can remove. this will hold the moisture and yet remain open enough to prevent the to avoid rotting problems.see opposite With a sharp preferably sterile knife or scissors slice behind each flowering size division cutting through the tough rhizome which connects the bulbs together.Propagating Orchids http://www. We now have individual bulbs which can now be prepared for propagation. We will be removing the bulbs as illustrated below.com/on4/angelorchids/PropagatingOrchidsnew.htm produces outside the rim will not come in to contact with the compost and so feeding will also be a problem.

You can either place them in to individual pots or in to communal trays. Congratulations . By the following spring the plants will be large enough to put in to larger pots which should have sufficient room for two years (seasons) growth. the plastic bag method takes less as they need not be disturbed until signs of roots are seen through the clear bag. If any bulbs show signs of rotting .angelfire. Once all your bulbs are in their pots water them in and place in a warm position out of direct sun and in a place that they will not be disturbed.htm the very base of the bulb in to the mixture. Put a label in each bag with the plants name and the date of the propagation. Once you have seen the bulbs have roots and/or shoots it is time to pot them on.Propagating Orchids p y put some small holes in each bag to allow the air to circulate. this first stage has taken 4 months to the day from when the bulbs were potted on.you have now produced your first orchids using the back bulb method. Put a label in each tray with the plants name and the date of the propagation. http://www. Update 07 August 2001 As you can see. this back bulb is growing away very nicely and is forming it's first pseudobulb! Update 15 October 2001 H ' th b k b lb th t k t i th l ti b A th t 12 de 15 08/09/2010 13:29 .com/on4/angelorchids/PropagatingOrchidsnew. after this two years growth they should be either flowering size or near flowering size.16 weeks you should see small shoots appearing from the base of each bulb.REMOVE THEM IMMEDIATELY! Both of the above methods work well but take differing levels of looking after. Update 08 April 2001 Here's the first signs of growth from the back bulbs from above. After a period of 12 . In either case us a medium grade compost this time and again label each pot or tray so you know what it is you're growing.

flowering size plants can be obtained within two years using this method. If you examine a Phalaenopsis flower spike you will notice along it's length approximately 2 to 3 small bracts (nodes) which are held tightly to the main stalk.Propagating Orchids http://www. small bracts and are often overlooked. (below) 13 de 15 08/09/2010 13:29 . this will harden the growths and help prevent fungal infections. A keiki is a small plant which grows from one of the nodes along the stem instead of a branch. 10 September 2001 This is a back bulb from Coelogyne massangeana which was given the 'bag' treatment back in May 2001.angelfire. usually Phalaenopsis orchids We have all seen the common 'Spider Plant' which grows new plants along adventitious out shoots. some Phalaenopsis work better than others with the Keiki paste but it is always worth having a go! After six months the plant should be large enough to remove from the parent and potted up in to it's own pot. Whether you use Keiki paste or one forms naturally 14 to 26 weeks after it first appeared you should have a small Phalaenopsis plant growing from the node (see top photo). At this point they can be removed and potted on. this will ensure that you don't damage plant to anchor it in place . As you can see it's doing well and is on the way to becoming a flowering size plant in around 3 years or less How to propagate orchids using the keiki method. The Phalaenopsis plant does a similar trick but along the flower spike where side shoots or buds may have developed.see below the roots of the Keiki.htm Here's the back bulb that was kept in the plastic bag. The reason for this is the accumulation of growth hormones at that point. Phalaenopsis grown this way should reach flowering size 18 months to 2 years after they first appeared. This bulb has produced two nice sprouts which we will be potting on soon. Under normal circumstances these small bracts will remain just that. Plants grown using this method will be duplicates (again actually the same plant) and you can leave them in place until they have a good root system and maybe two or three leaves.com/on4/angelorchids/PropagatingOrchidsnew. Carefully remove the small plant from the flower spike by cutting the stem 1 You can use the small sections of stem either side of the to 2 inches either side of the plant. When a Phalaenopsis has finished flowering you can cut the flower spike back to just above one of these 'nodes' to induce a fresh flower spike to develop from it. As soon as the sprouts are an inch high its time to burst the bag and allow atmosphere to enter. this can be either natural (as in this case) or it can be induced by the application of keiki paste which is concentrated form of the correct growth hormones.

htm Assemble the potting 'kit' which comprises of a pot large enough for 12 months growth. a medium grade potting mix. as you can see it is doing well and produced a new leaf and good roots. a label with the variety and of course the Keiki .com/on4/angelorchids/PropagatingOrchidsnew.see opposite Remember to label the plant so that you know which variety it is and the date you removed it from the parent Congratulations you have now propagated a Phalaenopsis using the Keiki method.angelfire. Here's the same Keiki on 30 June 2001.Propagating Orchids http://www. 14 de 15 08/09/2010 13:29 .

there's even a small flower spike starting from the base! Of course.. it has yet another new leaf and is now well established .com/on4/angelorchids/PropagatingOrchidsnew.angelfire. 24 April 2002 15 de 15 08/09/2010 13:29 ..Propagating Orchids http://www. the proof of the pudding.htm The same plant on 15th October 2001.

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