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ROLL NO. : 182



Signature of the student signature of the supervisor

Retail atmospherics has been a dynamic zone of study, a look
around an ordinary shopping center demonstrates numerous
retailers still don’t effectively separate their retail condition from
contenders. This is likely because of retailers thinking about the
climatic components (lighting, music, and so on.) independently
and settling on choices with respect to the components in view of
what is “standard” for their clients, stock, and organization.
Results incorporate increments in shopping satisfaction, positive
brand states of mind, and brand reliability.
The term “store atmospherics” has been studied in various ways,
atmospheric elements such as layout, colour, lighting, scent,
sound, fixtures, wall texture, temperature, width of aisles,
dressing facilities, personnel, merchandise, prices, cash register
placements, cleanliness and technologies (Berman &
Evans,1998:553). According to Liaw (2007:1), many studies have
focused on the individual factors of store environment such as
music and lighting, but none has focused on the overall store
environment cues. The primary objective of this research is to
analyze the impact of internal and external factors of retail
atmospherics on consumers that influence their shopping
behaviour. The retail atmosphere of a store is its general aura or
impression your store makes on customers based on a
combination of factors, including layout and design, lighting,
fixtures, sounds and smells. These elements are all the factors that
can be effectively used by a retail outlet to attract customers and
induce buying activity.
The above mentioned factors of internal and external retail
atmospherics, lighting, music and ambient scent; the design factor
includes stimuli that exist at the forefront of our awareness, such
as architecture, colour and materials; and the social factor refers
to social conditions represented by the number, type and
behaviour of customers and employees (Baker 1986; Bitner
1992). At the factor level of analysis, researchers manipulate
several elements belonging to the same factor to project a
particular store image (Baker, Levy and Grewal 1992; Baker,
Grewal and Parasuraman 1994).The number of features in an
analysis of retail atmospherics is wide-ranging. Shoppers respond
positively or negatively to the store layout, colours, design, signs,
price tags and special displays. Music is another important aspect;
different age groups, for instance, have different responses to
various types of music. The volume of this music as well as of
other sounds, such as announcements over store speakers, can be
unobtrusive or it can be annoying. Proper aisle width is essential
to prevent crowding. Light levels, intended and unwanted scents,
and cleanliness levels also either encourage customers to stay or
drive them out. Customer convenience in purchasing has been
extensively discussed in the service marketing literature .In one of
the studies, it is suggested that customer considers convenience
as cost which is incurred through the “expenditure of time,
physical and nervous energy, and money required to overcome
the frictions of space and time, and to obtain possession of goods
and services”- Kelly(1958). Customers also perceive social and
aesthetic as dimensions of convenience while shopping. They
expect merchandise to be presented “conveniently, informally,
and interestingly”. It was later proposed that convenience can be
considered as consisting of six dimensions namely time
utilization, accessibility, portability, appropriateness, handiness,
and avoidance of unpleasantness.

• To find out the impact of retail atmospherics on Consumer

buying behaviour.
• To find out the effect of internal retail atmospherics factors
on Consumer buying behaviour.
• To find out the effect of external retail atmospherics factors
on Consumer buying behaviour.
The research methodology essentially means the various tools
and instruments of research that has been used in order to
conduct the survey. They are as follows:
1. Sampling technique: The sampling technique that has been
used to conduct this research is non probabilistic sampling
technique in which convenience sampling was adopted.
2. Sample size: Sample size implies the number of people or
respondents on whom the analysis and research is based. The
sample size of this survey was 96 respondents.
3. Sampling frame: The sampling frame of the research involves
the residents of India only and in India it includes mostly the
people of Kolkata. Also, more than 50% of the respondents belong
to the student category in the age group of 16-25.
4. Research design: The research design that has bee used to
conduct the research is descriptive research. This method of
research has been used by obtaining both primary and secondary
5. Research instrument: The research instrument that has been
used is a survey conducted with the help of questionnaires. These
questionnaires are close ended and also some of the questions
include likert scale for ranking.
6. Data collection techniques: The data collection technique in this
project includes both primary data as well as secondary data. The
primary data has been obtained through questionnaires. The
secondary data has been collected from books and websites
containing information about the subject.
A questionnaire was formed to gather data for the analysis of the
impact created by atmospheric elements on consumer buying
behaviour. Questions were in the form of statements, and the
consumers valued their responses on the likert scale. Google
forms were used to get the required responses. There was no
target consumers, as the study intends to analyze the impact
generated by retail atmospherics on various sections of the
Method of data collection

Primary data was collected for the purpose of this study. At the end
of the data collection process, a total of 153 responses were
recorded collectively from Google forms.

Sampling Type and size

Sample type: Convenience sampling

Sample size:153

Convenience sampling is the process of sampling, where the data is

collected from sources from which data can be easily obtained from

respondents, for example, malls, households and your


Statistical design:

Reliability test- Chronbachs alpha

Correlation test-Pearsons rank correlation

Regression test- Bivariate


Shop owners around the world aim to create a store environment

which stimulates positive customer buying behaviour, and provide
elements in a shop which complement each other and help a
customer in making a thoughtful purchase decision, Mattila &
Wirtz (2008)... It has been inferred by various researchers that the
elements of retail atmospherics such as light, music, ambience,
external and internal store design, social, sensorial, and functional
elements create a psychological impact on shopper’s satisfaction,
and his desire to stay (Kotler, 1973). The required response can be
created by shops by, using these various atmospherics factors and
try to create a positive sensory stimulus in there customers. Mattila
& Wirtz (2008) confirm this in his study from which he inferred
that highly stimulating factors of store atmospherics leads to greater
impulsive buying. Regular purchases done by well-informed
customers aren’t stimulated by the store atmospherics elements,
which has been found most commonly. If a store can efficiently
utilize the controllable elements of music, lighting, scent, colours and
temperature, the probability of the consumers purchase is increased.
However, if these controllable characteristics were used incorrectly,
the likelihood that participants would rather leave a store was
enhanced (Corinne Nell, 2013). Consumer preference varies from
one person to another, hence to create a retail atmosphere which is
acceptable to a majority of consumers is a challenging task for store
managers, the most optimal and satisfying retail setting for a
particular kind of customer can be dissatisfactory for some other
group of customers, hence to have a thorough analysis of
segmenting and targeting of customers for the particular store
should be the primary objective of store managers. Store owners
should be able to customize the retail atmospheric elements in order
to create the most appealing store image for his target customer

(Paul W. Ballantine; Andrew Parsons; Katrina Comeskey 2014).

Milliman(1982); Smith and Curnow (1966)

From the studies of Milliman(1982); Smith and Curnow (1966) it was

found that the elements of store are not only beneficial for creating
an impact on the buying decision of customers, they are also useful
in creating a positive environment for employees to work in and
generate optimum results from their operations.

The elements of retail atmospherics are segregated among various

branches, and all of these branches fall in two specific categories
namely external and internal factors of retail environment.

The study has shown that when planning their in-store music,
retailers should treat this element of atmospherics in the same way
as they plan their merchandise offer, store layout , colours, lighting,
scents etc. And ensure that the various means of communication
with the target market complement one another(Beverland et al.,
2006; D’Astous,2000)