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You are on page 1of 174

M ATH E M ATI CS H I GH E R LE VE L :

SETS, RELATION S

AN D GROU PS

C O U R S E C O M PA N I O N

Josip Harcet

Lorraine Heinrichs

Palmira Mariz Seiler

Marlene Torres-Skoumal

3

Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP

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Oxford University Press, at the address above

You must not circulate this book in any other binding or cover

and you must impose this same condition on any acquirer

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

Data available

ISBN 978-0-19-830486-9

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Printed in Great Britain by Bell and Bain Ltd, Glasgow

Paper used in the production of this book is a natural, recyclable product made from wood grown in sustainable forests.

The manufacturing process conforms to the environmental regulations of the country of origin.

Acknowledgements

The publisher would like to thank the following for permission to reproduce photographs:

p3: Trajano Paiva/Alamy; p11: Diego Cervo/Shutterstock; p12l-r: Eric Pradel; p14t: Eric Pradel; p14b: OUP; p47: Private

Collection/Archives Charmet/Bridgeman Images; p88: snig/Shutterstock; p126: Science Photo Library.

Course Companion denition

The IB Diploma Programme Course Companions are mindedness, the IB learner prole and the IB Diploma

resource materials designed to support students Programme core requirements, theory o knowledge,

throughout their two-year Diploma Programme course the extended essay, and creativity, activity, service

o study in a particular subject. They will help students (CAS).

gain an understanding o what is expected rom the Each book can be used in conjunction with other

study o an IB Diploma Programme subject while materials and indeed, students o the IB are required

presenting content in a way that illustrates the purpose and encouraged to draw conclusions rom a variety o

and aims o the IB. They reect the philosophy and resources. Suggestions or additional and urther

approach o the IB and encourage a deep understanding reading are given in each book and suggestions or how

o each subject by making connections to wider issues to extend research are provided.

and providing opportunities or critical thinking.

In addition, the Course Companions provide advice and

The books mirror the IB philosophy o viewing the guidance on the specic course assessment requirements

curriculum in terms o a whole-course approach; the and on academic honesty protocol. They are distinctive

use o a wide range o resources, international and authoritative without being prescriptive.

IB mission statement

The International Baccalaureate aims to develop programmes o international education and rigorous

inquiring, knowledgable and caring young people who assessment.

help to create a better and more peaceul world through These programmes encourage students across the

intercultural understanding and respect. world to become active, compassionate, and lielong

To this end the IB works with schools, governments learners who understand that other people, with their

and international organizations to develop challenging diferences, can also be right.

The aim o all IB programmes is to develop They take responsibility or their own actions and the

internationally minded people who, recognizing their consequences that accompany them.

common humanity and shared guardianship o the Open-minded They understand and appreciate their

planet, help to create a better and more peaceul world. own cultures and personal histories, and are open to

IB learners strive to be: the perspectives, values, and traditions o other

Inquirers They develop their natural curiosity. They individuals and communities. They are accustomed to

acquire the skills necessary to conduct inquiry and seeking and evaluating a range o points o view, and

research and show independence in learning. They are willing to grow rom the experience.

actively enjoy learning and this love o learning will be

Caring They show empathy, compassion, and respect

sustained throughout their lives.

towards the needs and eelings o others. They have a

Knowledgable They explore concepts, ideas, and issues

personal commitment to service, and act to make a

that have local and global signicance. In so doing, they

positive diference to the lives o others and to the

acquire in-depth knowledge and develop understanding

environment.

across a broad and balanced range o disciplines.

Risk-takers They approach unamiliar situations and

Thinkers They exercise initiative in applying thinking

uncertainty with courage and orethought, and have

skills critically and creatively to recognize and approach

the independence o spirit to explore new roles, ideas,

complex problems, and make reasoned, ethical

and strategies. They are brave and articulate in

decisions.

deending their belies.

Communicators They understand and express ideas

and inormation condently and creatively in more Balanced They understand the importance o

than one language and in a variety o modes o intellectual, physical, and emotional balance to achieve

communication. They work efectively and willingly in personal well-being or themselves and others.

collaboration with others. Refective They give thoughtul consideration to their

Principled They act with integrity and honesty, with a own learning and experience. They are able to assess and

strong sense o airness, justice, and respect or the understand their strengths and limitations in order to

dignity o the individual, groups, and communities. support their learning and personal development.

iii

A note on academic honesty

It is o vital importance to acknowledge and What constitutes misconduct?

appropriately credit the owners o inormation Misconduct is behaviour that results in, or may

when that inormation is used in your work. Ater result in, you or any student gaining an unair

all, owners o ideas (intellectual property) have advantage in one or more assessment component.

property rights. To have an authentic piece o Misconduct includes plagiarism and collusion.

work, it must be based on your individual and

original ideas with the work o others ully Plagiarism is dened as the representation o the

acknowledged. Thereore, all assignments, written ideas or work o another person as your own.

or oral, completed or assessment must use your The ollowing are some o the ways to avoid

own language and expression. Where sources are plagiarism:

used or reerred to, whether in the orm o direct Words and ideas o another person used to

quotation or paraphrase, such sources must be support ones arguments must be

appropriately acknowledged. acknowledged.

How do I acknowledge the Passages that are quoted verbatim must be

work of others? enclosed within quotation marks and

acknowledged.

The way that you acknowledge that you have

CD-ROMs, email messages, web sites on the

used the ideas o other people is through the use

Internet, and any other electronic media must

o ootnotes and bibliographies.

be treated in the same way as books and

Footnotes (placed at the bottom o a page) or journals.

endnotes (placed at the end o a document) are to The sources o all photographs, maps,

be provided when you quote or paraphrase rom illustrations, computer programs, data, graphs,

another document, or closely summarize the audio-visual, and similar material must be

inormation provided in another document. You acknowledged i they are not your own work.

do not need to provide a ootnote or inormation

Words o art, whether music, lm, dance,

that is part o a body o knowledge. That is,

theatre arts, or visual arts, and where the

denitions do not need to be ootnoted as they

creative use o a part o a work takes place,

are part o the assumed knowledge.

must be acknowledged.

Bibliographies should include a ormal list o Collusion is dened as supporting misconduct by

the resources that you used in your work. The another student. This includes:

listing should include all resources, including

books, magazines, newspaper articles, Internet-

allowing your work to be copied or submitted

based resources, CDs and works o art. Formal or assessment by another student

means that you should use one o the several duplicating work or diferent assessment

accepted orms o presentation. You must provide components and/or diploma requirements.

ull inormation as to how a reader or viewer Other forms of misconduct include any action

o your work can nd the same inormation. that gives you an unair advantage or afects the

A bibliography is compulsory in the extended results o another student. Examples include,

essay. taking unauthorized material into an examination

room, misconduct during an examination, and

alsiying a CAS record.

iv

About the book

The new syllabus or Mathematics Higher Level Questions are designed to increase in difculty,

Option: Sets is thoroughly covered in this book. strengthen analytical skills and build condence

Each chapter is divided into lesson-size sections through understanding.

with the ollowing eatures: Where appropriate the solutions to examples are

given in the style o a graphics display calculator.

Did you know? History Mathematics education is a growing, ever

changing entity. The contextual, technology

Extension Advice integrated approach enables students to become

adaptable, lielong learners.

Note: US spelling has been used, with IB style or

The Course Companion will guide you through

mathematical terms.

the latest curriculum with ull coverage o all

topics and the new internal assessment. The

emphasis is placed on the development and

improved understanding o mathematical

concepts and their real lie application as well as

prociency in problem solving and critical

thinking. The Course Companion denotes

questions that would be suitable or examination

practice and those where a GDC may be used.

Lorraine Heinrichs has been teaching Marlene Torres-Skoumal has taught IB

mathematics or 30 years and IB mathematics or mathematics or over 30 years. During this time,

the past 1 6 years at Bonn International School. she has enjoyed various roles with the IB,

She has been the IB DP coordinator since 2002. including deputy chie examiner or HL,

During this time she has also been senior senior moderator or Internal Assessment,

moderator or HL Internal Assessment and calculator orum moderator, workshop leader,

workshop leader o the IB; she was also a and a member o several curriculum review

member o the curriculum review team. teams.

Palmira Mariz Seiler has been teaching Josip Harcet has been involved with and teaching

mathematics or over 25 years. She joined the IB the IB programme since 1 992. He has served as a

community in 2001 as a teacher at the Vienna curriculum review member, deputy chie

International School and since then has also examiner or Further Mathematics, assistant IA

worked as Internal Assessment moderator in examiner and senior examiner or Mathematics

curriculum review working groups and as a HL as well as a workshop leader since 1 998.

workshop leader and deputy chie examiner or

HL mathematics. Currently she teaches at

Colegio Anglo Colombiano in Bogota, Colombia.

v

Contents

Introduction The language o sets 3

1 .1 Set denitions and operations 4

Well-dened sets, equal sets and set diference 5

1 .2 Partitions and Venn diagrams 12

1 .3 Venn diagrams and set properties 14

Set properties 16

1 .4 The Cartesian product o two sets 21

1 .5 Relations 23

Equivalence relations 25

Modular Congruence 27

1 .6 Equivalence classes and partitions 32

Review exercise 42

Introduction Evolution o the unction concept 47

2.1 Functions as relations 48

Equality o unctions 50

Composition o unctions 59

Inverse unctions 61

2.2 Properties o unctions 66

Identity unctions 70

2.3 Binary operations 72

Properties o binary operations 76

The identity element e 78

The inverse o an element 79

The cancellation laws 81

Review exercise 83

in Mathematics 86

Introduction Group Theory 88

3.1 Groups 89

Innite groups 90

Finite groups 94

Groups o integers modulo n 98

Symmetry groups 1 00

3.2 Properties and theorems o groups and subgroups 1 05

Right and let cancellation laws or groups 1 05

Subgroups 1 08

3.3 Cyclic groups 114

Review exercise 119

vi

Chapter 4 The classifcation o groups 124

Introduction Group structures 1 26

4.1 Permutation groups 1 26

Permutations and cycle form 1 30

Properties of cycle form 1 32

4.2 Cosets and Lagranges theorem 1 35

4.3 Homomorphisms 1 39

The kernel of a homomorphism 1 42

4.4 Isomorphisms 1 44

Review exercise 1 53

Answers 156

Index 165

vii

The

1 development

of Set Theory

CHAPTER OBJECTIVES:

8.1 Finite and infnite sets; subsets; Operations on sets: union, intersection,

complement, set dierence, symmetric dierence; Venn diagrams;

De Morgans laws: distributive, associative and commutative laws or union

and intersection.

8.2 Ordered pairs: the Cartesian product o two sets; relations: equivalence

relations, equivalence classes and partitions.

You should know how to: Skills check:

1 Given that , are the roots o the 1 a Given that , are the roots o the equation

equation z2 4z + 13 = 0, nd the value z 2 4z + 1 = 0,

o ( ) + ( ), without solving

2 2

the quadratic equation. 1 1

nd the value o + .

Using Vietes ormulas or sum and

diference o roots:

b I and are the roots o 2x2 + 3x + 4 = 0,

+ = 4, = 3 show that the roots o the equation

( ) + ( )

8z2 + 7z + 8 = 0 are and without solving

= 2 + 2 either o the two given equations.

= + ( + )

2 2

= + (( + ) 2 2 )

= 4 ( 6 26) = 4

The language of sets

In this chapter we will be looking at the basic elements o set theory.

Georg Cantor, 1 9th century German mathematician who is best

known or his creation o the language o sets, explained the notion

o a set as . . . the taking together into a whole o distinct well-defned

objects o our intuition or thought. He went on to study the relation

between sets, and to do this he associated with each set a cardinal

A cardinal number

number which would help him compare sizes, not only o nite sets

is one which

but also innite ones. Stated simply, by comparing diferent innite

denotes quantity or an

sequences Cantor discovered that there are diferent sizes o innity. amount of something.

The innite size o the set o Natural numbers, made up o discrete

elements, is smaller than the innite size o the set o real numbers,

which is continuous. The Natural numbers, Integers and Rational

numbers are all said to be countable, innite and have the same size

(cardinality). He called the size o the countable innite sets 0 whereas

the innity associated with the uncountable real numbers was 1 .

He urther made a conjecture that became known as the Continuum

Hypothesis. In his conjecture Cantor says that there is no set whose size

is between 0 and 1 . Cantor never proved this, and the Continuum

Hypothesis was the rst on the amous David Hilbert list o unsolved

problems at the turn o the 20th century. Kurt Gdel and Paul Cohen

worked extensively on this conjecture between 1 930 and 1 966. Their

work changed the ocus o mathematics in the second hal o the

20th century and opened doors to many other theories.

Chapter 1 3

The Hilbert Hotel: Hotel Infnity is a thought experiment created by the Georg Cantor is known as

German mathematician David Hilbert. When Hotel Infnity frst opened, the ounder o Set Theory.

it advertised itsel as the hotel that always has room or one more guest! His doctoral thesis was

Initially everything was fne, as there were more than enough rooms or titled, In mathematics the

anyone wanting to stay. One week, however, it was an especially busy time, art o asking questions

and an infnite number o people were staying in the hotel, so it was ull! How is more valuable than

does the hotel live up to its promise, that there is always room or one more? solving problems David

At this point, Hilbert asked his riend Cantor or help in solving his hotel Hilbert (18621943)

problem. Cantor said that each guest should move to the room number that said Cantors work was,

was twice the room number they originally occupied. This way all the odd the fnest product o

numbered rooms became available. Cantor however did warn Hilbert that mathematical genius

there were situations when it would be very difcult to fnd a way o allocating and one o the supreme

rooms. For example, suppose an infnite number o buses show up at the achievements o purely

hotel, with an infnite number o people in each bus? You might want to intellectual human

research this intriguing problem, and all its dierent aspects! activity.

Much o the rst part o this chapter you will have already encountered,

since sets is the basic language o most o the mathematics you have

studied, and is also included in the Prior Learning o the Higher Level

syllabus.

A set S is a collection o objects, and i x is one o these objects

we say that x is an element o S. We denote this by x S.

For example, the subjects ofered in the IB diploma orm a set.

The number o elements in a set S is called the cardinality o the set

and we will denote it by n(S). In some books it is denoted by

card (S ) or | S| .

A nite set is one with a nite number o elements, i.e. a nite set is

one whose cardinality is a natural number. I a set has an innite

number o elements then we say that the set is innite.

The set A = {l, 3, 5, 7, 9} is nite whereas the set B = {2, 4, 6, 8, ...}

is innite.

There is exactly one set that has no elements and we call this the

empty set, denoted by = {} .

Set builder notation is a mathematical notation used to describe Set builder notation

sets, whether fnite or infnite. The ollowing examples consists of three parts

illustrate this: within curly brackets: a

variable, a vertical line

A = {l, 3, 5, 7, 9} in set builder notation becomes

(or a colon) and any

A = { x | x = 2 n 1, n + , n 5 } restrictions on the

variable.

B = {2, 4, 6, 8, ...} in set builder notation becomes

B = { x | x = 2 n, n + }

journey so ar. Here is a list o them using the IB symbols or the sets:

The integers = { 0 , 1, 2 , 3 , }

The positive integers + = {1, 2, 3, }

The negative integers

= { 1, 2, 3, }

p

The rational numbers = p, q , q 0 Note that Q + can also be

q described as

p p

+ = p, q

The positive rational numbers + = p, q + q

q

2 0

The complex numbers = { a + ib | a, b , i = 1 }

Defnition

A set S is said to be well-defned i or any given x, we can

determine i x belongs to the set.

well-defned set because given any number n + we can determine

whether n P or n P .

S o for the set P , 5 P , 1 P , 5 9 P . Although 59 is a prime number

it is greater than 50 and thereore not in P.

Chapter 1 5

The set T = {x| x Z + , x is a prime number} is well-defned even

though it is infnite, because we know that any positive integer is

either prime or non-prime.

The set L = {numbers which are lucky} is not well-defned because

we do not know which numbers are lucky and which are not.

The defnition o a lucky number depends on the context.

Given two sets A and B, i every element in B is also an element

o A, we say that B is a subset o A and denote this by B A.

I all the elements o B are in A and there is at least one element

in A which is not in B then we say that B is a proper subset o A,

denoted by B A.

Defnitions

I x B x A or all x B, then B A.

I x B x A or all x B, and there is y A

such that y B, then B A.

Axiom

I a set B is a subset o A, and A is also a subset o B, then it

ollows that the two sets are equal. The converse o this is also

true, i.e. i A and B are equal sets then A is a subset o B, and

B is a subset o A.

The empty set is a subset o any given set. We say that is a for if and only if .

trivial subset. Another trivial subset o any given set is the set Whenever we need

itsel. to prove a statement

containing we need

to prove both ways,

i.e. and .

Denitions

A set containing all the elements under discussion is called the

universal set and is denoted by U.

all those elements that are in U but not in S,

i.e. S = { x U | x S } .

up o those elements which are in both A and in B,

i.e. A B = { x | x A and x B } .

Similarly A B B .

those elements which are either in A, in B, or in both A and B,

i.e. A B = { x | x A or x B } .

I A B = then A and B are said to be disjoint sets.

The set consisting o those elements that are in set A but not in

set B is called the set diference B rom A denoted by A \ B,

i.e. A \ B = { x | x A and x B } .

In Example 4 you will fnd the proo that A \ B = A B .

and consists o those elements which are either in A, in B, but not

in both A and B,

i.e. A B = { x | x A or x B , x A B } = ( A \ B ) ( B \ A ) .

on two fnite sets.

Chapter 1 7

Example 1

and B = {2, 4, 8, 1 6, 32, 64} .

Find:

a AB

b AB

c A\B

d AB

e (A B )\(A B )

Comment upon your results.

a A B = {2, 4, 6, 8, 1 0, 1 2, 1 4, 1 6, 32, 64} List all elements that are in A or in B.

b A B = {2, 4, 8, 1 6} List the elements that are in both A and B.

c A \ B = {6, 1 0, 1 2, 1 4} List the elements which are in A but not in B.

d A B = {6, 1 0, 1 2, 1 4, 32, 64} List the elements that are in A or B, but not in

both A and B.

e (A B) \ (A B) = {6, 1 0, 1 2, 1 4, 32, 64} List the elements that are in A B but not in

From the results of parts d and e, we see that: A B.

A B = (A B) \ (A B)

In the next example the sets are described using set builder notation.

Example 2

A = { x| x + , x < 1 0} , B = { y| y ,| y| 5 } , C = { z| z , z 1 5} .

List the elements in the following sets:

a AB

b AC

c C\ B

d AB

B = {5, 4, 3, 2, 1 , 0, 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5}

C = {0, 1 , 2, 3, 4, . . . , 1 5}

b A C = {0, 1 , 2, 3, ..., 1 5} = C that A C.

c C \ B = {6, 7, 8, ..., 1 5}

d A B = {5, 4, 3, 2, 1 , 0, 6, 7, 8, 9}

The next example deals with subsets o a fnite set.

Example 3

Given that S = { x| x = 2 n 1, n +

, n 4 } , list all the proper subsets o S.

The proper subsets o S are: List all the proper subsets o S. Note that

{1 } , {3} , {5} , {7} , the empty set and { 1, 3, 5, 7} are not

{1 , 3} , {1 , 5} , {1 , 7} , {3, 5} , {3, 7} , {5, 7} , proper subsets o S.

{l, 3, 5} , {1 , 3, 7} , {1 , 5, 7} , {3, 5, 7}

Investigation

The power set, P(S ), o a fnite set S with n elements is the set

o all subsets o S including the empty set and S itsel.

a Find the number o sets in the power set o S when n(S ) = 0 to 4.

b Make a conjecture about the number o sets in the power set o S.

c Check that your conjecture works or n(S ) = 5.

One method to show that two sets A and B are equal is called the

containment method, or the double inclusion method.

To show that two sets A and B are equal we need to show both

containment conditions, i.e. A B and B A.

The ollowing example illustrates how to use the double inclusion

method to show that two statements are equal.

Example 4

Show that A \ B = A B

Let x A \ B Use the double inclusion method.

x A and x B Working rom let to right.

x A and x B Denition o set diference.

x A B . Denition o complement.

Thereore A \ B A B . Denition o intersection.

x A and x B Denition o intersection.

x A and x B Denition o complement.

x A\B Denition o set diference.

A B A \ B

Since A \ B A B and A B A \ B,

it ollows that A \ B = A B .

Chapter 1 9

Example 5 illustrates how to use the double inclusion method

to show that two sets are equal.

Example 5

Show that A = B.

Let x A Use the double inclusion method.

x = 5m + 2, m Z.

Let m = k 1. Since m is an integer, k is also an integer.

Then x = 5(k 1) + 2 = 5k 3.

Thereore A B.

Let x B

x = 5m 3, m Z.

Let m = k + 1. Since m is an integer, k is also an integer.

Then x = 5(k + 1) 3 = 5k + 2.

Thereore B A.

Since A B and B A it ollows that A = B.

Example 6

Prove that the power set o a fnite set S with n elements has exactly 2 n elements.

Method I

By defnition, the power set o S is the set o all

subsets o S including the empty set and S itsel.

We can count these subsets as ollows: The number

n

o subsets containing no elements is given by .

0

The number o subsets containing only one element

n

is given by .

1

The number o subsets containing only 2 elements

n

is given by , etc.

2

The total number o subsets is thereore given by: Use the binomial expansion of

(1 + x) n with x = 1.

n n n n

+ + + + =2 .

n

0 1 2

n

Method II

Let P(Sn) denote the power set of a set S with n

elements and let | P(Sn)| denote the order of P(Sn),

i.e. the number of elements in the power set.

Proof by induction:

Pn:| P(Sn)| = 2 n

When n = 0, S0 = which has only one subset. Write down the statement.

LHS = | P(S0)| = 1 Prove that the statement is true or n = 0.

RHS = 20 = 1

So P0 is true.

Assume that Pk is true for some k 0, since we have Assume that statement is true or n = k.

started with 0, i.e. | P(Sk)| = 2 k. When we add

another element to S, n = k + 1 . Then Sk+1 consists Show using assumption that the

of all those subsets that do not contain the new statement is true or n = k + 1.

element, i.e. 2k subsets, and all those other subsets

which contain it, i.e. another 2 k possible subsets.

This gives us a total of 2 2 k = 2 k+1 subsets.

Since we proved that P0 is true and we showed that Write fnal statement.

if Pk is true Pk+1 is also true it follows by the

principle of mathematical induction that

Pn:| P(Sn)| = 2 n for all n 0.

development o set theory in

the early 20th century was plagued

by some thorny questions, the

most amous o these posed by

the eminent philosopher Bertrand

Russell, and known as Russells

Paradox. The problem he posed

was to fnd the set o all sets that

do not contain themselves as

members. The reason it is a

paradox is easy to see in the

well-known Barbers paradox, which

poses the question: " Suppose

there is one barber in town and he

shaves all the men in town, except or those who shave themselves. Who shaves the barber?

I he shaves himsel, then he contradicts his job description. I he doesnt shave himsel, he goes against

his mandate to shave all those men who do not shave themselves. This paradox arises because Russell

tries to fnd the set containing all sets. Such paradoxes led to a ormal axiomatic system o sets.

Chapter 1 11

Exercise 1A

1 Given that A = {a, b, c, d, e} , B = {a, e, i, o, u} and

C = {b, c, d, f, g} , list the elements o the ollowing:

a A\B b B\ A c AB

d (A B) \ (A C ) e A (B C ).

a A B= B A b A B = B A.

(C \ A ) (C \ B ) = C \ (A B ).

4 Given that A B and B C, prove that A C.

The picture on the let above shows a collection o seashells. On the right,

the seashells have been organized by type. All the seashells rom the

let-hand picture are in the right-hand picture but each seashell belongs

to only one subset determined by its type. The seashells have been

partitioned into sets which are disjoint but together make up the whole set.

Defnition

A partition o a set A is another set P made up o non-empty

subsets o A which are disjoint and whose union makes up the

Ai = A

whole set.

means the union

Another partition would be P = {{l, 2} , {3} } .

In act there are only fve partitions o the set {l, 2, 3} , the other

partitions being {{l, 3} , {2} } , {{l} , {2} , {3} } and {{1 ,2,3} } .

If A = {all the countries of the world} , one partition would be

P = {all the continents} provided we assume that each country

belongs to only one continent.

Example 7

Let W = {all the countries of the world} .

Determine which of the following subsets of W form a partition:

a A = {countries in Africa} b A = {any country whose name begins with a

B = {countries in N and S America} vowel}

C = {countries in Europe} B = {any country whose name contains the

D = {countries in Asia} letter a}

E = {countries in Australasia} C = {any country whose name starts with a

consonant}

a The given sets form a partition of W. The sets represent all the continents and each

country belongs to one continent only.

b The given sets do not form a partition. The sets in a partition must be disjoint.

Armenia, for example, is in both set A

and set B.

Example 8

Let S = {all subjects that can be chosen for an Extended Essay} .

Consider the sets A = {all subjects in group } D = {all subjects in group 4}

B = {all subjects in group 2} E = {all subjects in group 5}

C = {all subjects in group 3} F = {all subjects in group 6}

Determine whether the sets A to F partition the set S.

The given sets do not partition S because the The sets in a partition must be disjoint.

subject Environmental Systems and Societies

falls into group 3 and group 4.

Exercise 1B

1 A deck of playing cards contain 52 cards. These are divided into

two red suits (hearts and diamonds) and two black suits (spades

and clubs). Each suit contains 13 cards representing the numbers

1 to 10 plus three picture cards (Jack, Queen and King). The picture

on the next page shows a deck of cards partitioned into 4 suits.

List a further two ways in which you could partition a deck of cards.

Chapter 1 13

2 Let S = {l, 2, 3, . . . , 9} . Determine whether each o the ollowing is

a partition o S.

a P = {{1, 2, 3, 9} , {4, 5, 6} , {7, 8} }

a {{ x| x = 2 n , n } , { x| x = 2 n + 1, n }}

b {{ x| x = 4 n , n } , { x| x = 4 n + 1, n } , { x| x = 4 n + 2, n } , { x| x = 4 n + 3, n }}

4 Give examples with the given properties o a partition P on the set R.

a P divides R into a fnite and an infnite set.

b P divides R into two infnite sets.

c P divides R into an infnite number o sets.

Venn diagrams are named ater the logician and philosopher John Venn.

It may well be that these types o diagram were used earlier than his

time. In act Venn diagrams are very similar to Euler diagrams which were

frst used by Leonhard Euler a century earlier.

glass window rom

Gonville and Caius

College, Cambridge.

Venn diagrams are very useul or showing relationships between

diferent sets. A Venn diagram consists o a rectangle representing

the universal set U, and circles inside the rectangle to represent the

sets under consideration. The ollowing Venn diagrams represent the

operations and relationships described above them. You should

remember that a correct Venn diagram provides an illustration o a

statement but does not constitute a ormal proo.

U U

A'

A A B

AB A B=

U U

A B A B

U U

A B A B

As previously seen, one way o showing that two sets are equal is by

the containment or double inclusion method. Example 9 involves

using the double inclusion method, which means establishing that

i x is an element o the set on the LHS, then it is also an element o

the set on the RHS, and vice versa.

Beore you start with the ormal proo it is useul to draw a Venn diagram.

This will help you visualize what you are aiming to prove.

Chapter 1 15

Example 9

Show that ( A B ) = A B

and right hand side of the equation to help

U

illustrate what you are asked to prove.

A B

A B

U

A B

x A B Start by showing that ( A B ) A B.

x A and B Since A B is made up of elements that

are in both A and in B it follows that an

x A or x B element which is not in this set is either not in

x A B A or not in B or not in both.

Therefore ( A B ) A B

x A or x B

x A and B Since x is missing from A or B or both it cannot

x A B be in the intersection.

x ( A B )

Therefore A B ( A B )

Thus we conclude that A B = ( A B )

laws states that (A B) = A B. The proof is left as an exercise.

Set properties

Before we move on, we need to prove some properties of sets that will

be used in the rest of the book. The following theorem concerns

properties that may seem trivial. These basic properties will be required

for proofs of less obvious results.

Theorem 1

For any non-empty set A U the ollowing statements hold:

i AA=A ii A =

iii A A = U iv A A =

v AA=A vi A U = U

vii A U = A viii A = A

Proofs:

i For all x in A x A and x A, it ollows that A A = A .

ii By the defnition o intersection we know that A B B .

I we let B = then this becomes A .

But by defnition A , since the empty set is a trivial subset o any set.

It thereore ollows that A = (double inclusion).

iii x A A

x A (U \ A ), by defnition o complement

x A or x U \ A, by defnition o union

x U, by defnion o the universal set

A A U

By defnition o the universal set

x U x A or x A

x A or x A , by defnition o complement

x A A , by defnition o union

U A A

Since A A U and U A A it ollows that A A = U .

For any two sets A and B the ollowing statements are true:

i AB=BA ii AB=BA

associative property or intersection and union. Again this property is very

useul when proving other relations between sets.

For any three non-empty sets A, B and C, the ollowing

statements are true:

i A ( B C) = ( A B) C

ii A ( B C) = ( A B) C

Chapter 1 17

Proof of i : This proo is carried out using double inclusion.

i LHS:

x A (B C)

x A and x ( B C ) , by defnition o intersection

x A and x B and x C , by defnion o intersection

( x A and x B ) and x C

x A B and x C

x ( A B) C

A ( B C) ( A B) C

RHS:

x ( A B) C

x ( A B ) and x C , by defnition o intersection

x A and x B and x C, by defnition o intersection

x A and ( x B and x C )

x A and x ( B C )

x A (B C)

( A B) C A (B C)

Since A ( B C ) ( A B ) C and

( A B ) C A ( B C ),

There are similarities between these

it ollows that A ( B C ) = ( A B ) C.

properties and the associative and

The proo o ii is let as an exercise. distributive properties of addition and

multiplication of real numbers.

Another useul property when establishing urther For all a , b , c :

relations between sets is the distribution o a+b=b+a

intersection over union and vice versa. Proo o ab = ba

the distributive law is ound in the next theorem. a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c

a ( b + c ) = a b + bc

For any three non-empty sets A, B and C the

With set operations, both intersection and

ollowing statements are true:

union behave like addition and multiplication.

i A (B C) = ( A B) ( A C) For this reason we have two distributive

Intersection is distributive over union. properties, one for union over intersection

and one for intersection over union. This

ii A (B C) = ( A B) ( A C)

is important for the study of algebraic

Union is distributive over intersection.

structures where the focus is on the

Proof: (Once more we shall use the double inclusion similarities (and differences) of properties of

method for part i. Part ii is included in the next exercise. ) different operations acting on different sets.

i For all x A ( B C )

x A and x B C Defnition o intersection

x A and ( x B or x C ) Defnition o union

( x A and x B ) or ( x A and x C ) Rearranging within context

18 The development of Set Theory

x A B or x A C

x ( A B) ( A C)

Thereore A ( B C ) ( A B ) ( A C ).

For all x ( A B ) ( A C ),

x A B or x A C. Defnition o union

( x A and B ) or ( x A and C ) Defniton o intersection

x A and ( x B or x C ) There are dierent set

theories. The one we cover

x A and x B C in the HL syllabus is Naive Set

x A (B C) Theory. This set theory is defned

inormally using natural language

Thereore (A B) (A C) A (B C).

and properties o Boolean

Hence by the double inclusion principle Algebra rather than the ormal

A ( B C ) = ( A B) ( A C ). axioms o Symbolic Logic.

than by using the double inclusion method. The previous theorems

are essential when proving complex results, especially when the

double inclusion method becomes too cumbersome. This is

illustrated in the next example.

Example 10

Given two non-empty sets A and B, show that:

a A ( A B ) =

b ( A \ B ) ( B \ A ) = ( A B ) ( A B )

a A ( A B ) = A ( A B ) De Morgans Law

= ( A A ) B Associative property.

= B With the addition o the proposed

= statements in Theorem 1, we can state

that: A A' = .

b RHS

= ( A B ) ( A B ) = ( A B ) ( A B ) De Morgans Law.

= [ ( A B ) A ] [ ( A B ) B ] Distributive property.

= [(A A) (B A)] [(A B) (B B)] Distributive property.

= [ (B A)] [(A B) ] Denition o intersection.

= (B A) (A B) Denition o union.

= ( A B ) ( B A ) Commutative property.

= (A \ B) (B \ A) Alternative orm o symmetric

= LHS diference.

Chapter 1 19

Here is a list of rules you should remember because you will need

to use them for proving more complex properties:

A A = U

A A =

AA=A

AA=A

A ( A B) = A

A ( A B) = A

( A ) = A

= U

U =

A=A

A U= A

A=

A U= U

Commutative Laws A B = B A

AB=BA

Distributive Laws A (B C) = (A B) (A C)

A (B C) = (A B) (A C)

Associative Laws A ( B C) = ( A B) C

A ( B C) = ( A B) C

De Morgans Laws ( A B ) = A B

( A B ) = A B

Exercise 1C

1 Prove that:

a (A B) C A (B C )

b A (B C) (A B) C

(You may frst want to draw Venn diagrams to help visualize what you are

trying to prove. )

2 Prove that ( A B ) = A B .

(Hint: Use the double inclusion method used in Example 4. )

3 Prove that for all sets A, B and C :

A (B C) = ( A B) ( A C) This is the second

part of the distributive

4 Given that A and B are subsets of a universal set U, law, i.e. union is

use De Morgans laws to prove that: distributive over

a ( A B ) = A B b ( A B ) B = U intersection.

c ( A B ) B =

5 Use the double inclusion method shown in Example 4 to prove that

A B = ( A \ B) (B \ A ).

b Prove this result using the double inclusion method and the

result o question 5.

7 Prove that (( A C ) ( B C )) = ( A C ) ( B C ) ( A B )

a ( A1 A 2 A3 A n ) = A1 A 2 A3 A n

b ( A1 A 2 A3 A n ) = A1 A 2 A3 A n

In mathematics, a Cartesian product is a method which allows us to

construct a new set o multiple dimensions by combining multiple sets.

For example i we take the Cartesian product o the sets R R R

we obtain a three-dimensional set we are amiliar with, namely the

three-dimensional set o ordered triplets which was used when studying

vectors in three dimensions. In general, i we take the Cartesian product

o n sets, we obtain a representation o an n-dimensional space.

Ren Descartes rst came up with this concept when he ormulated

analytic geometry by using a Cartesian plane.

It was thanks to a common housefy that the Cartesian plane came about. Ren

Descartes, a French philosopher and mathematician, was in bed and noticed a fy

on the ceiling o his bedroom. He wondered whether he would be able to describe the

exact position o the fy to someone not in the room. Looking at a corner in the ceiling

he saw three lines and three planes which intersected at the corner. He imagined

dividing the lines into equal segments, calling the corner the origin and giving it the

value (0,0,0) and numbering the segments along each line 1, 2, 3 ...

The position o the fy in the room could then be described by three numbers.

Descartes had created a system to describe 3D space. I he used only one plane,

the ceiling, and two perpendicular lines, then the position o the fy on the ceiling

would be described by just two numbers. This was the birth o the 3D Cartesian

coordinate system as well as the Cartesian plane in 2D.

The ollowing two examples illustrate how new sets are constructed

using the Cartesian product.

I Fabienne has three blouses: plain, fowered and striped, and our pairs o

jeans: blue, red, white and green, then the total number o ways o combining

these would be the Cartesian product o the sets {blouses} and { jeans} .

B = {blouses} = { p, f, s}

J = {jeans} = {b, r, w, g}

B J = {( p, b), ( p, r), ( p, w), (p, g), ( f, b), ( f, r), ( f, w), (f, g), (s, b), (s, r), (s, w), (s, g)}

Chapter 1 21

Note that in the set denoting the Cartesian product B J, each pair

is ordered so that the frst item is a blouse and the second is a pair Global Positioning

o jeans. Systems calculate our

longitude and latitude in real

Another example o the Cartesian product would be coordinates time. Dierential GPS is an

used to locate positions on a globe, i.e. Latitude Longitude. enhancement o some GPS

Valletta, the capital city o the island o Malta, would be located at units that, in addition to orbiting

(35 53 58 N, 1 4 30 52 E). satellites, uses ground stations

on the Earth to calculate a

position more accurate than

Defnition satellite-only GPS. Dierential

The Cartesian product o two non-empty sets A and B denoted by GPS can improve the accuracy

A B is the set o all ordered pairs (a, b) where a A and b B. o readings rom about

50 eet to within 10 eet o the

In set-builder notation, A B = {(a, b) | a A, b B} actual location.

A B = {(l, 2), (l, 4), (l, 6), (3, 2), (3, 4), (3, 6)}

B A = {(2, 1 ), (2, 3), (4, 1 ), (4, 3), (6, 1 ), (6, 3)}

Clearly you can see that A B B A.

represents the Euclidean plane, also reerred to as the Cartesian plane.

The Cartesian product Z Z is made up o the points on this plane whose

coordinates are integers. It is usual to denote the Cartesian product o a set A

with itsel as A 2 . So R R = R2 and Z Z = Z 2 . Since the Cartesian product is

a set, the number o ordered pairs in a Cartesian product is its cardinality. The

three dimensional Cartesian coordinate system, also known as Euclidean space,

is represented by R x R x R = R3 .

Example 11

The Cartesian product o two sets A and B consists o six elements.

Three o these are (a, a), (b, b) and (c, a). Find the sets:

i A

ii B

iii A B

a, b B three ordered pairs given.

A = {a, b, c}

ordered pairs.

iii A B = {(a, a), (a, b), (b, a), (b, b), (c, a), (c, b)} Since n(A B) = 6

1.5 Relations

You should have noticed rom the previous examples the ollowing points:

1 The Cartesian product o two sets is a set.

2 The elements o the set are ordered pairs.

3 In each ordered pair, the frst element comes rom the frst set and the

second element comes rom the second set.

Now that you understand what a Cartesian product is we can move

on to appreciate how this product allows us to construct other sets.

does not have to be

A relation, R, between two non-empty sets A and B is a subset o

governed by a rule.

A B and is usually governed by a rule connecting the ordered Any random subset

pair in the relation, commonly denoted by aRb. of A A is a relation

on A whether or not it

For example i A = {1, 2, 3, 4} and B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 1 0} and describes a rule.

we defne the relation aRb b = a2, then R = {(1 , 1 ), (2, 4), (3, 9)} .

Example 12

Given a set A, prove that a relation R on A is a subset o A A.

Let ( a, b ) R

aRb

a A and b A

( a, b ) A A Since R is a relation on A.

Thereore R A A.

Defnition

Let R be a relation rom set A to set B. The inverse o relation R,

denoted by R1 , is the set o ordered pairs {(b, a) | (a, b) R} .

Example 13

b

Given that A = {1 , 2, 3, . . . ,1 0} and R A A such that aRb = 2, fnd R1 .

a

R = {(1 , 2), (2, 4), (3, 6), (4, 8), (5, 1 0)} List all the elements o R.

R1 = {(2, 1 ), (4, 2), (6, 3), (8, 4), (1 0, 5)} Use the defnition o R1 to list its elements.

Chapter 1 23

Exercise 1D

1 I A = {1, 2, 3} and B = { p, q} , fnd A B and B A.

Are the two products equal?

simultaneously, thus A = {1, 2, 3, 4} and B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} .

a i List the elements o the Cartesian product A B.

ii Show that A A A B .

b Write down the sets that represent the ollowing relations:

i I a A and b B, aRb a + b is a prime number.

ii I a A and b B, aRb b = a2.

iii I a A and b B, aRb b a is a prime number.

iv I a, b A, aRb a + b B.

and fnd the number o subsets in the power set o A B.

a ( A B) ( A C)

b A (B C)

c What can you conclude rom the answers to a and b?

given by aRb a b.

Show that A B C D .

as ollows: aRb a = 2b. List all the elements that make up the

relation R. Find R1. What is the cardinality o R1?

Equivalence relations

Among all the relations that can be established in sets there is a special

class, namely equivalence relations. d

e c

pairs (a, b) which are governed by this relation. As such,

a relation R on a set A is a subset o A A.

For example, A = {a, b, c, d, e, f } ,

the sides o a regular hexagon, and Rl is the relation dened by

xR1 y x is parallel to y, where, x, y A. f b

a

Segment b is parallel to itsel and also to e, etc.

Thus R1 = {(a, a), (a, d ), (b, b), (b, e), (c, c), (c, f ), (d, d ), (d, a), (e, e), (e, b), ( f, f ), ( f, c)}

which is a subset o A A.

Note that in the hexagon example, or all elements a A, we have the

ordered pair (a, a) in R. Thereore we say that xR1 x or all x A, i.e.

the relation is refexive.

Also in this example we notice that i (x, y) is in R1 then ( y, x) is in R1 ,

or example (a, d ) and (d, a).

i.e. xR1 y yR1 x or all x, y A. The relation is said to be symmetric.

Now consider a dierent example, the set o all polygons P.

Let R be the relation on P P dened by xRy x and y are similar polygons.

R is refexive since any polygon is similar to itsel.

R is symmetric since i polygon x is similar to polygon y,

then y is also similar to x.

Now consider xRy x is similar to y and yRz y is similar to z.

Then by properties o similarity it ollows that x is similar to z.

Since xRy and yRz xRz we say that the relation R is transitive.

Denition

A relation R dened on a set A is said to be an equivalence

relation i the ollowing three conditions are true:

R is refexive, i.e. aRa or all a A

R is symmetric, i.e. aRb bRa or all a, b A

R is transitive, i.e. aRb and bRc aRc or all a, b, c A

A

The diagram on the right illustrates an equivalence relation

on the set S = {A, B, C, D} . The arrows indicate the relation B

by the vertices. Note that although C is related only to itsel,

the relation is still symmetric and transitive. D

C

In simple cases like the next example, it may be useul to draw

a similar diagram.

Chapter 1 25

Example 14

Let A = {l, 2, 3, 4} and R A A such that

R = {(1 , 1 ), (1 , 2), (1 , 3), (2, 1 ), (2, 2), (2, 3), (3, 1 ), (3, 2), (3, 3), (4, 4)} .

Is R an equivalence relation?

For all a A, aRa We see that

R is refexive 1R1, 2R2, 3R3 and 4R4

R is symmetric 1R2 and 2R1, 1R3 and 3R1, 2R3 and 3R2

Also or We see that

a, b, c A, aRb and bRc aRc 1R2 and 2R3 and 1R3

R is transitive 1R3 and 3R2 and 1R2

2R3 and 3R1 and 2R1

2R1 and 1R3 and 2R3

3R2 and 2R1 and 3R1

Thus, R is an equivalence relation. 3R1 and 1R2 and 3R2

Example 15

Let A = {l, 2, 3, 4} and Ri A A .

Construct the ollowing relations:

a A relation R1 that is refexive and symmetric but not transitive.

b A relation R2 that is refexive and transitive but not symmetric.

c A relation R3 that is symmetric and transitive but not refexive.

The ollowing working shows three examples to illustrate the relations. There are other

examples that you might be able to come up with.

a R1 = {(1 , 1 ), (2, 2), (3, 3), (4, 4), (1 , 2), (2, 1 ), (2, 3), (3, 2)}

Refexive because

1 R1 , 2R2, 3R3 and 4R4.

Symmetric because

1 R2 and 2R1 and 2R3 and 3R2.

a R b means that a is

Not transitive because not related to b.

1 R2 and 2R3 but 1 R 3.

b R2 = {(1 , 1 ), (2, 2), (3, 3), (4, 4), (1 , 2)}

Refexive because

1 R1 , 2R2, 3R3 and 4R4.

Transitive because, or example

1 R1 and 1 R2 and 1 R2.

Not symmetric because 1 R2 but 2 R 1

c R = {(1 , 1 ), (l, 2), (l, 3), (2, l), (2, 2), (2, 3), (3, l), (3, 2), (3, 3)}

Symmetric because

1 R2 and 2R1 , 1 R3 and 3R1 , 2R3 and 3R2

Transitive because

1 R3 and 3R2 and 1 R2

1 R2 and 2R3 and 1 R3

2R1 and 1 R3 and 2R3

2R3 and 3R1 and 2R1

3R2 and 2R1 and 3R1

3R1 and 1 R2 and 3R2

Not refexive because 4 R 4

Example 16

Show that R is an equivalence relation.

R = { (3, 3), (4, 4), (5, 5), (9, 9), (1 0, 1 0), (1 1 , 1 1 ), (1 3, 1 3),

(3, 1 3), (4, 9), (5, 1 0), (1 3, 3), (9, 4), (1 0, 5)}

| a a| = 0 = 0 5, or all a, thereore R is refexive

| a b| = | b a| aRb bRa, thereore R is symmetric

| a b| is divisible by 5 a b = 5m, m Z

| b c| is divisible by 5 b c = 5n, n Z

Combining these two we obtain

a c = 5(m + n)

| a c| = 5| m + n| aRc. Thereore R is transitive.

R satises all three conditions necessary to qualiy as an equivalence relation.

Modular Congruence

The ollowing is a common example o equivalence relations. It generates

all the Z sets that will later be used to dene groups o every single order n.

x, y Z are said to be congruent modulo n i | x y| is divisible by n.

We denote this by x y (mod n).

Consider the ollowing lists o numbers rom 1 to 60:

1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5

7 8 9 10 11 12 6 7 8 9 10

13 14 15 16 17 18 11 12 13 14 15

19 20 21 22 23 24 16 17 18 19 20

25 26 27 28 29 30 21 22 23 24 25

31 32 33 34 35 36 26 27 28 29 30

37 38 39 40 41 42 31 32 33 34 35

43 44 45 46 47 48 36 37 38 39 40

49 50 51 52 53 54 41 42 43 44 45

55 56 57 58 59 60 46 47 48 49 50

51 52 53 54 55

56 57 58 59 60

Chapter 1 27

These tables are another way o writing the congruences

modulo 6 ( (mod 6)) and modulo 5 ( (mod 5)). Note that the frst

column o each table represents x 1 (mod 6) and y 1 (mod 5)

respectively. Another way o expressing these numbers would be to

say that all the numbers in the frst column leave a remainder o

1 when divided by 6 and by 5 respectively. Similarly the second

column o each table represents the numbers that leave a remainder

o 2, and so on. So each column would represent a relation on all

the positive integers i we were to continue building up the tables.

It is also easy to see rom the tables that congruence modulo 6 and

modulo 5 are equivalence relations.

Lets look at the frst table only. Since each column represents x (mod 6)

with x {0, 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5} with 0 representing 6 since 0(mod 6) represents

all the multiples o 6, we see that x x (mod 6) since these are the

numbers in the frst row. Any two numbers in the same column are

congruent to each other modulo 6.

For example, 28 4 (mod 6) and 52 4 (mod 6)

28 52 (mod 6) and 52 28 (mod 6) i.e. symmetric.

We can do this or any pair o numbers in the same column; this

leads to the conclusion that the relation congruence modulo 6

is symmetric.

Similarly i we take any three numbers in a column, we realize that they

59 35 (mod 6 )

are all related to each other. e.g. 59 1 1 (mod 6 ).

35 1 1 (mod 6 )

Again we can do this or any three numbers in a particular column,

thus we can deduce that congruence modulo 6 is a transitive relation

on the positive integers.

We can now list the frst table as ollows:

1 2 3 4 5 6

7 8 9 10 11 12

13 14 15 16 17 18

19 20 21 22 23 24

25 26 27 28 29 30

31 32 33 34 35 36

37 38 39 40 41 42

43 44 45 46 47 48

49 50 51 52 53 54

55 56 57 58 59 60

Each column represents the diferent congruences modulo 6 and the

columns have divided the numbers into distinct, disjoint subsets

(equivalence classes). Although the table represents only the integers

1 to 60, it is clear that we could continue to build up the table endlessly.

All the positive integers could be included in such an endless table, and

they would all be separated into distinct equivalence classes representing

the particular congruence.

We say that (mod 6) partitions the positive integers into

six equivalence classes.

Repeat the process above with (mod 5) and show that this is an

equivalence relation.

arithmetic in a more rigorous manner.

Defnition

a is congruent to b modulo n i n divides (a b),

i.e. (a b) = kn, k Z.

a b(mod n) n| (a b) (a b) = kn, k Z.

So, 1 4 0(mod 7) since 7| l4.

But 1 3 5(mod7) since 7| (1 3 5).

Theorem 5

(mod 0) does not exist

The relation R which is dened as : aRb a b(mod n), n Z+ , is since we cannot

an equivalence relation on Z. divide by 0.

Proof:

a a(mod n) since n| 0 or all a Z

Thereore R is reexive.

a b(mod n) a b = kn, k Z

b a = kn, k Z

n| b a b a (mod n)

Thereore R is symmetric.

Chapter 1 29

a b(mod n) a b = pn, p Z

b c(mod n) b c = qn, q Z

Adding a c = n(p + q), p + q Z

a c (mod n)

Thereore R is transitive. Q.E.D.

Example 17

For each given set S and associated relation R, determine whether or not

R is an equivalence relation.

a S is the set o all people in Asia,

aRb a and b have the same parents.

b S is the set o all people in Australia,

aRb a and b live within 100 km o each other.

c S is the set o straight lines in a plane,

aRb a is parallel to b.

a It is clear that aRa R is refexive.

aRb bRa since both have the same parents. R is symmetric

aRb a and b have the same parents.

bRc b and c have the same parents.

It ollows that a, b and c have the same parents so

aRc and R is transitive.

R is an equivalence relation.

b Clearly aRa. R is refexive.

aRb a and b live within 00 km o each other bRa. R is symmetric.

Let b live 90 km due east o a and c 80 km due east o b.

aRb and bRc but a is not related to c because

c lives 70 km due east o a. R is not transitive.

Thereore it is not an equivalence relation.

c By denition o parallel lines in a plane aRa.

Similarly aRb bRa. So R is symmetric.

aRb a is parallel to b

bRc b is parallel to c

By denition o parallel lines, aRc which means

R is transitive, so R is an equivalence relation.

Example 18

Determine i the relation is:

a refexive

b symmetric

c transitive

Thereore x R x Substitute x = 1 into 2x x.

R is not refexive. (We could also have chosen any other

non-zero natural number for x. )

b Let xRy 2x y = 5n, n Z Proof by counter-example

2y x = 4x 1 0n x = 3x 1 0n Substitute y = 2x 5n into 2y x

3x 1 0n 5k, k Z

Thereore y R x

R is not symmetric.

c 8R1 1 Proof by counter-example

1 1 R2 16 11 = 5

8R2 22 2 = 5 4

R is not transitive. 16 2 = 14

and 14 is not a multiple of 5.

in fact it is the most common method to disprove for all statements.

Example 19

Let S = {0, 2 } and the relation R = {(0, 0), (0, 2 ), (2 , 0), (2 , 2 )} .

Determine i R is an equivalence relation.

0 2 relation.

R is refexive because 0R0 and 2 R2

R is symmetric because 0R2 and 2 R0.

R is also transitive because:

0R2 , 2 R2 and 0R2

0R2 , 2 R0 and 0R0

R is an equivalence relation o S.

Note that when a relation includes all the elements of S S the relation is

an equivalence relation.

Chapter 1 31

Exercise 1E

In questions to 5 determine whether or not the given relation is

an equivalence relation on the dened set.

1 For a, b Z, aRb | a| = | b| .

3 For x, y R, xRy | x y| 3.

4 For x, y R, xRy x + y Z.

5 For p, q Q, pRq p q Z.

R is dened on S such that fi (x)Rfj (x) mi = mj.

Show that R is an equivalence relation on S.

R is dened on S such that fi (x)Rfj (x) mi mj = 1.

Show that R is symmetric but not refexive or transitive.

Show that R is an equivalence relation.

(a, b)R(c, d ) a2 + b2 = c2 d 2.

Determine whether or not R is an equivalence relation.

p

10 Let S = : p , q Z , q 0 . The relation R is dened on S such that

q

a c

R ad = bc . Determine whether or not R is an equivalence relation.

b d

Reer back to Example 4 where we had A = {l, 2, 3, 4} and

R A A such that R = {( , ), ( , 2), ( , 3), (2, ), (2, 2), (2, 3),

(3, ), (3, 2), (3, 3), (4, 4)} .

We create the set o those elements related to , i.e.{l, 2, 3} .

Similarly the set o those elements related to 2, i.e. {l, 2, 3} .

And the set o elements related to 3 would also be {l, 2, 3} .

Then the set o elements related to 4 is {4} .

We can also illustrate this by sketching a diagram.

4

3

Note that the equivalence relation R has separated A into two distinct

subsets, {l, 2, 3} and {4} . We call these the equivalence classes o the

elements o A under the relation R. The relation has induced a partition

o the set A into two disjoint subsets.

Now consider the relation x y (mod 6) on Z + . We saw on page 28

that this relation distributes the positive integers into 6 distinct sets

o integers as ollows:

This diagram shows the

[1 ] = x l(mod6) x {l, 7, 1 3, 1 9, . . .} division of a set into 6

[2] = x 2(mod6) x {2, 8, 1 4, 20, . . .} partitions by a given relation

[3] = x 3(mod6) x {3, 9, 1 5, 21 , . . .}

[4] = x 4(mod6) x {4, 1 0, 1 6, 22, . . .}

[5] = x 5(mod6) x {5, 1 1 , 1 7, 23, . . .}

[0] = x 0(mod6) x {6, 1 2, 1 8, 24, . . .}

We say that congruence modulo 6 divides Z+ into 6 distinct In some text books

sets denoted by Z6. The relation has broken up the infnite set Z into equivalence classes

a set o six infnite sets, each one called an equivalence class. are denoted by x or x .

Hence we say that an equivalence relation induces a partition o the set.

Defnition

An equivalence class [x ] under an equivalence relation R on a set

A is the set o all elements related to x in A,

i.e. [x] = {a| a A, aRx} .

Chapter 1 33

Lets reer back to Example 1 6 where A = {3, 4, 5, 9, 1 0, 1 1 , 1 3}

and aRb | a b| is divisible by 5.

[3] is an equivalence

R = {(3, 3), (4, 4), (5, 5), (9, 9), (1 0, 1 0), (1 1 , 1 1 ), (1 3, 1 3), (3, 1 3),

class consisting of

(4, 9), (5, 1 0), (1 3, 3), (9, 4), (1 0, 5)} {3, 13} because 3R3

The equivalence classes induced by this relation are and 3R13. No other

[3] = {3, 1 3} , [4] = {4, 9} , [5] = {5, 1 0} and [1 1 ] = {1 1 } element in A is related

to 3.

Example 20

Let S = {1 , 2, 3} .

The relation R = {(1 , 1 ), (1 , 2), (2, 1 ), (2, 2), (3, 3)} .Show that R is an

equivalence relation and nd the partition o the set S induced by R.

It is easy to check that R is refexive, symmetric and

transitive. So R is an equivalence relation on S.

We can illustrate the relation on a diagram.

1

A diagram helps us visualize

2 the equivalence classes.

and [3] = {3} .

Since [1 ] = [2], {[1 ], [3]} or {[2] , [3]} are partitions o S.

Example 21

whether R is an equivalence relation and explain the equivalence classes o T under R.

Any triangle is similar to itsel. Check the properties for an equivalence relation.

aRa R is refexive

Triangles whose angle measures are the same Check the properties for an equivalence relation.

are similar to each other.

aRb bRa R is symmetric

Similar triangles are triangles o the same shape. Check the properties for an equivalence relation.

aRb a is similar to b

a is similar to c

bRc b is similar to c

aRc R is transitive

Hence, R induces the partition o T into those

triangles which are similar to each other.

Note that in all the examples seen so ar the equivalence classes

ormed by a particular relation are disjoint. In the ollowing

theorem we will prove that an equivalence relation generates a

collection o disjoint subsets whose union is the set itsel.

In other words, we will now ormally prove that an equivalence

relation R on a set A induces a partition o A.

Theorem 6

Equivalence classes ormed by an equivalence relation on a set

A are disjoint, and their union is A.

Proof:

First we need to prove that [xi ] are disjoint or dierent

values o i.

Assume that two equivalence classes [xi ] and [xj ] are not disjoint.

Then there must be some a A such that a [xi ] and a [xj ].

By denition o equivalence classes this means that aRx where x [xi]

and aRy where y [xj ].

only i [xi ] [xj ] and [xj ] [xi ] [xi ] = [xj ].

That is, i aRx then xRa since R is symmetric, and xRa together with

aRy implies that xRy because R is transitive. Hence [xi] = [xj ].

Thereore equivalence classes are disjoint.

The most trivial

i.e. all o set A is partitioned by the set o equivalence classes. case of the partition

Since R is an equivalence relation we know that it is refexive: would be when each

equivalence class has

xRx or all x R only one element.

element in A which does not belong to an equivalence class.

This means that the equivalence classes [xi ] partition the set A.

We say that an equivalence relation induces a partition o a set. Q.E.D.

In the ollowing example you will see how an equivalence relation

on R2 divides the plane into equivalence classes that can be

described geometrically.

Chapter 1 35

Example 22

A relation R is dened on R R as ollows: (a, b) R (c, d ) 2a b = 2c d

a Show that R is an equivalence relation.

b Find the equivalence classes and explain them geometrically.

a (a, b)R(a, b) Show that the properties o

2a b = 2a b or all a, b R equivalence relations are

Thereore R is refexive. satisfed.

(a, b)R(c, d ) 2a b = 2c d

2c d = 2a b

(c, d )R(a, b)

Thereore R is symmetric.

(a, b)R(c, d ) 2a b = 2c d

(c, d )R( p, q) 2c d = 2p q

2a b = 2p q

(a, b)R( p, q)

Thereore R is transitive, hence R is an equivalence relation.

b Let (x, y) [(a, b)] One o these lines would be

2x y = k where k = 2a b the line

y = 2x k y = 2x (x, y) [(1, 2)]

This represents the set o lines parallel to y = 2x.

the integers into odd and even numbers.

Example 23

The relation R is dened on Z such that aRb a + b is even.

a Show that R is an equivalence relation.

b Find the partitions o Z under R.

a aRa Show that the properties o

a + a = 2a aRa Z equivalence relations are satisfed.

Thereore R is refexive.

aRb a + b is even

b + a is even bRa Addition is commutative in Z.

Thereore R is symmetric.

aRb a + b = 2p p Z

bRc b + c = 2q q Z

a + c = 2( p + q b) aRc I a is odd then c must be odd and i

Thereore R is transitive. a is even then c must also be even.

b Let x [a]

xRa x + a = 2n Under R

Thereore R partitions Z into two equivalence classes Z = { Z1 Z 2} since

[1 ] and [2] which represent the odd and even Z1 = 1(mod 2) = { odd numbers}

numbers respectively. Z 2 = 0(mod 2) = { even numbers}

The next relation organizes ordered pairs o integers along lines passing

through the origin.

Example 24

Show that this is an equivalence relation and give a geometric description

o the equivalence classes.

(a, b)R(a, b) Show that the properties of an equivalence

ab = ab relation hold.

Thereore R is refexive

(a, b)R(c, d ) ad = cb

cb = ad

(c, d )R(a, b)

Thereore R is symmetric

(c, d )R( p, q) cq = dp cqb = dpb

adq = cbq = dpb aq = pb

(a, b)R( p, q)

Thereore the relation is transitive.

xb = ay diagram below:

b

y= x

a 4

on the straight lines passing through 1

b

the origin with gradient . 4 3 2 1

0

1 2 3 4 5 6

a 1

2

3

f 4

Chapter 1 37

Example 25

aRb a(a 1 ) b(b 1 )(mod 7).

a Show that R is an equivalence relation.

b Show that the equivalence R can be written in the orm

(a b)(a + b 1 ) 0(mod 7).

c Hence, or otherwise, determine the equivalence classes.

a(a 1 ) b(b 1 ) = 7n, n Z equivalence relation.

Refexive:

aRa a(a 1 ) a(a 1 )(mod 7)

a(a 1 ) a(a 1 ) = 0n = 0

Symmetric:

aRb a(a 1 ) b(b 1 ) = 7n

b(b 1 ) a(a 1 ) = 7(n) bRa

Transitive:

aRb a(a 1 ) b(b 1 ) = 7n

bRc b(b 1 ) c(c 1 ) = 7m Add the two equations.

a(a 1 ) c(c 1 ) = 7(n + m)

aRc

b a(a 1 ) b(b 1 ) = 7n

a2 a b2 + b = 7n Expand.

(a b)(a + b 1 ) = 7n 0(mod 7) Rearrange and actorize.

c (a b)(a + b 1 ) = 7n.

a b = 7n or a + b 1 = 7n, n Z Since the product is divisible by 7

Thereore the equivalence classes are: b = a 7n or b = 7n a + 1

[l] = {l, 7, 8, 1 4, 1 5} substitute a = 1 and n = 0, 1, 2

[2] = {2, 6, 9, 1 3} substitute a = 2 and n = 0, 1, 2

[3] = {3, 5, 1 0, 1 2} substitute a = 3 and n = 0, 1, 2

[4] = {4, 1 1 } substitute a = 4 and n = 0, 1, 2

The next example illustrates how the innite set Z2 is partitioned into

six equivalence classes.

Example 26

a c is divisible by 2 and b d is divisible by 3.

a Show that R is an equivalence relation.

b Find the equivalence class or (1 , 3).

c Write down the ve remaining equivalence classes.

since x x = 0 and y y = 0 equivalence relation.

which are both divisible by 2 and 3

so R is refexive.

Symmetric:

(x, y)R(a, b)

x a = 2m, m Z

a x = 2m

y b = 3n, n Z

b y = 3n so R is symmetric.

Transitive:

(x, y)R(a, b) and (a, b)R(c, d )

x a = 2p

x c = 2( p + q )

a c = 2p

y b = 3m

y c = 3( m + n )

b c = 3n

(x, y)R(c, d ) so R is transitive.

Thereore R is an equivalence relation.

b (x, y)R(1 , 3)

Let x 1 = 2m x = 2m + 1

y 3 = 3n y = 3n + 3 = 3n Since n is any integer we can write 3n.

So

[(1 , 3)] = {(x, y)| x = 2m + 1 , y = 3n,

m, n elements o Z}

c The other equivalence classes will be

{(x, y)| x = 2m, y = 3n} i.e. [(2,3)]

{(x, y)| x = 2m, y = 3n + l} i.e. [(2,1 )]

{(x, y)| x = 2m, y = 3n + 2} i.e. [(2,2)]

{(x, y)| x = 2m + 1 , y = 3n + l} i.e. [(1 ,1 )]

{(x, y)| x = 2m + 1 , y = 3n + 2} i.e. [(1 ,2)]

Chapter 1 39

Example 27

The relation R is dened on cubic polynomials P o the orm

Pn (z) = z3 + az2 + bz where a, b R, z C.

The relation R is dened by P1 RP2 i and only i the

sum o the three zeros o P1 is equal to the sum o the three zeros o P2.

a Show that R is an equivalence relation.

b Determine the equivalence class containing z3 2z2 + 8z.

We know that n = 0 or all n

So sum o roots becomes n + n = a Using Vietes theorem about sum and product

o roots.

Refexive:

Pn(z )RPn (z )

The sum o the zeros o Pn (z) is equal to

the sum o the zeros o Pn (z).

Symmetric:

P1 (z)RP2(z) 1 + 1 = 2 + 2 = a Coefcient o z 2 is the same in both cubic

P2 RP1 polynomials.

Transitive:

P1 (z)RP2(z) 1 + 1 = 2 + 2 = a Coefcient o z 2 is the same in all three cubic

P2RP3 2 + 2 = 3 + 3 = a polynimials.

1 + 1 = 3 + 3

Pl(z)RP3 (z) Using Vietes theorem.

Thereore R is an equivalence

relation.

b The equivalence class One o the roots is zero and the sum o roots

containing z 3 2z 2 + 8z consists must be two. The product o the two remaining

o cubic polynomials o the zeros could be any number.

orm z 3 2z 2 + bz

Exercise 1F

1 Consider the set o words:

W = {set, table, chair, car, tennis, bike, stairs, sea, wave, sun} .

In a and b, show that R is an equivalence relation

and list the equivalence classes induced by each relation on W.

a R is the relation on W, has the same number o letters.

b R is the relation on W, starts with the same letter

o the alphabet.

on L such that li R lj | li| = | lj|. Show that this is an equivalence

relation on L and describe the partition induced by R.

b Let P = {polygons} and R be a relation on P such that

aRb a has the same number o sides as b . Show that R is

an equivalence relation and describe the partitions induced by R.

R on P is such that f (x)Rg(x) f(0) = g(0). Show that R is an

equivalence relation and describe the partition induced by R on P.

aRb a2 + b 2 = r2 where r R+ .

Show that R is an equivalence relation and give a geometric

meaning o the partitions o R R under this relation.

Show that R is an equivalence relation and list the equivalence

classes o Z+ under this relation.

Show that R is an equivalence relation and list the equivalence

classes o Z+ under this relation.

is an equivalence relation and give a geometrical description o the

equivalence class [(a, b)].

8 Show that the relation R defned on (Z+ ) 2 such that (a, b)R(c, d ) ad = cb

is an equivalence relation. Describe the equivalence class [(l, 2)].

Hence or otherwise describe the partition induced by R on (Z + ) 2.

(a, b)R(c, d ) ab = cd. Show that R is an equivalence relation on

{R2 \ (0, 0)} . Describe the equivalence class [(l, l)]. Hence or otherwise

describe the partition induced by R.

Chapter 1 41

10 Consider the relation R on Q such that xRy x y Z.

a Show that this is an equivalence relation.

b Determine the equivalence class [0] or this relation.

3

c

4

d Describe the partition induced by R on the rational numbers.

Review exercise

EXAM-STYLE QUESTIONS

1 A, B and C are subsets o the universal set U.

a Use Venn diagrams to illustrate

i A\B = A (U \ B)

ii (A\B ) (B\ A) = (A B )\(A B )

b Use double inclusion to prove that A\B = A (U \ B ).

c Use De Morgans laws to prove that (A\B ) (B\A)

= (A B )\(A B ).

to illustrate the distributive laws. Use these properties and

De Morgans laws to show that (A B ) C = (A C) (B C)

a Show that R is an equivalence relation on C.

b Describe the equivalence classes under the relation R.

A = {n | 0 < n < 20, n is a prime number}

B = {n | | n 2 | l}

C = {n | n2 3n 4 < 0}

D = {n | n5 = 6n}

E = {n | (n ) 2 4}

a List the elements o each o these sets.

b Determine, giving reasons, which o the ollowing statements

are true and which are alse.

i n(A) = n(D) + n(E )

ii n(D A) = 1

iii B E

iv (D \ B ) A =

v C E =

5 Let R be a relation on Z such that aRb 5ab 0.

a Determine whether R is

i refexive

ii symmetric

iii transitive.

b Write down whether or not R is an equivalence relation and give

a reason or your answer.

a, b N, aRb a3 b3 (mod 5).

a Show that R is an equivalence relation.

b Denote the equivalence class containing n by Cn.

i Find C0.

ii List the rst six elements o C1 .

iii Prove that Cn = C n+5 or all n N.

where b, c R and z C.

a The relation S on the set P is such that P1RP2 the sum o the

zeros o P1 is equal to the sum o the zeros o P2.

i Show that S is an equivalence relation.

ii Determine the equivalence class containing the polynomial

P = z2 3z + 4.

b The relation R on the set P is such that P1 RP2 the product

o the zeros o P1 is equal to the product o the zeros o P2.

i Show that R is an equivalence relation.

ii Determine the equivalence class containing the polynomial

P = z2 3z + 4.

a Show that R is an equivalence relation.

b Identiy the two equivalence classes ormed by this relation.

c Find the value o 5 355 (mod 8).

i and only i a = c and b d is divisible by 5.

a Prove that R is an equivalence relation.

b Describe the equivalence classes induced by R.

Chapter 1 43

10 The relation S is defned on quadratic polynomials P o the orm:

P (z) = z2 + az + b, where a, b R, z C.

The relation S is defned by P1 SP2 i and only i P1 and P2 have

at least one zero in common. Determine whether or not S is transitive.

segment where A is the starting point and B is the terminal point.

AB R CD i line segments [AD] and [BC] have a common midpoint.

a Show that R is an equivalence relation.

b Give a geometrical description o the partition o all the directed line

segments in a plane or space.

Chapter summary

A set S is a collection o objects. I x is one o these objects we say x S.

The number o elements in a set is called the cardinality o the set.

B A and A B A = B . The converse o this is also true,

i.e. i A and B are equal sets then A is a subset o B and B is a subset o A.

I set S U, then the complement o S is denoted by S where S = { x U | x S}.

The intersection o two sets A and B is denoted by A B where

A B = { x | x A and x B} .

The union o two sets A and B is denoted by A B where A B = { x | x A or x B} .

I A B = then A and B are said to be disjoint sets.

The set consisting o those elements that are in set A but not in set B is called

the set diference B rom A denoted by A \ B = { x| x A and x B } = A B .

The symmetric diference o two sets A and B is denoted by A B and consists

o those elements which are either in A or in B but not in both A and B.

A B = ( A B ) \ ( A B ) = ( A \ B ) ( B \ A ).

The power set o a fnite set S with n elements is the set o all subsets o

S including the empty set and S itsel. The total number o distinct subsets

o a fnite set S with n elements is 2n. n(P (S )) = 2 n

Commutative Laws

AB=BA

AB=BA

Distributive laws

A ( B C ) = ( A B ) ( A C ), i.e. intersection is distributive over union

A ( B C ) = ( A B ) ( A C ), i.e. union is distributive over intersection

Associative laws

A (B C) = ( A B) C

A (B C) = ( A B) C

De Morgans Laws

(A B) = A B

(A B) = A B

Cartesian product

A B = { ( a, b ) : a A, b B}

A relation R defned on a set A is said to be an equivalence relation i the

ollowing three conditions are true:

R is refexive, i.e. aRa or all a A

R is symmetric, i.e. aRb bRa or all a, b A

R is transitive, i.e. aRb and bRc aRc or all a, b, c A

a is congruent to b modulo n i n divides (a b), i.e. a b = kn, k Z.

Notation: a b (mod n ) n a b

An equivalence class [ x ] under an equivalence relation R on a set A is

the set o all elements related to x in A, i.e. [ x ] = { a | a A , aRx }.

A partition o a set A consists o another set P made up o non-empty

subsets o A which are disjoint and whose union makes up the whole set.

Equivalence classes are mutually exclusive and the set A is partitioned

into equivalence classes by an equivalence relation R on A.

Chapter 1 45

Extension of

2 the concept

of function

CHAPTER OBJECTIVES:

8.3 Functions: injections, surjections, bijections; composition of functions and

inverse functions.

8.4 Binary operations and operation tables (Cayley tables).

8.5 Binary operations: associative, distributive and commutative properties.

8.6 The identity element e.

The inverse a 1 of an element a.

Proof that left-cancellation and right-cancellation by an element a hold, provided

that a has an inverse.

Proofs of the uniqueness of the identity and inverse elements.

You should know how to: Skills check:

1 Find the intervals for which the function 1 When a certain drug is administered,

10x the concentration of medication in the

f( x ) = , x 2 is increasing or

x2 bloodstream t hours after the drug is

decreasing. Find the derivative: 4t

administered is given by: A ( t ) =

( x 2 )(1 0 ) 1 0 x 20 2

3 t + 27

f ( x ) = 2

=

( x 2) ( x 2)2 a Over which interval of time is

Since f (x) < 0 for all values of x in the the concentration of medication

domain, it follows that f (x) is a strictly increasing?

decreasing function. b Over which interval is the

concentration decreasing?

2 Find the inverse of the function 2 Find the inverse function for each of the

x +1 following:

f( x ) = , where x R, x 1

x 1 x + 3

and state its domain. a f: x , x -2

x + 2

Interchange y and x, and make x the b f : x 2x

subject of the formula: c f : x e x 2e x

y +1

x = x ( y 1) = y + 1

y 1

xy y = x + 1

1 + x

y=

x 1

x +1

f 1 ( x ) = where x R, x 1

x 1

Evolution of the function concept

So ar you have studied unctions as ormulas defned on real

number sets where every ordered pair (x, y) R2 represented a

dependent variable y R which was a unction o x R, the

independent variable. You learned that, or any given unction, there

is a rule that determines the unique value o y or any value o x and

this could be illustrated by a graph o this unction, e.g. the ordered

pair (1 , 5) would be a point on the graph o (x) = 2x2 + 3.

The term unction frst appeared in a letter written by Leibniz in The name Nicolas

1 673. He used it to describe quantities related to curves. In 1 755 Bourbaki does not

represent just a single

Euler introduced a more general concept when he wrote When

mathematician. A small

certain quantities depend on others in such a way that they undergo a change

group of French

when the latter change, then the frst are called unctions o the second.

mathematicians used this

In the 1 9th century more emphasis was placed on rigour in name as a pseudonym in

mathematics. The notion o unction continued to evolve with the the mid 1930s. The

development o Set Theory by Cantor. Cauchy was the frst to group was originally

consider the act that a unction may have a restricted domain. formed to write rigorous

textbooks based on Set

This eventually led to the defnition o unctions by Dedekind in

Theory initiated by Cantor.

1 888 that said a unction is a single-valued relation between two

However their work

non-empty sets. However the most accurate defnition o a unction

included studies of many

was given by Nicolas Bourbaki in 1 939 which described a unction branches of mathematics

as a possibly infnite set o ordered pairs (x, y) in which each x is including Topology.

paired with only one y.

Chapter 2 47

2.1 Functions as relations

A relation that associates each element in a non-empty set S with a

unique element in a non-empty set T is called a unction rom S to T.

A unction rom S to T is a subset M o S T such that or every s S

there is a unique t T such that (s, t) M.

For example: S = {2, 3, 4} , T = {1 , 2, 3, ... , 9} and M = {(2, 5), (3, 7), (4, 9)} .

We can represent this pictorially as shown here.

S T

1

2 2

3

4

3 5

6

7

4 8

9

The unction has a rule that enables us to fnd the image o every element

o S under f. In this case the rule is f (s) = 2s + 1 .

We denote this unction by f : S T such that s 2s + 1 or all s S.

The set S is called the domain and T, the target set, is called the

co-domain. The set f (S ) = {t| t T, t = f (s) or some s S} is called

the range. It is the set containing all the images o S under the

unction f. In the above example the range is the set {5, 7, 9} .

Example 1

Determine which o the ollowing relations are unctions, and state the domain

and the range or those which are unctions.

a b c

1 0 9 3 7 0

1

1

0 1 1 0 3

2

1

1 2 0 3 1 3

Domain {1 , 0, 1 } , Range {0, 1 } image in the co-domain.

b This is not a unction.

In this relation 9 and 1 are mapped to 3

and 1 respectively, hence 9 and 1 are not

mapped to unique elements.

c This is a unction.

Domain {1 , 3, 7} , Range {0, 1 , 3} Each element is mapped to a unique image.

Example 2

Determine which o these relations are unctions:

a R on Z such that aRb a2 = b2

b R on R+ such that aRb a2 = b2 1

1 R1 since 1 2 = 1 2

1 R (1 ) since 1 2 = (1 ) 2

Thereore 1 is mapped to two distinct elements

so it is not a unction.

b Suppose this is not a unction. Then:

aRb a2 = b2 1 Subtraction o the two equations yields:

aRc a2 = c2 1 0 = b2 c2

b2 = c2

b=c Since R is defned on R+

Thereore R is a unction. Proved by contradiction.

(s) must speciy an element o T or every s S

i s = s and both s, s S then (s) = (s)

Although the above rules may look trivial, they actually have strong

implications. They make sure that there are no contradictory or

ambiguous connotations. Lets take the example o a unction defned

on the rational numbers as ollows:

p q

Let : such that f = .

q p

Because the domain o this unction is , every element o must have

an image in . However by the defnition o this unction it is clear that

0 does not have an image because division by zero is undefned. In other

words the frst rule ensures that we do not have any singularities.

You have met and discussed singularities in the core book, when

discussing limits and graphs o unctions. At a singularity the mathematical

x2 1

unction is not defned or is not well-behaved , e.g. f( x) = , has a

x +1

singularitiy at x = 1 and the graph is a straight line with a hole at x = 1.

1

Similarly the unction f( x) = is not defned when x = 0 and so this is a

x

vertical asymptote. The unction also has a singularity at x = 0. The unction

f(x) = | x 1 | is continuous but it is not dierentiable at x = 1. Once more there

is a singularity at x = 1. The unction is said to be not well-behaved at x = 1.

The second rule ensures that the unction is well-defned. In other words,

it ensures that each element o the domain has only one image in the co-domain.

This is illustrated by the ollowing example in which the rule is violated.

Chapter 2 49

p 1

Suppose that f : such that f = .

q q

But f = and f

2 1 10 1

= which violates the second rule

5 5 25

25

governing unctions.

Equality of functions

Two unctions f : S T and g : P Q are equal i and only i S = P,

f (S ) = g (P ) and f (a) = g (a) or all values o a S.

We can illustrate this property by looking at some unctions.

x

Consider the unctions f: R \ {0} R \ {0} such that f ( x ) = ,

x2

1

and g : \{ 0} \{ 0} such that g( x ) = .

x

These two unctions are equal because they both have the same domain

which excludes x = 0 and or all values o x in the domain, f (x) = g (x).

Now let us dene another two unctions as ollows:

f (x) = x with domain x R

g (x) = arccos(cos x) with domain x R

I we compare these two unctions we see that f (2 ) = 2 , but

g (2) = arccos(cos2 ) = arccos(1 ) = 0. The image o 2 under f is

diferent to the image o 2 under g, so the unctions are not equal.

These two unctions are equal only i we restrict both domains to

For a unction to be

x R, 0 x < 2 .

injective we can state

that i a is not equal to

Defnition b in the domain, then

f(a) is not equal to f(b)

A unction is said to be injective i it preserves distinctness. In other in the co-domain.

words, every element o the co-domain is mapped to by no more The contrapositive

than one element in the domain. A unction f : S T or which statement o this is

each element o the range, f (S), corresponds to exactly one element that i f(a) = f(b)

o the domain, S, is said to be injective. In other words, i f (a) = then a = b.

Contrapositive

f (b) a = b or a, b S. A logically equivalent statement would be:

statements are useul

a b f (a) f (b). when it is difcult

to examine all the

dierent elements o

We say that an injective unction is one in which each element o

the domain to check

f (S), the range o the unction, is the image o only one element o S, or unique images in

the domain o the unction. An injective unction is thereore a the co-domain. Then

one-to-one unction. it is much easier to

check by using the

logically equivalent

contrapositive

statement.

1 2 1 1 1 2

1

1 0 0

0 0

1

0

1 2

4 1 1 1 3

2 4

2

The rst mapping is not a unction because elements 1 and 4 both

have two images in the co-domain.

The second mapping is a unction because each element in the

domain is mapped onto a unique element in the co-domain.

It is not injective because 1 co-domain is the image o 1 and

1 in the domain. Alternatively we can say that two diferent

elements 1 and 1 rom the domain don't have two diferent

images in the co-domain but have the same image o 1 . The

unction doesn't preserve distinctness.

The third mapping is a unction because each element in the domain is mapped

onto a unique element in the co-domain. It is also injective because each

element in the range is the image o only one element in the domain.

Defnition

I every element in the co-domain o a unction is the image o at

least one element in the domain we say that the unction is a

surjection, i.e. or all b in the co-domain there exists an a in the

domain such that f (a) = b. A surjection is also called an onto unction.

None o the previous three examples represent surjections. The two

examples below illustrate surjections.

2 1 2

1 0 0 0

0 1 2

1

1 2 4

check that diferent elements have diferent images in the co-domain.

We can establish a relationship between the cardinality o sets S and

T as ollows: n (S ) n (T). For a surjection we look at the elements in

the co-domain and check that they are all images. So or a surjection,

n (T) n (S ). I a unction is both surjective and injective then

n (S ) = n (T). This is the case in the second mapping above.

Chapter 2 51

Defnition

A function is a bijection if it is an injection and a surjection.

A bijection is also called a one-to-one correspondence.

In the core book we studied functions of real variables, i.e. when the domain

was a subset of R. It is good to remember that a graph that did not pass the

vertical line test did not represent a function. This is a one-to-many relation.

If a function passed the horizontal line test then the function is an injective

function. Graphically speaking, if a horizontal line drawn in any region of the

co-domain crosses the graph exactly once then the function is a bijection.

We also say that the function is surjective if any horizontal line drawn in any

region of the co-domain crosses the graph at least once.

Example 3

A = {1 , 2, 3, 4} and B = {5, 6, 7, 8, 9} . Given that : A B such that

(x) = x + 4, determine whether is an injection, a surjection or both.

(a) = (b) Assume two elements in the co-domain are equal.

a+4=b+4 Prove that they are the images o the same element

a=b in the domain.

So is an injection.

Let y B y = x + 4, x A Given any element in the co-domain try to nd an

x= y4 element in the domain which maps onto it. It is

y= 9 x= 5 5A sufcient to nd one such element or which the

So is not a surjection. statement is not true.

Example 4

a surjection or both.

(a) = (b) Use the contrapositive statement o injective

a+4=b+4 unctions.

a=b

So is an injection. Check that each element in the co-domain is the

Let y Z y = x + 4, x Z x = y 4 image o an element in the domain.

since for all y Z, y 4 Z, is a

surjection.

Examples 3 and 4 involve discrete unctions. In Example 3 the unctions were

mappings between fnite sets, and in Example 4 they were mappings between

infnite sets. We now look at examples with unctions as mappings between

infnite continuous sets.

Example 5

a Find the exact range, A, o .

b i Explain why is not an injection.

ii Giving a reason, state whether or not is a surjection.

a The range o cos2x is the interval [1 , 1 ], Find the minimum and maximum values that

so A = [e1 + 1 , e + 1 ] cos2x can take to nd the range o .

b i Method I

For to be an injection or one-to-one

unction, x y (x) (y)

(0) = (n) = e + 1 , n We know rom the core syllabus that is a

Thereore is not an injection. periodic unction. Use a counter example to show

that is not injective.

Method II

(x) = e cos2x + 1

(x) = (2sin 2x)e cos2x Since the unction is continuous and

(x) < 0 or 0 < x <

diferentiable over the whole domain we can use

2 the derivative.

and (x) > 0 or < x <

2

Since (x) is not strictly increasing or

decreasing over the whole domain it

is not injective.

ii The co-domain o is R+ but the Use the result o part a to show that is not a

range o is A = [e1 + 1 , e + 1 ] surjection.

i.e. or y R+ , y A there is no x R+

such that (x) = y. Thereore is not

surjective.

Note that the derivative test shown in the second method can be used

only for functions that are continuous and differentiable on the given

domain. It is not valid for functions that are discrete, like the ones in

Examples 3 and 4.

Chapter 2 53

Example 6

Consider the following functions:

f: ]2, +[ R+ where f (x) = (x 2)(x + 1 )

g : R R R R where g (x, y) = (cos(x y), x y)

a Show that fis bijective.

b Determine, with reasons, whether

i g is injective

ii g is surjective.

a Method I

Injective: f (a) = f (b)

(a 2)(a + 1 ) = (b 2)(b + 1 )

a 2 a b2 + b = 0

Use quadratic formula to solve for a:

Solve for a.

1 1 4( b b 2 )

a= 2

2 x =| x| and since b > 2 we have

(1 | 1 2 b| ) | 1 2b| = 1 + 2b. The second solution is

= discarded because it is out of the domain.

2

(1 1 + 2 b )

=

2

a=b

So f (x) is an injection.

Surjective: Let f (x) = y Show that for all possible values of y in

y = x2 x 2 x2 x 2 y = 0 the co-domain, there is a value of x in the

domain.

1+ 9 + 4y

x =

2

For all y R+ , 9 + 4 y > 3, so x > 2.

Therefore for all y R+ there is x ]2, +[ such

that f (x) = y.

Therefore fis a surjection.

Since fis injective and surjective it is a bijection.

Method II

Sketch the graph of f :

4

3

2

1

3 2 1 0 1 2 3

1

2

Use the graph of f with the horizontal

3

line test.

The graph o fpasses the horizontal line test,

thereore f is injective.

From the graph it is clear that the range o f is

equal to the co-domain so f is surjective. Compare range and co-domain on graph.

Since fis both an injection and a surjection

it is a bijection.

5

b i g (2 , ) = g , Find a counterexample.

4 4

Thereore it is not injective.

ii The range o g is contained in 1 cos(x y) 1

[1 , 1 ] R R R so g is not surjective.

In all the examples above the domains are real numbers or ordered pairs.

However by our defnitions o unctions we may have domains or co-domains

that are not subsets o R or R2. The ollowing example illustrates this.

Example 7

Let P = { p ( x )| p ( x ) = a n x n + an 1 x n 1 + a n 2 x n 2 + . . . + a1 x + a0 , ai , n }

and f : P P such that f ( pn) = pn. Determine whether f is an injection,

a surjection or both.

f ( pi) = f( pj) pi = pj Use the contrapositive statement of injective

This is true even when functions.

pi = anx n + an1 x n1 + ...+ a1 x + a0

pj = anx n + an1 x n1 + ...+ a1 x + b0, a0 b0

So fis not injective.

Let pi P such that f ( pi) = p

p = pi

Then pi = pdx and there are infnitely Since pdx = q + c where q is a polynomial of

degree n + 1 and c can take any real value.

many pi P that satisy this condition.

Thereore fis surjective.

number o elements in the set S. In the ollowing theorem we are going to use

the cardinality o fnite sets to obtain two results or injection and surjection

o unctions with fnite domains and co-domains.

Theorem 1

Let f : S T where S and T are fnite sets.

Then a ( )

f is inj ective n f ( S ) = n ( S )

b f is surj ective n ( f ( S ) ) = n (T )

Chapter 2 55

Proof:

a ( )

f is injective n f ( S ) = n ( S )

For any unction we know that n ( f (S)) n(S ) since we cannot

have more images than we have elements in the domain.

Lets assume that n ( f (S )) < n(S ). Then there must be at least one

pair o diferent elements in S that have the same image, which is

in contradiction with the act that f is injective. Thereore

n(f (S )) = n(S ).

I S = {x1 , x2, ..., xn} then { f (x)} = { f (x1 ), f (x2), ..., f (xn)} .

I f (xi) = f (xj) or some i j then n( f (S )) n 1 , which is a

contradiction. Thereore, f is injective. Q.E.D.

b f is surjective n ( f ( S ) ) = n (T ) .

Suppose f is surjective.

Then each y T is the image o an element x S.

Thereore T f ( S ) .

But by denition o range and co-domain, f ( S ) T .

Thereore, by double inclusion, T = f ( S ) n (T ) = n ( f ( S ) ).

Suppose that n ( f ( S ) ) = n (T ) .

We know that f ( S ) T .

But since both f (S) and T have the same number o elements it ollows

that f ( S ) = T y = f ( x ) or each y T surjection. Q.E.D.

Consider the unction f : such that f (x) = x. We can easily

see that this is a bijection.

f ( x1 ) = f ( x2 ) x1 = x2 so it is an injection.

For every x R, there is an x R, such that f (x) = x, thereore it

is a surjection. This unction is called the identity function

because it assigns every element to itsel.

used to check injectivity; parts a and c are a little more challenging.

Example 8

Determine which of the following functions are injective given that in

each case f : R R.

a f (x) = 3x2 + 7x 2

b f (x) = x5

3x 1

c f( x ) = e

e2 x

f (x) = 6x + 7 derivative.

7

f ( x ) 0 when x

6

7

and f ( x ) < 0 when x <

6

Since f (x) has a turning point, i.e. f (x) is not strictly

increasing or decreasing, it is not injective.

b f (x) = x5 is continuous over R.

f (x) = 5x 4 0 for all x R.

Hence f(x) is increasing for all x R which means

that it is injective.

1

c f ( x ) = e3 x is continuous over R.

e2 x

f ( x ) = 3 e 3 x + 2 e 2 x > 0 for all x .

Hence since f (x) is increasing for all x R,

it must be injective.

Exercise 2A

1 A and B are two non-empty sets, X, Y A, and f :A B.

Show that:

a f (X Y ) = f (X ) f (Y )

b f (X Y ) f (X ) f (Y )

m 1

a f : such that f =

n mn

m 1 1

b f: =

such that f +

n m n

1

c f : such that f ( m ) =

m

Chapter 2 57

3 Let G denote the set o citizens o Germany. Determine which o

the ollowing statements correctly speciy a unction.

a f : G G, f (x) is the mother o x

b g : G G, g (x) is the daughter o x

c h : G G, h (x) the sister o x

f (x, y) = (x + 2y, x ). Show that fis a bijection.

y

n

5 P is the set o all polynomials: P = ai x i| n , ai .

i=0

Let g :P P, g ( p) = x 2 p. Determine whether g is

a surjective b injective.

a injective b surjective.

i f: [ 0, [ , f (x) = e x ii f : [0, 1] R, f (x) = tan x

n + 1 if n is odd

iii f : , f ( n ) =

n 1 if n is even

x

7 Let f : ( + ) 2 ( + ) 2 , such that f ( x , y ) = xy 2 , .

y

Show that fis a bijection.

a injective b surjective

nm ( m + 1 )

i f (n, m) = nm ii f ( n, m ) =

2

iii f (n, m ) = 3 n + 7 m

1 2e x

9 The unction f : R R is defned by f ( x ) = .

1 + 2e x

a Find the range o f.

b Sketch the graph o f.

c Prove that f is an injection.

f : where f (n) = 5n + 4

g : R R R R where g (x, y) = (x + 2y, 3x 5y)

Determine whether:

a the unction fis surjective

b the unction fis injective

c the unction g is surjective

d the unction g is injective.

Composition of functions

If the co-domain of a function g is equal to the domain of a second

The composite

function f, the two functions can be combined. The composition of function (f o g)(x) is

the functions g and f is denoted by f o g. The diagram below also denoted

illustrates this. by f ( g (x))

g f

A B B C

1 a a

2 b b

3 c c

g f

A B C

1 a

2 b

3 c

f g

We can show that given two functions fand g such that the domain of

f is the co-domain of g, their composition h = f o g is also a function.

Theorem 2

If g : A B, f: B C are functions, then f g : A C is also a function.

Proof:

Since g is a function we know that for every a A there is an element

b B such that g (a) = b.

Since f is a function and b is in the domain of f, we know that there is

an element c C such that f (b) = c.

Combining the two we obtain that for every a A there is a c C such

that ( f g ) ( a ) = f ( g ( a )) = f (b ) = c , making it a function. Q.E.D.

Chapter 2 59

Example 9

a Find

i ( f g) ( x ) ii ( g f ) ( x )

b Comment about your results to a i and a ii .

c Check each of the composite functions for injective and surjective properties.

2

a i ( g)(x) = ( g(x)) = (x 2) = ex Remember the correct order when working

out composite unctions.

ii ( g f ) ( x ) = g ( f ( x )) = g (e x ) = (e x ) 2 = e 2 x

2

b e x e 2x for every x element of R. Composition

of functions is not commutative.

c Method I

Using the result in a i

( f g ) ( x1 ) = ( f g )( x2 )

2 2

ex = ex

1 2

x1 2 = x2 2

x1 = x2

So ( g)(x) is not an injection.

Method II

2

( f g ) ( x ) = 2 xe x When the unction is continuous and

( f g ) ( x ) 0 when x 0 diferentiable it is easier to check by taking

and ( f g ) ( x ) < 0 when x < 0 the derivative.

Hence ( g)(x) is not continuously increasing or

decreasing since there is a turning point so it is

not injective.

2

Let y R such that ( g)(x) = y y = e x > 0

Then for all y 0 there is no x R such that

( g)(x) = y

Therefore ( g)(x) is not a surjection.

Using the result in a ii :

( g f )( x ) = e 2 x

( g f ) ( x ) = 2e 2 x > 0

Therefore ( g )(x) is an injection.

Then for all y 0 there is no x R such that

( g )(x) = y

Therefore ( g )(x) is not a surjection.

Example 9 illustrates that composition o unctions is not always

commutative, i.e. ( f g)(x) ( g f )(x) or all f (x), g (x).

Inverse functions

Let f : S T be a bijection. Since it is a surjection, each element in T is

the image o some element in S. But fis also an injection, so every element

in T is the image o a unique element in S. We can thereore defne a new

unction rom T to S that reverses the mapping rom S to T as ollows:

Defnition

Let f : S T be a bijection rom S to T. The inverse unction o f,

denoted by f 1 : T S, is a unction such that f f1 = I = f1 f

where I is the identity unction.

element in T that is the image o more than one element in S. Let us

say that f (xi) = yi = f (xj ). In this case we cannot assign a unique element

in S such that f 1 ( yi ) = x since yi is the image o two elements in S.

I fis not surjective then there is some element yi T or which there

is no element in S such that f (x) = yi.

Theorem 3

a A unction f : A B is bijective it has an inverse.

b A unction f : A B is bijective its inverse is also a bijection.

Proof:

a : Let f : A B be a bijection. Then f is injective and f is surjective.

Since f is injective, f (a) = f (b) a = b or all a, b A.

Since f is surjective, or every y B, there is an a A such that f (a) = y.

Taking these together we have:

fis bijective or every y B there is a unique a A such that f (a) = y.

I we defne a mapping g : B A, such that g( f (a)) = a or all f (a) B,

this is a well-defned unction because every element in B may be written

in the orm f (a) and its image a under g is a unique element o A.

Hence we have ( g f ) (a) = a g is a let inverse o f.

Also or all f (a) B, f ( g( f (a)) = f (a) f g ( f (a)) = f (a).

Thereore g is also a right inverse o f.

Since g is a let and right inverse o f, we can say that f has an inverse.

: Let g be the inverse o f and let us suppose that f is not injective.

there are a, b A such that a b but f (a) = f (b).

a = g ( f (a))

= g ( f (b)), since f (a) = f (b)

=b

Chapter 2 61

This is a contradiction since we started by saying that a b.

Thereore fmust be injective.

Let us now suppose that f is not a surjection.

Then there must be some element y B that is not the image o any a A

i.e. f (a) y or all a A.

On the other hand f ( g (y)) = y by defnition o inverse.

It ollows that there must be an a A whose image under f is y in B.

This is a contradiction, thereore fis a surjection.

Since fis both an injection and a surjection it ollows that f is a bijection.

b To show that f 1 : B A is a bijection we need to show that it is

an injection and a surjection.

Let x1 , x2 B such that f 1 ( x1 ) = f 1 ( x2 ).

Then by the defnition o inverse we know that

x1 = ( f f 1 )( x1 ) = f ( f 1 ( x1 ) ) = f ( f 1 ( x 2 )) = ( f f 1 )( x 2 ) = x 2

Thereore f1 : B A is injective.

Since f : A B is a surjection we know that or each y B there is

x A such that f (x) = y

f1 f (x) = x = f1 ( y)

Thereore since or all x A there is y B such that f1 ( y) = x it

ollows that f1 : B A is a surjection.

Since f1 : B A is injective and surjective, it ollows that it is a bijection.

Example 10

Determine whether f is an injection, and/or a surjection and fnd the inverse

unction f 1 where applicable:

a f : R R+ {0} and f (x) = x 2

b f : R+ R+ and f (x) = x 2 + 1

c f : R R and f (x) = x 3 + 1

a Method I

Let f (x1 ) = f (x2)

x1 2 = x2 2

x1 = x2

Thereore fis not an injection.

Method II

f( x ) = x 2 f( x ) = 2 x

f ( x ) < 0 when x < 0

f ( x ) = 0 when x = 0

and f ( x ) > 0 when x > 0

is not continuously increasing or decreasing over R.

Thereore is not an injection.

For every y R+ there is x R such that x2 = y. (x) > 0 or all x R+.

Thereore is a surjection.

Since is not a bijection it does not have an inverse.

b Let (x1 ) = (x2) Use contrapositive statement or

2

x1 + 1 = x2 + 12 injection.

x1 = x2

Thereore is an injection.

Let y + , y < 1 Use defnition o surjection.

There is no x R + such that (x) = y.

Thereore is not a surjection.

Since is not a bijection it does not have an inverse.

c Let (x1 ) = (x2)

x1 3 + 1 = x2 3 + 1

x1 = x2

Thereore is an injection.

For every y R, 3 y 1 f ( 3 y 1 ) = y

So is a surjection.

The inverse unction is given by f 1 ( x ) = 3 x 1

domain or co-domain as subsets o R. In Example 7 the domain and

co-domain were the set o polynomial unctions with real coefcients.

In the next examples you will see work on unctions that have a

Cartesian product as domain and co-domain.

Example 11

a show that is a bijection

b nd 1 (x, y).

( y 2x, x + y) = (b 2a, a + b)

y 2x = b 2a Equate corresponding elements.

and y + x = b + a

3x = 3a Subtract the second equation

x= a rom the frst.

Since y + x = b + a then y = b.

Thereore is injective. Show that (x, y) = (a, b)

Chapter 2 63

Let (a, b) R R. Now show that is a surjection.

I (x, y) = (a, b), ( y 2x, y + x) = (a, b)

y 2x = a and y + x = b Equate corresponding elements.

3x = a b Subtract second equation rom

ba the frst.

x=

3

y+ x= b

y= bx Substitute or x

ba

y =b

3

2b + a

y=

3

Thereore (x, y) R R.

So is a surjection, and thereore is a bijection.

b Let (a, b) = (x, y)

(a, b) = ( y 2x, y + x)

a = y 2x ba 2b + a

x= , y= Replace a and b by x and y

b=y + x 3 3

respectively to write the inverse

y x 2y + x unction.

Thereore f 1 ( x , y ) = , You need to write the inverse

3 3

unction using 1 (x, y).

Example 12

g : 2 2 , g ( x, y ) = ( x y, 2 x + y )

Given that

h : 2 2 , h ( x, y ) = ( xy, 2 x y )

a Show that g has an inverse and fnd it.

b Determine whether ( g o h) is a bijection.

a For g to have an inverse it has to be a bijection.

Let g (x, y) = g (a, b)

(x y, 2x + y) = (a b, 2a + b)

x y= a b Equate elements o ordered pairs.

and 2x + y = 2a + b Add the equations.

3x = 3a x = a Show that (x, y) = (a, b).

x y= a b y= b

Thereore g is an injection.

Let (a, b) R2

I (x, y) = (a, b) then

(x y, 2x + y) = (a, b)

and 2x + y = b }

x y = a x = a + b R and y = b 2a R

3 3

Equate elements o ordered pairs

and add to solve or x and y.

Therefore g is a surjection.

Since g is bijective it has an inverse.

Let (a, b) = g (x, y)

Then (a, b) = (x y, 2x + y)

a=xy a+b b 2a

x = , y= Equate elements o ordered pairs

and b = 2 x + y 3 3

and add to solve or x and y.

x + y y 2x

g 1 ( x, y ) = , Again we need to write it out

3 3

using inverse notation.

b ( g h ) ( x, y ) = g ( h ( x, y )) = g ( xy, 2 x y )

= ( xy 2 x + y, 2 xy + 2 x y )

Let ( g o h)(x, y) = ( g o h)(a, b)

(xy 2x + y, 2xy + 2x y) = (ab 2a + b, 2ab + 2a b)

xy 2 x + y = ab 2 a + b

xy = ab Equate elements o ordered pairs

2 xy + 2 x y = 2 ab + 2 a b

and add to write x in terms o a,

ab b and y

xy = ab x = , y 0

y

2ab

ab + y = ab 2a + b Substitute or x in the rst

y

equation.

2 ab + y 2 = 2 ay + by

y 2 + ( 2 a b ) y 2 ab = 0

( 2a b ) ( 2 a b ) 2 + 8 ab

y= Solve the quadratic equation or y.

2

( 2a b ) 4 a 2 4 ab + b 2 + 8 ab

y=

2

( 2a b ) ( 2 a + b ) 2

y=

2

y=b or y = 2a

b

When y = b, x = a and when y = 2 a , x =

2

We have (g o h)(x, y) = (g o h)(a, b)

( g o h)(2, 6) = ( g o h)(3, 4) It is sucient to nd two diferent

elements that have the same

( g o h) is not injective therefore it is not a bijection.

image.

e. g. a = 2, b = 6

Chapter 2 65

2.2 Properties of functions

We will now consider some properties o unctions by looking at the

three unctions:

f : R R, f (x) = 3x + 2

2

g : + , g( x ) = e x

1

h : + + , h( x ) =

x

First we fnd f ( g h)(x) as ollows

1 1

f ( g h ) ( x ) = f g( h ( x )) = f g = f g

x x

( ) = f (e

2

1

= f e x x 2 ) = 3e x

2

+ 2

2 2

( f g )( x ) = f ( g ( x )) = f (e x ) = 3e x + 2

2

1

1 2

( f g ) h ( x ) = ( f g ) = 3e x + 2 = 3e x + 2

x

(( f g) h)(x) = ( f ( g h))(x).

In the next theorem we will prove that this result is true or any three

well-defned unctions.

Theorem 4

Composition o unctions is associative; in other words,

given three unctions f : C D, g : B C and h : A B, it ollows

that (( f g) h)(x) = ( f ( g h))(x).

Proof:

LHS = (( f g) h)(x) = ( f g) (h (x)) = f ( g (h (x))

RHS = ( f ( g h))(x) = f (( g h)(x)) = f ( g (h (x))

The domains and co-domains o (( f g) h) and ( f ( g h)) are the

same and since (( f g) h)(x) = ( f ( g h))(x) or all x A, it ollows

that (( f g) h) = ( f ( g h)). Q. E. D.

Investigation

Beore we look at the next properties you should justiy whether the ollowing

statements are true or alse. A ormal proo is not necessary at this stage and

you may use diagrams to help you decide on an answer.

f : A B and g : B C

a i Given that both f and g are injective unctions then g f is also injective.

ii Given that both f and g are injective unctions then f g is also injective.

iii I g f is injective and g is also injective then f is injective.

iv I g f is injective and f is also injective then g is injective.

b i Given that both f and g are surjective unctions then g f is also surjective.

ii Given that both f and g are surjective unctions then f g is also surjective.

c I f is injective and g is surjective then:

i g f is injective

ii g f is surjective.

i g f is injective

ii g f is surjective.

Theorem 5

a I f: A B and g : B C are injective unctions then

g f: A C is also injective.

b I f: A B and g : B C are surjective unctions then

g f: A C is also surjective.

c I f: A B and g : B C are bijections then

g f: A C is also a bijection.

Proof:

a Let ( g f )(x1 ) = ( g f )(x2)

g ( f (x1 )) = g( f (x2))

f (x1 ) = f (x2) since g is injective

x1 = x2 since f is injective

Thereore ( g f ) is also injective.

b Let q C, then, since g is surjective, there is some y B such that g ( y) = q.

For this y there is some x A such that f (x) = y since fis surjective.

So q = g ( y) = g ( f (x)) = ( g f )(x)

Thereore ( g f )is also surjective.

c Since it was shown in a and b that ( g f ) is both injective and surjective,

then by defnition o bijection it ollows that i fand g are both bijective

then ( g f ) is a bijection. Q.E.D.

Chapter 2 67

Properties of composite functions

Associative ( ( f g ) h ) ( x ) = ( f ( g h ) ) ( x )

I f : S T and g : T S are injections, then

( f g ) ( x ) and ( g f ) ( x ) are injective.

I f : S T and g : T S are surjections, then

( f g ) ( x ) and ( g f ) ( x ) are surjective.

Exercise 2B

1 A and B are two non-empty sets, and A, B R. The unctions f and g are

defned as ollows: f : A B B A, f (a, b) = (b, a) and g : B A B,

g (b, a) = b. Find g o f.

nor surjective.

a i ( f o g) (x)

ii ( g o f ) (x)

b Check each o the composite unctions in a or injection

and surjection.

f : Z Z Z, f (n) = (n 1, 1) and

g : Z Z Z, g (m, n) = m + n

a Show that fis a bijection and fnd its inverse.

b Show that g is not a bijection, but a surjection.

c Find fo g and g o f.

f (x, y) = (xy, x + y).

a Determine whether or not fis a bijection.

b Find ( fo f )(x, y).

1

6 Let f : R \ {0, 1} R \ {0, 1} such that f ( x ) = and

x

g : R \ {0, 1} R \ {0, 1} such that g (x) = 1 x

a Show that f and g are both bijections.

b Find fo g and g o f.

c Show that ( fo g) o ( g o f )(x) = ( g o f ) o ( fo g)(x).

d What can you say about fand g ?

e What can you say about fo g and g o f ?

The unction f : (R+ ) 2 (R+ ) 2 is defned by f ( x, y ) = , x 2 y .

y

7

x

a Show that fis a bijection.

b Find the inverse f1 .

a Find f (x) and hence show that f is a bijection.

b Find an expression or f1 (x).

x

for x e

f( x ) = e

ln x for x > e

a Sketch the graph o f.

b By reerring to your graph, show that f is a bijection.

c Find f1 .

f (m, n) = m n , f2(m, n) = | n| and f3 (m, n) = m2 n2.

Two unctions mapping Z Z Z are defned by

g ( p) = (2p + , p) and g2( p) = (| p| , p).

a Find the range o

i f1 o g1

ii f3 o g2

b Find all the solutions o f1 o g2 ( p) = f2 o g1( p).

c Find all the solutions o f3 (m, n) = k in each o the cases

k = 1 and k = 2.

n

if n is even

f : Z Z where f ( n ) = 2

n +1 if n is o dd

g : Z Z where g (n) = 6 n

h : Z Z where h (n) = n(mod 8)

k : Z Z where k (n) = | n 8|

Find:

a ( h o g )(n) b ( k o f )(n) c ( fo g )(n)

d ( fo h o g )(n) e ( k o h o g )(n) f ( k o f o g )(n)

2

12 Given that f : [1, [ R, f (x) = ln(2x 1), g : + , g ( x ) = e x and

h : R R, h (x) = 2x, fnd the ollowing unctions:

a ( g o f )(x) b ( fo g)(x) c (h o f )(x)

d ( g o h o f )(x) e (h o g o f )(x)

Chapter 2 69

Identity functions

In this section we will be focusing on identity functions. An identity

function is one whose output is the same as the original input.

Defnition

The identity unction for a set S is a bijection IS : S S such that

IS (x) = x for all x S.

Theorem 6

Let f : S S be any function.

Then (IS o f )(x) = ( fo IS )(x) = f (x) for all x S.

Proof:

Let x S.

Then (IS o f )(x) = IS( f (x)) = f (x) and ( fo IS)(x) = f (IS(x)) = f (x).

Therefore (IS o f )(x) = ( fo IS )(x) = f (x). Q.E.D.

Theorem 7

For a bijection f : S T such that f (x) = y, x S and y T, the

inverse function f1 : T S is such that ( f 1 o f )(x) = IS and

( fo f1 )( y) = IT.

Proof:

Notice that one composition

( f1 o f )(x) = f 1 ( f (x)) = f 1 ( y) = x = IS gives an identity on the

( fo f1 )( y) = f ( f1 ( y)) = f (x) = y = IT Q.E.D. domain and the other one

gives an identity on the

co-domain.

Example 13

Show that if f : B C and g : A B are both bijections then ( fo g) 1 (x) = ( g1 o f1 )(x).

( fo g) o ( g1 o f1 )(x)

= ( fo ( g o g1 ) o f1 )(x) Composition of functions is

= ( fo (IB o f1 ))(x) associative.

= ( fo f1 )(x) = IC

Similarly

( g1 o f 1 ) o ( fo g)(x)

= ( g1 ( f 1 o f ) o g)(x)

= ( g1 (IB o g))(x)

= ( g1 o g)(x) = IA

Example 14

4 x | x| x + | x|

Given that f : \{ 0} + such that f ( x ) = ,

2x

show that f (x) is a bijection.

4 x2 x + x Show that f is both injective and

When x > 0, | x| = x and f( x ) = = 2x

2x surjective.

So f (x1 ) = f (x2) x1 = x2.

4 x 2 2 x

When x < 0, | x| = x and f ( x ) = = 2x 1

2x

and f (x1 ) = f (x2) x1 = x2.

Moreover, if x < 0 then f (x) is even, while if x > 0

then f (x) is odd. So if x1 > 0 and x2 < 0 then

f (x1 ) f (x2). Therefore f (x) is an injection.

f (Z+ ) = {2, 4, 6, . . .}

f (Z ) = {1 , 3, 5, . . .}

f (Z) = {2, 4, 6, . . .} {1 , 3, 5, . . .} = Z

Therefore f (x) is a surjection.

Since the function is both an injection and a surjection

it follows that it is a bijection.

Although R and R+ have the same cardinality and are both infnite they are

uncountable, unlike , and Z, which are countably infnite.

Cantor came up with an ingenious yet very simple method to show 0 1/1 1/1 2/1 2/1 3/1 3/1 ...

that the rational numbers are countable. A set is said to be 1/2 1/2 2/2 2/2 3/2 3/2 ...

countable i a one-to-one correspondence can be ound between

1/3 1/3 2/3 2/3 3/3 3/3 ...

the elements o the set and the set o positive integers. Cantor

1/4 1/4 2/4 2/4 3/4 3/4 ...

constructed a table that enables all the rational numbers, both

1/5 1/5 2/5 2/5 3/5 3/5 ...

positive and negative, to be included and hence allows a one-to-one

1/6 1/6 2/6 2/6 3/6 3/6 ...

correspondence to be ound. The table is on the right, with

...

...

...

...

...

...

the lines showing the order o pairing up the ractions with the

positive integers.

i we have a bijection f : S T where S and T are fnite sets it ollows that

n (S ) = n (T ).

What i g : R R+ such that g(x) = 2 x? You have shown in Exercise 2B that

this is a bijection. In this case we say that the two sets R and R+ have the

same cardinality because there is a bijection g : R R

Chapter 2 71

Exercise 2C

1 For each o the ollowing questions nd ( fo g)(x) and ( g o f )(x)

and determine whether fand g are mutual inverses.

a f : , f ( x ) = 1 3 x

x

g : , g( x ) = 1

3

1

b f : \ {0} \ { 4} , f ( x ) = 4

x

1

g : \ { 4} \ {0} , g( x ) =

x + 4

c f : , f ( x ) = 3 kx 1 , k +

1 3

g : , g( x ) = ( x + 1)

k

2 Show that the ollowing unctions are bijective and describe the

respective inverse unctions:

a f : R+ R, f (x) = lnx

x if x is rational

b f : , f ( x ) =

x if x is irrational

If a function is

3 a Given that f : R R, f (x) = ex and invertible it means

g:[0, ] [1, +1], g (x) = cos x nd: that it has an inverse.

i ( fo g) 1(x)

ii ( g 1 o f1)(x)

b Prove that or invertible unctions f and g, ( fo g) 1 = g1 o f1.

You are amiliar with the operations o addition and multiplication

o numbers, the dot product o two vectors, the union and intersection

o sets and earlier in this chapter we looked at the composition o

unctions. All o these are operations. Other operations you are

amiliar with include:

n! actorial

| z| modulus

A the complement o set A

There is a diference between n! and the product o two numbers.

In order to nd n! we need to know only the value o n. So when

n = 4, 4! = 24. We call these unary operations (operations that have

only one input). However, in order to perorm multiplication we

need two numbers. We need two sets to nd a union or intersection

but we only need set A to identiy its complement.

Defnition In this book we mostly

use * to denote binary

A binary operation on a non-empty set S is a rule or combining

operations. However,

any two elements x, y S to give a unique element c o a set. This

we sometimes also

is denoted by x y = c. use other notations,

or example:

Division on R is not a binary operation because x 0 is not defned.

o, , #, ,

However division on \{ 0} is a binary operation.

Multiplication on Z produces another integer. The dot product o two

vectors is not a closed binary operation since it produces a scalar quantity.

The vector product however is a closed binary operation since it produces

another vector.

Consider a set S with binary operation . We say that S is closed

under i or every x, y S, x y S.

The set o vectors, V, is closed under the vector product because or

all (a, b) V, a b = c V.

The set o real numbers, R, is closed under multiplication because

or all x, y R, xy R.

When testing or closure on fnite sets it is useul to illustrate the

operation using a Cayley table. This is a square grid which shows

all the possible elements obtained by the binary operation. We can

represent the operation on the set A = {a, b, c , d } as ollows:

the frst mathematician to defne

a a a a b a c a d the concept o a group (which

b b a b b b c b d you will frst study in Chapter 3)

as a set together with a binary

c c a c b c c c d

operation that satisfes certain

d d a d b d c d d conditions.

Note that order is important when flling out a Cayley table. The element in

the third row and second column above is c b and not b c.

The operation table is shown below.

S S 1 0 1 We can see rom the Cayley table that every

1 1 0 1 product is a member o S.

0 0 0 0 We can thereore say that S is closed under

1 1 0 1 multiplication.

Chapter 2 73

Example 15

Determine which o the ollowing operations are binary operations on the given sets and

or those which are, state whether or not they are closed.

a Addition on the set S = {1 , 0, 1 }

b Multiplication on the set o complex numbers

c Addition on the set A = { x| x = 2 n , n }

+

+

a

+ 1 0 1

1 2 1 0

0 1 0 1

1 0 1 2

It is a binary operation since each addition gives a unique Check whether it is a

element. Not closed, since 2, 2 S binary operation and or

b It is a binary operation which is closed. closure.

(a + ib)(c + id ) = (ac bd ) + i(bc + ad )

c It is a binary operation which is closed on the set o positive

even integers. 2m + 2n = 2(m + n), which belongs to A since

(m + n) is an element o Z + .

d It is a binary operation which is closed on the positive odd integers.

(2n + 1 )(2m + 1 ) = 2(2mn + m + n) + 1 = 2k + 1 B

e It is not a binary operation since 0 , and division by 0 is

not defned

Example 16

The operations and o on the set S = {1 , 2, 3} are defned as ollows:

| a 2 b| + a

a b = a b b a and a b =

2

Draw a Cayley table or each operation and determine whether the set is closed

under these operations.

1 2 3

Fill out the table by working out the

1 0 1 2

operation, e.g. 2 1 = 21 12 = 1.

2 1 0 1

3 2 1 0

The set is not closed under since 2 and 1 are not in S.

o 0 1 2 3

Work out the operations to fll out

0 0 1 2 3

the table, e. g.

1 1 1 2 3

3 4 + 3

2 2 1 2 3 3 2 = = 2.

2

3 3 2 2 3

The set is closed under o.

Exercise 2D

1 Determine which o the ollowing operations are binary operations

on the given sets and or those which are, state i they are closed.

a on S = {0, 1, 2, 3} , where a b = a + b

b on Z + , where a b = the smaller o a or b, or the common value i a = b

c on Z + , where a b = (ab + 1)

d o on Z + , where a o b = b a

the ollowing operations are binary operations on S and determine

whether or not they are closed.

a addition b multiplication c division

a addition

b multiplication

i {

A = m| m = 2 n , n + } ii B = { m| m = 2 n 1, n + }

as ollows: a b = a + b (mod4) and a o b = ab (mod4).

Draw a Cayley table or each operation and determine whether

or not the set is closed under these operations.

5 Let X = { f | f : R R, fis a unction} . Show that the

ollowing operations are binary operations on X and determine

whether or not they are closed.

a addition o unctions b subtraction o unctions

c composition o unctions

show that S is closed under multiplication.

7 The binary operation is defned or a, b Z + by a b = 2a + b + ab.

Show that is a binary operation and determine whether or not Z+ is

closed under .

8 The operations and o on the set S = {1, 2, 3} are defned as ollows:

a!b!

a b = ab b a + ab and a b =

ab

Draw a Cayley table or each operation and determine

whether or not the set is closed under these operations.

9 Let S = { n 2 | n + } . Determine whether or not S is closed under

a addition b multiplication.

10 Let S = {1, 2}. The binary operation is defned on S as ollows.

For a, b S, a b = 3ab and the binary operation o is defned on

S S is defned as (x1, y1) o (x2, y2) = (x1 x2, y1 y2).

a Write the elements o S S.

b Construct the Cayley table or the operation on S. Is S closed under ?

c Construct the Cayley table or the operation o on S S.

Chapter 2 75

Properties of binary operations

Defnition

A binary operation on a non-empty set S is said to be

associative i or all a, b, c S, a (b c) = (a b) c.

The operation addition on R is associative but subtraction is not

since (6 2) 3 = 1 and 6 (2 3) = 7.

Also the operation multiplication on R is associative but division

on R \ {0} is not associative because 8 (1 2 3) (8 1 2) 3.

Defnition

A binary operation on a non-empty set S is said to be

commutative i or all a, b S, a b = b a.

Addition and multiplication are commutative on R but the operation

division on R \ {0} is not commutative because it is not the case that

a b = b a, or all a, b R\{0}.

Also the operation subtraction on R is not commutative since it is

not the case that a b b a, or all a, b R\{0}.

Example 17

The binary operation o on is defned as ollows z o w = | z + w| . Determine whether o is:

a commutative b associative.

a z = a + ib , w = c + id Check whether

zo w=wo z

| z + w| = ( a + c ) 2 + (b + d ) 2

= | w + z|

z o w = | z + w|

w o z = | w + z| = | z + w|

The operation is commutative.

b Method I

(1) o ((1) o 1) = (1) o 0 = 1, but ((1) o (1) o 1 = 2 o 1 = 3

Method II

| z +| w + v| | = a + ( (c + e )2 + (d + f )2 ) + ib Check whether

z o (w o v) = (z o w) o v

|| z + w| + v| = ( )

( a + c ) 2 + ( b + d ) 2 + e + if

| z + | w + v|| || z + w| + v|

z o (w o v) = z o (| w + v| ) (| z + w| ) o v

The operation is not associative.

Defnition

Given two binary operations and o on a set S, is said to be

distributive over o i a (b c ) = ( a b ) ( a c ) and

( a b ) c = ( a c ) (b c ) or all a, b, c S .

The ollowing example illustrates this property.

Example 8

Given the operations and o on Z, such that a b = 3 ab and a b = a + 3b ,

determine whether:

a is distributive over o b o is distributive over

(a b) o (a c) = (3ab) o (3ac) = 3ab + 3(3ac)

= 3ab + 9ac

Thereore is distributive over o

b a (b c ) = a (3bc ) = a + 9 bc

Check if is o is distributive over

(a o b) (a o c) = (a + 3b) (a + 3c)

= 3(a + 3b) (a + 3c)

a o (b c) (a o b) (a o c)

For example, 5 o (5 5) = 5 o 75 = 230, but

(5 o 5) (5 o 5) = 200.

Thereore o is not distributive over .

Exercise 2E

1 For the binary operations defned below determine whether is

i commutative ii associative

a is defned on Z by a b = a b

b is defned on by a b = 2 ab + 1

a b

c is defned on by a b = 2 3

Show that ( a b ) ( c d ) = ( ( d c ) a ) b .

3 Let f1 , f2 , f3 and f4 be unctions defned on R \ {0} such that f (x) = x,

1 1

f2 ( x ) = , f3 (x) = x and f4 ( x ) = . The binary operation o on

x x

S = {f , f2, f3 , f4} is defned as the composition o unctions.

Draw a Cayley table to illustrate this operation. Determine whether

a S is closed under composition o unctions

b the operation composition o unctions is commutative in S.

a, b , a b = a + 2b 1. Determine whether the binary

operation is

a commutative b associative.

all a, b R \ {1} . Show that:

a R \ {1} is closed under the operation

b the operation is commutative

c the operation is associative.

Chapter 2 77

The identity element e

Defnition

Let be a binary operation on S. I there is an element e S such

that or every element x S , e x = x = x e, then we say that e

is the identity element o S under the operation .

Theorem 8

The identity element o a binary operation on S is unique.

Proo:

Let e, f S, e f such that or every element x S :

e x = x = x e and f x = x = x f

e x = x = x e e f = f = f e (replacing x by since f S)

f x = x = x f f e = e =e (replacing x by e since e S)

Combining the two we obtain the result that e = and so the identity is unique. Q.E.D.

or every x S, e x = x, and S is the right identity i or every

x S, x = x . We can show that e = as ollows. (i.e. i there is a

let identity and there is also a right identity, then they are equal.)

Since e is a let identity we know that e x = x.

But since S we can replace x by to obtain e = .

But is a right identity so e = e.

Thereore e = .

Example 19

ab

Let the binary operation be defned on set o numbers S such that or a, b S, a b = .

2

Determine whether or not an identity exists and i it does, fnd it.

Suppose an identity exists, i.e. e b = b or b S .

eb First we fnd the let identity.

e b = b and e b =

2

eb

Thereore b = e=2

2

be

b e = b and b e = Now we fnd the right identity.

2

be

b = e = 2

2

Since the let identity is equal to the right identity the

identity exists and e = 2.

Example 0

Determine whether or not an identity exists and i it does, fnd it.

Suppose an identity exists, i.e. e b = b or b S

e b = b and e b = 2e + 3b First look for the left identity.

b = 2e + 3b

e = b

We can show that the right identity is not equal to

the let identity as ollows:

b e = b and b e = 2b + 3e

b = 2b + 3e

b

e=

3

Since the let identity is not equal to the right identity and

neither let identity nor right identity are elements o + it

ollows that the operation does not have an identity in S.

Exercise 2F

In Questions 1 to 5 below, determine whether the binary operation is:

a commutative

b associative.

Determine whether or not an identity element exists and i it does, fnd it.

1 The binary operation is defned on Q such that or all a, b Q,

a b = a + b ab.

(m, n), ( p, q) N N, (m, n) ( p, q) = (mp, nq).

(m, n), ( p, q) N N, (m, n) ( p, q) = (m + p, n + q).

(a, b), (c, d ) Q Q, (a, b) (c, d ) = (ac, ad + b).

(m, n), ( p, q) + + , (m, n) ( p, q) = (mq + np, nq).

Defnition

Let be a binary operation on S with identity e. Then or all

x S i there exists an element y S such that x y = e = y x

then we call y the inverse o x, and we write y = x 1 .

Chapter 2 79

It is easy to understand this concept with some operations that you are

amiliar with. The identity o addition in R is 0 because x + 0 = x = 0 + x

or all x R. Since x R and x + (x) = (x) + x = 0 we conclude

that or addition in R, e = 0 and x 1 = x.

Note that x1 here is

Similarly or multiplication in R\{0} , the identity e = 1 the notation or inverse,

1 not the reciprocal

since 1 x = x = x 1 and the inverse is given by x 1 = since

x notation or numbers,

1 1

x = x = 1. which happens to be

x x the same.

Theorem 9

For an associative binary operation in S with identity e, the

inverse is unique.

Proof:

You should remember

Let a, b be inverses o x. that you cannot discuss

an inverse without

a= e a by defnition o identity

frst establishing that

= (b x) a since b is an inverse o x an identity exists. We

also need to assume

= b (x a) by associativity

the associativity

=be since a is an inverse o x property but not

commutativity.

=b by defnition o identity Q.E.D.

Example 21

For multiplication in \ {0} determine whether or not the identity element exists

and i it does fnd the inverse o z \ {0} .

1 1 an identity.

For z \ {0} , z = z = 1.

z z

z = a + bi

1 1 a bi z

= = 2 2

= Find the inverse.

z a + bi a + b zz

z

Thereore the inverse z 1 = .

zz

Example 22

a Show that the operation is

i associative ii commutative.

b Show that the identity exists and fnd the inverse (a, b) 1 under in (\{0} ).

(a, b) ((c, d ) (m, n)) = ((a, b) (c, d )) (m, n) properties you should

LHS frst defne them and

= ( a, b ) ( ( c , d ) ( m , n ) ) then prove that the

= (a, b) (c + m, dn) RHS = LHS.

= (a + (c + m), b(dn))

= ((a + c) + m, ( bd )n)

= ((a + c), bd ) (m, n)

= ((a, b) (c, d )) (m, n) = RHS

Thereore is associative in (\{0} ).

ii Commutativity:

(a, b) (c, d ) = (a + c, bd )

= (c + a, db)

= (c, d ) (a, b)

Thereore is commutative in (\{0} ).

b Since we have shown that is commutative there is no need to

fnd both let and right identities since they will be equal.

Let (x, y) (\{0} ) such that (x, y) (a, b) = (a, b)

(x + a, yb) = (a, b) x + a = a x = 0 and yb = b y =

So the identity is (0, ).

Let (m, n) (\{0} ) such that (m, n) (a, b) = (0, ).

(m + a, nb) = (0, )

1

m = a, n =

b

1

Thereore (a, b) = a, .

b

The cancellation laws are very important in abstract algebra and will

An invertible binary

be used extensively in the next chapters. operation on S is

one where for every

Theorem 10 x element of S, there

exits an inverse also

Let be an invertible associative binary operation on a non-empty

in S.

set S with identity e. Then the operation satisfes

i the left cancelation law, i.e. a b = a c b = c

ii the right cancelation law, i.e. i a b = c b a = c

Chapter 2 81

Proof:

Let a b = a c, where a, b, c S.

a (a b) = a (a c), since a has a unique inverse in S

(a a) b = (a a) c, since the operation is associative

e b = e c by defnition o the inverse element

b = c by defnition o the identity element Q.E.D.

The proo o the right cancellation law is let as an exercise.

Example

Show that both right and let cancellation laws are satisfed or the composition

o bijective unctions.

Let f, g, h be bijections. We need to show that

a i f g = f h then g = h

b i f g = h g then f= h

Since f is a bijection it is invertible, i.e. there exists

a bijection f such that f f = I = f f

f g = f h

f ( f g) = f ( f h)

( f f ) g = ( f f ) h Composition of functions is associative.

I g = I h Inverse property.

g= h Identity property.

Thereore the let cancellation law holds.

It is let as an exercise to prove part b.

Exercise 2G

1 The binary operation is defned on R as ollows. For any a, b R

ab=a+b+1

a Show that is commutative. b Find the identity element.

c Find the inverse o the element a.

a Show that multiplication is commutative.

b Show that multiplication is associative.

c Find the identity element under multiplication.

d Find the inverse o the element a + bi under multiplication.

3 Consider the set A = {0, 1, 2, 3} under the binary operation such that

or a, b A, a b = a + b (mod 4). Construct a Cayley table to illustrate

this binary relation and show that the relation is commutative. Identiy the

identity element and hence fnd the inverse o each element in A.

4 For each o the ollowing sets, represents a closed binary operation

defned on the given set S. Determine whether or not the identity element

exists. I it does, fnd it and the inverse o a S.

a S = {2, 4, 6, 8} , a b = ab (mod 10)

ab

b S = Q \ {0} , a b = c S = + , a b = 2 + ab

2

a Show that

i S is closed under multiplication

ii multiplication is associative

iii an identity exists

iv every element in S has an inverse in S

a+ b

6 Given the set S = ]1, 1[ and the operation a b = ,

1 + ab

a show that

i S is closed under

ii is associative

iii an identity exists.

b Find the inverse o a S under .

Review exercise

EXAM-STYLE QUESTIONS

1 S = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} and the unction f : S S is defned by

f (x) = 6x(mod 7)

a Prove that fis a bijection.

b Show that fis its own inverse.

Show algebraically that

a A A = A b (A A) (B B ) = A B c (A B ) (A B ) = A B.

3 Let f : A B where A = [0, [ 0, , B = [ 0, [ [ 0, 1[ and

2

f (x, y) = (x cos y, sin y). Determine whether fis a bijection.

I it is, fnd the inverse unction f 1 .

4 The operation is defned on as

(a, b) (c, d ) = (ac + bd, ad + bc), where a, b, c, d .

Find the identity element or this operation.

5 Consider three sets S, T and U.

f and g are two mappings such that f : S T, and g : T U.

i I g f is surjective, prove that g is surjective

ii I g f is injective, prove that f is injective.

Chapter 2 83

1

6 The unction f : R R is defned by f ( x ) = 3 cos x + .

6

a Determine whether or not the unction is injective or surjective,

giving reasons.

b I the domain is restricted to [0, ], what are the restrictions on the

co-domain that would make f invertible? Find the inverse unction.

7 Let be the binary operation on the set S = { x 1 < x < 1, x } defned by

x + y

x y= , for any x , y S .

1 + xy

a Determine whether or not the operation is

i commutative ii associative.

b Establish whether or not an identity exists and i so fnd it.

a Find the exact range o f.

b i Explain why fis not an injection.

ii Giving a reason, state whether or not fis a surjection.

c A new unction g is now defned as ollows:

g : [0, k] A where g (x) = e 2cosx + 1 and k 0.

i Find the maximum value o k or which g is an injection.

For this value o k, what values can A take to make g (x) a bijection?

ii Find an expression or g 1 (x).

iii Write down the domain o g 1 .

Chapter 2 summary

A relation that associates each element in a non-empty set S with a unique element in a

non-empty set T is called a unction rom S to T.

We denote this unction by f : S T.

The set S is called the domain and T, the target set, is called the co-domain.

The set f ( S ) = { t| t T , t = f ( s )} , subset o T, is called the range.

A unction f : S T or which each element o the range, f (S ), corresponds to exactly

one element o the domain, S, is said to be an injection, i.e. i f ( a ) = f (b ) a = b

or a, b S.

I every element in the co-domain o a unction is the image o at least one element in

the domain we say that the unction is a surjection, i.e. or all b in the co-domain there

exists an a in the domain such that f (a) = b.

A unction is a bijection i it is an injection and a surjection.

Given f : S T where S and T are fnite sets, then:

a f is injective n( f (S )) = n(S )

b f is surjective n( f (S )) = n(T)

Composite functions

If g : A B, f : B C are functions, then f g : A C is also a function.

A function f : A B is bijective it has an inverse.

A function f : A B is bijective its inverse is also a bijection.

Properties of composite functions:

Associativity (( f g ) h ) ( x) = ( f ( g h ) ) ( x)

If f : S T and g: T S are injections, then ( f g ) ( x ) and ( g f ) ( x ) are injective.

If f : S T and g: T S are surjections, then ( f g ) ( x ) and ( g f ) ( x ) are surjective.

The identity function for a set S is a bijection IS : S S such that IS ( x ) = x for all x S .

Let f : S S be any function, then ( IS f ) ( x ) = ( f IS ) ( x ) = f ( x ) for all x S .

f 1 : T S is such that ( f 1 f ) ( x ) = IS and ( f f 1 ) ( y ) = IT

A binary operation on a non-empty set S is a rule for combining any two elements

x, y S to give a unique element c. This is denoted by x y = c. A binary operation on a

non-empty set S is said to be closed if for all a, b S, a b S.

A binary operation on a non-empty set S is closed if for all a, b S, A B S.

A binary operation on a non-empty set S is said to be associative if for all a, b, c S ,

a (b c) = (a b) c.

A binary operation on a non-empty set S is said to be commutative if for all a, b S ,

a b = b a.

If is a binary operation on S and there is an element e S such that for every element

x S , e x = x = x e, then we say that e is the identity element of S under the

operation .

The identity element of a binary operation on S is unique.

Let be a binary operation on S with identity e. Then for all x S if there exists an

element y S such that x y = e = y x then we call y the inverse of x, and we write

y = x 1 .

For a binary operation in S with identity e, if the inverse exists it is unique, i.e. each x

element of S has a unique inverse.

Let be an invertible associative binary operation on a non-empty set S with identity e.

The operation is said to satisfy

i the left cancelation law, i.e. a b = a c b = c

ii the right cancelation law, i.e. a b = c b a = c

Chapter 2 85

The Universal

3 Theory of

Everything in

Mathematics

CHAPTER OBJECTIVES:

8.7 The defnition o a group {G, }; the operation table o a group is a

Latin square, but the converse is alse; Abelian groups.

8.8 Examples o groups: , , , and under addition; integers under addition

modulo n; non-zero integers under multiplication modulo p, where p is prime;

symmetries o plane fgures, including equilateral triangles and rectangles;

invertible unctions under composition o unctions.

8.9 The order o a group; the order o a group element; cyclic groups; generators;

proo that all cyclic groups are Abelian.

8.11 Subgroups; proper subgroups; use and proo o subgroup tests.

You should know how to: Skills check:

1

1 Given that f ( x ) = x + 1 and g(x) = e x, 1 Given that fand g are unctions on + such

2

that f (x) = ln(x + 1) and g (x) = x2, fnd the

a Find the inverses o unctions, e.g.

ollowing:

fnd f 1(x) and g1(x). Exchanging x

a ( f g) ( x )

and f (x), solving or x, and then using

inverse notation, we obtain b ( f g ) 1 ( x )

f 1(x) = 2(x 1); g1(x) = ln x c ( g f) (x)

b Find the composition o unctions,

d ( f 1 g 1 ) ( x )

e.g. fnd ( f 1 g 1 ) ( x ) . Substituting

g1(x) or the variable in f 1(x) we

obtain ( f 1 g 1 )( x ) = 2 (ln x 1 )

c Recognize that unction composition

is not commutative, e.g. fnd

( g 1 f 1 ) ( x ) . Substituting f 1

or the variable in g 1 we obtain

( g 1 f 1 ) ( x ) = ln[2( x 1)]

Clearly, by considering the ormulas,

unction composition is not

commutative.

2 Check whether the properties o closure, 2 Check whether the properties o closure,

commutativity, associativity, identity and inverse commutativity, associativity, identity and

hold or a set under a given binary operation, e.g. inverse hold or the ollowing sets under

{, } , a b = 2ab. Determine i any element(s) the given binary operations.

would have to be removed rom in order or the

properties o identity and inverse to hold under . a ( + , ), a b = a b

Since a b = 2ab, 2ab , {, } is closed. c ( , ), a b = ab + 1

Commutativity, i.e. or all a, b , a b = b a.

Since a b = 2 ab = 2ba = b a , {, } is

commutative. The geometric nature of Islamic art

incorporates complex symmetries that have

Associativity, i.e. or all

been mathematically analyzed and explored.

a, b, c , a (b c ) = ( a b ) c. Since

Perhaps the most famous of such art

a (b c ) = a ( 2bc ) = 2 a ( 2bc ) = 4 abc and

forms lies within the Alhambra, a fortress

( a b ) c = (2 ab ) c = 4 abc , {, } is associative. constructed in Andalusia, Spain, in the 9th

Identity, i.e. or all a there exists an e century during the last Islamic sultanate on

such that a e = a = e a. the Iberian Peninsula. Some of the geometric

murals in the Alhambra are examples of

We need to fnd an m such that symmetry groups, which you will learn

a m = a = m a. (Note that since we are not about in this chapter, and have some of the

sure that the set has an identity under the binary properties that you have been working with

operation, we do not yet use the symbol e or on the left hand side in the given example.

identity.)

For the right hand identity, a m = a 2 am = a,

a 1

2am = a m = = , a 0 . For the let hand

2a 2

1 1

identity, m a = a m = , a 0 . Hence, e = .

2 2

Strictly speaking, since {, } is commutative, it is

enough to look or either the right identity or let

identity, since they will be equal.

Inverse, i.e. or all a there exists an a1

such that a a 1 = e = a 1 a . We need to fnd an

n such that a n = e = n a .

(Note again, that since we do not know i each

element has an inverse, we do not yet use the

1

notation or inverse, a1.) Since a n = 2 an = ,

2

1

n= , a 0. And since (, ) is commutative, we

4a

need only fnd either the right or let inverse.

For to have an identity and inverse under ,

0 would have to be excluded. Hence, all the

properties hold or {\{0} , } .

Chapter 3 87

Group Theory

The search in Physics or a theory that ully explains and connects all

physical aspects o the universe results rom two major scientifc

paradigms in the last century: General Relativity and Quantum

Mechanics. General theorems providing a mathematical basis or such a

universal theory o everything have been attempted, and, at the time o

writing, a recent work entitled Generalized Mathematical Proo o

Einsteins Theory Using a New Group Theory was reviewed by both the

American Mathematical Society and the European Mathematical Society.

Indeed, increasingly it seems as i Group Theory is the uniying theory

o everything in mathematics, i.e. a branch o mathematics that can

connect all other branches by fnding similarities in their inherent

structures. In essence, Group Theory measures symmetry, the one idea

by which man through the ages has tried to comprehend and create order,

beauty, and perfection Hermann Weyl.

In 1 824, the Norwegian Mathematician Niels Henrik Abel published

his impossibility theorem, in which he proved there is no general

solution, or ormula, or fnding the solutions o polynomial equations

o degree 5 (quintics) or higher. At about the same time, a brilliant

French teenager, Evariste Galois, explained why this is the case. He not

only resolved one o the great challenges o his day, but more

importantly, he discovered a compelling connection between symmetry,

permutation groups (which you will learn about in Chapter 4), and the

solvability o polynomial equations.

88 The Universal Theory of Everything in Mathematics

Although Galois and Abel laid the oundations o the mathematics

o Group Theory, it is a 20th century emale mathematician,

Emily Noether, who is credited with the title o ather o

Abstract Algebra, mainly through changing the 1 9th century

emphasis o its use rom solving polynomial equations into

creating an abstract axiomatic system.

Today, Group Theory is used in many diferent areas o study, such as

elementary Particle Physics, Music Theory, Crystallography, Chemistry,

Campanology (the study o bells and bell-ringing), and perhaps its most

popular usage in terms o the masses: solving Rubiks Cube!

3.1 Groups

A group consists o a set and a binary operation on that set.

The set with a binary operation has the our properties o closure,

associativity, existence o an identity element, and existence o inverses.

Defnition

The set G with a binary operation is called a group i the

ollowing our axioms (properties) hold:

1 Closure: or all a, b G, a b G

2 Associativity: or all a, b, c G, a (b c ) = ( a b ) c

3 Identity: or all a G , there exists an element e G such that

a e= a= e a

1

4 Inverse: or each a G there exists a G such that

a a 1 = e = a 1 a

Note that the commutative property is not a required group axiom.

It is not necessary

For this reason it is important that both the let and right identity to check for both left

and inverse properties be conrmed. For example, the set under and right identities if

the binary operation o subtraction has a unique right identity 0, the binary operation is

i.e. a 0 = a or all a . However, 0 a = a, hence it has no let commutative.

identity. Thereore {, } is not a group.

I in addition to the our properties above, a set G with binary

operation is also commutative, then it is said to be an Abelian group.

Defnition

A group {G, } is an Abelian group i G is commutative under ,

i.e. or all a, b G , a b = b a.

Chapter 3 89

It is important to note that the identity element is unique, as are the

inverses, i.e. a group contains only one identity element, and each element

contains a unique inverse. In Chapter 2 you proved these results or binary

operations on a set S using the let and right cancellation laws.

Groups may be fnite or infnite, i.e. consist o fnite or infnite sets.

Set A is fnite, i.e. its cardinality is n N , i there is a bijection rom set

{0, 1 , 2, , n} to A. A set is infnite i it is not fnite. I a set G is fnite,

then the group is also fnite, otherwise it is an infnite group.

Infnite groups

You have already been working with many examples o infnite groups,

e.g. the sets , , and under the binary operation o addition.

Since the binary operation o addition is commutative, these our sets

under addition are urthermore Abelian groups.

Example 1

Show that the ollowing infnite sets are groups under the given binary operation.

Determine i any are Abelian groups.

a { + , }

b { \{ 0} , }

c The set o all real-valued unctions with domain under addition.

properties hold.

Associativity: or all a, b, c + , a(bc) = (ab)c

Identity: or all a + , a 1 = a = 1 a

1 1 1

Inverse: or all a + , + and a = 1 = a

a a a

{+ , } is a group since all group properties hold.

Commutativity: or all a, b + , ab = ba, Determine if the commutative

hence {+ , } is an Abelian group. property holds.

b Closure: or all a, b \{0} , ab \{0} Show that all four of the group

Associativity: or all a, b, c \{0} , a(bc) = (ab)c properties hold.

Identity: or all a \{0} , a 1 = a = 1 a, 1 \{0}

1

Inverse: or all a \{ 0} , \{ 0} and

a

1 1

a =1 = a

a a

{\{0} , } is a group since all group properties hold.

Commutativity: or all a, b \{0} , ab = ba, Determine if the commutative

hence {\{0} , } , is an Abelian group. property holds.

c Closure: or all real-valued unctions and g, + g is a Show that all our o the group

real-valued unction. properties hold.

+ ( g + h) = ( + g) + h.

Identity: or all real-valued unctions , g (x) = 0 is a

real valued unction or all real values o x, and

+ g = = g + .

Inverse: or all real-valued unctions , there exists a

real valued unction such that

+ ( ) = g = ( ) + , where g (x) = 0, or all x.

The set o all real-valued unctions under addition is a

group, since all group properties hold.

Commutativity: or all real-valued unctions and g, Determine i the commutative

+ g = g + , hence the set o all real-valued unctions property holds.

under addition is an Abelian group.

determine i each is a group. For example, the set Z+ under addition

is not a group, since there is no identity or addition in the set Z+ .

Also, the set o all non-negative integers under addition is not a

group, because although it contains the identity element 0, there are

no inverses or the non-zero elements o the set. (It is sufcient to nd

just one element in the set or which an inverse does not exist in order

to show that the set under the binary operation is not a group.)

Example 2

Determine i the ollowing sets are groups under the given binary operation.

a Z + under multiplication

b N under the binary operation dened as a b = | a b|

ab

c Q + under the binary operation # dened as a # b = , a, b +

2

a Since the identity is 1 , there is no inverse or 2. Identiy a property o groups that is

Indeed, other than 1 , no other elements o the not satisfed.

given set have an inverse.

b I a = 1 , b = 2, and c = 3, then Identiy a property o groups that is

a ( b c ) = 1 | 2 3 | = |1 | 1|| = 0 not satisfed.

( a b ) c = | 1 2| 3 = || 1 | 3| = 2

Associativity does not hold, so (N, ) is not a

group.

Chapter 3 91

ab Go through all the group axioms to see

c Closure: a # b = + , so closure holds.

2 if they hold.

Associativity:

bc

a

bc abc

a # (b # c ) = a # = 2 =

2 2 4

ab

c

ab abc

(a # b ) # c = #c = 2 =

2 2 4

Hence associativity holds.

Identity: nd b Q + such that:

ab

a#b=a = a b = 2, and

2

ba

b#a=a =ab=2

2

Hence, the identity e = 2; 2 Q + .

Inverse: nd c Q+ such that

ac 4

a#c=2 =2c= , and

2 a

ca 4

c#a=2 =2c=

2 a

4

Hence, a 1 = ; a 1 + .

a

Since all the group axioms hold, { Q + , #} is a group. Write your conclusion.

Investigation

Consider the diferent number sets and their subsets, e.g. Z, Z+ , and C etc.,

the arithmetic operations +, , and the inverse operations and . Select a

set and determine the binary operations under which it orms a group.

The ollowing table headings might help organize your work.

From the examples and the investigation, you have seen that in order

to show a given set with a binary operation is not a group, it is

sucient to show that any one o the group properties does not hold.

In part c o Example 2 you may have noticed that it is important to

ascertain the ollowing when checking to see i the properties hold:

The identity element must be in the given set, and must commute

with every element in the set.

The inverse or each element must be in the given set, and must

commute with the original element.

Example

Show that the set o bijections orms a group under unction composition.

Closure: i and g are bijections such that f : A B , g : B C Confrm the group

then g f : A C. Hence, the composition o two bijections is properties. This was proven

a bijection and closure holds. in Chapter 2, theorem 5c.

Associativity: i , g and h are bijections, then or all x, The proo that unction

(h g) f = (h g) ( f ( x ) ) composition is associative

is done in Chapter 2,

(

= h g ( f (x)) ) theorem 4.

= h (( g f) ( x ) )

= h ( g f)

Hence, the composition o bijections is also associative.

Identity: the unction e : x x is a bijection. For all unctions ,

e f = f = f e . Hence, e is the identity.

Inverse: every bijection has an inverse - 1 that is also a This was proven in

bijection such that f f 1 = e = f 1 f Chapter 2, theorem 3b.

Hence, the set o bijections orms a group under unction

composition. State your conclusion.

You have already seen that unction composition is not usually commutative,

hence the group in Example 3 is not Abelian.

Exercise 3A

1 Show that the set S = {2 n | n Z} under multiplication orms a group.

2 Show that under addition, the ollowing sets o unctions : R orm a group:

a all continuous unctions

b all diferentiable unctions.

3 Determine i the ollowing sets under the given binary operation orm a group:

a R+ under the operation # dened as a # b = ab

b R\{0} under the operation dened as a b = a b

c {3 n

}

n N under multiplication

d { a + bi a, b R, }

a + bi = 1 under multiplication.

Chapter 3 93

4 a Show that the set S = R\ {1} under defned as

a b = ab + a + b orms a group.

b Determine i {S, } is an Abelian group.

c Find the solution o the equation 2 x = 7 in S.

d Explain why {R, } does not orm a group.

5 Let R = R\{0} and S = R R , i.e. S is the set o all ordered pairs (a, b)

such that a and b are real numbers, and b is non-zero. Defne such that

(a1, b1) (a2, b2) = (a1+b1a2, b1b2).

a Show that { S, } is a group.

b Calculate the ollowing:

i (3, 2) (1, 1)

ii (1, 2) (0.125, 1.4)

c Determine i {S, } is Abelian.

7 Show that the set o all real-valued unctions o the orm f (x) = ax + b, a 0,

whose domain is R orm a group under the binary operation composition

o unctions. Does it orm an Abelian group?

Finite groups

So ar all our examples have been o infnite groups, i.e. groups where

the set G has an infnite number o elements. We will now consider groups

defned on fnite sets.

Since a group must contain an identity, it must contain at least one

element. The only possible binary operation on {e} must necessarily

be defned as e e = e. The identity element is its own inverse, and the

properties o closure and associativity obviously hold. We say that

the order o {{e}, } is , i.e. the number o elements in the group is .

Defnition

The order o a group {G, } is the number o elements in the

group. I a group has an infnite number o elements, it is said to

have infnite order, i.e. | G | = .

We will now create a fnite group o order 2. Since one o the elements

must be the identity, we defne the set S as {e, a} , e a, and the binary

operation . We now set up an operation table or these two elements.

Checking the group properties, we see rom the table below that closure

holds, since there are no extraneous elements. We have said that e is the

identity element, and checking, we see that e e = e and a e = e a = a.

I e is the identity, three out o our our group axioms are satisfed.

The one that remains to consider is a a. For the closure property

to hold, the result can only be e or a. The result cannot be a since

then axiom 4 would not be valid, i.e. a would not have an inverse

in the set S. Hence, in order or {S, } to satisy all the group

properties, we can fll out the table only in the ollowing way.

e a

e e a

a a e

Note that we can exchange the rows and columns, and obtain

a e

a e a

e a e

which is actually the same as the frst table. By convention, however,

we put the identity element frst.

Checking or the associative property can be a tedious process or

larger sets, but we will fnd ways to get around this later on. For this

set o order 2, 2 3 or 8 distinct cases would have to be checked, and is

let or the student as an exercise.

Let us do the same with a set o three elements, S = {e, a, b} , under the

binary operation . Since e is the identity, the 1 st row and column mirrors

the initial order o the elements.

e a b

e e a b

a a

b b

For the 2nd row, 2nd column entry, we can choose either e or b. I we

choose e, we would have to enter b in the 2nd row, 3rd column.

e a b

e e a b

a a e b

b b

This would mean, however, that we have two let identities or b, namely

e and a, since e b = b and a b = b. Hence, we have no choice but to put b

in the 2nd row, 2nd column, and complete the table as below. You should

now justiy the completion o the table using the group axioms.

e a b

e e a b

a a b e

b b e a

Chapter 3 95

To confrm the associative property, you would have to show that it holds in

3 3 , or 27, distinct cases. To spare you the task o going through this tedious process,

we can confrm or you here that indeed the associative property holds.

With the previous examples o fnite sets o orders 2 and 3 as background,

we will be able to list some necessary conditions that an operation table must

satisy in order to give a group structure on a set.

In the row and column containing the identity element e, the rows and columns

are mirrored in the same order as they originally appear, i.e. the condition

e x = x = x e means that the row and column representing the operations

with e must contain exactly the elements appearing in the same order as

across the top o the table and down the let side o the table.

Since every element has a unique inverse, the identity element e can

appear only once in each row and column.

The equations a x = b and y a = b must have unique solutions x and y.

(This property will be proved later.) This means that each element o the

group must appear in each row and column only once.

An operation table that has the above properties is called a Latin Square.

Defnition

A Latin Square is a square array o n rows and n columns such

that each element or symbol occurs only once in each row and

each column.

card games, such as the problem o arranging the

kings, queens, jacks and aces into a 4 by 4 array such

that each row and column contains one card rom each

o the 4 suits, and one card rom each o the 4 ranks

previously mentioned. In 1779, Euler posed the problem

that he claimed was impossible to solve: o arranging

36 ofcers rom 6 ranks and 6 regiments into a 6 by

6 square so that each row and each column contains

one ofcer rom each rank and one rom each regim ent.

Recently, the development o Latin squares has gained

a major impetus in designing statistical experiments and

also in fnite geometries.

We have shown above that i the elements o a set under a given binary operation

orm a group, we can place the elements in a Latin square. Conversely, i elements

o a set under a given binary operation are placed in a Latin square, the set under

the binary operation will orm a group provided that the group properties hold.

It is thereore not enough to assume that the set under the binary operation is

a group because it can be placed in a Latin square.

Although the IB HL syllabus uses Cayley table and operation table

interchangeably, historically a Latin square that orms a group structure is

called a Cayley table, ater the 19th century mathematician Arthur Cayley. He

was instrumental in ounding the British school o pure mathematics and was

also responsible or obtaining admission or women into Cambridge University.

He was one o the frst to realize that many seemingly dierent areas o

mathematics can be brought together under Group Theory. His n-dimensional

geometry has been applied to both relativity theory and quantum mechanics.

Example 4

Construct a Cayley table for the set S = {1 , 1 , i, i } under multiplication, and

show that {S, } is a group.

1 1 1 i i writing the identity element as the

1 1 1 i i frst element.

i i i 1 1

i i i 1 1

{S, } forms a group if the following properties hold: Confrm the group properties.

Closure: for all a, b S, a b S. From the operation

table it is evident that the set is closed under .

Associativity: for all a, b, c S, a (b c) = (a b) c You may assume multiplication o

Multiplication of complex numbers is associative. complex numbers is associative.

Identity: for all a S, 1 a = a = a 1 , 1 S. State the identity.

Inverse: for all a S there exists a 1 S such that

a a 1 = 1 = a 1 a.

a 1 1 i i It is not enough to simply state that

a1 1 1 i i inverses exist. You must also

identiy the inverse o each element.

From the table we see that 1 and 1 are self-inverses

and i and i are mutual inverses. Hence {S, } is a group. State your conclusion.

numbers under multiplication is commutative, therefore the

commutative property will hold for S, since S C . A visual

method for determining if it is Abelian is to consider the

symmetry about the main diagonal of its Cayley table, 1 1 i i

i.e. the diagonal from the upper left hand corner to the 1 1 1 i i

lower right hand corner. 1 1 1 i i

Since there is symmetry about the main diagonal of the Cayley i i i 1 1

table, the group is Abelian. i i i 1 1

Chapter 3 97

Groups of integers modulo n

You have worked with integers modulo n, written (mod n), in Modular arithmetic is

Chapter 1 . Two integers, a and b, are said to be congruent (mod n) used in modern day

i a and b have the same remainder on division by n. In other words, banking. Banks require an

a b (mod n ) a b = kn, k Z. IBAN (International Bank

Account Number)

Notation or Modular arithmetic:

identifcation or

Z n = { 0, 1 , 2, , n 1 } , n N , n 2 transerring unds between

+ n denotes addition (mod n), and a + n b is the remainder bank accounts. IBAN

makes use o modulo 97

when a + b is divided by n, i.e. a + n b = a + b (mod n)

to trap user input errors in

n denotes multiplication (mod n), and a n b is the bank account numbers.

remainder when a b is divided by n, i.e. a n b = ab (mod n)

Example 5

b Construct an operation table or Z 4 \{ 0} under 4 and show that it does not

orm a group.

c Determine whether or not { 4, 4} is a group.

Closure is evident rom the table.

+4 0 1 2 3

0 0 1 2 3

1 1 2 3 0

2 2 3 0 1

Confrm the group properties.

3 3 0 1 2

a + 4 (b + 4 c ) = ( a + 4 b ) + 4 c

associative.

Identity: or all a Z 4 , State the identity.

0 + 4 a = a = a + 4 0, 0 Z 4

Inverse: or all a Z 4 there exists a 1 Z 4 such Identiy the inverses o the elements.

that a + 4 a 1 = 0 = a 1 + 4 a

a 0 1 2 3

a1 0 3 2 1

Hence, { Z 4 , + 4 orms a group. State your conclusion.

b The operation table for Z 4 \{ 0} under the binary Construct the operation table.

operation 4 is:

4 1 2 3

1 1 2 3

2 2 0 2

3 3 2 1

We see from the table that closure does not hold, Identiy a group axiom that does not

since 0 appears in the table, and 0 Z 4 \{ 0}. hold. (It is sufcient to nd just one

axiom that does not hold. )

Hence, { Z 4 \ {0} , + 4 } does not form a group.

State your conclusion.

c The operation table for { Z 4 , 4 } is: Construct the operation table.

4 0 1 2 3

0 0 0 0 0

1 0 1 2 3

2 0 2 0 2

3 0 3 2 1

Method 1

The operation table is not a Latin Square, i.e. the Check i the operation table is a Latin

elements 0 and 2 appear more than once in certain Square.

rows and columns.

Method 2

The identity element for all elements is 1 , but 0 and Find one example o a group property

2 have no inverses. that does not hold.

Hence { 4 , 4 } does not form a group.

Chapter 3 99

Example 6

The Cayley table or a set o 5 elements under the operation is given here.

p q r s t

p s r t p q

q t s p q r

r q t s r p

s p q r s t

t r p q t s

a State with reason why the Cayley table is a Latin Square.

b Determine whether or not each o the group properties hold.

c Solve the equation ( p x) x = x p.

a The Cayley table is a Latin Square because each Use the defnition o Latin Square.

element appears only once in each row and column.

b Closure is evident rom the table. The right and let Go through all the group properties

identity or each element is s. Each element is a sel- to determine i they hold.

inverse. The property o associativity does not hold,

since ( p q) t = r t = p and p (q t) = p r = t and t p.

c Solutions are: q, r, s and t. In this example it is best to

substitute the elements or x as the

operation is not associative.

The example above shows a Latin Square that is not a group table.

Symmetry groups

a

We will now consider groups o plane fgures under the

composition o certain plane transormations that preserve

c

symmetrical properties.

0

Consider the symmetry in the Isle o Man moti here.

The coat of arms of the Isle of Man is the three-legged motif. Although

b

Alexander III introduced it to Scotland in the mid 13th century after he

gained control of the Manx territory, its origins go back to ancient times.

The motif carries the latin words Quocunque Jeceris Stabit , meaning it

will stand which ever way you throw it. This is thought to be a reference to

the independent and resilient spirit of the Manx people.

This fgure has three rotation symmetries about the center O o 1 20,

240 and 360 (or 0 ). We can label these transormations as ollows:

r is a clockwise rotation o 1 20 about O

s is a clockwise rotation o 240 about O

t is a clockwise rotation o 360 about O

Since symmetries are transormations, they can be combined, i.e. given two

transormations, we can perorm one ollowed by the other. For example,

on the original gure we can perorm the transormation r (rotation o

1 20 degrees through O clockwise) and ollow this with the transormation

s (rotate through 240 through O clockwise). The result is illustrated as ollows:

c a r b c s c a

o o o

b a b

gure unchanged. This same result can be obtained by rotating the original

diagram 360, or transormation t. Hence, transormation r ollowed by

transormation s is the same as transormation t, and is written in

symbols as s r = t . This is read as transormation s ollowing

transormation r. In other words, similar to unction composition,

s r = t is called the composition o r with s, i.e. we frst apply r, and

then apply s. Likewise, as with unction compositions, s r = t is

perormed rom right to left.

t r s

We will now determine i our set o rotations orms a group under

t t r s

composition o symmetry transormations by creating its Cayley table.

r r s t

We will place t rst, since it is the identity transormation. It is easy

or you to conrm the results on the right. s s t r

The identity is t, which is its own inverse, and r and s are mutual

inverses. Just as with unction composition, symmetry

transormation is associative.

Let us now consider the symmetries o the equilateral triangle XYZ.

There are three refective symmetries about the medians o Z

the triangle. (A median connects a vertex o a triangle to

the midpoint o the side opposite the vertex.) We can label

c

the transormations as ollows:

A: refection in median a

a O b

B: refection in median b

C: refection in median c X Y

Chapter 3 1 01

There are three rotation symmetries about O. We can label these:

I: rotation about the center 360 (or 0 ) clockwise (or anti-clockwise).

R1: rotation about the center 1 20 anti-clockwise (which is the same as

rotation about the center 240 clockwise).

R2: rotation about the center 1 20 clockwise (which is the same as

rotation about the center 240 anti-clockwise).

It might be helpul to make a cardboard copy o the triangle in order to see the

results o the various transormations.

In the three diagrams below, we see transormation B ollowed by

transormation A, and this is the same as the single transormation R1 .

Note that the median lines are fxed in space and do not rotate with the triangles.

Z X Y

c c c

B A

a O b a O b a O b

X Y Z Y Z

R1

We will now construct the Cayley table or the symmetries o the equilateral

triangle, and it is let to you to confrm the results in the table.

I R1 R2 A B C

I I R1 R2 A B C

R1 R1 R2 I C A B

R2 R2 I R1 B C A

A A B C I R1 R2

B B C A R2 I R1

C C A B R1 R2 I

The Cayley table confrms that the set {I, R1 , R2, A, B, C} orms a group

under composition o transormations. The property o closure is

evident. I is the identity. I, A, B and C are all sel-inverses and R1

and R2 are mutual inverses. Composition o transormations is associative.

Since the table is not symmetrical about the main diagonal,

this group is not Abelian.

The set o six symmetries o the equilateral triangle with the binary operation

o composition o transormations is called the symmetry group o equilateral

triangles. All the symmetries o geometrical gures are elements o a larger

set o transormations called isometries, i.e. a transormation o the points

in 2D or 3D space such that distances between points remain unchanged.

Hence, under an isometry, a geometrical gure retains its shape and size,

but changes its position in space. There are our types o plane isometry:

rotation, refection, translation, and glide-refection, i.e. refection together

with a translation in the direction o the line o refection. It can be

shown that the set o all plane isometries orms a group under the

dierent transormations.

Example 7

a Construct a Cayley table or the group o symmetries y

o a square{S, } using the ollowing notation:

I: identity (rotation o 360 in either direction about the center) D C

R1 : rotation o 90 anti-clockwise about the center

R2: rotation o 1 80 anti-clockwise about the center

R3 : rotation o 270 anti-clockwise about the center

X: refection in the x-axis x

A: refection in the diagonal AC (refection in the line y = x)

A B

B: refection in the diagonal BD (refection in the line y = x)

b State whether or not the group is Abelian.

a

I R1 R2 R3 X Y A B Enter the results o the binary

operation under the diferent

I I R1 R2 R3 X Y A B transormations into the table.

R1 R1 R2 R3 I A B Y X

R2 R2 R3 I R1 Y X B A

R3 R3 I R1 R2 B A X Y

X X B Y A I R2 R3 R1

Y Y A X B R2 I R1 R3

A A X B Y R1 R3 I R2

B B Y A X R3 R1 R2 I

b Since the table is not symmetric about the main Since we are told that this is a

diagonal, the group is not Abelian. group, we need only consider the

commutative property to determine

i it is Abelian.

Chapter 3 1 03

Symmetry groups are used throughout the study of

chemistry. The symmetry of a molecule provides

information on the energy levels of its orbital and

transitions that can occur between energy levels.

These can all be found without rigorous calculations,

which makes group theory so very powerful in the

study of the physical aspects of molecules.

Exercise 3B

1 a Copy and complete the given table so that the set {e, x, y, z} orms

a group under .

e x y z

e e x y z

x x e

y y e

z z e

i y (z x) ii (x y) ( y z)

a b c d e

a a b c d e

b b c e a d

c c a d e b

d d e a b c

e e d b c a

a Simpliy:

i a (b c) ii (a b) c iii b (d c) iv (b d ) c.

b Determine i {S, } has an identity element, and name it i it does.

c Determine whether each element has an inverse, and name its inverse.

d Give two reasons why {S, } does not orm a group.

1 1

3 Show that the set S ={ f, g, h} such that f (x) = x, g ( x ) = 1 , and h ( x ) =

x 1x

orms a group under unction composition. Determine i the group is Abelian.

4 Construct Cayley tables or {5 , + 5 } and {5 \{0} , 5 } , and confrm

that both orm a group. Use the tables to solve the ollowing equations in 5 :

a x+ 4= 3 b 2x = 3 c 4x + 1 = 3

d 3(x + 1) = 1 e 4x + 1 = 2x

5 Construct an operation table or S = {2, 4, 6, 8} under 10 and

determine i it orms an Abelian group.

1

I one o the complex numbers is (1 + i 3 ) , fnd the other

2

fve numbers.

fgures, and show that each one orms a group. (You must

frst decide on all the symmetries that the fgure contains.)

a An isosceles triangle

b A rectangle

c A cuboid

8 Express the cube roots o unity in the orm a + bi, and show that

they orm a group under multiplication.

orms a group under + 2.

(Z2 = {0, 1} , hence Z 2 Z 2 = {(0, 0), (0, 1), (1, 0), (1, 1)} ).

then (Zn , n ) does not orm a group.

In the frst part o this chapter, you have been working with both fnite

and infnite groups, and using some group properties intuitively.

We will now write these group properties, or theorems, and their proos.

First we will prove the right and let cancellation laws or groups.

Right and left cancellation laws for groups

Given a group {G, } and a, b, c G

i the right cancellation law holds, i.e. a c = b c a = b and

ii the let cancellation law holds, i.e. c a = c b a = b.

Proof:

i a c = b c (a c) c1 = (b c) c1 since c1 G.

a (c c1) = b (c c1) by the associative property.

a e = b e by the property o inverse, and

a e = b e a = b by the identity property. Q.E.D.

The proo o ii is let or you to complete.

Chapter 3 1 05

Theorem 1

A group {G, } has the ollowing properties.

a The identity element or a group is unique.

b For all a G, the inverse o a, a1 , is unique.

c For any a, b G, the equations a x = b and y a = b, x, y G, have

unique solutions in G. (For fnite groups, this means that each

element would appear only once in every row and column o its

operation table.)

Proofs:

A common strategy to prove uniqueness is to assume that uniqueness

does not hold, i.e. there are two distinct elements, and then show that

these two elements are indeed equal.

a Suppose there are two identity elements e1 and e2. Then, or any a G ,

a e1 = a = e1 a and a e2 = a = e2 a. Thereore, taking each corresponding

part o both expressions separately, a e1 = a e2 e1 = e2 by the let

cancellation law, and, e1 a = e2 a e1 = e2 by the right cancellation law.

Hence, uniqueness o the identity holds.

b Suppose that a G has two inverses, a11 and a21 . It ollows then that

a a11 = e = a11 a and a a21 = e = a21 a . Taking each corresponding

part o both expressions separately, a a11 = a a21 a11 = a21 by the

let cancellation law, and a11 a = a21 a a11 = a21 by the right

cancellation law. Hence, uniqueness o the inverse o an element holds.

c We frst need to show the existence o at least one solution or the

equations a x = b and y a = b .

Solving or x: a x = b a 1 ( a x ) = a 1 b , since a 1 G.

( a 1 a ) x = a 1 b by the associative property.

e x = a 1 b by the property o inverse, and

x = a 1 b by the property o identity. Hence, we obtain x = a 1 b .

Finding the solution or y is let or you to do.

Now, substituting the solution we ound or x,

a ( a 1 b ) = ( a a 1 ) b by the associative property,

= eb by the inverse property,

=b by the identity property.

Checking the solution o the 2nd equation is let or you to do.

To show uniqueness o these solutions, we again assume that there exist

two solutions, i.e. a x1 = b and a x 2 = b . Thereore a x1 = a x2 by

substitution, and by the let cancellation law, we conclude that x1 = x2.

Similarly, the uniqueness o y is similarly proved.

106 The Universal Theory of Everything in Mathematics

Some properties o groups

a For any a, b G,

1

i ab = e a = b

ii a b = e b = a 1

iii ab = e ba = e

b For any a, b G, ( a b ) 1 = b 1 a 1

c For any a G, ( a 1 ) 1 = a

a i a b = e ( a b ) b 1 = e b 1 since b 1 G

a (b b 1 ) = b 1 by the associative and identity properties

a e = b 1 by the inverse property

1

a =b by the identity property

and iii are let as exercises or you to complete.

ii

1 1 1

b The inverse o a b is ( a b ) . I b a is the inverse o a b,

then it ollows that ( a b ) (b 1 a 1 ) must equal the identity e,

and this is what we need to confrm. (b1 a 1 ) (a b) must

also equal e. (This latter part is let or you to do.).

( a b ) ( b 1 a 1 ) = a (b b 1 ) a 1 by the associative property

= a e a 1 by the inverse property

1

= aa by the identity property

=e by the inverse property

The latter part is let or you do to.

Hence, b 1 a 1 is the inverse o a b by Theorem 1 which we have

proven above, i.e. the uniqueness o the inverse.

c The inverse o a1 is (a1 ) 1 . I a is the inverse o a1 then it ollows

that a 1 a = e = a a1 which is true by the inverse property o group G.

Hence by the uniqueness o inverse property, the result ollows.

Alternatively, since a 1 a = e, using property a with a 1 = b , ( a 1 ) 1 = b 1 = a.

Example 8

Given the group { G , } prove that i a a = e or all a G , then {G, } is Abelian.

To show that {G, } is Abelian, we need to show

that a b = b a or all a, b G.

For all a, b G, (a b) (a b) = e, by the given. Use group properties and axioms to arrive

a (b a) b = e by the associative property. at your results.

a a (b a) b = a e

e (b a) b = a by the given and identity property.

(b a) b b = a b by the identity property.

(b a) e = a b by the given.

b a = a b by the identity property.

Chapter 3 1 07

Exercise 3C

1 {G, } contains exactly our elements: e, a, b, and c. State with

reasons why a b cannot equal e, a or b, and hence must equal c.

and x # y = y # x 3 .

a Show that

i y # x = x3 # y

ii y # ( x2 # y) = x2

b Simpliy ( x # y ) # ( x 2 # y ) .

o a, where a G and n Z +. Prove by mathematical induction

that ( a b ) n = a n b n or all a G .

6 A set S is defned as the set o all elements o a group {G, } that

commute with every element o G, i.e. a S a x = x a or

every element x G . Prove that {S, } is also a group.

Subgroups

In question 6 o Exercise 3C you proved that a subset S o a set G

under the same binary operation as G was also a group. When a

subset o a group orms a group in its own right under the same

binary operation, then we say that the subset is a subgroup o the

given group.

Defnition

I a non-empty subset H o a set G is also a group

under , then {H, } is a subgroup o {G, } .

although + , { + , +} is not a subgroup o { R, +} . For fnite sets,

consider Example 7, the table or the symmetries o a square, S. I we

consider a subset T o the table with the elements T = {I, R1 , R2, R3 }

we can determine i this subset T o S under the defned transormations

is a subgroup o {S, } .

I R1 R2 R3

I I R1 R2 R3

R1 R1 R2 R3 I

R2 R2 R3 I R1

R3 R3 I R1 R2

We can see rom the table that {T, } is closed. In addition, T contains I,

the identity element o S. Each element in T has an inverse in T.

We know that {S, } is associative, hence the operation will be

associative with the elements o the subset T. So we can conclude

that {T, } orms a subgroup o {S, } under .

Notice also that the order o the subgroup is a actor o the order o the group.

When looking or possible subgroups o a given group, this act can minimize

the amount o work in our search. In the next chapter we will prove this

amous and important result, i.e. the order o a subgroup divides the order

o the group.

Thereore, in order or a set to orm a subgroup o a given group under a

given binary operation, it must also ulfll the group axioms. Any subset

o the group under the given binary operation is associative, so this property

does not need to be shown.

A subset H o a group {G, } is a subgroup {H, } i and only i:

1 H is closed under the binary operation , i.e.

a, b H a b H

2 The identity e o {G, } is in H.

3 For all a H , a 1 H .

Proof:

: Since {H, } is a subgroup o {G, } , then all the group properties

must hold.

: I H G such that 1 , 2 and 3 hold, then we need only show the

property o associativity. Since all elements in H are also in G,

and or all elements in G, is associative then {H, } is also

associative.

A corollary o the above theorem is that every group {G, } has at

least two subgroups: the group itsel and the group consisting only

o the identity.

Chapter 3 1 09

Defnitions

In many textbooks, the subgroup {{e} ,} is a proper subgroup. For

the IB syllabus however, we consider it an improper subgroup.

I {G, } is a group, then the subgroup consisting o G itsel and

the subgroup consisting o only the identity are the improper

subgroups o G. All other subgroups are proper subgroups. The

subgroup {{e} , } is also reerred to as the trivial subgroup o G.

Example 9

Show that the set S = {1 , 5, 7, 1 1 } orms an Abelian group under 1 2, and list all o its

non-trivial subgroups.

1 1 5 7 11

5 5 1 11 7

7 7 11 1 5

11 11 7 5 1

To show that {S, 1 2 } orms a group, the Confrm all the group properties.

ollowing properties must hold:

Closure: It is evident rom the table that

or all a , b S , a 1 2 b S .

Identity: It is evident rom the table that 1 is the

identity, since or all a S , a 1 2 1 = a = 1 1 2 a .

Inverse: For all a S there exists a 1 S such that

a 1 2 a 1 = 1 = a 1 1 2 a .

a 1 5 7 11

a1 1 5 7 11

Associativity: Multiplication mod(n) is

associative.

The above confrms that {S, 1 2 } is a group.

Determine i there is symmetry about the

It is also an Abelian group, since or all

a , b S , a 1 2 b = b 1 2 a . This is true since the

main diagonal o the Cayley table.

Cayley table is symmetric about its main

diagonal.

In addition to the set itsel, the sets o the Since the order o a subgroup must divide

non-trivial subgroups under the given operation the order o a group, we are looking only

are: {1 , 5} , {1 , 7} , {1 , 1 1 } . or subgroups o order 1, 2 and 4.

Example 10

Let {H, } and {K, } be subgroups o {G, } .

Prove that { H K , } is a subgroup o {G, } .

H K is i non-empty and ii a subset o G. First show that the conditions o the

defnition o subgroup are satisfed, that

i Since H and K are subgroups, then eG H and

H K is a non-empty subset o G.

eG K, hence eG H K. H K is non-empty.

ii Let x H K . Then x H and x K.

Since both H and K are subsets o G, x G ,

thus H K G .

For { H K , } to be a subgroup o {G, } it must Show that {H K, } satisfes the

satisy the group properties: properties o the Subgroup Theorem.

Closure, i.e. or all a, b H K, a b H K.

Let a, b H K. Then a , b H and a , b K .

Since both {H, } and {K, } are groups, a b H

and a b K , thus a b H K .

Identity: We have already proved in i that since H

and K are subgroups, eG H and eG K, hence

eG H K .

Inverse: For a H K, a H and a K .

Hence a 1 H and a 1 K , since both {H, } and

{K, } are subgroups. Hence, a 1 H K. By the

Subgroup Theorem, thereore, { H K, } is a

subgroup o {G, } .

in showing that fnite or infnite subsets o a group orm a subgroup

under the given binary operation.

Theorem 3

Let{G, } be a fnite or infnite group and H a non-empty subset

o G. Then H is a subgroup o G i a b 1 H or a, b H.

Proo:

We are given that a, b H a b 1 H .

Identity: Letting b = a a a 1 H, hence e H .

Inverse: Letting a = e and b = a, then e, a H e a 1 H rom the given. Since

e a 1 = a 1 , a 1 H . In the same way, b 1 H. Hence, or a, b H, a 1 , b 1 H .

Closure: From the above, we know that i a and b are in H then a and b1 are in

H too. Using the given, thereore, a (b 1 ) 1 H, hence a b H.

Chapter 3 1 11

The ollowing is an example where you might use this theorem

instead o the Subgroup Theorem.

Example 11

subset o Z. defnition o subgroup is satisfed, i. e. H is

a non-empty subset o Z .

Let a, b H, a = 4 x1 + 7 y1 , b = 4 x2 + 7 y2 .

Since e = 0 x + 0 y = 0, or x Z we have x 1 = x. To defne the inverse o an element in a

group, you must frst fnd the identity.

Hence a + b 1 = (4x1 + 7y1 ) (4x2 + 7y2) Use Theorem 3 and show that a + b 1 .

= 4(x1 x2) + 7( y1 y2) H.

subgroup o G under the same binary operation, we need to dene

what is meant by the order o an element o a group.

I a G under the binary operation , then we can use the binary

operation on a itsel, i.e. a a. We can do this as many times as we need,

n times

and theorem.

Defnition

Let a G where {G, } is a group. Then a is said to have fnite

order i a n = e or some n Z + . The order o a is the least such n.

I no such n exists, the element a has infnite order.

Theorem 4

Let a be an element o a nite group {G, } . Then there exists a

smallest positive integer n such that a n = e , and n is the order o a.

Proof:

The set o all possible powers o a is an innite set. Since G is nite,

however, the set o possible powers o a cannot all be diferent.

Hence, i r and s are two positive integers with r < s such that a r = a s = e,

then, (or convenience sake we will omit )

a r = a s a s a r = a r a r = e . Hence, there is at least one n = s r, such that a n = e .

We have proven the existence o n, and you may want to prove its

uniqueness as an exercise.

Theorem 5

I H is a non-empty subset o a fnite group {G, } then {H, } is

a subgroup i and only i, or all a, b H, a b H. In other words,

H need only be closed.

Proof:

Identity: a b H a 2 H or b = a. Now, b = a 2 a 3 H.

Continuing in this way, let the order o a be n, hence a n = e , and e H .

Inverse: Consider a n 1 . Since a n 1 a = a n = e = aa n 1, then an is the inverse o a,

and a n 1 H, a 1 H .

The condition o closure is given in the theorem, hence { H, } is a subgroup

by the Subgroup Theorem.

This is a very useul theorem, since when you are asked to show that a subset

o a fnite group is a subgroup, you need only show the property o closure!

This is particularly useul when you have a Cayley table to work rom.

Exercise 3D

1 List the proper subgroups o the given groups.

a The set containing the sets , A = {a} , B = {b} , and C = {a, b}

under the operation symmetric diference, .

b The set o unctions under unction composition, where

1 1 x 1

p (x) = x, q ( x ) = 1 , r( x ) = , and s ( x ) = .

2x 1 2x 2 2x

c The symmetry group o the rectangle.

d The set {2, 4, 8, 0, 4, 6} under 8

e {Z 6 , + 6 }

2 The set S = {1, 2, 4, 7, 8, 11, 13, 14} orms a group under the operation 15 .

a Write down the inverses and orders o each element.

b Given that the set { , 2, a, b} is a subgroup o S, nd a and b.

c Find one o the subgroups o S that also has our elements

and includes 4 but not 2.

Chapter 3 1 13

3 A group G under the binary operation has distinct elements

{e, a, b, c, } , where e is the identity element.

a I a b = e and b b = a, prove the set {e, a, b} orms a subgroup o G under .

b I a a = b, b b = c, c c = a, then prove the set {e, a, b, c} does not orm a

subgroup o G under .

addition o unctions. Prove that the subset o F consisting o those

unctions in F that are diferentiable orms a subgroup.

q o order 10. Prove that {q, q2, q3 , , q10} is a subgroup o G.

elements x in G satisying the equation x2 = e, then H is a subgroup.

i H is the subset o G whose elements commute with a, i.e.

H = { x G xa = ax } , then H is a subgroup o {G, } .

In Theorem 4 we saw that i a is an element o a nite group G then the

powers o a cannot all be diferent. Consider the subgroup o the symmetries

o a square group consisting o the rotations symmetries only, and its

Cayley table.

I: identity (rotation o 0 or 360 in either direction about the center).

R : rotation through 90 anti-clockwise

R2: rotation through 80 anti-clockwise

R3 : rotation through 270 anti-clockwise

I R1 R2 R3

I I R R2 R3

R1 R R2 R3 I

R2 R2 R3 I R

R3 R3 I R R2

As we proceed with higher powers, we obtain repetitions o the elements,

e.g. R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 = R15 = R14 R1 = I R1 = R1 .

We can thereore rewrite the table using powers o R1 :

I R1 R12 R13

I I R1 R12 R13

R1 R1 R12 R13 I

elements o the group can be written as a power o a single element.

We say that the subgroup is generated by the element R1 .

Defnitions

A group whose elements can be expressed in the orm

{e, a, a2, a3 , . . . . , an1 } is called a cyclic group o order n and is

denoted by Cn. The element a is said to generate the group and is

described as the generator o the group. It ollows thereore that a

group o order n is cyclic i an only i it contains an element o

order n.

musical melody can be transposed (translation) or inverted (refection) and C C#/

B D

can be modeled using a cyclic group o order 12. This allows or the creation

b

b

A A#/ B

#/

inversions.

Ab

#/

F

F#/ G b G G

C C# D Eb E F F# G Ab A Bb B

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Chapter 3 1 15

Example 12

a Show that the group { 5 \{ 0} , 5 } orms a cyclic group, and fnd its generator(s).

b Find all the possible subgroups.

a

5 1 2 3 4 Construct the Cayley Table. Since we are

told that it is a group we do not need to test

1 1 2 3 4 the group properties.

2 2 4 1 3

3 3 1 4 2

4 4 3 2 1

expressed as {1 , 2, 2 2, 2 3 } and is thereore cyclic. generate all elements of the group.

3 2 = 4; 3 3 = 2, and the group can be expressed as Determine if any other elements also

{1 , 3, 3 2, 3 3 } . generate the elements of the group.

2 and 3 are generators.

b From the table it is evident that {1 , 4} orms a Since the order of a subgroup must divide

subgroup since it is closed, 1 is the identity, the order of a group, we look only for

4 is a sel-inverse, and associativity is subgroups of order 2.

implied. Test the properties for subgroup.

Notice in Example 12 that 3 is the inverse o 2. Since 2 was a generator,

its inverse will also be a generator. The ollowing is let as a proo or the

student, and is one o the exercises at the end o this section (See Exercise 3E question 2).

Theorem 6

In a fnite group {G, } , the order o an element a is the same as

the order o its inverse a1 . (The proo is let as an exercise or you

to complete.)

Theorem 7

Every cyclic group is Abelian.

Proof:

Let Cn be a cyclic group and let a be a generator o Cn so that

C n = { a n n Z }. Let x and y be two elements o Cn. Hence, there exists

integers p and q such that x = a p and y = a q. Then, xy = a paq = a p + q = a q + p = a q a p = yx.

Hence, C is Abelian.

We now know that if we have a cyclic group it is also Abelian, but the

converse is not necessarily true.

Before discussing subgroups of cyclic groups, it is convenient to prove

the following theorem.

Theorem 8

Let {G, } be any group and let a G . Then {H, } where

H = { a n n Z} is the smallest subgroup of {G, } that contains

{a} , i.e. every subgroup containing {a} contains H.

Proof:

Checking the three conditions for subgroup, since a ra s = a r + s, r , s Z ,

H is closed. Since a 0 = e , 0 Z , e H , and since for a r H, a r H , and

a r a r = a r a r = e , every element in H has an inverse in H. Since any subgroup

of {G, } that contains {a} must contain H, H is therefore the smallest

subgroup of G containing {a}.

Defnition

The subgroup of {G, } , H = { a n n Z } , is the cyclic subgroup of

{G, } generated by a.

Theorem 9

A subgroup of a cyclic group is cyclic.

Proof:

(This proof is placed here to enhance understanding; it is not

required for examination purposes.)

Let C be a cyclic group generated by a and let H be a subgroup of C.

If H = {e} , then it is cyclic. If H {e} , then a n H, n Z + . Let m be

the smallest integer in Z+ such that a m H.

For c = a m to generate H, we must show that every b H is a power

Division Algorithm

of c. Since b H and H C , b = a n for some n. We can express n

Theorem: If m is a

as mq + r, for 0 r < m (Division Algorithm Theorem).

positive integer and

Then a n = a mq + r = (a m ) q a r , or a r = ( a m ) q a n . n is any integer then

Since a n H, a m H and H is a group, both (am ) q and an are in H. there exist unique

Hence, ( a m ) q a n H, i.e. a r H . Since m was the smallest positive integers q and r such

that n = m q + r and

integer such that a m H and 0 r < m, we must have r = 0. Hence

0 r < m.

n = qm and b = a n = ( a m ) q = c q . Hence b is a power of c.

Chapter 3 1 17

Example 3

Determine:

a the elements that are generators o C, and

b the orders o the remaining elements.

smallest such powers to equal e. Hence these for elements such that the least power of

elements are all generators o C. such an element to equal e is 8,

i. e. (x n) 8 = e, 1 n 7. This occurs when

n and 8 are relatively prime.

b Since (x2) 4, (x4) 2, and (x6) 4 all equal e, the Since the powers of the elements 2, 4, and

orders o these elements are respectively 6 are factors of 8 or factors of its multiples,

4, 2 and 4. Hence, they cannot generate C. the elements with these powers cannot

generate C.

rotation through 90 anti-clockwise, was a generator o the subgroup

o rotation symmetries o the square group. Since the order o an

element o a fnite group is the same as the order o the cyclic

subgroup generated by the element, and the order o a subgroup

must divide the order o a group, we can state the ollowing theorem.

The order o an element o a fnite group divides the order o the group.

study and prove in Chapter 4.

Exercise 3E

1 Show that the group {Z 10, + 10} is generated by the number 7.

1 1 1 1

a For all a {G , } , ( a1 a2 an ) = an an 1 a1 , n 2 .

c Hence, or otherwise, prove that the order o an element is equal

to the order o its inverse.

3 Z n Z m = { ( a, b ) a Z n , b Z m } orms a group under the binary

operation defned as (a1, b1) (a2, b2) = (a1 + n a2, b1 + m b2), where

+ n and + m denote additions o integers modulo n and m, respectively.

a State the order o ( Z 4 Z 5 , ) , and evaluate (3, 2) ( , 4).

b Show that { Z 2 Z 3 , ) is cyclic, and list any generators.

c Determine how many elements o { Z 2 Z 4 , } have order 4.

4 Show that

2 n1

a the nth roots o unity can be expressed in the orm {1, , , , }

where is the complex root with the smallest positive principal

argument

b the nth roots o unity orm a cyclic group under multiplication.

b Prove that i a group G has order pq, p, q {Primes , then every

proper subgroup o G is cyclic.

c Find the number o generators o the cyclic group Zpq.

Review exercise

EXAM-STYLE QUESTIONS

1 a Show that the set o real numbers, excluding a single number,

orms a group under the operation defned as a b = a + b ab,

and determine the single number which must be excluded

rom R.

b Hence, solve the equation 5 x = 12.

all a , b G , aRb ab 1 H . Show that R is an equivalence relation.

a Solve or x: axb = c

b Solve simultaneously or x: ax2 = b and x3 = e

that yx = x 2y and y 3 = e.

Prove:

a y 2 xy 2 = x 4 b x8 = x.

Chapter 3 1 19

1

5 a Given that f1 ( x ) = x, f2 ( x ) = 1 x, f3 ( x ) = ,

x

obtain expressions or f4 ( x ), f5 ( x ), and f6(x) i:

f4 ( x ) = ( f2 f3 )( x ) ; f5 ( x ) = ( f3 f2 )( x ) ; f6 ( x ) = ( f3 f4 )( x ) .

to unction composition, construct its Cayley table.

c Determine the order o each element o the group.

d Find a subgroup o G containing only three elements.

f: G G by f ( x ) = a x , or every x G . Prove that fis bijective.

a Find the order o the elements 4, 5 and 9.

b Show that the group is cyclic, and fnd all possible generators.

The operation # is defned on the set o negative integers by

x # y = min (x, y). (min(x, x) = x)

a Show that # is commutative.

9 Let {G, } be a group with subgroups {H, } and {K, } . Prove that

{ H K, } is a subgroup o {G, } i and only i either H K or K H.

i a3 = b2 = (ab) 2 = e, and fnd all subgroups o the group.

and all other elements have order 2, and prove that this Latin Square

does not represent a group.

aH = { ah h H}.

i Show that H a H = .

ii Show that H aH is a subgroup o G.

iii Show that the number o elements in H aH is twice

the number o elements o H.

Chapter summary

Defnitions

A group {G, } is an Abelian group i G is commutative under ,

i.e. or all a, b G, a b = b a.

The order | G| o a group {G, } is the number o elements in the group.

I a group has an infnite number o elements, it is said to have infnite order,

i.e. | G| = .

A Latin Square is a square array o n2 compartments such that each element

or symbol occurs exactly once in each row and column.

Symmetry groups are groups o transormations o plane fgures that preserve

symmetrical properties.

I a non-empty subset H o a group {G, } is also a group under ,

then {H, } is a subgroup o {G, } .

I {G, } is a group, then the subgroup consisting o G itsel and the subgroup

consisting o only the identity are the improper subgroups o G. All other

subgroups are proper subgroups. The subgroup {{e} , } is also reerred to

as the trivial subgroup o G.

Let a G where {G, } is a group. Then a is said to have fnite order

i an = e or some n Z + . The order o a is the least such n. I no such n exists,

the element a has infnite order.

The set G with a binary operation is called a group i the ollowing our axioms

(properties) hold:

1 Closure: For all a, b G , a b G

2 Identity: For all a G, there exists an element e G such that

a e= a= e a

3 Inverse: For each a G there exists a1 G such that

a a-1 = e = a1 a

4 Associativity: For all a, b, c, G, a (b c) = (a b) c

Z n = {0, , 2, , n } , n N, n 2

+ n denotes addition (mod n), and a + n b is the remainder when a + b is

divided by n, i.e. a + n b = a + b (mod n).

n denotes multiplication (mod n), and a n b is the remainder when

a b is divided by n, i.e. a n b = ab (mod n).

Chapter 3 1 21

Properties and theorems of groups and subgroups

Cancellation laws: Given a group {G, } and a, b, c G:

i the right cancellation law holds, i.e. a c = b c a = b and

ii the let cancellation law holds, i.e. c a = c b a = b.

The identity element or a group is unique.

For any a G, the inverse o a, a , is unique.

For any a, b G, the equations a x = b and y a = b, x, y G, have unique

solutions in G. (For fnite groups, this means that each element would appear

only once in every row and column o its operation table.)

For any a, b G:

a b = e a = b

a b = e b = a

a b = e b a = e

For any a, b G, (a b) = b a .

For any a G, (a ) = a.

3 Subgroup Theorem: A subset H o a group {G, } is a subgroup

{H, } i and only i:

1 H is closed under the binary operation , i.e. a, b H a b H.

2 The identity element e o G is in H.

3 For all a H, a1 H.

Then H is a subgroup o G i and only i a b1 H or a, b H.

Theorem: Let a be an element o a fnite group {G, } . Then a has fnite order.

Theorem: I H is a non-empty subset o a fnite group {G, } then {H, }

is a subgroup i and only i, or all a, b H, a b H.

A group whose elements can be expressed in the orm {e, a, a2, a3 , , an }

is called a cyclic group o order n and is denoted by Cn. The element a is a

generator o the group. A group o order n is cyclic i an only i it

contains an element o order n.

Theorem: In a group {G, } the order o an element a is the same as the

order o its inverse a .

Theorem: Every cyclic group is Abelian.

Theorem: Let {G, } be any group and let a G. Then H = {an | n Z }

is the smallest subgroup o {G, } that contains a, i.e., every subgroup

containing a contains H.

The subgroup o {G, } above, H = {an | n Z } , is the cyclic subgroup

o {G, } generated by a.

Theorem: A subgroup o a cyclic group is cyclic.

Theorem: (Lagranges Corollary): The order o an element o a fnite group

divides the order o the group.

Chapter 3 1 23

The classifcation

4 o groups

CHAPTER OBJECTIVES:

8.10 Permutations under composition o permutations; cycle notation or

permutations; result that every permutation can be written as a composition

o disjoint cycles.

8.11 Defnition and examples o let and right cosets o a subgroup o a group;

Lagranges theorem; use and proo o the result that the order o a fnite group

is divisible by the order o any element (Corollary to Lagranges theorem).

8.12 Defnition o group homomorphism; defnition o a kernel o a homomorphism;

proo that the kernel and range o a homomorphism are subgroups; proo o

homomorphism properties or identities and inverses; isomorphism o groups;

the order o an element is unchanged by an isomorphism.

You should know how to: Skills check:

1 Find the partition o a set induced by 1 Find the partition o the set induced by

an equivalence relation, e.g. i the given equivalence relations:

a For a, b , aRb 2| (a2 + b2),

A= { 5 , 3, 1

5

, 2 , 6, 20 } i.e. 2 divides (a2 + b2).

and the equivalence relation R on A b R is an equivalence relation on

a

is defned by aRb , fnd the , such that or all

b

(a, b), (c, d ) ,

partition o A induced by R.

(a, b)R(c, d ) a = c. Describe how the

The partition o A induced by R is

{ }

equivalence relation R partitions .

{ 5, 20 } , 3,

1

, 6 , { 2 } .

c The equivalence relation R on

5

S = {1, 2, 3, , 10} is defned as

xRy x y(mod 4). Find the partition

o S induced by R.

2 Determine i a unction f:A B is 2 a Let A = {x| x , x 0} and

surjective, injective, or both, e.g. let 3x2 + 5

let f : A A be defned as f ( x ) = .

A = \{2} , and f : A such that 5x2 + 3

3x Determine i fis bijective.

f( x ) = .

x+2

Determine whether or not fis bijective. b Given that f : 2 2 such that

For fto be bijective, it must be (i) injective f (a, b) = (2a + b, a 2b), show that f is

and (ii) surjective. bijective, and fnd its inverse.

(i) To show that fis injective, Injective and surjective unctions can be

represented graphically, as shown below.

Method I

We must show that f (a) = f (b) a = b. In Figure 1, since the unction is steadily

increasing over its entire domain, the

Hence,

unction is injective. Also, i you imagine

3a 3b a horizontal line drawn anywhere

= 3 a (b + 2 ) = 3 b ( a + 2 )

a+2 b+2 through the graph, the unction will

6a = 6b intersect such a line at only one point.

a=b

or y

Method II

We must show that fis either strictly

increasing or strictly decreasing on its

domain.

3x

d

x+2 = 6

For all x 2,

dy

> 0,

dx ( x + 2) 2

dx

thereore fis strictly increasing. x

Figure 1

Hence fis injective.

Imagine that the graph in Figure 2

(ii) To show that fis surjective, we must continues to infnity at both ends. Then

show that or all b there exists an any horizontal line drawn through the

a A such that f (a) = b. Hence, graph will intersect it in at least one

3a point. This unction is surjective.

= b 3a = b(a + 2 )

a+2 y

3a ba = 2b

a (3 b) = 3b

3b

a=

3b x

When b = 3 it is not the image o any

element in A, so f is not surjective.

Thereore f is not bijective.

Figure 2

Chapter 4 1 25

Group structures

The entire theory o groups originally grew out o an understanding

o permutations. You are amiliar with permutations as

arrangements o a given nite set. The search or solutions o

polynomial equations led the French mathematician Lagrange and

others, in the late 1 8th century, to think o permutations as bijections

rom a nite set onto itsel. However it was the French

mathematician Augustin-Louis Cauchy who developed in detail the

basic theorems o permutation theory and introduced the standard

notation we still use today.

In addition to permutation groups, we will also ocus on

isomorphisms and homomorphisms, which are unctions between

groups that preserve certain group structures. The German

mathematician Emmy Noether rst treated the ideas on group

structures in a paper published in 1 927. She is considered one o the

most amous mathematicians o our modern era.

When you shufe a deck o 52 playing cards you are essentially

rearranging all o the cards, or orming permutations on the set o cards.

A permutation is thereore essentially a bijection o a set onto itsel.

Defnition

A permutation o a non-empty fnite set A is a bijection rom A to A.

and orm all o the possible permutations rom A onto itsel, one possible

mapping is 1 1 , 2 2, 3 3. We can illustrate this

permutation in the ollowing way:

1 2 3

p1 = . This mapping leaves all elements unchanged.

1 2 3

1 2 3

Another possible mapping is 1 3, 2 2, 3 1 or p 2 = .

3 2 1

How many possible mappings are there rom A to itsel? You should

know the answer rom your work on permutations in the core book: 3!, or 6.

1 2 3 1 2 33 1 2 3 1 2 3

p3 = , p4 = , p5 = , p6 = .

1 3 2 2 1 3 3 1 2 2 3 1

unction composition or transormations on a set o isometries.

In other words, i we want the operation p3 p4, then just as in the set

o isometries, this means p4 ollowed by p3 .

p4 maps 1 to 2, and p3 maps 2 to 3, hence p3 p4 maps 1 to 3.

p4 maps 2 to 1 , and p3 maps 1 to 1 , hence p3 p4 maps 2 to 1 .

p4 maps 3 to 3, and p3 maps 3 to 2, hence p3 p4 maps 3 to 2.

1 2 3

Thereore, p3 p4 = , which is p5 .

3 1 2

Now consider p4 p3 . This means p3 ollowed by p4.

p3 maps 1 to 1 , and p4 maps 1 to 2, hence p4 p3 maps 1 to 2.

p3 maps 2 to 3, and p4 maps 3 to 3, hence p4 p3 maps 2 to 3.

p3 maps 3 to 2, and p4 maps 2 to 1 , hence p4 p3 maps 3 to 1 .

1 2 3

Thereore, p3 p 4 = , which is p6.

2 3 1

unction composition, is not commutative, since p3 p4 p4 p3.

We will now determine whether the set o permutations on three

elements, S3 = {p1 , p2, p3 , p4, p5 , p6} , orms a group under composition o

permutations. Composition o permutations, just like composition o

unctions, is associative.

The set would need an identity, and clearly p1 is the identity.

Chapter 4 1 27

We now consider the inverses o the elements. Since a permutation is

a bijection rom a set onto itsel, we know that all elements have inverses.

1 3

2

Consider p2 = 1

. Since p2 maps 1 to 3, p2 would map 3 to 1 .

3 2 1

1 2 3

In the same way, p2 would map 2 to 2, and 1 to 3. Hence, p 21 =

1

3 2 1

which means that p2 is its own inverse. Finding the rest o the inverses is let as an exercise

beore you see the answers in Example 1 .

Example 1

Show that the set S3 o all permutations o the set {1 , 2, 3} orms a group under composition

o permutations. The defnitions o p1 , p2, etc. are those used on the previous page.

results in a Cayley table.

p1 p1 p2 p3 p4 p5 p6

p2 p2 p1 p5 p6 p3 p4

p3 p3 p6 p1 p5 p4 p2

p4 p4 p5 p6 p1 p2 p3

p5 p5 p4 p2 p3 p6 p1

p6 p6 p3 p4 p2 p1 p5

Closure: It is evident that the set under Ascertain the group properties.

composition o permutations is closed,

i.e. or all pi , pj S3 , pi pj S3 .

Identity: p1 is the identity, since or all

pi S3 , pi p1 = p1 pi = pi .

Inverse: For all pi S3 there exists a pj S3

such that pi pj = pj pi = p1 .

pi p1 p2 p3 p4 p5 p6

p 1 p1 p2 p3 p4 p6 p5

i

Hence, S3 is a group under composition o

permutations.

We know rom our core work with permutations that this set would

consist o 4!, or 24 elements. It would not be practical to set up a

Cayley table or S4, so instead we will prove the ollowing theorem.

Theorem 1

Let A be a non-empty set o n elements, and let Sn be the

set o all permutations o A. Then Sn orms a group under

composition o permutations, i.e. {Sn, } orms a group.

Proo:

We shall examine the group properties.

Closure: Similar to unction composition, the composition o two

permutations yields a permutation, so Sn is closed.

1 2 n The identity

Identity: The identity permutation is p1 = .

1 2 n permutation is

Inverse: Since a permutation is a bijection, or any permutation the identity function

f(x) = x.

p Sn there is an inverse permutation p1 Sn.

Associativity: Just as unction composition, the permutation

composition is associative.

Thereore, {Sn, } orms a group.

Defnition

Let A be the fnite set {1 , 2, 3, , n} . The group o all

permutations o A is called the symmetric group on n elements

and is denoted by Sn.

Example 2

1 2 3 4 5 6

Given x S6, x = , fnd

3 1 2 4 6 5

a the inverse

b the order o x.

Since x maps 1 3, 2 1,

1 1 2 3 4 5 6 3 2, 4 4, 5 6, 6 5,

a x =

2 3 1 4 6 5 x1 maps 3 1, 1 2, 2 3,

4 4, 6 5, 5 6

1 2 3 4 5 6

x2 = ;

2 3 1 4 5 6

1 2 3 4 5 6 4 1 2 3 4 5 6

x3 = ; x = ; Find the frst power o x that

1 2 3 4 6 5 3 1 2 4 5 6 equals e, i. e. , the identity

1 2 3 4 5 6 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 permutation p1.

x5 = ; x = .

2 3 1 4 6 5 1 2 3 4 5 6

Hence the order o x is 6, since x6 = p1 and

x, x2, x3 , x4, x5 p1 .

Chapter 4 1 29

Exercise 4A

1 Show that the subset of permutations of S4, {e, x, y, z} forms a

group, where z = xy and

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

e= , x = , y = .

1 2 3 4 3 4 2 1 2 1 4 3

the element 1 2 3 4 5 .

1 4 3 5 2

3 Find a cyclic subgroup of {S3 , } of order 3, and state a generator

of this subgroup.

1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

= , = , =

5 3 4 1 2 2 3 4 5 1 5 3 2 4 1

a Find the permutations:

i ii iii 2 iv 1 v ( ) 1 vi 1

b Solve for x in the following equations:

i x = ii x = .

Another way of writing a permutation is in cycle form. Using the

1 2 3

elements of S3 , since p2 = , p can be expressed as a cycle

3 2 1 2

using the notation ( 3). This means is mapped onto 3 and since 3 is

mapped onto , the cycle ends. Since 2 is mapped onto 2, we can write

this as (2). We can then write the permutation as a product of cycles.

In other words, p2 = ( 3)(2) or (2)( 3). The single element that is in

brackets is mapped onto itself, i.e. the element that is invariant under the

mapping is put in its own brackets. The cycle notation for the identity

element of S3 , p , is ( )(2)(3); in other words, each element is mapped

onto itself. For simplicity of notation, the invariant element(s) will

be omitted. The identity, therefore, would be represented simply as ( ),

and for p2 its cycle form is simply ( 3).

Lets now write the other permutations of S3 using cycle notation.

1 2 3

p3 = , or p3 = (23).

1 3 2

Using cycle notation, (23) means that maps onto itself.

1 2 3

p4 = , or p4 = (1 2).

2 1 3

Again, this means that 3 is invariant and maps onto itsel.

1 2 3 1 2 3

p5 = , or p5 = (1 32); p6 = , or p6 = (1 23).

3 1 2 2 3 1

We will now write the element x rom Example 2 using cycle notation.

1 2 3 4 5 6

x= = (1 3 2 )(4 )(5 6 ) , or (1 32)(56). Since the

3 1 2 4 6 5

cycles are disjoint, we can also write this as x = (56)(1 32),

i.e. whenever the cycles are disjoint, the cycle orm is commutative.

We can also write the inverse o x in cycle notation.

1 2 3 4 5 6

x 1 = = (1 23 )(5 6 )

2 3 1 4 6 5

Again, since the cycles are disjoint, we can also write x 1 = (56)(1 23).

Notice that to fnd the inverse o an element in cycle notation,

we simply reverse the integers in the cycle. For example, inverting

the integers in (1 32) gives us (1 23), since it is understood that the

number at the end o the cycle is the same number as at the beginning

o the cycle. Thus (1 32) is 1 3 2 1 and its reverse is 1 2 3 1 .

The cycle (56), i.e. 5 6 5, is the same as (65), i.e. 6 5 6.

Let us now consider a permutation and write the permutation and its

inverse in cycle orm.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0

Let =

5 1 6 8 4 1 0 7 2 9 3

We see that 1 5 4 8 2 1 , which gives us the cycle (1 5482).

Then starting with the smallest number that we have yet to use, 3, we

have 3 6 1 0 3, giving us the cycle (3 6 1 0). (Notice that we leave

spaces in this cycle between the numbers to avoid conusion since

we have a two-digit number in our cycle.) The only remaining numbers are

7 and 9, which are invariant.

Hence, = (1 5482)(3 6 1 0), or = (3 6 1 0)(1 5482). Using cycle notation,

lets now fnd the inverse o . Reversing the numbers in the cycle

ater the frst number we obtain (1 2845)(3 1 0 6). In other words,

1 2 8 4 5 1 and 3 1 0 6 3. Since 7 and 9 are not

present in our cycles, they are invariant.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0

Hence, 1 =

2 8 1 0 5 1 3 7 4 9 6

Chapter 4 1 31

How can we also use cycles to fnd the order o a permutation? We can

defne the length of a cycle as the number o moves required to come

ull cycle, i.e. the cycle (1 23) requires 3 moves to go rom 1 back to

1 again. Lets look again at Example 2,

1 2 3 4 5 6

where x = .

3 1 2 4 6 5

We know that x can be written in cycle orm as (1 32)(56). The length

o the cycles are 3 and 2. The diagram below illustrates what this means.

1 2

5

3

the frst cycle o length 3 as a, and label the second cycle o length 2 as b.

Every application or permutation o x moves the numbers around in a

cycle so that x would require 3 moves in cycle a to go rom 1 back to 1 .

In cycle b, x would require 2 moves to go rom 5 to 6 and back again.

This means that both 3 and 2 would need to divide n, the total number

o applications o x. Since we want both 3 and 2 to divide n, and n must

be the lowest such number, we want the lowest common multiple o 3 and 2,

which is 6. We have already seen in Example 2 that the order o x is 6.

From all the previous examples, we can summarize our fndings into

cycle properties.

Every permutation can be written as a product o disjoint cycles.

Disjoint cycles are commutative.

The order o a permutation written as a product o disjoint cycles

is the least common multiple o the lengths o the cycles.

The proofs of the above properties are not required for examination purposes,

and are not included in this course companion but you may decide to prove

them informally.

Example 3

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0

Find the order o = .

5 1 6 8 4 1 0 7 2 9 3

= (1 5482)(3 6 1 0) Write the permutation in cycle form.

The length o the cycles are 5 and 3. Find the lowest common multiple of the

Since lcm (3, 5) = 1 5, the order o is 1 5. lengths of the cycles.

cycles a = (1 24) and b = (1 256) in S6. We can write these as permutations.

1 2 3 4 5 6

In cycle a, since 3, 5 and 6 are invariant, a = (1 24 ) = .

2 4 3 1 5 6

1 2 3 4 5 6

In cycle b, 3 and 4 are invariant, hence b = (1 256 ) = .

2 5 3 4 6 1

We already know how to fnd the composition o For convenience, at times

these two cycles using permutation composition. we refer to composition as

Lets concentrate now in fnding the product a product, particularly when

through the cycles, i.e. we want a b, or (1 24)(1 256) writing it in cycle form.

in cycle orm.

As you already know, or permutation composition we move rom

right to let. The right cycle maps 1 to 2, and then the let cycle maps

2 to 4, so the composition maps 1 to 4. The right cycle then maps

2 to 5 and the let one maps 5 to 5, so 2 is mapped onto 5. The right

cycle maps 5 to 6, and the let one maps 6 to 6, so 5 is mapped onto

6. The right cycle maps 6 to 1 , and the let cycle maps 1 to 2, so 6 is

mapped onto 2.

1 2 3 4 5 6

We can write the permutation a b = or (1 4)(256).

4 5 3 1 6 2

In cycle notation, a b = (1 24)(1 256) = (1 4)(256).

Can we arrive at the result in cycle orm without writing out

the permutation?

We see that in composing (1 24)(1 256), starting on the right cycle,

1 maps onto 2, and 2 maps onto 4 on the let cycle, so 1 maps onto

4, and well write this as an unclosed cycle, i.e. with no closing bracket:

(1 4. Then in the right cycle, 4 is mapped onto 4, and on the

let cycle 4 is mapped onto 1 , so now we can close this cycle (1 4).

Chapter 4 1 33

Then, the cycle on the right maps 2 to 5, and 5 is invariant in the

frst cycle, so 2 maps onto 5. We begin this cycle as (25. Then in the

right cycle 5 maps onto 6, and 6 is invariant in the let cycle, so 5 maps

onto 6, or (256. Now 6 maps onto , and maps onto 2 in the let

cycle, hence 6 maps onto 2, and we now have a ull cycle (256).

Thereore, ( 24)( 256) = ( 4)(256).

We will now compute b a or ( 256)( 24).

Using arrows to indicate a mapping, starting on the right, 2,

then on the let 2 5, hence 5, or ( 5. Since 5 is invariant in the

right cycle, 5 5, and on the let 5 6, so 5 6, or ( 56. In the right

cycle, 6 6, and on the let 6 , hence 6 , so we have a complete

cycle ( 56). In the right cycle, 4 , and on the let 2, hence 4 2,

or (42. On the right, 4 and on the right 2, hence 4 2, so we

have a complete cycle (42). This means the 3 is invariant, and

b a = ( 56)(42), or ( 256)( 24) = ( 56)(42).

We see again that permutation composition is not commutative,

since a b b a.

Exercise 4B

1 a Write each o the ollowing permutations as a product

o disjoint cycles.

1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

x = , y = ,

6 3 2 5 1 4 3 4 1 2 6 7 8 5

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

z =

1 3 2 5 4 7 6

c Find the orders o x, y and z.

a on S 6: (123)(46)

b on S 7: (12)(345)(67)

c on S 8 : (245)(378)

d on S 9: (3457)(689)

fnd the ollowing in cycle orm:

a 1 b c ( ) 1 d 1 1

4.2 Cosets and Lagrange's theorem

We will start this section with an important defnition needed to prove

the theorem you are already amiliar with: Lagranges theorem.

Defnition

Let {H, } be a subgroup o {G, } and let x G. Then the set o

elements xH = {xh | h H} is called a let coset o {H, } in G.

The set o elements Hx = {hx | h H} is called a right coset o

{H, } in G.

We will show how this defnition works by fnding the let and right

cosets o the subgroup {3, +} o {, +} .

The let coset o 3 containing x is x + 3.

I x = 0, then 0 + 3 = { , 6, 3, 0, 3, 6, } .

To fnd another let coset, lets take an element that is not in 3,

or example 1 . Then, 1 + 3 = { , 5, 2, 1 , 4, 7, } .

Another element not in 3 is 2. Then, 2 + 3 = { ,4, 1 , 2, 5, 8, } .

Now, consider the coset o k, i.e. k + 3. I k 0(mod 3), then k + 3 = 3.

I k 1 (mod 3) then k + 3 = 1 + 3. I k 2(mod 3), then k + 3 = 2 + 3.

It should be clear that there are only these three unique cosets.

Furthermore, these three let cosets partition into let cosets o 3.

Finding the right cosets in the same manner will yield the exact

same results. However, since is Abelian, the let coset k + 3 and

the right coset 3 + k are the same, hence the partition o into right

cosets is the same as its partition in to let cosets.

Observe that in general, the equivalence relation R or the subgroup

{n, +} o {, +} is the same as the relation o congruence modulo n.

This means that the partition o into cosets o n is the partition

o into residue classes modulo n. (We do not have to distinguish

let and right cosets since addition is commutative.)

Example 4

the subgroup H = {0, 3} under addition.

1 + {0, 3} = {1 , 4}

2 + {0, 3} = {2, 5}

The cosets are {0, 3} ,{1 , 4} ,{2, 5} . Since these three sets exhaust all of 6 , they are

the only cosets.

Chapter 4 1 35

You will have noticed that for a subgroup {H, } of an Abelian group {G, } ,

the partition of G into left cosets of H and the partition of G into right cosets

of H are the same.

Example 5

Let G = {1 , , 2, 3 , 4, 5 } under complex number multiplication be the cyclic group

i

consisting of the sixth roots of unity, where = e 3 . Let H = {1 , 2, 4} be a subgroup

of {G, } . Find the left cosets of H.

For x G, x = 1 , 1 H = {1 , 2, 4} Choose an x G, e. g. x = 1 and form the left

For x G, x = , H = { , 3 , 5 } cosets. Then choose another x G, e. g. x =

and form the left cosets.

The only two cosets are: These two cosets partition the group, so all

1 H = {1 , 2, 4} and other cosets would be identical to one of these

H = { , 3 , 5 } two.

Also in Example 5, since every cyclic group is Abelian, the left and

right cosets will be the same.

We will now list some properties of cosets which you will undoubtedly

have noticed in the previous examples.

For any subgroup {H, } of a group {G, } :

1 G is the union of disjoint cosets of {H, } , i.e., the group is

partitioned by the left (or right) cosets of its subgroup.

2 Every coset (left or right) of a subgroup {H, } has the same

number of elements as H.

3 Every element of G lies in one of the cosets of H in G.

We will now consider an example where the left and right cosets are not the same.

Example 6

Consider the Cayley table for S3 shown in Example 1 , and consider the subgroup {H, }

such that H = { p1 , p3 } . Find the partitions of S3 into left and right cosets of H.

Comment on your results.

p1 = ; p2 = ; p3 = ;

1 2 3 3 2 1 1 3 2

1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3

p4 = ; p5 = ; p6 =

2 1 3 3 1 2 2 3 1

p1 p1 p2 p3 p4 p5 p6

p2 p2 p1 p5 p6 p3 p4

p3 p3 p6 p1 p5 p4 p2

p4 p4 p5 p6 p1 p2 p3

p5 p5 p4 p2 p3 p6 p1

p6 p6 p3 p4 p2 p1 p5

p 2 H = { p 2 p 1 , p 2 p 3 } = { p 2 , p5 }

p3 H = { p3 p1 , p3 p3 } = { p3 , p1 } = H

p4H = { p4 p1 , p4 p3 } = { p4, p6}

p5 H = { p5 p1 , p5 p3 } = { p5 , p2} = p2H

p6H = { p6 p1 , p6 p3 } = { p6, p4} = p4H

The partition of S3 into left cosets of H is either

[H, p5 H, p6H], [H, p2H, p4H], [H, p2H, p6H], or

[H, p4H, p5 H].

The right cosets of H are: Find all the right cosets of H.

Hp2 = { p1 p2, p3 p2} = { p2, p6}

Hp3 = { p1 p3 , p3 p3 } = { p3 , p1 }

Hp4 = { p1 p4, p3 p4} = { p4, p5 }

Hp5 = { p1 p5 , p3 p5 } = { p5 , p4} =Hp4

Hp6 = { p1 p6, p3 p6} = { p6, p2} = Hp2

The partition of S3 into right cosets of H is either:

[H, Hp5 , Hp6], [H, p2H, p4H], [H, Hp2, Hp5 ], or

[H, Hp4, Hp6].

The partitions into left and right cosets are not the You need show only one example where

same, e.g. p2H = {p2, p5 } and Hp2 = {p2, p6} p2H. the partitions into left and right cosets

This makes sense since {S3 , } is not Abelian. are not the same.

Chapter 4 1 37

Through the use o cosets, we are now in a position to prove Lagranges

theorem, which you have already been using in Chapter 3.

I {H, } is a subgroup o {G, } , then the order o the subgroup

{H, } is a divisor o the order o {G, } .

Proo:

Let the order o {G, } be n and the order o {H, } be m, where m < n.

Let k be the number o cells, or sets, in the partition o {G, } into

let cosets o {H, } .

Hence, n = km, since every coset o H must also have m elements.

Thereore m is a divisor o n.

It is quite astonishing that this elegant and useul theorem

comes rom simply counting cosets, and the number o

elements in each coset!

We will now consider two amous corollaries o Lagranges theorem.

order o the group.

Proo:

Since the order o an element is the same as the order o the cyclic

subgroup generated by the element, the result ollows rom

Lagranges theorem.

Proo:

Let {G, } be o prime order p. Since p > 1 there is some a G

such that a e. Then, the cyclic subgroup o {G, } generated

by a contains at least two elements, i.e. it has order m such that m 2.

Since by Lagranges theorem, m must divide p, then m = p.

Since {G, } is generated by a, {G, } is cyclic.

In the syllabus, the corollary to Lagranges theorem is defned as Corollary 1.

Exercise 4C

1 Write out the proos or the three properties o cosets.

2 Find the let and right cosets o the ollowing subgroups:

a H = {4, +} o the group G = {, +}

b H = {4, +} o the group G = {2, +}

c H which is the set o elements generated by the element 4 in

the group { 12, + 12}

d Find in cycle orm the let and right cosets o the subgroup {H, } ,

H = {(1), (12)} , o the group G = {S3 , } , i.e. fnd gH and Hg.

Let (a, b) + (c, d) = (a + c (mod 2), b + d (mod 3)).

a List the sets H = 2 {0} and 2 3 .

b Find the let and right cosets o H.

group {8 , + 8 } partitions the group.

then xH = yH.

6 Let {H, } be a subgroup o {G, } and let a G. Prove that

aH = H i and only i a H.

4.3 Homomorphisms

In Group Theory, we are interested in the properties induced by the

inner structure o groups. We want to make comparisons among

the groups, and decide which ones have equivalent structures,

regardless o the particular sets and binary operations that defne

particular groups.

To do this, we defne a relationship between two groups {G, } and

{H, } in terms o a mapping that relates the structures o the groups.

The groups may be fnite or infnite.

Defnition

Let {G, } and {H, } be groups. A homomorphism is

a unction f: G H such that f (x y) = f (x) f (y) or all x, y G.

Essentially this means that the operation takes place in G while the

operation takes place in H. These may or may not be the same

binary operations. The unction thereore defnes a relation between

these two binary operations, and hence between the two group structures.

You are already amiliar with many homomorphisms because you

have actually been using them throughout your mathematics courses,

without really reerring to them as such. Here are some examples:

Chapter 4 1 39

The distributive property o multiplication over addition in the set

o real numbers says that or every real number c, c (x + y) = cx + cy

or all x, y . In the language o groups we can say that c:

where c(x) = cx is a homomorphism rom {,+} to {,+} .

Another property o real numbers states that | xy| = | x| | y| , or x, y .

In the language o groups, the absolute value unction :

given by (x) = | x| is a homomorphism rom {\{0} , x} to {\{0} , x} .

We know that or all real numbers x and y, (xy) 2 = x2y2. Again, in the

language o groups, we can say that : such that (x) = x2 is

a homomorphism rom {\{0} , x} to {\{0} , x} .

We know that or all real numbers x and y, 2 x + y = 2 x 2 y. Again, in

the language o groups, we can say that : + such that (x) = 2 x

is a homomorphism between the groups {, +} and { + , } .

The unction denitions in a homomorphism need not be injective

or surjective. The third bullet point contains the squaring unction,

which is neither surjective nor injective. I we change the mapping o the

sets in the same example to : + , the unction is injective but

not surjective. I again we change the unction to : + + , this

unction is bijective.

We will now consider homomorphisms among diferent groups, both nite

and innite. In the ollowing example, we rst consider a homomorphism

between an innite group and a nite group.

Example 7

Given are the two groups {, +} and {S, } such that S = {1 , i, 1 , i} .

a Show that the unction (x) = i x denes a homomorphism between the two groups.

b Determine i the unction is injective, surjective, both or neither.

c Describe the mapping o : S as a partition o {, +} induced by an equivalence

relation, and dene the equivalence relation.

hence is a homomorphism. homomorphism.

b i 4 k, k 1 , i.e. 4k = { , 8, 4, 0, 4, 8, } 1 Use the unction to determine the

i j, j = { , 7, 3, 1 , 5, 9, } i elements resulting rom the

i r, r = { , 6, 2, 2, 6, } 1 mapping.

i t, t = { , 5, 1 , 3, 7, 1 1 , } i

The mapping is surjective since or all y S there

exists an x Z such that (x) = y.

The mapping is not injective since many diferent

integers have the same image, or example,

(2) = 1 = (6).

c {, +} has been partitioned into the our cosets 4, Describe the mapping and defne

4 + 1 , 4 + 2, and 4 + 3 by the equivalence the equivalence relation.

relation xRy (x) = ( y).

For any groups {G, } and {H, } there is always at least one

homomorphism, namely the trivial homomorphism. The unction

f : G H defned as f (x) = eH maps every element x in G onto the identity

element in H, eH. This unction is a homomorphism since

f(x y) = eH = eH eH = f(x) f(y), or x, y G.

We will now defne and prove some properties o homomorphisms,

which, loosely speaking, means that the homomorphism preserves

the identity and inverses.

Let f be a homorphism rom group {G, } to group {H, } . Let a

be an element in G. Then the ollowing properties hold.

1 The homomorphism maps the identity in group G onto the

identity in group H, i.e. i eG and eH are the identity elements in

{G, } and {H, } respectively, then f(eG ) = eH.

2 The homomorphism maps the inverse o an element in group

G to the inverse o the elements image in group H, i.e. or all

a G, f (a ) = ( f (a)) .

3 The range o the homomorphism fis a subgroup o {H, } , i.e.

f (G ) = { f ( a ) a G } is a subgroup o {H, } .

4 The homomorphism preserves all powers, i.e. f(an) = ( f(a)) n or

all a G.

Proofs:

1 Let f : G H be a homomorphism rom group {G, *} to {H, } .

Then, or all a in G, f (a) = f (a eG ) = f (a) f (eG ) by defnition o

homomorphism and the identity element eG. By defnition o eH,

f (a) f (eG ) = f (a) eH. Thereore by the let cancellation law, f (eG ) = eH.

2 By defnition o inverse and property 1, f(a a1) = f(a1 a) = f(eG ) = eH

or all a in G. By defnition o homomorphism,

f(a) f(a1) = f(a1) f (a) = eH or every a in G. Thereore, by the group

property o uniqueness o inverses, f(a1) = ( f(a)) 1.

3 In order or f (G) = { f (a)| a G} ,{ f (G), } to be a subgroup o {H, } ,

the ollowing properties must hold:

Closure: This property ollows rom the defnition o homomorphism,

and rom closure o {G, } .

Identity: The range o fcontains the identity, i.e. eH = f(eG ) f(G).

Inverse: This ollows rom property 2 o homomorphisms, and rom

the inverses in {G, } .

So { f(G), } is the subgroup o {H, } .

Chapter 4 1 41

The proof of property 4 using mathematical induction is left as an exercise.

The proof of the theorem is left for you to do.

Let {G, } and {H, } be groups with subgroups {G 0, } and {H0, } respectively.

If f : G H is a homomorphism, then

i f(G 0 ) = {f(x) | x G 0}, {f(G 0), } is a subgroup of {H, }, and

ii f (H0 ) = {x G | f(x) H0}, {f1 (H0), } is a subgroup of {G, }

1

Example 8

let f be surjective. Prove that i {G, } is Abelian, then {H, } is Abelian.

Let c, d H. You need to show that for

Since f is surjective, there exist elements a, b G such that c, d H, c d = d c.

f(a) = c and f(b) = d.

By defnition o homomorphism, f(a b) = f(a) f(b) = c d.

Furthermore, since {G, } is Abelian,

f(a b) = f(b a) = f(b) f(a) = d c.

Hence, c d = d c

There is no simple way o showing that a homomorphism between

two groups is surjective. There is, however, an important theorem

that is useul in showing that it is injective.

Theorem 5

A homomorphism f:{G, } {H, } is injective i and only i the

unique solution to f(x) = eH is x = eG.

Proof:

: f(x) = eH f(x) = f(eG) by Theorem 4 and by the assumption

that fis injective, x = eG.

: Let x = eG be the only solution o f(x) = eH. Suppose that f (a) = f (b)

or a, b G. Then, f(a) = f(b) f(a) f(b)1 = eH f(a b1 ) = eH.

Since a b1 = eG, a = b and f is injective.

homomorphism is called an epimorphism.

In Example 7 we saw how the homomorphism f (x) = i x rom group

{, +} to group {S, } , S = {1 , i, 1 , i} , partitioned the set o

integers according to the image o each integer in S, i.e.

{..., 8, 4, 0, 4, 8, ...} 1

{..., 7, 3, 1 , 5, 9, ...} i

{..., 6, 2, 2, 6, 1 0, ...} 1

{..., 5, 1 , 3, 7, 1 1 , ...} i

The set o elements rom , { , 8, 4, 0, 4, 8, } that are mapped

onto the identity in S, e = 1 , is called the kernel o the homomorphism f.

The ollowing denition thereore shows how the identity appears as

the value o a homomorphism.

Defnition

Given the group homomorphism f:{G, } {H, } the kernel o

the homomorphism f, ker( f ), is dened as the set o all elements

o G which are mapped to eH, i.e. ker ( f) = {a G| f (a) = eH} . ker(f) eH f(G)

You saw rom the example that the kernel o f(x) = i x ormed a

f

subgroup o {, +} . We shall now prove this observation. G H

Theorem 6

The kernel o a homomorphism f:{G, } {H, } is a

subgroup o {G, } .

Proof:

We will show that the subgroup properties hold.

Identity: By Theorem 4, f(eG) = eH eG ker ( f ).

Closure: Let a, b ker( f ) or some a, b G. Then, by denitions

o homomorphism and kernel, f(a b) = f(a) f(b) = eH eH = eH.

Hence, a b ker( f ).

Inverse: Let a ker( f ) or some a G. Then by property 2 o

homomorphism, f(a1 ) = ( f(a)) 1 = eH1 = eH. Hence, a1 ker ( f ).

Hence ker( f ) is a subgroup o {G, } , since associative property

holds or all the elements o G.

As an exercise, you may want to work out the same proo using a

diferent subgroup theorem, e.g. show that i a,b are elements o ker ( f ),

then a b1 is an element o ker( f ).

It is interesting to note that the kernel can be useul in solving

equations. For example, consider the solutions or the equation z3 = 8i.

We can change this to an example with homomorphisms. Let us

consider f:{\{0} , } {\{0} , } such that f (z) = z3 or z \{0} .

We can easily show that f is a homomorphism,

since f (z1 z2) = (z1 z2) 3 = z1 3 z23 = f (z1 ) f (z2). Using De Moivres theorem,

we can nd one solution to the equation z3 = 8i, z1 = 2 cis .

6

Chapter 4 1 43

The elements o the kernel o the homomorphism are the solutions to the equation

2 4

z3 = , since ker( f ) = , f (z) = z3 . Thereore ker( f ) = K = 1, cis , cis .

3 3

Hence, the solutions to our original equation are elements o the coset

5 3

z K = 2 cis , 2 cis , 2 cis .

6 6 2

Exercise 4D

1 a Show that f :{\{0} , } {\{0} , } is a homomorphism,

and determine the kernel, when:

1

i f(x) = | x| ii f ( x ) =

x

b Show that f :{, +} {, +} is not a homomorphism when:

2 Let {, +} and {C, +} be groups such that C is the set o continuous

1

unctions with domain [0, 1]. Show that f : C , f (c) = 0 c (x)dx or

c C, is a homomorphism.

0, x even numbers

homomorphism i or x , f ( x ) =

1, x o dd numbers

4 Prove part 4 o Theorem 4 by mathematical induction.

i.e. i f :G H and g : H K, then ( g f ): G K is a homomorphism.

image o a subgroup o {H, } is a subgroup o {G, } .

Prove f 1( f(a)) = {x G | f (x) = f(a)} is the let coset aK o K and is

also the right coset Ka o K, i.e. the two partitions o G into let

and right cosets o K are the same. (Hint: Use the double inclusion

method or proving two sets are equal.)

4.4 Isomorphisms

In Chapter 3 we saw that there was only one way to construct

a Cayley table or a group o order 2 and a group o order 3. In other

words, interchanging a row or a column did not change any o the

results o the operation. For example, the Cayley table or a group o

order 3 is shown next, and beside it is the same table where the columns

or elements e and b have been interchanged.

e a b b a e

e e a b e b a e

a a b e a e b a

b b e a b a e b

2nd table will show that the results are the same as those in the 1 st table.

Thereore we say that the two tables are structurally equivalent.

We now consider the question How many diferent groups o order 4

are there? Consider two Cayley tables that you have already seen

o two cyclic groups o order 4: S = {1 , i, 1 , i} under multiplication,

and { 4, + 4} .

1 1 i i +4 0 1 2 3

1 1 1 i i 0 0 1 2 3

1 1 1 i i 1 1 2 3 0

i i i 1 1 2 2 3 0 1

i i i 1 1 3 3 0 1 2

The orders o the groups are the same.

The identity is in the frst row and column o each table.

I we consider a unction which maps the elements o the frst group

to the elements o the second group as ollows, 1 0, i 1 , 1 2,

i 3, we obtain the 2nd table.

The unction maps the results o the binary operation on the

elements o the frst table onto the corresponding results o the binary

operation in the 2nd table.

To expand upon this last bullet point, let us consider (1 i ).

We see that (1 i) = (i) = 3, i.e. : i 3.

Furthermore, (1 ) + (i ) = 2 + 1 = 3, hence (1 i) = (1 ) + (i ).

I you test all the other pairs o elements you will see that

(a b) = (a) + (b), or a, b S and (a), (b) 4.

Additionally we can consider the order o the elements in the tables.

These tables show the orders o the elements in both groups:

{S, }

element 1 i 1 i

order 1 4 2 4

{4, + 4}

element 0 1 2 3

order 1 4 2 4

Chapter 4 1 45

As you can see, each o these groups has an identity, one element o

order 2, and two generators, i.e. two elements o order 4.

The unction fmaps 1 0, i 1 , 1 2, i 3, i.e. fmaps elements

whose orders are equal onto each other.

We could reconstruct both tables using one o the generators,

e.g. i in the rst group and 1 in the second group.

In the rst group e = 1 = i 4, and the in second group e = 0 = 1 4,

i.e. 1 4 = 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 = 4(mod 4) = 0.

e i i2 i3 +4 e 1 12 13

e e i i2 i3 e e 1 12 13

i i i2 i3 e 1 1 12 13 e

2 2 3

i i i e i 1 2

1 2

1 3

e 1

3 3 2

i i e i i 13 13 e 1 12

Then, both tables can essentially be expressed by the same table using

a generator a, and are structurally equivalent to this table.

e a a2 a3

e e a a2 a3

a a a2 a3 e

a2 a2 a3 e a

a 3

a 3

e a a2

We could also have achieved the same efect by mapping the generators

diferently, e.g. f : i 1 and f : i 3. The identities are still corresponding

elements, as well as the only element o order 2 in both groups.

The mapping o these elements remains the same, i.e. f: 1 0 and f: 1 2.

We leave it to you to construct the Cayley tables using this new mapping,

i.e. the row and column o the elements i and i would need to be

interchanged. You will notice again that the new Cayley table is

structurally equivalent to the rst one we constructed. We conclude that all

cyclic groups o order 4 are structurally identical.

Is there a group o order 4 that is not cyclic, i.e. that is not structurally

equivalent to the cyclic group o order 4? Consider the Abelian group

in Example 9 rom Chapter 3:

{S, 1 2} , S = {1 , 5, 7, 1 1 } . Here is the Cayley table:

12 1 5 7 11

1 1 5 7 11

5 5 1 11 7

7 7 11 1 5

11 11 7 5 1

The identity is 1 , and the order o the elements 5, 7 and 1 1 is 2.

This group is clearly not cyclic, although it is Abelian. Thereore this

group o order 4 is not structurally equivalent to our two cyclic groups

o order 4. In group theory this group is called the Klein our-group,

or KV, where the subscript V stands or the German word or our vier.

Its defnition is KV = {a,b | a2 = b2 = (ab) 2 = e} . It is the smallest

non-cyclic group. Another example o the KV group is rom Chapter 3,

Exercise 3B, question 7(b), the symmetries o a rectangle.

This group is structurally equivalent to {S, 1 2 } . There are only

two groups o order 4, the cyclic group and the Klein our-group.

All groups o order 4 will be structurally equivalent to one o these

two groups, i.e. the cyclic group o order 4 or the KV group.

o the permutation group S 4. The group consists o

the ollowing 4 permutations written in cycle notation:

the identity permutation (1), (12)(34), (13)(24) and

(14)(23). The group is named ater the German

mathematician Felix Klein, who was an early pioneer

in Group Theory applied to Geometry. He also devised

the amous topological fgure, the Klein bottle, an

impossible fgure with no inside.

Defnition

An isomorphism is a bijective homomorphism,

i.e. given groups {G, } and {H, } , f : G H is an isomorphism i

and only i

i f is bijective, and

ii f is a homomorphishm, i.e. or all a, b G, f (a b) = f (a) f (b).

In other words, to show that two groups are isomorphic, you must

show that the homomorphism is both injective and surjective.

The bijection guarantees that the sets have the same size, or cardinality,

and the homomorphism guarantees that the groups have the

same structure.

As you have already seen, to show that two fnite sets are isomorphic

we need only show that their Cayley tables are structurally equivalent,

i.e. their tables can be shown to be structurally the same by rearranging

or swapping columns or rows.

We will next show a worked-out example or fnite sets.

Chapter 4 1 47

Example 9

a Determine i any o the ollowing three groups are isomorphic by

constructing their Cayley tables.

{ + }

6, 6

Symmetries o an equilateral triangle as defned in Chapter 3,

on page 1 01 , i.e. S = {I, R1 , R2, A, B, C}

{ \{0} , }

7 7

b Reconstruct the Cayley table(s) to show the equivalent structure o

the isomorphic groups.

a Creating the Cayley tables or each group:

+6 0 1 2 3 4 5

0 0 1 2 3 4 5

1 1 2 3 4 5 0

2 2 3 4 5 0 1

3 3 4 5 0 1 2

4 4 5 0 1 2 3

5 5 0 1 2 3 4

I R1 R2 A B C

I I R1 R2 A B C

R1 R1 R2 I C A B

R2 R2 I R1 B C A

A A B C I R1 R2

B B C A R2 I R1

C C A B R1 R2 I

7 1 2 3 4 5 6

1 1 2 3 4 5 6

2 2 4 6 1 3 5

3 3 6 2 5 1 4

4 4 1 5 2 6 3

5 5 3 1 6 4 2

6 6 5 4 3 2 1

All three groups have the same order. Since {S, } Notice the structures of the Cayley

is not Abelian, and the other two groups are, the table, e. g. Abelian.

only possibility or an isomorphism is between

{6, + 6} and { 7\{0} , 7} .

The orders o the elements in each table are: Determine the orders of the elements

in both groups.

a 6 0 1 2 3 4 5

order 1 6 3 2 3 6

b 7 1 2 3 4 5 6

order 1 3 6 3 6 2

The groups are cyclic. The identities are Map elements of similar orders.

corresponding elements, hence 0 1 . The only

elements o order 2 are also corresponding elements,

so 3 6.

Mapping the generators 1 3 and 5 5 leaves two

possible mappings or the remaining elements: 2 2

and 4 4, or 2 4 and 4 2.

Mapping the generators 1 5 and 5 3 again

leaves the two possible mappings o 2 2 and 4 4,

or 2 4 and 4 2.

b Using the frst mapping, we can leave + 6 as is, and

reconstruct the 7 table. Rearrange one of the tables so

that the corresponding elements

7 1 3 2 6 4 5

are in the same positions.

1 1 3 2 6 4 5

3 3 2 6 4 5 1

2 2 6 4 5 1 3

6 6 4 5 1 3 2

4 4 5 1 3 2 6

5 5 1 3 2 6 4

How many groups o order 6 are there? You have worked with the

cyclic group o order 6 above. In Chapter 3 you worked with the

symmetries o the equilateral triangle, and saw that it ormed a

non-Abelian group o order 6. From a previous theorem we know

that i a group is cyclic, it must be Abelian, or i a group is not Abelian,

it cannot be cyclic. Again as with order 4, there are two distinct groups

o order 6.

Chapter 4 1 49

We can classiy fnite groups by isomorphism classes, i.e. the number

o distinct groups o a particular order.

All groups o prime order are cyclic, hence there is only one class

o groups whose order is a given prime number.

There are two distinct groups or classes o order 4 and order 6:

one cyclic group and one non-cyclic group.

There are fve distinct groups o order 8, three o which are cyclic.

There are two distinct groups o order 9, and both are cyclic.

There are two distinct groups o order 1 0, one cyclic and one non-cyclic.

Although none o the above results are needed or examination purposes,

you might want to research this urther and investigate how many classes

o groups there are o a given order greater than 1 1 .

We shall now illustrate an example showing an isomorphism between infnite sets.

Example 10

Show that the mapping f : x 2 x rom the set o integers to the set

S= { 1

8

,

1

4

,

1

2

}

, 1, 2, 4, 8, is an isomorphism between the groups {, +} and {S, } .

f defnes a homomorphism between determine if f maps the sum of two

the two groups. elements in to the product of two

elements in S.

Method I

Show that f is bijective, i. e.

f is injective i f(a) = f(b) a = b.

injective and surjective.

2a = 2 b a = b, hence f is injective.

Method II

To show fis injective, we can make use o

Theorem 5, showing that the unique solution

o f (x) = es is e. Assume that the solution is not

unique, i.e. x y such that f(x) = es and f(y) = es.

Hence, 2 x = 2 y x = y, which is a contradiction.

Thereore the solution is unique, and is e = 0.

f is surjective i or every b S there exists an a

lo g b

such that f(a) = b. I 2 a = b a = = log 2 b .

lo g 2

Hence f is bijective.

Thereore f is an isomorphism.

We see thereore rom Example 1 0 that to show f :{G, } {H, }

is an isomorphism, we need to show that:

f is a homomorphism

ker( f ) = e , i.e. f is injective.

G

f is surjective.

homomorphism will apply. In addition to these, there is another

important property specifc to isomorphisms which you will already

have observed in the examples so ar.

Theorem 7

I f : {G, } {H, } is an isomorphism, the order o a G is equal to

the order o f(a) H or every a G.

Proof:

Let n be the order o a. Thereore by defnition, n is the smallest

positive integer such that an = e. Then:

(f (a))n = f (a) f (a) ... f (a)

= f ( a

a a ) by defnition o isomorphism,

n times

n

= f (a )

= f (eG), since the order o a is n

= eH

We now must show that n is the least positive integer such that ( f (a)) n = eH.

Let the order o f (a) be m, m < n. Then, by defnition, ( f (a))m = eH .

Hence, eH is the image o both an and am . Since am = an = eG, and n is

the smallest such integer, then this is a contradiction with the assumption

that m < n. Hence n m and the order o a G is the same as the order

o f (a) H.

This property is very useul or showing that two groups are not

isomorphic, i.e. i the orders o the elements o the groups do

not match, then the groups are not isomorphic. The ollowing example

illustrates how to use this property.

Example 11

The only element in with fnite order is the identity, 0, Determine if all elements in both

whose order is 1 . groups have the same orders.

has order 2, i.e. there are at least two elements with fnite

order. Hence, the groups are not isomorphic.

Chapter 4 1 51

Is the converse o this theorem true, i.e. i the orders o the elements

o two groups are the same, are the groups isomorphic? This is

not true, and the smallest group with this property has order 6,

i.e. there exist two groups o order 6 whose elements have the same

orders but which are not isomorphic. You may want to research

this very important result urther.

Exercise 4E

1 Determine which o the ollowing groups o order 6 are isomorphic.

a The symmetry group o the equilateral triangle

b The set {1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8} under 9

c The set {2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12} under 14

d The permutation group with the ollowing elements:

1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

p1 = ; p2 = 4 5 3 1 2 ; p3 = 3 2 4 1 5

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

p4 = ; p5 = 3 5 1 4 2 ; p6 =

4 2 1 3 5 1 5 4 3 2

between the groups { + , } and {, +} .

onto itsel i and only i {G, } is Abelian.

subset o G or some given element x G.

a Prove that M is closed under the operation o the group G and

that each element o M has an inverse under in M.

Hence, deduce that M is a subgroup.

b Show that M is isomorphic to H.

a b

5 Let (ab) denote a cycle defned by the permutation

b a

a Consider the permutations on the set {1, 2, 3, 4} . Let p1 = (1),

p2 = (12)(34), p3 = (13)(24) and p4 = (14)(23) be our o these

permutations. Write out the Cayley table or the set

P = { p1, p2, p3 , p4} under composition o permutations.

b Prove that {P, } is an Abelian group.

c Determine whether or not {P, } is isomorphic to { 4,+ 4} .

6 Given that two groups {G, } and {H, } are isomorphic, prove that

{G, } is Abelian i and only i {H, } is Abelian.

Review exercise

EXAM-STYLE QUESTIONS

1. a Let G be a group o order 6 such that it contains no elements o

order 6. State Lagranges theorem and hence prove by contradiction

that at least one o the elements will have order 3.

b Let G be o order n, and g be an element o G that has order k.

Write down a cyclic subgroup o order k and use Lagranges

theorem to show that gn = e.

2 a Let { n, + n} be the cyclic group o integers under + n. Write down

the elements o this group, and identiy a generator or the group.

b Let { n, } be the group whose elements are the nth roots o

unity under multiplication. Write down the elements o this

group, and show that the group is cyclic. Write down a generator

o the group. 2 ix

is an isomorphism.

3 Let G be a set o isomorphic groups, i.e. G1 G2 (G1 is isomorphic to G2)

or all G1,G2 G. I f : G1 G2, show that the relation on G dened

by is an equivalence relation.

4 Prove that the mapping f : x x2 is an isomorphism o a group {G, }

i and only i {G, } is Abelian.

5 Prove that i f :{G, } {G, } is a homomorphism with kernel K then

f (x) = f ( y) i and only i y = xk or some k K.

6 Let G be the group o permutations S3 and H is a subgroup o

G such that H = {(1), (12)} . Find the let and right cosets o H in G.

7 Let G be a group. Prove that the relation on G dened as xRy x = y or

x = y1 is an equivalence relation, and write down the equivalence classes.

8 Prove that the groups {, +} and {+ , } are isomorphic.

9 a Show that {S, } , S = {2 a3 b | a, b = } , a, b orms a group.

b Show that {S, } is isomorphic to the group {, +} ,

= {a + bi | a, b Z, i = 1 } .

10 Express p = (13256)(23)(46512) as a product o disjoint cycles.

11 Explain why f : 12 10, f (x) = 3x (mod 10) is not a homomorphism.

12 Given the permutation group S3 , nd a subgroup {H, } and an element

o g such that gH Hg.

13 Let G ={\{0} , } .

a Show that f: x x n is a homomorphism or all n + .

b Determine ker( fn).

c Determine n so that the mapping is an isomorphism.

14 Let S be the set o polynomials in x with real coefcients under addition.

Dene the mapping f : p(x) P (x) = p ( x ) dx such that P (0) = 0.

Show that f is a homomorphism, and determine its kernel.

Chapter 4 1 53

Chapter summary

A permutation o a non-empty fnite set A is a bijection rom A to A.

Theorem 1: Let A be a non-empty set o n elements, and let Sn be the set o all

permutations o A. Then Sn orms a group under composition o permutations.

Let A be the fnite set { , 2, 3, , n} . The group o all permutations o A is the

symmetric group on n elements and is denoted by Sn.

Every permutation can be written as a product o disjoint cycles.

Disjoint cycles are commutative.

The order o a permutation written as a product o disjoint cycles is

the least common multiple o the lengths o the cycles.

Let {H, } be a subgroup o {G, } and let x G. Then the set o elements

xH = {xh h H} is called a left coset o {H, } in G. The set o elements

Hx = {hx h H} is called a right coset o {H, } in G.

Properties of cosets: For any subgroup {H, } o a group {G, } :

1 G is the union o disjoint cosets o {H, } .

2 Every coset (let or right) o a subgroup {H, } has the same number o elements as H.

3 The group is partitioned by the let (or right) cosets o its subgroup.

4 Every element o G lies in one o the cosets o H in G.

o the subgroup {H, } is a divisor o the order o {G, } .

1 The order o an element o a fnite group divides the order o the group.

2 Every group o prime order is cyclic.

Let {G, } and {H, } be groups. A homomorphism is a unction f : G H such that

f (x y) = f (x) f ( y) or all x, y G.

Properties of homomorphisms: Let f be a homomorphism rom group {G, } to group

{H, } . Let a be an element in G. Then the ollowing properties hold.

1 The homomorphism maps the identity in group G onto the identity in group H,

i.e. i eG and eH are the identity elements in {G, } and {H, } respectively,

then f (eG ) = eH .

2 The homomorphism maps the inverse o an element in group G to the inverse o the

elements image in group H, i.e. or all a G, f (a1) = ( f (a)) 1.

3 The range o the homomorphism fis a subgroup o {H, } , i.e. or

f (G) = { f (a) a G} , { f (a), } is a subgroup o {H, } .

4 The homomorphism preserves all powers, i.e. f (an ) = ( f (a)) n or all a G.

Theorem: A homomorphism f :{G, } {H, } is injective i and only i the

unique solution to f (x) = eH is x = eG.

Given the group homomorphism f :{G, } {H, } the kernel o f, ker( f ),

is defned as the set o all elements o G which are mapped to eH ,

i.e. ker( f ) = {a G f (a) = eH}

Theorem: The kernel o a homomorphism f :{G, } {H, } is a subgroup o G.

Given the groups {G, } and {H, } , f : G H is an isomorphism i and only i

i f is bijective, and

ii f is a homomorphism, i.e. or all a, b G, f (a b) = f (a) f (b).

is equal to the order o f (a) H.

Chapter 4 1 55

Exercise D

Answers 1 A B = {(1, p), (1, q), (2, p), (2, q), (3, p), (3, q)}

Chapter 1 B A = {( p, 1), ( p, 2), ( p, 3), (q, 1), (q, 2), (q, 3)}

Skills check The two products are not equal since the

1 a 24 Cartesian product is made up of ordered pairs

and hence (1, q) (q, 1) etc

Exercise A 2 a Tabulate the Cartesian product A B

1 a A \ B = {b, c, d}

AB 1 2 3 4 5 6

b B \ A = {i, o, u}

c A B = {b, c, d, i, o, u} 1 (1, 1) (1, 2) (1, 3) (1, 4) (1, 5) (1, 6)

d (A B) \ (A C) = {a, e} 2 (2, 1) (2, 2) (2, 3) (2, 4) (2, 5) (2, 6)

e A (B C) = {a, b, c, d, e} 3 (3, 1) (3, 2) (3, 3) (3, 4) (3, 5) (3, 6)

Exercise B 4 (4, 1) (4, 2) (4, 3) (4, 4) (4, 5) (4, 6)

1 Many examples possible, such as: The ordered pairs in bold represent A A A B

P = {{red cards} ,{black cards} } b i R = { (1, 1 ), (1, 2 ), (1, 4 ), (1, 6 ), (2, 1 ), (2, 3 ), (2, 5 ),

P = {{number cards} , {picture cards} } (3, 2 ), (3, 4 ), (4, 1 ), ( 4, 3 )}

2 a P is a partition.

b Q is not a partition. ii R = {(1, 1 ), ( 2, 4 )}

c B is not a partition since 2 is an element iii R = { (1, 3 ), (1, 4 ), (1, 6 ), (2, 4 ), (2, 5 ), (3, 5 ),

of both sets. (3, 6 ), ( 4, 6 )}

3 a Partition b Partition c Partition

iv R = {(1, 1 ), (1, 2 ), (1, 3 ), (1, 4 ), (1, 5 ), ( 2, 1 ), ( 2, 2 ),

4 Many examples possible such as

( 2, 3 ), ( 2, 4 ), (3, 1 ), (3, 2 ), (3, 3 ), ( 4, 1 ), ( 4, 2 )}

a {{x , x 10} , {x | x {0, 1, 2, 3, ,10} } }

or {{ , e} , { x | x , x e } } 3 A B = {( a, p ), ( a, q ), (b, p ), (b, q )}

b {{ x | x } , { x | x , x }} n ( A B ) = 4 n ( P ( A B )) = 2 4 = 1 6

or {{primes} , {x| x R, x is not a prime 4 a A B = {( a, 1 ), ( a, 2 ), ( a, 3 ), (b, 1 ), (b, 2 ), (b, 3 )}

number} }

A C = {( a, 3 ), ( a, 4 ), (b, 3 ), (b, 4 )}

c {..., [ 3, 2[, [ 2, 1 [, [ 1 , 0[, [0, 1 [, [1 , 2[,

( A B ) ( A C ) = {( a, 3 ), (b, 3 )}

[2, 3[, ... }

b B C = {3 }

A ( B C ) = {( a, 3 ), (b, 3 )}

Exercise C c (A B) (A C ) = A (B C )

6 a AB 5 A C = {( a, c ) | a A, c C}

B C = {(b, c ) | b B, c C}

Since A B it follows that a A a B

A B ( a, c ) B C for all a A , c C .

Therefore A C B C .

6 List the Cartesian product S S

S S 0 2 4 6 8

A ' B'

0 (0, 0) (0, 2) (0, 4) (0, 6) (0, 8)

U

2 (2, 0) (2, 2) (2, 4) (2, 6) (2, 8)

4 (4, 0) (4, 2) (4, 4) (4, 6) (4, 8)

A B 6 (6, 0) (6, 2) (6, 4) (6, 6) (6, 8)

8 (8, 0) (8, 2) (8, 4) (8, 6) (8, 8)

156 Answers

10 R = {(2, 1), (4, 2), (8, 3), (16, 4), (32, 5), (64, 6), 6 Equivalence classes

(128, 7), (256, 8), (512, 9), (1024, 10)} [1 ] = { x | x 2 1 = 3 k, k + } = {1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 1 0, 1 1 ...}

xR 1 y y = lo g 2 x =

ln x [3 ] = { x | x 2 3 = 3 k, k + } = {3, 6, 9, 1 2, 1 5 ....}

ln 2

1

n(R ) = 1 0 7 R partitions the Cartesian plane into lines parallel

to the y-axis.

Exercise E 8 [(1, 2)] = { ( x , y ) | 2 x = y } = { (1, 2), (2, 4 ), (3, 6), (4, 8). . . }

1 Since R is reexive, symmetric and transitive it b

[ ( a , b ) ] = { ( x , y ) | bx = ay } = { ( x , x )} , which represents

ollows that it is an equivalence relation. a

2 Since R is reexive, symmetric and transitive it sets o straight lines passing through the origin.

ollows that it is an equivalence relation. 1

9 [ (1, 1 ) ] = { ( x , y ) | xy = 1} = { ( x , )| x \ {0} }

3 Since R is not transitive it ollows that it is not an x

equivalence relation. ab

[ ( a , b ) ] = { ( x , y ) | xy = ab } = { ( x , ) | x \ {0} } , which

4 Since R is not reexive and not transitive it x

represents a set o rectangular hyperbolas with

ollows that it is not an equivalence relation.

the x and y axes as asymptotes.

5 Since R is reexive, symmetric and transitive it

ollows that it is an equivalence relation. 10 b [ 0 ] = { x | x 0 } =

9 One example rom not reexive or not symmetric

is enough to show that R is not an equivalence

relation.

c 3

4 { 3

= x | x = n, n

4 }

10 Since R is reexive, symmetric and transitive it {

= ...,

9 5 1 3 7 1 1

4

,

4

, , , , , ...

4 4 4 4

}

ollows that it is an equivalence relation

a = {x | x }

a

d b = n, n

b

= {x | x = , n }

Exercise F nb + a

1 a The equivalence classes induced by R: b

[set] = {set, car, sea, sun} R partitions into ractions with denominator

[bike] = {bike, wave} b and numerator an innite arithmetic

[table] = {table, chair} progression depending on a and with

[tennis] = {tennis, stairs} common diference b.

b The equivalence classes induced by R:

[set] = {set, stairs, sea, sun}

Review Exercise

[table] = {table, tennis}

[chair] = {chair, car} 1 i A\B

[bike] = {bike} U

[wave] = {wave}

2 a R partitions the set o line segments into sets

o segments o equal length. A B

b R partitions the set o all polygons into sets

o polygons with same number o sides,

i.e. {triangles} , {quadrilaterals} , etc

3 R partitions the set o parabolas into sets A (U \B)

containing parabolas with vertex tangent to the U

line y = c.

4 The relation partitions into concentric

circles with centre at the origin. A B

5 Equivalence classes:

[1 ] = { x | x + 2 = 3 k, k + } = {1, 4, 7, 1 0,...}

[ 2 ] = { x | x + 4 = 3 k, k + , k 2} = { 2, 5, 8,...}

In the lower o the two diagrams above, the area

[3 ] = { x | x + 6 = 3 k, k + , k 3} = {3, 6, 9,...}

shaded in both directions represents A (U \ B ).

Answers 1 57

ii Similarly, Venn diagrams demonstrating 9 b First consider the equivalence class [(a, 0)] where a

two expressions that are each the symmetric is a constant

diference o A and B. [(a, 0 ) ] = { ( x , y ) | x = a , y 0 = 5 k } = { 0, 5, 1 0, 1 5, . . . }

2 Venn Diagrams suitably drawn to show

[ ( a, 1) ] = { ( x , y ) | x = a , y 1 = 5 k } = { . . . , 1 4, 9, 4, 1, 6, 1 1, . . . }

i A (B C ) = (A B) (A C )

[ ( a, 2) ] = {( x , y )| x = a, y 2 = 5 k } = {..., 1 3, 8, 3, 2, 7, 1 2, ...}

ii A (B C ) = (A B) (A C )

3 b The relation R partitions the Argand [ ( a, 3) ] = {( x , y )| x = a, y 3 = 5 k } = {. .. , 1 2, 7, 2, 3, 8, 1 3, . .. }

diagram into lines passing through the [ ( a, 4 ) ] = {( x , y )| x = a, y 4 = 5 k } = { ... , 1 1, 6, 1, 4, 9, 1 4, ... }

origin, since or every each particular angle,

, all the complex numbers having as an 10 S is not transitive.

argument lie on a straight line passing 11 b AB R CD i and only i AB and CD are

through the origin and make an angle parallel line segments o the same length

with the positive real axis. and oriented in the same direction. Thus an

4 a A = {2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19} equivalence consists o all translations o

B = {1, 2, 3} a given directed line segment.

C = {0, 1, 2, 3}

D = {2, 0, 2} Chapter 2

E = {1, 0, 1, 2, 3} Skills Check

b i True because n(A) = 8, n(D) = 3, n(E ) = 5 1 a 0 < t< 3 b t> 3

ii False because D A = { 2, 0} (3 2 x ) ln x

2 a f 1 ( x ) = where x 1 b f 1 ( x ) =

n ( D A ') = 2 (x 1) ln 2

f 1 ( x ) = ln )

1

iii True as evident rom list above. c

2

(x + x2 + 8

iv True D \ B = {2, 0} and neither o these

elements are in A Exercise A

v False C E = (C E ) \ (C E ) = { 1} 2 a Not a unction b Not a unction

c Not a unction

5 a i R is not reexive

3 a Is a unction b Not a unction

ii R is symmetric c Not a unction

iii R is not transitive. 5 a not surjective b injective

b R is not an equivalence relation because it is 6 i injective, not surjective

not reexive and it is also not transitive. ii injective, not surjective

iii injective and surjective

6 a Since R is reexive, symmetric and transitive 8 i surjective, not injective

it is an equivalence relation. ii surjective, not injective

b i C 0 = [ 0 ] = { x | x 3 0 (mod 5 )} = { 5 , 1 0 , 1 5 , 20 . . . } iii not surjective, not injective

9 a Range 1 < f (x) < 1

ii C1 = [1 ] = { x | x 3 1 (mod 5} = { x | x 3 = 5 k + 1}

b y

= {6, 11, 16, 21, 26, 31, ...}

2

7 a ii [z2 3z + 4] consists o all polynomials o 1

the orm z2 3z + c

0 x

b ii [z2 3z + 4] consists o all polynomials o 10 8 6 4 2 2 4 6 8 10

1

the orm z2 + bz + 4

2

8 b [2] = {2, 4, 6, }

[1] = {1, 3, 5, 7 } 10 a f is not surjective b fis injective

c 5 355

5(mod 8) c g is surjective d g is injective

158 Answers

2 2

Exercise B 12 a e (ln(2x1)) b ln(2e x 1)

2

1 g f ( a, b ) = b c 2 ln (2x 1) d e 4(ln(2x1))

3 a i f g( x ) = x 2 ii g f( x ) = 2 x e 2e (ln(2x1))2

b f g is not injective and not surjective g fis Exercise C

injective and surjective

2

4 a f 1(n, 1) = n + 1 1 a ( f g)(x) = x 2, ( g f ) ( x ) = x + , no

3

c f g ( n , m ) = ( n + m 1, 1 ), g f ( n ) = n b ( f g)(x) = x , ( g f ) ( x ) = x , yes

5 a not injective and not surjective therefore not

bijective. c ( f g)(x) = x , ( g f ) ( x ) = x , yes

b f f ( x, y ) = ( xy ( x + y ), x + xy + y ) 2 a f 1(x) = e x

x 1

6 b f g( x ) = 1 g f( x ) = x if x is rational

1x x b f 1 ( x ) =

d fand g are both self inverses x if x is irrational

1

e f g and g fare inverses of each other 3 a i ( f g) ( x ) = arccos(ln x )

7 b f 1 ( x , y ) =

3

y y

, x3

ii (g 1

f 1 ) ( x ) = arccos(ln x )

x x

2x

Exercise D

x +3 1 a Binary operation not closed

b f 1 ( x ) = ln

4 b Binary operation closed

c Binary operation closed

9 a y

d Binary operation closed

10

f(x) = ln x 2 S is not closed under addition or multiplication

5

or division

0 x 3 i A is closed under addition and multiplication

20 15 10 5 5 10 15 20

x 5 ii B is not closed under addition but closed

f(x) =

e 10

under multiplication

b The function is steadily increasing over the 4 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3

whole range and so it is a bijection. 0 0 1 2 3 0 0 0 0 0

ex x 1 1 1 2 3 0 1 0 1 2 3

c f 1 ( x ) =

e

x

x >1 2 2 3 0 1 2 0 2 0 2

3 3 0 1 2 3 0 3 2 1

10 a i ii {0}

b 1 Closed Closed

c k = 1 solutions (1, 0) and (1, 0) 5 X is closed under addition

k = 2 no solutions X is closed under subtraction

11 a 16 n(mod 8) = n(mod 8) X is closed under composition

b

n

8 if n is even 6 1 1 i i

2

1 1 1 i i

| n 7| if n is odd

n 1 1 1 i i

c 8 if n is even

2 i i i 1 1

17 n if n is odd i i i 1 1

n

d (m o d 8 ) if n is even

2 7 + is closed under

1 n(mod 8) if n is odd

e | n(mod 8) 8| 8 1 2 3 1 2 3

n 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2

f if n is even

2 2 3 4 5 2 1 1 2

| 9 n| if n is odd

3 5 7 9 3 2 2 4

Not closed Not closed

Answers 1 59

9 Not closed under addition Identity e = 0

Closed under multiplication Inverse of 0 is 0

10 a S S = {(1, 1), (1, 2), (2, 1), (2, 2)} Inverse of 1 is 3

b 1 2 Inverse of 2 is 2

Inverse of 3 is 1

1 3 6 Not closed

4 a 2 4 6 8

2 6 12

2 4 8 2 6

c (1, 1 ) (1, 2 ) ( 2, 1 ) ( 2, 2 ) 4 8 6 4 2

(1, 1 ) (3, 3 ) (3, 6 ) ( 6, 3 ) ( 6, 6 ) 6 2 4 6 8

(1, 2 ) (3, 6 ) (3,, 1 2 ) ( 6, 6 ) ( 6, 1 2 ) 8 6 2 8 4

( 2, 1 ) ( 6, 3 ) ( 6, 6 ) (1 2, 3 ) (1 2, 6 ) Identity e = 6

( 2, 2 ) ( 6, 6 ) ( 6, 1 2)) (1 2, 6 ) (1 2, 1 2 ) Inverse of 6 is 6

Inverse of 2 is 8

Exercise E

Inverse of 4 is 4

1 a not commutative not associative

Inverse of 8 is 2

b commutative not associative

b Identity e = 2

c not commutative not associative

Inverse a 1 = 4

3 f1 f2 f3 f4 a

f1 f1 f2 f3 f4 c There is no identity.

f2 f2 f1 f4 f3

6 b a

f3 f3 f4 f1 f2

f4 f4 f3 f2 f1 Review Exercise

From Cayley table we can see that S is closed 3 Bijection

because every element in Cayley table is in S.

f 1 ( x , y ) =

x

, arcsin y

Composition of functions is commutative

(1 y ) 2

because the main diagonal of the Cayley table is

a line of symmetry. 4 Identity e = (1, 0)

4 a not commutative b not associative. 6 a Not injective and not surjective.

b The function f becomes invertible when

Exercise F

the domain is restricted to [0, ) and the

1 commutative associative e= 0 co-domain to [ 1 , 19

].

2 commutative associative e = (1, 1) 2 6

3 commutative associative e = (0, 0) ln( x 1 )

6

4 not commutative associative e = (1, 0) f 1 ( x ) = arccos

ln 3

5 commutative associative no identity

Exercise G 7 a i commutative

1 b Identity = 1 ii associative

c Inverse a1 = a 2 b Identity e = 0

2 c Identity = 1 8 a Range 1 + 12 , 1 + e 2

a bi e

d Inverse ( a + bi ) 1

= 2 2

a +b b i Not injective since f (x) = f (x + 2n), n .

3 * 0 1 2 3 ii Not surjective since the range of f (x)

0 0 1 2 3 e.g. there is no x such that f (x) = 10.

1 1 2 3 0

k = , A = 1 + 2 , 1 + e 2

1

c i

2 2 3 0 1 e

3 3 0 1 2 ii g 1 ( x ) = arccos ln x 1 ( )

The main diagonal is a line of symmetry, so the

iii x 1 + 2 , 1 + e 2

1

operation is commutative. e

160 Answers

Chapter 3 4 {Z 5, + 5} :

Skills check +5 0 2 3 4

2 1 x

1 a f ( g ( x )) = ln( x + 1 ) b f ( g ( x )) = e 1 0 0 2 3 4

c g ( f ( x )) = [ln( x + 1 )]

2

d 1 1

f ( g ( x )) = e

x

1 2 3 4 0

2 2 3 4 0

2 a The binary operation on the given set is

closed. No other properties hold. 3 3 4 0 2

closed and commutative. {Z 5 \ {0} , 5} :

c The binary operation on the given set is

closed and commutative. 5 2 3 4

2 3 4

Exercise A

2 2 4 3

3 a not a group

b not a group 3 3 4 2

c is a group 4 4 3 2

d is a group

a x= 4 b x= 4 c x= 3

5

4 c d x= 1 e x= 2

3

10 2 4 6 8

c not Abelian

2 4 8 2 6

Exercise B 4 8 6 4 2

1 a 6 2 4 6 8

e x y z

e e x y z 8 6 2 8 4

1 1

y y z e x 6 1; (1 + i 3 ); (1 i 3 )

2 2

z z e x y 7 a R = refection in the median

I = R2

b i y ii e

2 a i e ii e I R

I I R

iii b iv c

R R I

b The identity element is a.

c right inverses b Symmetries o the Rectangle

I: Identity Transormation

x a b c d e X: Refection in the x-axis

x

a d b c e Y: Refection in the y-axis

H: Rotation o 180 degrees about its center.

let inverses

x a b c d e I X Y H

x a c d b e I I X Y H

is not associative. Y Y H I X

H H Y X I

Answers 1 61

c Symmetries o a cuboid 2 a

a 2 4 7 8 3 4

I: Identity transormation

X: Refection in the y-z plane a 8 4 3 2 7 4

Y: refection in the x-z plane order 4 2 4 4 2 4 2

Z: refection in the x-y plane

H1: rotation o 180 degrees about x-axis b a = 4; b = 8

H2: rotation o 180 degrees about y-axis c {1, 4, 7, 13} or {1, 4, 11, 14}

H3 : rotation o 180 degrees about z-axis Exercise 3E

C: central inversion

4 a 20; (0, 1) b (1, 1); (1, 2)

I X Y Z H H2 H3 C c 4 elements have order 4: (0, 1); (0, 3);

I I X Y Z H H2 H3 C (1, 1); (1, 3)

X X I H3 H2 C Z Y H Review exercise

7

1 a 1 b x=

Y Y H3 I H Z C X H2 4

Z Z H2 H I Y X C H3 3 a x = a1cb1 b x = b1a

1

5 a f4 ( x ) = 1 ; f5 ( x ) = 1 ; f6 ( x ) = x

H H C Z Y I H3 H2 X x x 1 x 1

H2 H2 Z C X H3 I H Y b Let f1 = 1; f2 = 2; etc.

H3 H3 Y X C H2 H I Z 2 3 4 5 6

C C H H2 H3 X Y Z I 2 3 4 5 6

2 2 4 3 6 5

9

+2 (0, 0) (0, ) ( , 0) ( , ) 3 3 5 6 2 4

(0, 0) (0, 0) (0, ) ( , 0) ( , ) 4 4 6 2 5 3

(0, ) (0, ) (0, 0) ( , ) ( , 0) 5 5 3 6 4 2

( , 0) ( , 0) ( , ) (0, 0) (0, ) 6 6 4 5 2 3

( , ) ( , ) ( , 0) (0, ) (0, 0)

c

f 2 3 4 5 6

{Z 2 Z 2, + 2} does orm a group. order 2 2 3 3 2

3 b x 3

7 a order = 3; order = 12; order = 4

Exercise D b 1, 5, 7 and 11

8 b The operation # is closed, associative

1 a {, A} ; {, B} ; {, C}

and has an identity e = 1. Not all elements

b {p, r}

have inverses.

c Symmetries o the Rectangle

10 Order o the group is 6.

I: identity Transormation

Subgroups: {e} , {e, a, a2} ; {e, b} ; {e, ab} ;

X: Refection in the x-axis

{e, a2b} ; {e, a, a2, b, ab, a2b}

Y: Refection in the y-axis

H: Rotation o 180 degrees about its center. 11 Many answers possible, such as:

e a b c d f

I X Y Z

e e a b c d f

I I X Y Z

a a e c d f b

X X I H Y

b b c e f a d

Y Y H I X

c c d f e b a

Z H Y X I

d d f a b e c

Subgroups: {I, X} ; {I, Y } ; {I, H}

d {8, 10} ; {4, 10, 16} f f b d a c e

e {0, 3} ; {0, 2, 4} The Latin Square is not associative.

162 Answers

Chapter 4 b

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Skills check 2 1 4 5 3 7 6

1 a

R partitions Z into two sets: even integers and 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

odd integers. c

1 4 7 5 2 6 8 3

b Each ordered pair (a, b) Z Z belongs to

an equivalence class consisting of all ordered 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

d

pairs with integer coordinates lying on a 1 2 4 5 7 8 3 9 6

vertical line passing through (a, b).

c The partition of S induced by R is {{1, 5, 9} , 3 a (163)(24)

{2, 6, 10} ,{3, 7} ,{4, 8} } b (1236)(45)

3 a not bijective c (1632)(45)

d (1632)(45)

1 2 a + b a 2b

b f (a, b ) = , Exercise C

5 5

2 a Left cosets: 4Z; 1 + 4Z; 2 + 4Z; 3 + 4Z

Exercise A

Right cosets are the same as the left cosets.

2 3

b Left cosets: 4Z; 2 + 4Z

1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3

3 , , . Right cosets are the same as the left cosets.

1 2 3 2 3 1 3 1 2

c H = {0, 4, 8}

1 2 3 1 2 3 Left cosets: H; 1 + H = {1, 5, 9} ;

Both and are generators.

2 3 1 3 1 2 2 + H = {2, 6, 10} ; 3 + H = {3, 7, 11}

Right cosets are the same as left cosets.

1 2 3 4 5

4 a i = 3 d

4 1 2 5

xG Left coset xH Right coset Hx

1 2 3 4 5

ii = ( ) {( ), ( 2)} {( ), ( 2)}

1 4 5 2 3

( 3) {( 3), ( 23)} {( 3), ( 32)}

1 2 3 4 5

iii 2

= (23) {(23), ( 32)} {(23), ( 23)}

4 1 5 3 2

3 a H = {(0, 0), (1, 0)} ; Z 2 x Z 3 = {(0, 0), (1, 0),

1 2 3 4 5

iv 1 = 2 (0, 1), (1, 1), (0, 2), (1, 2)}

4 3 1 5 b Left cosets: H = {(0, 0), (1, 0)} ;

1 2 3 4 5 (0, 1) + H = {(0, 1), (1, 1)} ;

v ( ) 1 = (0, 2) + H = {(0,2), (1,2)} .

4 1 3 2 5

Right cosets are the same as the left cosets.

1 2 3 4 5 Left and right cosets are equal: Z 2 {0} ;

vi 1 = 5

4 2 1 3 Z 2 {1} ; Z 2 {2}

1 2 3 4 5 Exercise D

b i x =

5 2 3 1 4 a i { , } ii { }

1 2 3 4 5 Exercise E

ii x =

4 1 2 5 3 1 a and d; b and c

Exercise B 5 a Let p1 = 1; p2 = 2; p3 = 3; p4 = 4

1 a x = (1645)(23); y = (13)(24)(5678);

1 2 3 4

z = (23)(45)(67)

1 1 2 3 4

b x 1 = (1546)(23); y 1 = (13)(24)(5876);

z 1 = (23)(45)(67) 2 2 1 4 3

c order = 4; order = 4; order = 2 3 3 4 1 2

1 2 3 4 5 6 4 4 3 2 1

2 a

2 3 1 6 5 4 c The groups are not isomorphic.

Answers 1 63

Review exercise 10 (124)(35)

2 a {0, 1, 2, , n 1} ; 1 is a generator. 12 H = {(1), (12)} and g (13), for example.

b {1, , 2, , n1} ; is a generator. {1 } if n is o dd

13 b ker( fn ) =

6 right cosets: {e, (12)} ; {(13), (132)} ; {(23), (123)} {1, 1 } if n is even

left cosets: {e, (12)} ; {(13), (123)} ; {(23), (132)} c fn is an isomorphism when n is odd.

7 [x] = {x, x1} 14 ker( f ) only contains the zero polynomial.

164 Answers

Index

Abel, Niels Henrik 88, 89 cyclic subgroups 117, 123 identity element e 789, 85

Abelian groups 89, 121 defnition 115, 117 identity unctions 56, 702, 85

associative law 17, 45 Theorem 10 118 injective unctions 50, 84

associativity 76, 85, 143 Theorem 6 116 inverse unctions 615

Theorem 7 11617 inverse o an element 7981,

B Theorem 8 117 85

bijection 52, 127, 154 Theorem 9 117 onto unctions 51

binary operations 725, 85 properties o binary

D operations 767

defnition 73

properties o binary De Morgans Laws 16, 20 properties o unctions 669

operations 767 associative law 20 surjective unctions 51, 84

Bourbaki, Nicolas 47 distributive law 20

G

Dedekind, Richard 47

C Descartes, Ren 21 Galois, Evariste 88, 89

cancellation laws 81, 1058, 122 disjoint sets 7, 15, 44 generators 115

Theorem 10 812 distributivity 76 Global Positioning Systems

Cantor, Georg 3, 4, 47 domains 48, 84 (GPS) 22

cardinality 4, 44 Gdel, Kurt 3

Cartesian plane 21, 22 E group structures 126

Cartesian product o two sets elements 48 Group Theory 8889

2122, 45 inverse o an element 7981, 85 groups 8990, 121

defnition 22 empty set 4, 44 Abelian groups 89, 121

Cauchy, Augustin-Louis 47, 126 epimorphism 142 Cayley tables 97

Cayley tables 73, 97, 1447 equal sets 512 cyclic groups 11419, 122

Cayley, Arthur 73, 97 axiom 6 fnite groups 947, 122

chemistry 104 defnitions 6 generators 115

classifcation o groups 1245, 153 equality o unctions 508 groups o integers modulo n

cosets and Lagranges defnition 50, 51, 52 98100, 121

theorem 1359, 154 Theorem 1 557 infnite groups 904

group structures 126 equivalence classes 3242, 45 investigation 92

homomorphisms 13944, 1545 defnition 33 Latin Square 96, 97, 121

isomorphisms 14452, 155 Theorem 6 35 order 94, 112, 121, 122

permutation groups 12630 equivalence relations 2527, 45 right and let cancellation

permutations and cycle defnition 25 laws 81, 85, 1058, 122

orm 1302, 154 Euler diagrams 14 subgroups 10813

properties o cycle orm 1324 Euler, Leonhard 14, 47 symmetry groups 1005, 121

co-domains 48, 84 Theorem 1 1067

Cohen, Paul 3 F Theorem 4 11213

commutativity 76, 80, 85 fnite groups 947, 122 Theorem 5 113

complement sets 7, 15, 44 defnition 94

composition o unctions 5961, 85 fnite order 112, 122 H

Theorem 2 59 fnite sets 9 Hilbert, David 3

Continuum Hypothesis 3 unction 46, 834 Hilbert Hotel 4

contrapositive statements 50 bijective unctions 52 homomorphisms 13942, 1545

cosets 1359, 154 binary operations 725, 85 defnitions 139, 143

defnition 135 cancellation laws 813 injective homomorphisms

Theorem 2: properties o composition o unctions 5961, 142

cosets 136, 154 85 kernel o a homomorphism

cycle orm 1302 equality o unctions 508 1424, 155

length o a cycle 132 evolution o the unction surjective homomorphisms

properties o cycle orm 1324 concept 47 142

Index 1 65

homomorphisms (continued) N set theory 2, 424, 47

Theorem 4: properties o Noether, Emily 89, 126 Cartesian product o two

homomorphisms 141, 154 sets 2122

Theorem 5 142, 155 O equivalence classes and

Theorem 6 143, 155 partitions 3242, 45

onto unctions 51

trivial homomorphisms 141 language o sets 34

order 94, 112, 121, 122

partitions 1214

I

P power set P(S) 9

identity element e 789, 85 relations 2332

denition 78 partitions 1214, 3242, 45

Russells Paradox 11

Theorem 8 78 denition 12

set denitions and operations

identity unctions 56, 702, 85 permutation groups 12630

45

denition 70 denitions 127, 129

set properties 1621

Theorem 6 70 identity permutation 129

Venn diagrams 1416

Theorem 7 70 permutations and cycle

well-dened sets, equal sets and

improper subgroups 110, 121 orm 1304, 154

set diference 512

innite groups 904, 122 symmetric groups 129

subgroups 10813, 121

innite order 112 Theorem 1 129, 154

cyclic subgroups 117, 123

injective unctions 50, 84 power set P(S) 9

denition 108, 110

injective homomorphisms 142 proper subgroups 110, 121

improper subgroups 110, 121

integers modulo n 98100, 121 properties o binary

proper subgroups 110, 121

intersection o two sets 7, 44 operations 767

Theorem 2 109, 122

inverse unctions 615 denitions 76

Theorem 3 111

denition 61 properties o unctions 669

trivial subgroups 110, 121

Theorem 3 612 investigation 67

surjective unctions 51, 84

inverse o an element 7981, 85 properties o composite

surjective homomorphisms

denition 79 unctions 68

142

Theorem 9 80 Theorem 4 66

symmetric diference 7, 15, 44

inverse relations 23 Theorem 5 67

symmetric groups 129, 154

Islamic art 87 R symmetric relations 25

isometries 103 symmetry groups 1005, 121

range 48, 84

isomorphisms 14452, 155

reexive relations 25 T

denition 147

relations 2324

Theorem 7 151, 155 transitive relations 25

denition 23

trivial homomorphisms 141

K equivalence relations 2527,

trivial subgroups 110, 121

Klein bottle 147 45

Klein-4 group 147 unctions as relations 4850 U

Klein, Felix 147 inverse relations 23 union o two sets 7, 44

modular congruence 2731, 45 universal set 7

L reexive relations 25 universal theory o everything

Lagrange, Louis 126 symmetric relations 25 8687, 11920

Lagranges Corollary 118 transitive relations 25 cyclic groups 11419

Lagranges theorem 135, 138, 154 right cancellation law 81, 85, Group Theory 8889

theorem 3 138 1058, 122 groups 89105

Latin Square 96, 97, 121 right cosets 135, 154 properties and theorems o

let cancellation law 81, 85, 1058, Russell, Bertrand 11 groups and subgroups

122 Russells Paradox 11 105114

let cosets 135, 154

S V

Leibniz, Gottried Wilhelm 47

set diference 512, 15, 44 Venn diagrams 1416

M denitions 7 Venn, John 14

modular arithmetic 98, 121 set properties 1621

modular congruence 2731, 45 Theorem 1 17 W

denition 29 Theorem 2 17 well-dened sets 512

Theorem 5 2930 Theorem 3 1718 denitions 5

monomorphisms 142 Theorem 4 1819 Weyl, Hermann 88

166 Index

MATHEMATICS HIGHER LEVEL :

SETS, RELATIONS AND GROUPS

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