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CHAPTER 1

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Introduction

The purpose of this project is to introduce the reason of the project had been
upgrading. Also, we have included a project background of how the project, problem
statement, objective of the project and the scope and limitation.

1.2 Project Background

Milling is the machining process of using rotary cutters to remove material from a
workpiece feeding in a direction at an angle with the axis of the tool. It covers a wide
variety of different operations and machines, on scales from small individual parts to
large, heavy-duty gang milling operations. It is one of the most commonly used
processes in industry and machine shops today for machining parts to precise sizes and
shapes. Milling can be done with a wide range of machine tools. The original class of
machine tools for milling was the milling machine. After the advent of computer
numerical control (CNC), milling machines evolved into automatic tool changers, tool
magazines, NC Control and coolant system.

This project highlights the upgrading from Mini CNC Milling Machine. Our project.
This machine has 3 axes motions of X, Y and Z axes. The size is much smaller than the
standard CNC machine yet it functions the same as the ordinary with some limitations of
the machining capabilities and user friendly machine which can be used in the
classroom, student can follow the manual book. The working area of x-axes 240mm, y-
axes 390mm and z-axis 150mm by using stepper motor for each axis and its body is
made from aluminium bar. This machine uses Mach3 software which works well on
Windows PC’s to control the motion of motors (stepper & servo) by processing the
provided M and G Code. Also, perform precise cutting on soft material such as nylon
and aluminium.
The method of operation by starting with create the CNC machines program
using the system Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) and transfer the code turns to
program. The beginning of the operation, products will be creating in a computer using
CAD. Then, the completed drawing it will be translated by CAM system to program the
numerical code system (NC) for machining process. Numerical code instruction can be
copied to a floppy disk or sent directly via cable (RS232 interface) to the memory unit
CNC machine control. Robert Quesada,2005 stated CNC technology has evolved to
include “conversational programing,” which is are that allows the CNC operator to
create CNC programs at the machine. This project was added by tyre to make it easy to
move.

1.3 Problem Statement

CNC Milling Machine is the machine that last semester done for Final Year Project and some
part should be upgrade to become more functional.

1. Tyre to make it easy to move.

2. Replace the communication port to USB port so that the base profile can cut into half

3. For safety add up a body cover, door and safety shield to make it more tidy.

1.4 Project Objective

The objective of this project is to upgrade the existing Mini CNC Milling Machine project
by:

1. Reduce the size of the machine by half.

2. Replace Communication Port with USB Port.

3. Adding Pendant Controller and limit switch.

4. Adding a drawer to collect chips.

5. Adding body cover , door and safety shield

6. Replace new working table.


1.5 Project Scope and Limitation

The scope of this project is:

1. Designing CNC Milling Machine to operate for simple shape.

2. Machining soft material only such as nylon and aluminium.

3. The maximum size of work pieces is A4 size or 240mmx390mmx150mm.