You are on page 1of 19

List of Charts and Correlations for Design

of Heat Exchanger (MTTH201)


LMTD Correction Factor Charts: Shell and Tube Hex
1. 1 shell pass, 2 or multiple of 2 tube-passes

2. 2 shell passes, 4 or multiple of 4 tube-passes


3. 3 2-shell passes, 6 or higher even tube-passes

4. Divided-flow-shell type hex, 1-divided shell pass, even number of tube-passes


5. Split-flow shell type hex, 1 split-flow shell and 2 tube passes

LMTD Correction Factor Charts: Cross-Flow Hex


1. Both Fluids unmixed
2. One fluid mixed and one unmixed

𝜀 − 𝑁𝑇𝑈 expressions for different Hex


𝜀 − 𝑁𝑇𝑈 Charts for different Hex
Heat Transfer Correlations
Hydrodynamically developed Thermally developing Laminar Flows
Constant Wall Temperature
Gnielinski’s correlation given by,

𝑃𝑒𝑏 = Peclet Number = ሺ𝑅𝑒 ∙ 𝑃𝑟ሻ𝑏


Hausen’s correlation given by

𝑃𝑒𝑏 𝑑
Both are valid in the range of 0.1 < < 104
𝐿

Constant Wall Flux


𝑃𝑒𝑏 𝑑 1/3 𝑃𝑒𝑏 𝑑
1.953 (
𝐿
) ,(
𝐿
) > 102
Nusselt Graetz correlation 𝑁𝑢 = {
𝑃𝑒𝑏 𝑑
4.36, < 10
𝐿

Simultaneously hydrodynamically and Thermally developing Laminar Flows


Constant Wall Temperature
Pohlhausen ’s correlation given by

𝑃𝑒𝑏 𝑑
Range of validity: 0.5 < 𝑃𝑟𝑏 < 500 and > 103
𝐿

For effect of Wall Temperature on properties


Sieder-Tate correlation given by

Range: 0.48 < 𝑃𝑟𝑏 < 16700 and 0.0044 < ሺ𝜇𝑏 Τ𝜇𝑤 ሻ < 9.75.
Laminar Flow through Concentric Annular Smooth ducts

Constant Wall Temperature


Stephan ’s correlation given by,

Correlations for Turbulent forced convection with constant Properties


Correlations for Turbulent forced convection with Variable Properties (gases)
Tube Bundle Correlations
𝑐𝑛 = correction factor for number of tube rows

Correlations for Helical Hex


Laminar Flow with constant properties
Manlapaz–Churchill correlation given by,
Constant wall temperature

Constant Heat Flux


Fully developed Turbulent Flow with constant wall Temperature
Schmidt Correlation

2 × 104 < 𝑅𝑒 < 1.5 × 105 5 < 𝑅/ < 84


5 < 𝑅/ < 84
Mikheev Correlation for Temperature dependent properties

𝑓𝑜𝑟 1.5 × 103 < 𝑅𝑒 < 2 × 104


Pratt Correlation for low Re

1.5 × 103 < 𝑅𝑒 < 2 × 104


Correlations for Spiral Hex
Laminar flow with constant wall Temperature

80 < 𝑅𝑒 < 6000 20 < 𝑃𝑟 < 100


𝑃
𝐺𝑧 = × 𝑅𝑒𝑃𝑟 = 𝐺𝑟 𝑒𝑡𝑧 𝑁𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟
4𝑥
Correlations for Bends
Turbulent air cooling with constant wall Temperature in a 90° bend, Tailby and
Stadon proposed

Turbulent heated flows with constant wall temperature, in a 180° bend,


Mashfeghian and Bell proposed
Pressure Drop Correlations
Laminar Flows in Circular ducts, the friction factor can be calculated using
16
𝑓=
𝑅𝑒
Turbulent Flows in Smooth Circular ducts, the friction factor can be calculated
using

Moody’s Chart
Laminar flows in a thin annulus, however, the friction factor is obtained from the
flow between parallel plates as
24
f=
𝑅𝑒
Friction Factor Correlations for Shell and tube Hex
The total pressure drop for all the tubes

𝐺 = 𝜌𝑢𝑚 = 𝑀 𝑠𝑠 𝑉𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑁𝑝 = 𝑁𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑡𝑢𝑏𝑒 𝑝 𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑠

Additional pressure drop due to returns at the end of the hex

Pressure Drop in Tube Bundles in Crossflow

Pressure Drop in In-line Tube Bundles in Crossflow


Pressure Drop in Staggered Tube Bundles in Crossflow

For non-isothermal flows

For 𝑅𝑒 > 103 , 𝑝 ≈ 0, For 𝑅𝑒 < 103


𝑝 = −0.0018𝑅𝑒 + 0.28 for Liquid Heating
𝑝 = −0.0026𝑅𝑒 + 0.43 for Liquid Cooling
Helical Coils: Laminar Flow
Srinivasan et al. (7<R/a<104)

1, 𝐷𝑒 < 30
𝑓𝑐 0.275
= {0.419𝐷𝑒 , 30 < 𝐷𝑒 < 300
𝑓𝑠
0.1125𝐷𝑒 0.5 , 𝐷𝑒 > 300
Manlapaz and Churchill (R/a<7)
2, 𝐷𝑒 < 20
𝑚 = {1, 20 < 𝐷𝑒 < 40
0, 𝐷𝑒 > 40
Kubair and Kuloor, for varying properties

Helical Coils: Turbulent Flow


Ito Correlation

𝑅 −2
𝑓𝑜𝑟 0.034 < 𝑅𝑒 ( ) < 300
𝑎

Srinivasan et al. Correlation

𝑅 −2 𝑅
𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑅𝑒 ( ) < 700 and 7 < ( ) < 104
𝑎 𝑎

Temperature dependent properties, Roger and Mathews

Spiral Coils: Laminar Flow


Srinivasan et al. correlation

𝑛1 = Number of turns from the origin to the start of the spiral


𝑛2 = Number of turns from the origin to the end of the spiral
Spiral Coils: Turbulent flows
Srinivasan et al. and Kubair and Kuloor Correlations

Pressure Drop in Fittings


Acceleration Pressure drop