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LMTD Correction Factor Charts: Shell and Tube Hex

1. 1 shell pass, 2 or multiple of 2 tube-passes

3. 3 2-shell passes, 6 or higher even tube-passes

5. Split-flow shell type hex, 1 split-flow shell and 2 tube passes

1. Both Fluids unmixed

2. One fluid mixed and one unmixed

𝜀 − 𝑁𝑇𝑈 Charts for different Hex

Heat Transfer Correlations

Hydrodynamically developed Thermally developing Laminar Flows

Constant Wall Temperature

Gnielinski’s correlation given by,

Hausen’s correlation given by

𝑃𝑒𝑏 𝑑

Both are valid in the range of 0.1 < < 104

𝐿

𝑃𝑒𝑏 𝑑 1/3 𝑃𝑒𝑏 𝑑

1.953 (

𝐿

) ,(

𝐿

) > 102

Nusselt Graetz correlation 𝑁𝑢 = {

𝑃𝑒𝑏 𝑑

4.36, < 10

𝐿

Constant Wall Temperature

Pohlhausen ’s correlation given by

𝑃𝑒𝑏 𝑑

Range of validity: 0.5 < 𝑃𝑟𝑏 < 500 and > 103

𝐿

Sieder-Tate correlation given by

Range: 0.48 < 𝑃𝑟𝑏 < 16700 and 0.0044 < ሺ𝜇𝑏 Τ𝜇𝑤 ሻ < 9.75.

Laminar Flow through Concentric Annular Smooth ducts

Stephan ’s correlation given by,

Correlations for Turbulent forced convection with Variable Properties (gases)

Tube Bundle Correlations

𝑐𝑛 = correction factor for number of tube rows

Laminar Flow with constant properties

Manlapaz–Churchill correlation given by,

Constant wall temperature

Fully developed Turbulent Flow with constant wall Temperature

Schmidt Correlation

5 < 𝑅/ < 84

Mikheev Correlation for Temperature dependent properties

Pratt Correlation for low Re

Correlations for Spiral Hex

Laminar flow with constant wall Temperature

𝑃

𝐺𝑧 = × 𝑅𝑒𝑃𝑟 = 𝐺𝑟 𝑒𝑡𝑧 𝑁𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟

4𝑥

Correlations for Bends

Turbulent air cooling with constant wall Temperature in a 90° bend, Tailby and

Stadon proposed

Mashfeghian and Bell proposed

Pressure Drop Correlations

Laminar Flows in Circular ducts, the friction factor can be calculated using

16

𝑓=

𝑅𝑒

Turbulent Flows in Smooth Circular ducts, the friction factor can be calculated

using

Moody’s Chart

Laminar flows in a thin annulus, however, the friction factor is obtained from the

flow between parallel plates as

24

f=

𝑅𝑒

Friction Factor Correlations for Shell and tube Hex

The total pressure drop for all the tubes

Pressure Drop in Staggered Tube Bundles in Crossflow

𝑝 = −0.0018𝑅𝑒 + 0.28 for Liquid Heating

𝑝 = −0.0026𝑅𝑒 + 0.43 for Liquid Cooling

Helical Coils: Laminar Flow

Srinivasan et al. (7<R/a<104)

1, 𝐷𝑒 < 30

𝑓𝑐 0.275

= {0.419𝐷𝑒 , 30 < 𝐷𝑒 < 300

𝑓𝑠

0.1125𝐷𝑒 0.5 , 𝐷𝑒 > 300

Manlapaz and Churchill (R/a<7)

2, 𝐷𝑒 < 20

𝑚 = {1, 20 < 𝐷𝑒 < 40

0, 𝐷𝑒 > 40

Kubair and Kuloor, for varying properties

Ito Correlation

𝑅 −2

𝑓𝑜𝑟 0.034 < 𝑅𝑒 ( ) < 300

𝑎

𝑅 −2 𝑅

𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑅𝑒 ( ) < 700 and 7 < ( ) < 104

𝑎 𝑎

Srinivasan et al. correlation

𝑛2 = Number of turns from the origin to the end of the spiral

Spiral Coils: Turbulent flows

Srinivasan et al. and Kubair and Kuloor Correlations

Acceleration Pressure drop

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