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VISVESVARAYA TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY

Jnana Sangama, Belagavi

A Project Report on

“Investigation of Mechanical Properties of


Hybrid Particle Composite Material”

Submitted by

Prajwal D 1AY16ME414
Raghavendra V Bhat 1AY15ME081
Ravi P Mugabasav 1AY15ME085
Roger Roberts 1AY16ME417

Under the Guidance of

Prof. Pranesh K G
Assistant Professor

Mechanical Engineering Department

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ACHARYA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan Road, Soladevanhalli
Bengaluru-560107
2017-2018
ACHARYA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan Road, Soladevanahalli
Bengaluru 560 107
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING.

CERTIFICATE
Certified that the project work entitled Investigation of Mechanical Properties of Hybrid
Particle Composite Material carried out by-
Prajwal D 1AY16ME414, Raghavendra V Bhat 1AY15ME081, Ravi P M 1AY15ME085 and
Roger Roberts 1AY16ME417 are bonafide student of Acharya Institute of Technology in
partial fulfillment for the award of Bachelor of Engineering in Mechanical Engineering of the
Visvesvaraya Technological University, Belagavi during the year 2018-19. It is certified that
all corrections/suggestions indicated for Internal Assessment have been incorporated in the report
deposited in the departmental library.
The project report has been approved as it satisfies the academic requirements in respect
of Project work prescribed for the said Degree.

GUIDE HOD PRINCIPAL

Dr. Prakash S Dabeer

External viva

Name of the Examiners Signature with date

2
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I am grateful to the sanctum of “Acharya Institute of Technology”, the temple of learning,

for providing an excellent platform to pursue our project work in good spirit. I would like to

sincerely thank our President Mr. B.M. Reddy for encouraging us.

I would like to express our gratitude to our honorable chairman Mr. B. Premnath Reddy,

Acharya Institutes for all his initiatives and for providing us a congenial atmosphere for study. I

would like to thank our beloved Principal Dr. Prakash M R, in particular for the excellent facilities

provided in the college.

My deep and profound gratitude to Dr. Prakash S Dabeer, our beloved Head, Department of

Mechanical Engineering. I am thankful to him for the constant moral support and encouragement

extended during the study of this seminar topic.

My heartfelt thanks to, Prof. Pranesh K G, Asst Professor, Department of Mechanical

Engineering, for his invaluable guidance and inspirational encouragement and constructive

suggestions for the betterment of the work.

I thank all the teaching and non teaching staff of our Department of Mechanical

Engineering for their constant support. I am thankful to my beloved parents who have motivated and

installed confidence in me.

Finally, I am thankful to all those that have helped me directly and indirectly during this work.

Project group

Prajwal D 1AY16ME414
Raghavendra V Bhat 1AY15ME081
Ravi P M 1AY15ME085
Roger Roberts 1AY16ME417
List of Figures

Fig 2.1 @@@@@@@@@@@ 3


Fig 2.2 ############## 4
Fig 2.3 5
Fig 2.4 5
Fig 2.5 6
Fig 2.6 7
Fig 3.1. 12
Fig 3.2 13
Fig 3.3 13
Fig 3.4 13
Fig 3.5 15
Fig 3.6 16
Fig 3.7 18
Fig 3.8 19
Fig 3.9 19
Fig 4.1 23

List of Tables
Table 1 ******** 20
Table 2 ******** 26

ABSTRACT
At present, composite materials have greater demand due to their higher

strength to weight ratio. So this project work is focused on introducing a new

hybrid particle composite material which comprises of Epoxy, Kevlar, Carbon and

SiO2 nano particles as its constituent materials. Kevlar and Carbon are used as the

reinforcing material because of their low weight and higher strength. Epoxy as

matrix and SiO2 as strengthening material. This particulate composite material is

prepared by compression molding. The volume percentages are varied and the best

output will be obtained. To determine its mechanical properties axial, bending,

fatigue, impact, wear, hardness and joint tests are conducted.

DECLARATION
We the students of final semester Mechanical Engineering, Acharya Institute of

Technology, Soladevanahalli Bengaluru -560107 declare that Phase-I of project

entitled Investigation of mechanical properties of Hybrid Particle Composite

Material has been successfully completed under the guidance of Prof. Pranesh K G

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Acharya Institute of Technology,

Bengaluru. This dissertation work is submitted to Visvesvaraya technological

University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Degree of

Bachelor of engineering In Mechanical Engineering during the academic year

2017-2018. Further the matter embodied in the project report has not been

submitted previously by anybody for the award of any degree or diploma to any

university

Place: BENGALURU

Date: 27/11/2018 Project Group

Prajwal D 1AY16ME414
Raghavendra V Bhat 1AY15ME081
Ravi P M 1AY15ME085
Roger Roberts 1AY16ME417

INTRODUCTION
Composite Material: Composites are the materials made from two or more
constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties
that, when combined, produce a material with characteristics different from the
individual components. The individual components remain separate and distinct
within the finished structure. Basically, composites are made of two constituents,
one called reinforcement, and the other called matrix. Reinforcements like fibers,
flakes, particles etc. are the strength bearing members, while the matrix like resins,
cement, metal, etc. are the bonding or holding materials and also they give
protection and support for the reinforcement. Naturally occurred composites are
wood (lignin + cellulose), bones and teeth (calcium + collagen protein) and
artificially prepared composites are Concrete (steel + cement, jelly), aluminum
reinforced with carbides etc. Based on the types of matrix composites are classified
as Polymer Matrix Composites, Metal Matrix Composites, and Ceramic Matrix
Composites and Carbon- Carbon composites. Based on the geometry of
reinforcement they are classified as Particulate, Flake, Filled and Fiber Composites.
Hybrid Composites are obtained by combining two or more kinds of fibers. They
are used for better properties like strength, stiffness and damage tolerances.
Composites can be prepared by many methods, hand lay-up, spray up method,
pultrusion process, thermo forming, blow molding, squeeze casting etc. Selection of
matrix and reinforcement for composites depends on the application.

Why Composites? Composite materials have greater demand today because of


many reasons. The main reason is high strength to the weight ratio. Along with that
they have resistance to corrosion and other working environment. They can be
fabricated to achieve directional properties, can moulded to complex shapes.
Composites have high damage tolerance and fatigue life. Nowadays composites
finds its application in fields such as automotive bodies, bullet proof windows,
window shutters, rockets, space shuttles aerospace parts due to their low weight and
higher strength. Also they finds application in medical fields such as manufacture of
dentures, artificial limbs, heart valves etc. Due to its tremendous properties,
composites have successfully replaced conventional materials such as iron, steel
and metals. Now most of the manufacturing sectors are using composite materials
and design engineers are recommending these composites for the better
performance.

So our project work is focused on introducing a new hybrid particle composite


material which comprises of Epoxy, Kevlar, Carbon and SiO2 nano particles as its
constituent materials. Kevlar and Carbon are used as the reinforcing material
because of their low weight and higher strength. Epoxy as matrix and SiO 2 as
strengthening material. This particulate composite material is prepared by
compression molding.

Properties of constituent materials:


1. Kevlar:
Kevlar (poly paraphenylene terephthalamide) is a heat-resistant and strong synthetic
fiber. Developed by Stephanie Kwolek at DuPont in 1965 this high-strength
material was first commercially used in the early 1970s as a replacement for steel in
racing tires. Typically it is spun into ropes or fabric sheets that can be used as such
or as an Ingredient in composite material components.

Fig1. Molecular structure of Kevlar Fig 2. Kevlar

Kevlar is available in different grades such as K29, 49, 110, 119, 129, KP,
M2 etc. When Kevlar is spun, the resulting fiber has a tensile strength of about 3,620
MPa, and a relative density of 1.44. The polymer owes its high strength to the many
inter-chain bonds. These inter-molecular hydrogen bonds form between the
carbonyl groups and NH centers. Additional strength is derived from aromatic
stacking interactions between adjacent strands. These interactions have a greater
influence on Kevlar than the van der Waals interactions and chain length that
typically influence the properties of other synthetic polymers. Kevlar's structure
consists of relatively rigid molecules which tend to form mostly planar sheet-like
structures rather like silk Protein. Kevlar KM2 fabrics are widely used to produce
personnel protection systems because of their impact-resistant properties. To
understand the deformation process of a fabric armor system during impact, many
aspects of fabric, such as its material properties, fabric structure, projectile
geometry, impact velocity, multiple ply interaction, far field boundary conditions,
and friction, must be studied. In order to obtain accurate information about the
ability of Kevlar KM2 fabrics to resist ballistic impact, the behavior of their
constituent, single fiber needs to be examined first. Kevlar KM2 fibers exhibit a
strong anisotropy in their mechanical properties, which is caused by the highly
oriented chains of molecules. Because the mechanical properties have no significant
deviation among directions perpendicular to the fiber axis, the Kevlar KM2 fibers
are usually considered transversely isotropic, the same as many other high-
performance fibers. The Young’s modulus in the longitudinal direction fiber axis
direction is much higher than that in the transverse direction. Assuming Kevlar
KM2 fiber is elastic within infinitesimal strain range; there are five independent
elastic constants to describe its mechanical properties. If direction 3 is normal to the
plane of material isotropy the constitutional relationship of a Kevlar KM2 fiber in

terms of the five independent compliance.

Fig 3. Elastic modulus and stiffness matrix of single Kevlar fiber.


Where E is the young’s modulus, G is the shear modulus and mu is the poisons
ratio.
Experiments and Results
Three types of experiments—longitudinal tensile tests, transverse compressive
tests, and dynamic tests—were completed with different experimental techniques to
elicit the five material constants in the constitutive relationship of the transversely
isotropic Kevlar KM2 fiber. All the results reported in this paper are based on
specimens of single fiber. The specimens with a density of 1440 kg/m3. The
diameter d of the Kevlar KM2 fiber is determined using a scanning electronic
microscope SEM and is 12 micro meter.
Longitudinal Tensile Experiments. Since the Kevlar KM2 fibers are intended for
high-rate impact applications, it is necessary to study the effect of loading rate on
the measured properties. The longitudinal behavior of a single fiber has been
studied at quasi-static loading rates in the past, and many test standards have been
develop for this purpose. In this study of the Kevlar KM2 fibers, quasi-static
longitudinal tensile tests were performed with the standard test method described in
ASTM D3379-75. The specimen for the quasi-static tests is 10 mm in gage length,
the two ends of which are glued on a cardboard with an araldite structural adhesive.
The cardboard is then connected to the testing machine and results are obtained.
Fig4. Tensile experimental results at a strain rate of 0.0127/s

Compressive behavior: The compressive behavior of the Kevlar KM2 fiber can be
approximately considered linear elastic in its transverse direction at an infinitesimal
deformation range as other high-performance fibers, such as polyethylene
terephthalate and nylon. In order to estimate the transverse Young’s modulus of the
Kevlar KM2 fibers from experimental results within small deformation range, a
relation is derived between compressive load and deflection based on a classical
stress-field solution to this plane strain problem and the transversely isotropic
constitutive relations for the fiber. In terms of nominal stress and nominal strain,
this relation is expressed as follows.

Fig5. Equation and results for


specimen under compression test.
The compressive behavior of the Kevlar KM2 fiber may be approximately
considered linear elastic in its transverse direction at an infinitesimal deformation
range. However, the overall behavior in a large deformation range is obviously
nonlinear and non-elastic. The nonlinear experimental results in Figure could result
from either structural nonlinearity or material nonlinearity. In FEA, the material
properties were assumed linear and constant. In a large strain range, the FEA results
deviate from experimental results. This deviation is therefore caused by the material
nonlinearity.
Dynamic Experiment: In order to confirm that the effects of loading rates are
insignificant over a wider strain rate range, a dynamic experimental setup was built
up. The experimental technique is based on one-dimensional wave propagation
theory, has been widely employed to investigate mechanical behavior of materials
under dynamic high-rate loading. Figure is the schematic description of dynamic
experimental setup used to obtain the longitudinal behavior of a single Kevlar KM2
fiber. In this dynamic experimental setup, the incident stress pulse generation
method and the incident bar are the same as a conventional SHTB (split Hopkinson
tension bar). The incident bar is made of an aluminum alloy rod with a diameter of
6.35 mm. An impact tube is sped up toward a flange by energy released from a
spring system. The flange is connected to the end of the incident bar. Upon impact,
a longitudinal tensile stress pulse is generated at the impact end of the incident bar
and propagates toward the other end of the incident bar, where one end of a fiber
specimen is glued on with a proper adhesive. The gage length of the fiber specimen
ls is limited to within 2 mm to ensure a state of dynamic force equilibrium in the
fiber specimen during an experiment. The results of examination show that the
locations of specimen failure are random. This observation confirms the validity of
the mounting method and experimental results.

Fig 6. Experimental setup and


results of dynamic experiment.
From thus study results we can note that Kevlar fiber in spite of having lower
density, it is having higher strength due to which it finds its application in higher
strength applications. Hence they are used in military application, sports, personnel
equipment etc.

2. Carbon Fibers:
Carbon fiber is defined as a fiber containing at least 92 wt. % carbon. Carbon fibers
generally have excellent tensile properties, low densities, high thermal and
chemical stabilities in the absence of oxidizing agents, good thermal and electrical
conductivities, and excellent creep resistance. They have been extensively used in
composites in the form of woven textiles, prepregs, continuous fibers/rovings, and
chopped fibers. The composite parts can be produced through filament winding,
tape winding, pultrusion, compression molding, vacuum bagging, liquid molding,
and injection molding. In recent years, the carbon fiber industry has been growing
steadily to meet the demand from different industries such as aerospace (aircraft
and space systems), military, turbine blades, construction (non-structural and
structural systems), light weight cylinders and pressure vessels, drilling risers,
medical, automobile, sporting goods, etc. For the automotive industry, carbon fiber
reinforced polymeric composites offer reduced weight and superior styling. Carbon
fibers can find applications in body parts (doors, hoods, deck lids, front end,
bumpers, etc.), chassis and suspension systems (e.g., leaf springs), drive shafts and
so on.
Structures and Properties:

The atomic structure of a carbon fiber is similar to that of graphite, consisting of

carbon atom layers (graphene sheets) arranged in a regular hexagonal pattern, as


shown in Figure. Depending upon the precursors and manufacturing processes,
layer planes in carbon fibers may be either turbostratic, graphitic, or a hybrid
structure. In graphitic crystalline regions, the layer planes are stacked parallel to
one another in a regular fashion.

Fig 7. Structure of graphitic crystals and crystal directions.


The atoms in a plane are covalently bonded through sp2 bonding while the
interaction between the sheets is relatively weak Van der Waals forces. In a single
graphitic crystal, d-spacing between two graphene layers is about 0.335 nm. Elastic
constants of these single crystals have been calculated. C11 and C33 are 1,060 GPa
and 36.5 GPa, respectively, but C44 for shearing is as low as 4.5 GPa. However, the
basic structural unit of many carbon fibers consists of a stack of turbostratic layers.
In a turbostratic structure, the parallel graphene sheets are stacked irregularly or
haphazardly folded, tilted, or split. It has been reported that the irregular stacking
and the presence of sp3 bonding can increase d-spacing to 0.344 nm. Lc (crystallite
height) of at least 12 layer planes and La (crystallite width) of 6–12 nm. Both Lc
and La tend to increase with the heat treatment temperature.
Table 1. Mechanical properties of different types of carbon fiber

Type of fibers Tensile strength (GPa) Young modulus


(GPa)

High strength 3.3 – 6.9 200 – 250

Intermediate modulus 4.0 – 5.8 280 – 300

High modulus 3.8 – 4.5 350 – 600

Ultra high modulus 2.4 – 3.8 600 – 960

Properties:
High strength-to-weight ratio, Good rigidity, Resistant to corrosion, Conducts
electricity, Resistant to fatigue, Good tensile strength but brittle, Fire resistance/not
flammable, High thermal conductivity, Low coefficient of thermal expansion and
low abrasion, Non-poisonous, Biologically inert and permeable to X-rays Self-
lubricating, Excellent shielding against electromagnetic interference, etc.
The study reveals that carbon fibers have greater strength approximately equal to
that of steel and its weight is comparatively low. Hence use of this in the composite
materials can give the better results.

OBJECTIVES
The use of high performance composite materials has increased in a steady phase
during the past two decades, particularly in aerospace, underwater, automotive
structures and transportation systems because of their high specific strength (failure
strength /unit weight) and specific stiffness (stiffness/unit weight). Particulate
reinforced composites have the typical advantages of matrix composites such as
low weights, high strength, high vibration absorption capabilities, acoustic resistant,
rapid dampening, and high stiffness, resistance to chemical attacks, corrosion
resistance, parts integration, energy absorption, thermal resistance, and resistance to
environmental degradation. In addition composites are highly feasible for
automated and high volume processing with a potential for rapid and low-cost
fabrication. Research is underway and predictive models are being developed to
build understanding of and predictive capability to access the effects of flexural
properties, low-energy impacts, creep, fatigue, automotive fluids, extremities of
temperature, and the synergistic effects of environmental factors on materials.
Technologies are being pursued to develop design methodologies and materials use
philosophies that take advantage of the effects of their less durable properties.
Hence there is a greater demand for research and development of composites for
various applications.
Along with this the reasons behind the study of composites are as follows.
1. To study about the composite, material selection based on the different
application.
2. Selection of high performance, high strength, lightweight, matrix and fibers.
This materials selected for this project are Kevlar and carbon as the
reinforcement, epoxy as the matrix and silicon dioxide as the strengthening
material. Kevlar and Carbon are light in weight and they provide the high
strength.
3. To understand the manufacturing processes of reinforcement particles and
matrices for composites. Various manufacturing process of composites includes
compression molding, filament winding, hand lay-up, squeeze casting, etc.
4. To understand the concept of tailored design philosophy. This is one of the
interesting properties of the composites such that properties of the final product
can be varied according to the variations in orientation and arrangements of
each constituent materials.
5. To individual constituents in composites, the role of interface between the
components, the consequences of joining particles and matrix to form a unit, the
consequences of joining together these unit to form a macro composites Design
procedure with composites.
6. To understand and determine the various Mechanical properties of the
Particulate reinforced composites Fabrication of composite specimen under
controlled conditions.
7. To carry out the various tests such as tensile, bending, impact, fatigue, wear and
joint tests of composite specimen as per ASTM standards.
8. To extend a knowledge of applications and selection of different composites.
The study of composites gives its application in different fields. Replacement of
conventional materials with the composites have taken over last two decades.
This has significantly changed the manufacturing sector. Design engineers are
recommending these materials as they are promising materials for the particular
application nowadays because of their ability to change the properties.
METHODOLOGY
Fig 8 Flow chart of preparation of composite material.
Research and development of present status in the field of
composite materials.

Literature survey and selection of materials depending on the


output required

Preparation of composite by compression molding

Varying volume percentage of different constituents

Conduction of various tests according to the ASTM standards to


investigate mechanical properties

Display the results of each experiments and get the better


composite
WORKING PROCESS
1. There is a greater demand for the production of composite materials. It has
significantly find its application in various sectors such as automotive, aerospace,
space shuttles, submarines, civil structures etc. So the production of composites and
investigation of their mechanical properties have greater score in this era.
2. The focus of this project is to get the composite with very low weight and higher
strength. On the basis of literature survey the constituent materials selected for this
project are Kevlar, Carbon, Epoxy and Silicon Dioxide. Kevlar and carbon are used
as the reinforcement material because of their very low weight and higher strengths.
Study results of carbon reveals that its strength is approximately equal to that of
steel. Kevlar has very good tensile and fatigue properties. Epoxy is used as matrix
material because of very good binding and mechanical properties. Silicon dioxide is
used as the strengthening agent and its volume percentage will be less than 3%
unless the composite may turn into brittle material so that required properties may
not be achieved. So the combination these four constituent materials form the
hybrid composites with very low weight and high strength.
3. The composite is prepared by compression molding which enables the uniform
distribution of constituent materials. This method is very easy for composite
preparation and also the bonding between the constituents will be strong so that it
can bear the heavy loads. The mold of required shape is prepared and the mixture of
Kevlar, SiO2 and carbon particles along with epoxy resin is poured into the mold
and is compressed under high pressure. Then it is left for drying and the product is
removed from the mold for the further processes.
4. The volume of epoxy will be around 80%, Kevlar will be 10%, carbon contains
around 8% and remaining by SiO2. The volume % of constituent materials are
varied by 1 or 2 percent and the composite with the better mechanical properties is
obtained.
5. To study the mechanical properties various tests such as tensile, bending, impact,
fatigue, wear and joint tests are conducted according to the ASTM standards. The
study of each experiments are noted down for the further studies.
EXPECTED OUTCOME
NAME OF THE INDUSTRY / ORGANIZATION
Address with pin code

CERTIFICATE
Certified that the project work entitled
………………………………………………………………………………
…………… carried out by
Mr./Ms . …………………………………………..,
USN…………………..…………………….., a bonafied student of
…………………………………………………………………………..in
partial fulfillment for the award of Bachelor of Engineering /
Bachelor of Technology in
……………………………………………………………………….…… of
the Visveswaraiah Technological University, Belgaum during
the year …………………It is certified that, he/she has
completed the project satisfactorily

Name & Signature of the guide Name & Signature of


the Head of
organization