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BATU TVET COLLEGE

Automotive Engine Servicing


NTQF LEVEL-II

LEARNING GUIDE #1-3

Unit of Competence: Service Diesel Fuel Injection System

Module Title: Servicing Diesel Fuel Injection System

LG Code: AUM AES2 03 0411

TTLM Code: AUM AES2 03 0411

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Department of Automotive Engine Servicing 2006
Instruction Sheet Learning Guide #1

This learning guide is developed to provide you the necessary information regarding the
following content coverage and topics –
● Prepare for work Diesel Fuel Injection System
 Identify and confirm the nature and scope of the work.
 Prepare of tools, equipments manufacturer specifications workshop manuals.
 Make ready and safe the workstation for servicing.
 Select and prepare the appropriate methods with standard operating procedures
 Identify and prepare the required tools and equipment for servicing
 Identify and prepare the technical requirements for works.
 Application OHS
● Learning Instructions:
1. Read the specific objectives of this Learning Guide.
2. Read the information written in the “Information Sheets”. Try to understand what
are being discussed. Ask you teacher for assistance if you have hard time
understanding them
3. To undertake this element you are required to have on hands the following
resources:
 Information sheet
 Operation sheet
 Self Check
 Answer Sheet

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Department of Automotive Engine Servicing 2006
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Department of Automotive Engine Servicing 2006
Information Sheet-1 Prepare for work Diesel Fuel Injection System

1. Identify and confirm the nature and scope of the work.

Rudolf Diesel
Rudolf Diesel, full name Rudolf
Christian Karl Diesel (1858-1913),
German engineer, who invented the
diesel engine. After studying in England,
he attended the Polytechnic School in
Munich, where he settled in 1893. In
1892 he patented the internal-
combustion engine named for him, which
employed auto ignition of fuel. While
associated with the Krupp firm in Essen,
he built the first successful diesel engine,
utilizing low-cost fuel. In 1913, while on
a voyage to England, Diesel was lost
overboard and is believed to have
drowned in the English Channel.

Brief Description of the Diesel Engine

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Theoretically, the diesel cycle differs from the Otto cycle in that combustion takes
place at constant volume rather than at constant pressure. Most diesels are also four-stroke
engines but they operate differently than the four-stroke Otto-cycle engines. The first, or
suction, stroke draws air, but no fuel, into the combustion chamber through an intake valve.
On the second, or compression, stroke the air is compressed to a small fraction of its former
volume and is heated to approximately 440°C (approximately 820°F) by this compression. At
the end of the compression stroke, vaporized fuel is injected into the combustion chamber
and burns instantly because of the high temperature of the air in the chamber. Some diesels
have auxiliary electrical ignition systems to ignite the fuel when the engine starts and until it
warms up. This combustion drives the piston back on the third, or power, stroke of the cycle.
The fourth stroke, as in the Otto-cycle engine, is an exhaust stroke.

The efficiency of the diesel engine, which is in general governed by the same
factors that control the efficiency of Otto-cycle engines, is inherently greater than that of
any Otto-cycle engine and in actual engines today is slightly more than 40 percent.
Diesels are, in general, slow-speed engines with crankshaft speeds of 100 to 750
revolutions per minute (rpm) as compared to 2500 to 5000 rpm for typical Otto-cycle
engines. Some types of diesel, however, have speeds up to 2000 rpm. Because diesels
use compression ratios of 14 or more to 1, they are generally more heavily built than
Otto-cycle engines, but this disadvantage is counterbalanced by their greater efficiency
and the fact that they can be operated on less expensive fuel oils

4DR5 Isuzu Diesel Engine


Application of Diesel Engines

Diesel engines are widely used as stationary power sources for electrical generation
units, pumping stations, refrigeration facilities, and factories. Heavy construction
equipment, ships, locomotives, commercial trucks, and some large pickups are powered
by diesels.

Diesel-powered automobiles enjoyed a brief period of popularity in the United


States during the oil crises of the 1970s when fuel efficiency and price were key factors.
Despite their advantages, diesel-powered cars did not retain their appeal with American
consumers. Diesels accelerate less quickly than gasoline-powered cars and are noisier,
due to the higher pressures of the compression-combustion process. However, diesel

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cars continue to be popular in Europe and other places where fuels are more expensive.
Likewise, diesel engines are used in a widely variety of design for many different
purposes, for example:

 to drive mobile power generators (up to approximate


10kw/cylinder);
 as fast-running engines for cars and light commercial
vehicles (up to approximate 50kw/cylinder);
 as engines for construction-industry and agriculture
machinery (up to approximate 50kw/cylinder);
 as engines for heavy trucks, omnibuses and tractor vehicles
(up to approximate 80kw/cylinder)
 to drive fixed installation such as emergency power
generator (up to approximate 160kw/cylinder); and
 as engines for railway locomotive and ship (up to 1,000
kw/cylinder)

Basic Operation

Diesel engine is classified as internal-combustion engine in which heat caused by


air compression ignites the fuel. As mentioned in the previous discussion, diesel engine
injects instant fuel into the combustion chambers, the air inside is hot enough to ignite
the fuel on contact. Diesel engines, therefore, do not need spark plugs, which are
required to ignite the air-fuel mixture in gasoline engines. Diesel engines burn a
petroleum product similar to kerosene, jet fuel, and home heating oil.

Advantages in Using Diesel Engine

 More efficient and less expensive to operate than gasoline-powered


engines, party because diesel fuel costs less;
 Consume less fuel and emit fewer waste products;
 Big and heavy suitable for shipping and railroad industries; and
 Still the engine choice for heavy transportation and industry.

Dis-advantage in Using Diesel Engine

 Production of sooty (dirty)and smelly smoke

1.2. Prepare of tools, equipments manufacturer specifications workshop


manuals.
 Running condition vehicle
 Vehicle service manual
 Basic hand tools and equipments
A. 10mm Socket Wrench
B. 12mm Box End Wrench
C. 13mm Socket Wrench
D. 17mm Open End Wrench
E. 27mm Socket Wrench(1-1/16)

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F. Flat Screw Driver and Phillips Screw Driver

Diesel Engine Characteristics


The diesel engine has the following characteristics:
1. No throttle valve (except some engines with the pneumatic governor).
2. Compresses only air on the compression stroke.
3. Heat of compression ignites fuel as it sprays into the engine cylinders.
4. Has a high compression ratio of 16:1 to 22:1.
5. Controls engine power and speed only by the amount of fuel sprayed into the
cylinders. More fuel equals more power.
6. Have glow plugs or an electric intake-manifold heater to make starting easier.
Figure 1. The four-piston strokes in a four-stroke-cycle diesel engine.

Cetane Number
The cetane number refers to the ease with which diesel fuel ignites. A high cetane
number means the fuel is fast burning andignites easily at a relatively low temperature.
A low cetane number means the fuel is slower burning and requires a
higher temperature to ignite. Diesel fuel with a low cetane number takes a little longer
to ignite. This may cause excessive ignition lag. During this slight delay, the fuel collects
in the cylinder. When ignition does occur, all the fuel ignites at once. The pressure goes
up quickly and combustion knock results. This is similar to spark knock or detonation in
a spark-ignition engine. High cetane fuel ignites as soon as it enters the cylinder.

Figure 2. The higher the cetane number of the diesel fuel, the faster the fuel burns. The higher the
octane number of gasoline, the slower it burns.

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1.3. Select and prepare the appropriate methods with standard operating
procedures

Diesel Starting Procedures.


Diesel engines require a different starting procedure from gasoline engines. If the
diesel engine is cold, the intake air must be preheated before cranking the engine. A
heating coil in an electric intake-manifold heater or in a glow plug in each
precombustion chamber (Figure LO1-13, page 19) supplies the heat.
A typical starting procedure follows.
1. When the engine is cold, turn the ignition key to ON or RUN. This connects the glow
plugs to the battery so they quickly heat the precombustion chambers. It also turns
on a WAIT light on the instrument panel. After a few seconds, the
precombustionchambers are heated sufficiently. The glow plugs and WAIT lights
turn off.
2. Press the accelerator pedal halfway down.
3. Turn the ignition key to start. The engine will crank and should START. If it does not
start in 15 seconds, turn the ignition key back to ON or RUN. If the WAIT light comes
on again, leave the ignition key in ON or RUN. When the light goes off again, try
starting once more. Pumping the accelerator pedal does not help starting a diesel
engine. The fuel-injectionsystem has no accelerator pump as in a carburetor

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Self check question Prepare for work Diesel Fuel Injection System

 Direction: Select the best answer.

1. Technician A says that the diesel engine compresses air alone on the
compression stroke. Technician B says the fuel is ignited by the heat of
compression. Who is right?
a. A only
b. B only
c. Both A and B
d. Neither A nor B

2. All the following are true about diesel engines EXCEPT


a. no throttle valve
b. high compression ratio
c. speed and power controlled by quantity of fuel injected
d. spark plugs make starting easier

3. Technician A says cetane number is the same as octane rating. Technician B


says cetane number is the opposite of octane rating. Who is right?

a. A only
b. B only
c. Both A and B
d. Neither A nor B

4. The distributor injection pump has


a. a rotor that sends fuel to the injection nozzles
b. a barrel-and-plunger assembly for each cylinder
c. a helix cut in each plunger
d. a control rod attached to the accelerator pedal

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5. All the following are true about governors EXCEPT
a. A throttle valve in the air intake indicates a pneumatic governor
b. Moving the accelerator pedal changes the setting of the governor
c. Air-fuel ratio at full load is about 20:1
d. All automotive diesel engines use a constant-speed governor

6. The purpose of the glow plug is to


a. control engine idle speed
b. provide sparks to ignite the compressed air-fuel mixture
c. warm the fuel
d. add heat to the precombustion chamber

7. Warming the fuel with a fuel heater reduces the possibility that
a. wax in the fuel will plug the filters
b. the glow plugs will overheat
c. the coolant will freeze
d. the engine will star

8. All the following are true about servicing injection lines EXCEPT
a. cap all lines to prevent dirt from entering
b. wrap a shop towel around the connection to absorb leaking fuel
c. a kinked line can be straightened and reused
d. new lines are preformed

9. Technician A says a sticking injection nozzle may cause the diesel engine to
miss at all speeds. Technician B says an injection nozzle sticking open may cause a
puff of smoke each time the engine misfires. Who is right?
a. A only
b. B only
c. Both A and B
d. Neither A nor B

ANSWER KEY

1. c
2. d
3. b
4. a
5. d
6. d
7. a
8. c
9. c

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Department of Automotive Engine Servicing 2006
Instruction Sheet Learning Guide #2

This learning guide is developed to provide you the necessary information regarding the
following content coverage and topics –
● Service fuel system and components
2.1. Access and interpret manufacturer specifications.
2.2. Approve the service of diesel fuel injection system.
2.3. Complete the service of diesel fuel Injection system without causing
damage.
2.3.1 fuel tank
2.3.2fuel filter
2.3.3 Fuel line
2.3.4 Injection pump
2.3.5.Injector nozzle
2.4.Make the manufacturer specifications adjustments during the service

2.5.Test engine the fuel system


2.5.1.test engine fuel system
2.5.2. bleeding procedures

Learning Instructions:
1. Read the specific objectives of this Learning Guide.
2. Read the information written in the “Information Sheets”. Try to understand
what are being discussed. Ask you teacher for assistance if you have hard time
understanding them
3. To undertake this element you are required to have on hands the following
resources:
 Information sheet
 Operation sheet
 Self Check
 Answer Sheet

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Department of Automotive Engine Servicing 2006
Information Sheet-2 Test diesel fuel injection system

2.3.1 Injection pump

Automotive diesel engines use two types of fuel injection pumps. One is an inline cam-
operated pump. It has a plunger for each engine cylinder. The other is a rotary,
distributor-type pump. One or two plungers supply the fuel for all injection nozzles.
Inline-Plunger Injection Pump Figure LO1-1 shows an inline-plunger pump on a six-
cylinder diesel engine. The pump has a barrel-and-plunger assembly for each cylinder.

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Figure LO1-1. Fuel system for a six-cylinder diesel engine using an inline fuel injection pump.

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Rotary-Distributor Injection Pump
Figure LO1-4 shows an inline six-cylinder engine with a rotary distributor injection
pump. This pump has a rotor that sends fuel to the injection nozzles in the engine
cylinder as it rotates.

2.3.5. Injector nozzle

Figures LO1-11 and LO1-12 show typical injection nozzles. A spring holds the needle
valve or nozzle valve closed until the high injection pressure is applied through the
injection pipe. This forces the valve off its seat so fuel sprays out into the cylinder. The
instant the pressure drops, the spring reseats the valve and fuel injection stops.

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Figure LO1-11. Construction of a diesel-engine injection nozzle.

2.4. Make the manufacturer specifications adjustments during the service

2.5. Test engine the fuel system


2.5.1. Bleeding procedures

BLEEDING PROCEDURE:

Be sure to have some means available to catch or absorb any fuel escaping during the
bleeding process so that it will not accumulate in the engine compartment or bilge.

1. Be sure there is a sufficient supply of fuel in the fuel tank.


2. Open the fuel shut-off valve at the tank.

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3. Start the electric fuel pump by turning the ignition key to the "ON" position on
models 18, 20, 25, 30, 50, all models after 1986.
4. Model 15 has a mechanical fuel pump. Therefore with decompression on, turn
engine over with starter. Crank at 10 second intervals while doing steps #5 and 7.

5. Slowly loosen the air bleed plug on the fuel filter, letting air escape until an air free
flow of fuel is evident. (1986 models see item 7).

6. At this time, tighten the air bleed plug on the filter.


7. Slowly loosen the air bleed plug on the injector pump, letting air escape until an air
free flow of fuel is evident. Units with a self bleed return valve, open for a short
period then start engine, as soon as engine runs smooth close valve. Model-12 has
continuous fuel bleeding.

8. At this time, tighten the air bleed plug or knurled knob on the injector pump.
9. The fuel system should now be properly bled and ready for operation.

Operation Sheet Bleeding the fuel system

It will be necessary to bleed the fuel system to achieve a steady air free flow of fuel if
any of the following have occurred.
1. Running out of fuel.
2. If fuel shut off valve is left closed and engine runs out of fuel.
3. Replacing fuel filter.
4. Fuel injector nozzle or injector pump repair.
5. After repairing or replacing any fuel line.
6. Before putting engine back into service in the spring, if fuel system has been
drained.
7. Replacement of electric or mechanical fuel pump.
8. Any time air is permitted to enter the fuel system.

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Department of Automotive Engine Servicing 2006
Instruction Sheet Learning Guide #3

This learning guide is developed to provide you the necessary information regarding the
following content coverage and topics –
LO3:- Overhaul diesel fuel injection system

1.1 fuel tank

1.2 fuel line


Injection lines in diesel-engine fuel-injection systems are also called high-pressure fuel
lines, injection tubes and injection pipes. They carry fuel under high pressure from the
injection pump to the injection nozzles. Figure 3 shows the various shapes of injection
lines between the injection pump and the nozzles.
When the line requires replacement, always install the line specified by the vehicle
manufacturer. Variations from specified length and internal diameter may cause engine
troubles. New lines are preformed. Avoid twisting or bending them out of shape during
installation

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1.3 fuel flitter
The fuel filter (Figure 3) is located in the low-pressure fuel line from the fuel tank to the
Injection pump. The filter element is similar to filters used in engine lubricating
systems. The fuel must pass through the fuel element which traps any dirt particles.
Replace the filter periodically as recommended by the manufacturer.

1.4 transfer /feed/ pump

1.5 injection pump /in line type/


Automotive diesel engines use two types of fuel injection pumps. One is an inline cam-
operated pump. It has a plunger for each engine cylinder. The other is a rotary,
distributor-type pump. One or two plungers supply the fuel for all injection nozzles.
Inline-Plunger Injection Pump Figure LO1-1 shows an inline-plunger pump on a six-
cylinder diesel engine. The pump has a barrel-and-plunger assembly for each cylinder.

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1.6 distribute type injection pump

The fuel-injection system is responsible for supplying the diesel engine with fuel. To do
so, the injection pump generates the pressure required for fuel injection. The fuel under
pressure is forced through the high-pressure fuel-injection tubing to the injection nozzle
which then injects it into the combustion chamber. The fuel-injection system (Fig. 1)

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includes the following components and assemblies: The fuel tank, the fuel filter, the fuel
supply pump, the injection nozzles, the high-pressure injection tubing, the governor, and
the timing device (if required). The combustion processes in the diesel engine depend to
a large degree upon the quantity of fuel which is injected and upon the method of
introducing this fuel to the combustion chamber. The most important criteria in this
respect are the fuel-injection timing and the duration of injection, the fuel’s distribution in
the combustion chamber, the moment in time when combustion starts, the amount of
fuel metered to the engine per degree crankshaft, and the total injected fuel quantity in
accordance with the engine loading. The optimum interplay of all these parameters is
decisive for the faultless functioning of the diesel engine

2.7. injector nozzle


There are a very wide variety of different nozzle-and-holder assemblies for hole-type nozzles
on the market. In contrast to the throttling-lintel nozzles, the hole-type nozzles must be
installed in a given position. The spray holes are at different angles in the nozzle body and
must be correctly aligned with regard to the combustion chamber. The nozzle and holder
assembly is therefore fastened to the cylinder head with hollow screws or claws. A special
mount is used to lock the nozzle in the correct position. The hole-type nozzles (Fig.3)
haveneedle diameters of 4 mm (Size P) and between 5 and 6 mm (Size S). The seat hole
nozzle is only available as a Size P version. The nozzle pressure springs must be matched to
the needle diameters and to the high opening pressures which are usually above 180 bar. The

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nozzle-sealing function is particularly important at the end of injection because there is a risk
of the combustion gases blowing back into the nozzle and in the long run destroying it and
causing hydraulic instability. Precision matching of the pressure spring and the needle
diameter ensures efficient sealing. In certain cases, it may be necessary to take into account
the oscillations of the pressure spring. There are three designs for the arrangement of the
spray holes in the nozzle cone. These three designs also differ from each other with respect to
the amount of fuel which remains inside the injector and which can evaporate into the
combustion chamber when injection has finished. Versions with cylindrical blind hole,
conical blind hole, and seat hole, have decreasing fuel quantities in this order. Furthermore,
the less fuel that can evaporate from the nozzle, the lower are the engine's hydrocarbon
emissions. The levels of these emissions therefore also correspond to the (nozzle) order given
above.
Figures LO1-11 and LO1-12 show typical injection nozzles. A spring holds the needle
valve or nozzle valve closed until the high injection pressure is applied through the
injection pipe. This forces the valve off its seat so fuel sprays out into the cylinder. The
instant the pressure drops, the spring reseats the valve and fuel injection stops.

Lo4:-Prepare vehicle/system for customer turn-over or storage

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