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Artificial Intelligence

- Iron Warrior: Volume 10, Issue 9
- Sets
- Robot Ethics
- Constructing Ambient Intelligence_ AmI 2007 Workshops Darmstadt, Germany, November 7-10, 2007,.pdf
- Information System
- PPCL User Guide
- Artificial Intelligence MCQ'S
- ch01s1.ppt
- AI-Transformation-Playbook.pdf
- FEBS Special Session AI CfP
- Cosc270 Intro Handout
- Ai Infographic
- 53180673-list-of-journals.docx
- Taxonomies
- Smith & Anderson_AI, Robotics, And the Future of Jobs (2014)
- Knowledge Based System
- Caffeine
- AIES6
- tifs
- The AI

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A key task in problem solving especially with computers at different stages of execution is

decision making.

Decision making requires processing of symbolic information in handling of facts and inference

using domain knowledge. Inference is nothing but search through the knowledge base using the

facts. The intensive research carried out in the area of AI in the last six decades resulted in the

emergence of a number of useful techniques which can be used for solving many complex

problems.

Intelligence is synonymous with human (animal) ability to store and recall fact (cognitive), solve

a given problem based on known fact and relevant theorem (psychomotor). This ability is

inherent and innate, trainable and can be developed. Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the ability of

an electronic device (computer) to accomplish any tasks that ordinary would have been handled

by human.

a computer. Also refers to as synthetic intelligence. AI is now concerned with producing

machines to automate tasks featuring intelligence behavior, such as control, planning,

scheduling, ability to answer diagnostic and consumer questions, handwriting, voice and facial

recognition. AI techniques are now mostly use in economics, medicine, engineering and military

and commonly found in various home as computer software applications, traditional strategies

games such as chess and other radio games. So, it has become scientific discipline focusing on

providing solution to real life problem.

AI models the richness and dynamisms of human brain and its analytic and memory capability.

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(iii) the role of computers for theorem proving instead of focusing on hardware that

simulated intelligence.

Major Categories of AI

1. Symbolic: Based on logic and uses of sequences of rules. Symbolic programs are good in

modeling how human think, act and accomplish tasks.

2. Connectionist: Based on network of neurons in the brain. Brittle and good for machine

learning and pattern recognition.

Purpose of AI

1. Technological

2. Psychological

3. Economic

and statistical analysis, the conventional AI is also known as symbolic AI, logical AI, Neat AI

and Good Old-Fashioned AI (GOFAI).

(1) Expert system – apply reasoning capability to reach a conclusion. An ES can process

large amount of information and provide conclusion based on them

(2) Case based Reasoning

(3) Bayesian Network

(4) Behavior based AI—A modular method of building AI system by hand

COMPUTATIONAL AI

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It involves iterative development or learning, Learning is based on empirical data associated to

non-systematic AI, scruffy AI and soft computing

Methods includes

(1) Neural Network: - it is a system with very strong capabilities

(2) Genetic Algorithm of pattern recognition

(3) Fuzzy system: -techniques for reasoning under uncertainty

(4) Evolutionary computation:- use biologically inspire concept such as population,

mutation, superficial of the fitness to generate increasingly better solution to our

problem.

Truth-preserving: If the initial statements are true, the inferred statements will be true

Inference: the process of deriving (inferring) new statements from old statements

Proposition Logic

propositional logic is a logical statement whose truth value can be evaluated as either TRUE or

FALSE.

Examples:

Every proposi0on is true or false, but its truth value (true or false) may be unknown

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• Complex or Compound Propositional Logic.

• A simple propositional logic refers to single logical statement whose truth value can be

verified or evaluated.

• A complex propositional logic refers to logical statements which are combinations of two

or more simple propositional logic statements with the use of connectors (connectives)

such as disjunction, conjunction etc.

e.g. A ∧ B: “A and B”

e.g. A ∨ B: “A or B”

Truth Tables

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Truth tables are used for stating precise logic values for logic statements. The number of

rows in a truth table is 2n, where n is the number of simple propositions in the logical

statements.

Logic Connectives

Logic uses names and symbols to represent the connectives as illustrated in this table.

., Conjunction AND

+, Disjunction OR

Negation NOT

Implication Implies

Equivalence Double

implication

Exclusive OR EX-OR

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comprises GAPOSA is a Polytechnic A

Connective: AND, .,

Rules of AND

A B A AND B A B A.B

T T T T T

T F F F F

F T F F F

F F F F F

OR Truth Table

GAPOSA is a polytechnic B

Connective: OR, +,

Rules of OR

1. The output is TRUE when at least one or all the inputs are TRUE.

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A B A OR B A B A+B

T T T T T

T F T T T

F T T T T

F F F F F

Connective: NOT, -,

Rules of NOT

A NOT A A - A

T F F F

F T T T

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comprises GAPOSA is a university A

Connective: Implies, -,

Rules of Implication

1. The output is TRUE when at least one or all the inputs are TRUE.

A B A Implies B

A B

T T T T

T F F F

F T T T

F F T T

e.g. A university degree is equivalent to a polytechnic diploma

Connective: Equivalence, ↔

Rules of Equivalence

1. The output is TRUE when all the inputs are TRUE.

2. The output is TRUE when all the inputs are FALSE.

3. The output is FALSE if any of the input is FALSE

A B A↔B

T T T

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T F F

F T F

F F T

Exercise: Using a truth table, prove that (A ↔B) ↔ ((A ↔B) ^ (B→A))

e.g. A university degree is equivalent to a polytechnic diploma

Connective: EX-OR,

Rules of Equivalence

1. The output is TRUE when either at least an input is TRUE or FALSE.

2. The output is FALSE if either all the inputs are TRUE or all the inputs are FALSE

A B A B

T T F

T F T

F T T

F F F

TAUTOLOGY

An expression with a truth value T irrespective of the truth values of the constituent atoms.

A B A ^ B→A

T T T

T F T

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F T T

F F T

CONTRADICTION

An expression with a truth value F irrespective of the truth values of the constituent atoms.

A B A ^ B→A

T T F

T F F

F T F

F F F

Argument: An argument presents a conclusion as following logically from a set of assumptions.

e.g. If we say “John’s keys are in the car or hung up in the office. John’s keys are not

in the car. Then John’s keys are hung up in the office.”

We can always write this argument in a clear and precise formal expression, such

as:

John’s keys are in the car or hung up in the office P

John’s keys are not in the car ¬P

Therefore, John’s keys are hung up in the office Q

We can express the argument in a more formal form

i. P νQ Assumptions

ii. ¬P

iii, Q Conclusion

Truth, Validity, and Soundness: probably the three most important concepts of the course.

First, let us briefly characterize these concepts. Truth: a property of statements, i.e., that they are

the case. Validity: a property of arguments, i.e., that they have a good structure.

(The premises and conclusion are so related that it is absolutely impossible for the premises to be

true unless the conclusion is true also.)

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Soundness: a property of both arguments and the statements in them, i.e., the argument is valid

and all the statement are true. Sound Argument: (1) valid, (2) true premises (obviously the

conclusion is true as well by the definition of validity).

The fact that a deductive argument is valid cannot, in itself, assure us that any of the statements

in the argument are true; this fact only tells us that the conclusion must be true if the premises are

true.

EXPERT SYSTEM

knowledge of human expert in a specific narrow domain and emulates the decision-making

ability of the human expert.

(2) Monitoring (Nuclear plant) (7) Prediction (weather)

(3) Debugging (8) Instruction/Training

(4) Planning (mission planning) (9) Interpretation

(5) Medical diagnosis (10) Repair (Telephones, Cars)

2. Unpredictable Consistent

4. Expensive Affordable

______________________________________________________________________________

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3. Broad focus Narrow focus

INFERENCE ENGINE AND EXPLANATION FACILITY SYSTEM

USER

KNOWLEDGE LIPDATE

FACILITY

KNOWLEDGE

INTERFACE

ENGINE

EXPERT SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE

1. USER: A particular person that can execute ES, gained insight into their particular

interest with a minimum assistance; user can operate in several modes.

(1) Tester (User) : user that make attempt to verify the validity of the system behavior

(2) Tutor (User): user that provides additional knowledge to the system or modifies

already present knowledge in the system.

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(3) Student (user): User who seek to rapidly develop expertise relative to the subject

domain by extracting organized, distilled knowledge from the system.

(4) Customer: user who applies the system expertise to a specific real task.

2. USER INTERFACE FACILITY: it accepts information from the user and translate it into

the form that is acceptable to the remaining system components or from the system and

convert it to human understandable manner.

The facility consists off a natural language processing system that accepts and returns

information in essentially the same form as that accepted by human expert.

3. KNOWLEDGE BASE

This represent information store house of the primitives (i.e basic facts, procedure rules

and heuristic) available to the system that can be used by the knowledge manager to

interpret the current contextual data in the situation model. The knowledge stored base

allows the system to act like an expert. The knowledge is stored in the firm of facts and

rules.

4. INFERENCE ENGINE: this is the software system that locates the knowledge and refers

new knowledge from the base knowledge. The engines inference paradigm is the search

strategy is the used to develop regular knowledge. The paradigm is one of the two

concepts below.

1. Backward chaining: it is top-down reasoning process that start from the desired goal

and works backwards towards requisite conditions.

2. Forward chaining: this is bottom-top that starts from known condition and works

towards the desired goals.

5. KNOWLEDGE UPDATE FACILITY : The accurate reflection of the domain at the time

of the system place in the service. Knowledge in many complex domain can be expanded

and change and knowledge base can be modified correspondingly. The facility is used to

perform such update.

The three basic form of are;

(1) Manual knowledge updates: The update is done by the knowledge engineer who

interprets information provided by a domain expert and update the knowledge base

using limited knowledge update system.

(2) State of art in expert system: The domain expert directly enters revised knowledge

without engineer’s knowledge meditation.

(3) Machine learning: New knowledge is generated by the system itself which is based

on generations of the past experience.

6. EXPLANATION FACILITY SYSTEM

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Beyond simply reaching conclusion when faced with complex problem, the system is

capable to explain to some extent the reasoning that leads to the conclusion.

CHARACTERISTICS OF ES

These characteristics distinguish ES running on a computer system from traditional

complication application.

(1) One area knowledge: An ES will relate to one particular area of expertise or

knowledge rather than a set of data

(2) One particular purpose: It is constructed for a particular purpose e.g giving advice,

particular topic.

(3) Rules: knowledge is usually informed of rules.

(4) Inference: Knowledge and Inference are separate. Inference engine cause associated

to any knowledge base.

(5) Extendable: Knowledge can be extended; it can start off fairly small and later enlarge

in a controlled way.

(6) Handle Uncertainty: It can be that we uncertain about the world. We cannot be

certain, events are absolutely true or events are definitely going to happen. An ES

allows us to cope in these uncertainties.

(7) Give Advice: An ES replaces an expert. Therefore, ES is constructed to give advice

rather than answers.

(8) Explanation: It can explain its reasoning.

CURRENT STATE OF AN ES

According to Davis (1985), the current state of an expert system are classified into three

(1) Assistance: A knowledge base system that perform an economically valuable but

technically limited subset of an expert task. Many of these are personal computer based.

(2) Colleague: A medium knowledge based system that perform a significant subset of an

expert task. They are both implemented on PC and sub large platform e.g specialized

workstation and conventional mainframe.

(3) Experts: a large scale knowledge based system that approaches a level of performance of an

expert with a given domain. They are commonly implemented on a powerful platform by

using sophisticated developed tools.

Limitation of most existing ES

(1) Knowledge are acquired from small number of experts

(2) Application are to a limited specific domain

(3) Application domain must have little need for a temporal reasoning

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Problem-solving and organizational concepts are used as a framework for combining the basic

components of ES into a complete system.

EXHAUSTIVE SEARCH

organized procedure for solving all possibilities. It is applied when a problem is immediately

tractable. An immediate tractable problem is one that into a reasonably small problem space, no

need of back-tracking to retract mistakes.

For most real world system, space is too large to allow exhaustive search, large space adopts

these two methods.

(2) Transform the space into a more manageable form; divide into small components

It is possible to structure search as generate and test. This type is a depth search that is used to

perform classical reasoning by elimination. It relies on generator that develops complex

candidate solutions and evaluator that test each proposed solution by comparing it with require

state. This process of generation followed a continues evaluation until a solution is discovered.

CLASSIFICATION MODEL

This is a framework for structuring rules and is widely applied, especially for divination and

interpretation task. This is used to organize reasoning (from observation to conclusion) based on

classification. The selection of conclusion from a list of pre-defined possible conclusion is

implemented as modified divination system in a knowledge base, control and working

memory.

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(a) A list of possible observation (it includes the initial observed conditions and

findings that result from the test or experiment that is executed to gather

information.

(b) A set of rules that relates observation to conclusion.

(2) Control: The primary role of control segment is order of the collection of evidence.

(3) Working memory: A global memory that stores initial observations. Findings that

have been made and conclusions that have been reached.

Two general type of rule those in classification model are:

(1) Evidence to conclusion: these rules are used to list conclusion that are indicated by

evidence.

(2) Conclusion to evidence: This type of rules deserves the evidence that should be

present if given conditions exist.

Artificial neural network is a massive parallel distributed processor that is made up of simple

processing units. It has the ability to learn from experiential knowledge that is processed through

inter unit connection strengths and make such knowledge available for use.

(i) A massive power distributed structure

Generalization of ANN is deducing a reasonable output for new input that was not encountered

during learning process.

PROPERTIES OF ANN

1. LINEARITY: ANN can be linear basically but the entire ANN is nonlinear in the sense

that it is distributed about the network.

2. LEARNING FROM EXAMPLE: ANN modifies its interconnection weights by

applying a set a training or learning samples to the problem at hand.

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3. ADAPTIVITY: ability to adapt its interconnection weight to changes in the surrounding

environment.

4. FAULT-TOLERANCE: It has potential of inherently fault-tolerance or capable of robust

computation.

5. UNIFORM AND ANALYSIS OF DESIGN: ANN enjoys universality as information

processors.

An artificial neuron is an information processing unit that is fundamental to the operation

of an ANN.

Basic elements of the model

(i) A set of connecting links from different inputs xi (or synapse); each of which is

characterized by a weight wki ( the weight could be (-ve or +ve).

(ii) An adder for summing the inputs signals xi weighted by the synaptic strengths

wki

(iii) An activation function for limiting the amplitude of the output yk of a neuron.

wki

net F(net) Yk

wkm

bk

The bias (bk) has the effect of increasing or lowering net input of the activation function,

depending on whether –ve or +ve.

NOTATIONS

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Input-----xi, i= l…….m

Weight-----wki, K is the index of a given neuron in a ANN.

The weight simulate the biological synaptic strengths of natural neuron

Netk=X1wk1+ X2WK2+….+ xmWkm + bk=l=1m XiWKi

The same sum can be expressed in vector notation as a seal or product of two

dimensional vectors.

Netk=X1W

Where X=X0,, X1 X2,…..,XM

W=Wk0, Wk1,….WkM

Yk(output)= f(netk)

0, if net 0 0

2)

Symmetrical y= 1, if net ≥ 0

Hard limit -1, if net 0 1

-1

3 Linear y= net

0, if net 0

Linear if y net 1 y, if

Net -1

4. Log-symoid y= 1 1

net

(1+e )

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5. Hyperbolic tangent y=(enet – e-net) +1

Symoid (e e-net)

net +

-1

For example,

X1=0.5 0.3

X2=0.5 0.2 y

lf

X3=0.2 0.5

b=-0.2

Net= i-1m x I wki + bk

= 0.15

Net = 0.15

Y= +1, if net ≥ 0

-1, if 0

Y= f (net)

Y=f (0.15)

Y= 1

(2) For saturating linear

Y= 1, if net 1 net

-1, if 0\

Y= f (0.15)

Y= 0.15

(3) For log-symoid

Y= 1

1+ e- net

Y= 1

1+e-0.15

Y= 0.537 =0.54

X1=1

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1

2 3

0.2 y1 1.0

-0.6

0.5 y2 y3

Net1 =0.45

-1, if net -1

Y1 = +(0.45) = 0.45

= -1.1, y= -1

Net = 0.95

A-ANN is defined by the characteristic of a node and the characteristics of nodes connectivity in

the network. Network architecture is specified by the number of inputs to the network, the

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number of outputs, the total number of elementary nodes that are usually equal processing

elements for the entire network, and their organization and interconnections.

x2

Y1

output

x3 y2

input

delay

x1

output y1

x2

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y2

xn RECURRENT NETWORK

LEARNING PROCESS

Learning is a process by which the free parameters of a neural network are adapted through the

process of stimulation by the environment in which the network is embedded.

The type of learning is that by the manner in which the parameter change.

Factors to be considered in learning process

1. Learning algorithm

2. Manner in which ANN architecture is built.

x1

Wk1

x2 wk2 F(ne yk

t)

xm wkn

inputs bk output

xk1, xk2…..xkm

processing the inputs vector (xn), a neuron k produces the output that is denoted by yk(n)

yk = f(i=lm XiWKi)---- it represent the only output of this simple network, and it is compared to

a desire response or target output dk(n), an error ek(n) produced at the output is by definition

ek(n)= dk(n) – yk(n) the error signal produced actuates control mechanism of the learning

algorithm. The objective is to apply a sequence of corrective adjustments to the input weights of

a neuron, to make the yk(n) output more closer to the target output dk(n) the objective is

achieved by minimizing a cost function E(n), E is the instantaneous value of error energy,

defined for this simple example in terms of error ek(n); E(n)= ½ e2k(n)

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Based on minimization ,the learning process is referred to as error-connection learning.

Minimization of E(n) leads to learning rule common referred to as the delta or widrow-hoffrule.

Let Wkj(n) be the value of the weight factor for neuron K by input Xj(n) at the time step n

---+ve constant that define the rate of learning .therefore, the delta may be stated as: the

adjustment made to a weight factor of an input neuron connection is proportional to the product

of the error signal and the input value of the connection in question.

Example

X1 0.5

x2 -0.3 y

zif

0.8

x3 b=0

N(sample) X1 X2 X3 D

1 1 1 0.5 0.7

2 -1 0.7 -0.5 0.2

3 0.3 0.3 -0.3 0.5

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Wi(i) = .Eii . Xi(i)

When N=2

Adjustment

When n=3

Net = Xj(n)Wk(n)

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LEARNING TASK

The choice of a particular learning algorithm is influenced by learning task an ANN is required

to perform.

1. Pattern Association

Pattern association takes one of the two forms: auto association or hetero association.

In auto association; an ANN is required to store a set of pattern by repeatedly presenting

them to the network. It involves the use of unsupervised learning

In hetero association, an arbitrary set of input patterns is paired with another arbitrary set

of output patterns. It is involved with the use of supervised learning

Two phases in the Application of ANN for pattern Association

i. The storage phase; the training of network in accordance with given patterns.

ii. The recall phase; retrieval of a memorized pattern in response to noisy or distorted

version of a key pattern to the network.

2. Pattern Recognition: an ANN performs pattern recognition by first undergoing training

session; during which the network is repeatedly presented a set of input patterns along

with the category to which the patterns belong later, in a testing phase, a new pattern is

presented to the network, that it has not seen befire, but E belongs to the same population

of patterns used during training. The network is able to identify the class of the particular

ppattern because of the information it has extracted from the training data.

3. Function approximation

4. Control

5. Filtering.

GENETIC ALGORITHM

Genetic algorithm is a computer program that mimics the behavior of biological evolution

process in order to solve problems and to model evolutionary system.

DEFINITIONS OF TERMS

2. Genes: they are features in the string of chromosome

3. Locus: position in the string

4. Genotype: string structure of chromosome

5. Phenotype: set of characteristics (features)

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G.A is a general purpose optimization tools.

8. Machine learning

(1) G.A are parallel search procedures that can be implemented on a parallel processing

machines for massively speeding up their operations.

(2) G.A are applicable to both continuous and discrete optimization problem.

(3) G.A are stochastic and less likely to get trapping local minimal, which inevitably are

present in any practical, optimization problem.

(4) G.A flexibility facilitates both structure and parameter identification in complex models.

(1) Encoding schemes and initialization

G.A starts in designing a representation of a solution for a given problem. A solution, any value,

i.e a candidate for a correct solution that can be evaluated. e.g suppose we want to maximize

function y= 5- (x-1)2. Then X=2 in a solution, x= 2.5 is another solution, and x=3 is a correct

solution of the problem that maximizes Y.

The representation of each solution for genetic algorithm is up to the designer. The most

common representation of a solution is as a string of characters i.e a string of codes for features

representation where characters belong to a fixed alphabet. The larger the character, the more the

information cause represented by each character in a string .

The encoding process transforms point in a features space into bit-string representation. For

instance, a point (11,6,9)in a three dimensional feature space, with range (0,15) for each

dimension can be represented as a concatenated binary sting (11,6,9) = (101101101001). Others

include gray coding.

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Encoding schemes provide a way of translating problem-specific knowledge directly into G.A

framework. In G.As, we are manipulating set of chromosome (a set of all featured values

encoded into a bit string represent a chromosome) called a population.

randomly.

After creating a population, we calculate the fitness Value of each member in the population

because each chromosome is a candidate for an optimal solution. For optimization problem, the

fitness value fi of the ith member is usually the objective function evaluated at this member.

The fitness of a solution is a measure that can be used to compare solutions to determine which is

better.

The fitness value may be detected from complex analytical formula simulation model, or by

observations from experiments or real-life problem settings

(3). Selection

Selections deal to creating a new population from the current generation, the selection operation

detect parent chromosomes participate in producing offspring for next generation. Members are

selected to a probability proportional to their fitness values the common way mostly use to

implement this method is to set the selection probability P equal to Pi=Fi/nk=1fk, where n is

population size, fi is the fitness value for ith chromosome

(4). Crossover

It is a genetic algorithm operator that combines (metes) two chromosomes (parents) to provide a

new chromosome (offspring). The idea behind crossover is that the new chromosome may be

better than both of the parents if it takes the best characteristics from each of the parents. We

define the chromosomes for crossover in a current population using the following literature

procedure. The step 1 and 2 have to be repeated for all chromosome

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1. Generate a random R from the range0,1

2. If R probability crossover , then select the given chromosome for crossover.

TYPES OF CREOSSOVER

(1) ONE POINT: A randomly selection of a crossover point within a chromosome then

interchanges it two parent chromosome at this point to produce new offspring e.g

Parent 2: 00100111 -------- 00100010

(5). Values for the various parameters that the genetic algorithm uses (population size, rate of

applied operators, e.t.c).

For example, optimize f(x) = x2, the task is to find x from the range 0,31 which maximize

the function f(x). We compare the result of analytical optimization in a G.A and find the

optimal solution. So represent the value of x in binary within the given range. Minimum five-

bit code (string) to accommodate the range with regular precision.

2m-1

(b-a) 1

(2m-1)

(2m-1) 31 + 1 2m – 1+1

32 2m

2m ≥ 25

M≥5

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Code = binary ( X decimal)

We now randomly create population of chromosome with the given length. Assuming we

decided only four parameter of X string in the population size

A crossover operator that randomly selects two-crossover points within a chromosome then

interchange the two parent chromosomes between these points to provide two new offspring

(5). MUTATION

A G.A operator used to maintain genetic diversity from one generation of a population of genetic

algorithm chromosomes to the next. The most common way to implement mutation is to flip a

bit with a probability equal to a very low, given mutation rate (MR). Mutation operator may

prevent any single bit from converging to a value through the entire population and importantly,

it can prevent the entire population from converging and stagnating at any local optima. e.g

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mutation bit

Types of mutation

e.t.c

Encoding scheme

Testing the end of the algorithm

no halt

Parent selection

Crossover operator

Mutation operator

ILLUSTRATION OF G.A

To apply a genetic algorithm for a particular problem, we have to define or to select the

following five components:

2. A way to create an initial population of potential solutions.

3. An evaluation function that plays the role of environment rating solutions in terms of

their fitness.

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CR1 CODE X F(x) F(x)/f(x) Expected

reproduction

1 01101 13 169 0.144 0.58

2 11000 24 576 0.492 1.97

3 01000 8 64 0.055 0.22

4 10011 19 361 0.309 1.23

1170 1.000 4.00

Ave 293 0.250 1.00

Max 576 0.492

1.97

CR2 and CR4 are more likely to be reproduces in the next generation than CR 1 and CR3.

CR4 is the best of the four chromosomes.

Using roulette wheel for selection of the next population for this problem, population size

-4

Probability of crossover, PC =1

Probability of mutation, PM= 0.001

Suppose that these are randomly selected pairs

CR1-CR2 and CR2-CR4 and crossover in at 3rd position.

1st pair CR1 ------ 01101 01100 = 12

CR2 ------- 11000 11001 = 25

CR4 --------10011 10000 = 16

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1754 1.00 3.99= 4.00

From the 1st and 2nd evaluation iteration chromosome 11011 0f X = 27 chose the maximum

of f(x), for x = 31 is 961.

DEFINITION:

Fuzzy logic enables us to handle uncertainty in a very intuitive and natural manner. In addition to

making it possible to formalize imprecise data, it also enables us to do arithmetic and Boolean

operations using fuzzy sets. Finally, it describes the inference systems based on fuzzy rules.

Fuzzy rules and fuzzy reasoning processes, which are the most important modeling tools based

on the fuzzy set theory, are the backbone of any fuzzy inference system. Typically, a fuzzy rule

has the general format of a conditional proposition. A fuzzy If-then rule, also known as fuzzy

implication, assumes the form

If x is A then y is B

where A and B are linguistic values defined by fuzzy sets on the universes of discourse X and Y,

respectively. Often, "x is A" is called the antecedent or premise, while "y is B" is called the

consequence or conclusion. Examples of fuzzy If-then rules are widespread in our daily

linguistic expressions, such as the following:

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2. If the road is slippery, then driving is dangerous.

Before we can employ fuzzy If-then rules to model and analyze a fuzzy reasoning-process, we

have to formalize the meaning of the expression "If x is A then y is B", sometimes abbreviated in

a formal presentation as A → B. In essence, the expression describes a relation between two

variables x and y; this suggests that a fuzzy If-then rule be defined as a binary fuzzy relation R

on the product space X × Y. R can be viewed as a fuzzy set with a two-dimensional membership

function:

The characteristics function of a fuzzy set is allowed to have values between 0 and 1, which

denotes the degree of an element in a given set.

of ordered pairs.

Example 2: let X = 0,1,2,3,4,5,6 be a set of numbers of children a family may choose to have.

Then the fuzzy set A= “ Sensible number of children in a family” may be described as following.

A = (0, 0.1), (1, 0.3), (2, 0.7), (3, 1), (4, 0.7), (5, 0.3), (6, 0.1)

Or in the formal notation : A = 0.1/ 0 + 0.3/ 1 + 0.7/ 2 + 1.0/ 3 + 0.7/ 4 + 0.3/ 5 = 0.1/ 6

In a real world application of fuzzy sets, the shape of MFs is usually restricted to a certain class

of function which can be specified is only a few parameters. The most well-known are triangular,

trapezoidal, and Guussian

33

A B C

TRIANGULAR

A B C D

TRAPEZOIDAL

34

GAUSSIAN

Fuzzy logic is a theory which relates to classes of objects with un-sharp boundaries in which

membership is a matter of degree.

Data mining is an iterative process within which progress is defined by discovery, through either

automatic or manual methods. Data mining is most useful in an exploratory analysis scenario in

which there are no predetermined notions about what will constitute an "interesting" outcome.

Data mining is the search for new, valuable, and nontrivial information in large volumes of data.

It is a cooperative effort of humans and computers. Best results are achieved by balancing the

knowledge of human experts in describing problems and goals with the search capabilities of

computers.

In practice, the two primary goals of data mining tend to be prediction and description.

Prediction involves using some variables or fields in the data set to predict unknown or future

values of other variables of interest. Description, on the other hand, focuses on finding patterns

describing the data that can be interpreted by humans. Therefore, it is possible to put data-mining

activities into one of two categories:

1. Predictive data mining, which produces the model of the system described by the given

data set, or

2. Descriptive data mining, with produces new, nontrivial information based on the

available data set.

On the predictive end of the spectrum, the goal of data mining is to produce a model, expressed

as an executable code, which can be used to perform classification, prediction, estimation, or

other similar tasks. On the other, descriptive, end of the spectrum, the goal is to gain an

understanding of the analyzed system by uncovering patterns and relationships in large data sets.

The relative importance of prediction and description for particular data-mining applications can

vary considerably. The goals of prediction and description are achieved by using data-mining

techniques, for the following primary data-mining tasks:

35

1. Classification – discovery of a predictive learning function that classifies a data item into

one of several predefined classes.

2. Regression – discovery of a predictive learning function, which maps a data item to a

real-value prediction variable.

3. Clustering – a common descriptive task in which one seeks to identify a finite set of

categories or clusters to describe the data.

compact description for a set (or subset) of data.

between variables or between the values of a feature in a data set or in a part of a data set.

6. Change and Deviation Detection – discovering the most significant changes in the data

set.

The more formal approach, with graphical interpretation of data-mining tasks for complex and

large data sets and illustrative examples, is given in Chapter 4. Current introductory

classifications and definitions are given here only to give the reader a feeling of the wide

spectrum of problems and tasks that may be solved using data-mining technology.

The success of a data-mining engagement depends largely on the amount of energy, knowledge,

and creativity that the designer puts into it. In essence, data mining is like solving a puzzle. The

individual pieces of the puzzle are not complex structures in and of themselves. Taken as a

collective whole, however, they can constitute very elaborate systems. As you try to unravel

these systems, you will probably get frustrated, start forcing parts together, and generally become

annoyed at the entire process; but once you know how to work with the pieces, you realize that it

was not really that hard in the first place. The same analogy can be applied to data mining. In the

beginning, the designers of the data-mining process probably do not know much about the data

sources; if they did, they would most likely not be interested in performing data mining.

Individually, the data seem simple, complete, and explainable. But collectively, they take on a

whole new appearance that is intimidating and difficult to comprehend, like the puzzle.

36

Therefore, being an analyst and designer in a data-mining process requires, besides thorough

professional knowledge, creative thinking and a willingness to see problems in a different light.

Data mining is one of the fastest growing fields in the computer industry. Once a small interest

area within computer science and statistics, it has quickly expanded into a field of its own. One

of the greatest strengths of data mining is reflected in its wide range of methodologies and

techniques that can be applied to a host of problem sets. Since data mining is the entire data

warehousing, data-mart, and decision-support community, encompassing professionals from

such industries as retail, manufacturing, telecommunications, healthcare, insurance, and

transportation. In the business community, data mining can be used to discover new purchasing

trends, plan investment strategies, and detect unauthorized expenditures in the accounting

system. It can improve marketing campaigns and the outcomes can be used to provide customers

with more focused support and attention. Data-mining techniques can be applied to problems of

business process reengineering, in which the goal is to understand interactions and relationships

among business practices and organizations.

Many law enforcement and special investigative units, whose mission is to identify fraudulent

activities and discover crime trends, have also used data mining successfully. For example, these

methodologies can aid analysts in the identification of critical behavior patterns in the

communication interactions of narcotics organizations, the monetary transactions of money

laundering and insider trading operations, the movements of serial killers, and the targeting of

smugglers at border crossings. Data-mining techniques have also been employed by people in the

intelligence community who maintain many large data sources as a part of the activities relating

to matters of national security. Appendix B of the book gives a brief overview of typical

commercial applications of data-mining technology today.

VISUALIZATION METHODS

Visualization is defined in the dictionary as "a mental image". In the field of computer graphics,

the term has a much more specific meaning. Technically, visualization concerns itself with the

display of behavior and, particularly, with making complex states of behavior comprehensible to

the-human eye. Computer visualization, in particular, is about using computer graphics and other

37

techniques to think about more cases, more variables, and more relations. The goal is to think

clearly, appropriately, with insight, and to act with conviction. Unlike presentations,

visualizations are typically interactive and very often animated.

Because of the high rate of technological progress, the amount of data stored in databases

increases rapidly. This proves true for traditional relational databases and complex 2D and 3D

multimedia databases that store images, CAD (Computer-aided design) drawings, geographic

information, and molecular biology structure. Many of the applications mentioned rely on very

large databases consisting of millions of data objects with several tens to a few hundred

dimensions. When confronted with the complexity of data, users face tough problems: Where do

I start? What looks interesting here? Have I missed anything? What are the other ways to derive

the answer? Is there other data available? People think iteratively and ask ad hoc questions of

complex data while looking for insights.

Computation, based on these large data sets and databases, creates content. Visualization makes

computation and its content accessible to humans. Therefore, visual data mining uses

visualization to augment the data-mining process. Some data-mining techniques and algorithms

are difficult for decision-makers to understand and use. Visualization can make the data and the

mining results more accessible, allowing comparison and verification of results. Visualization

can also be used to steer the data-mining algorithm.

It is useful to develop a taxonomy for data visualization, not only because it brings order to

disjointed techniques, but also because it clarifies and interprets ideas and purposes behind these

techniques. Taxonomy may trigger the imagination to combine existing techniques or discover a

totally new technique.

whether their focus is geometric or symbolic, whether the stimulus is 2D, 3D, or n-D, or whether

the display is static or dynamic. Many visualization tasks involve detection of differences in data

rather than a measurement of absolute values. It is the well-known Weber's Law that states that

the likelihood of detection is proportional to the relative change, not the absolute change, of a

38

graphical attribute. In general, visualizations can be used to explore data, to confirm a

hypothesis, or to manipulate a view.

In exploratory visualizations, the user does not necessarily know what s/he is looking for. This

creates a dynamic scenario in which interaction is critical. The user is searching for structures or

trends and is attempting to arrive at some hypothesis. In confirmatory visualizations, the user has

a hypothesis that needs only to be tested. This scenario is more stable and predictable. System

parameters are often predetermined and visualization tools are necessary for the user to confirm

or refute the hypothesis. In manipulative (production) visualizations, the user has a validated

hypothesis and so knows exactly what is to be presented. Therefore, he focuses on refining the

visualization to optimize the presentation. This type is the most stable and predictable of all

visualizations.

The accepted taxonomy in this book is primarily based on different approaches in visualization

caused by different types of source data. Visualization techniques are divided roughly into two

classes, depending on whether physical data is involved. These two classes are scientific

visualization and information visualization.

Scientific visualization focuses primarily on physical data such as the human body, the earth,

molecules, and so on. Scientific visualization also deals with multidimensional data, but most of

the data sets used in this field use the spatial attributes of the data for visualization purposes; e.g.,

Computer-Aided Tomography(CAT) and Computer-Aided Design(CAD). Also, many of the

Geographical Information Systems (GIS) use either the Cartesian coordinate system or some

modified geographical coordinates to achieve a reasonable visualization of the data.

Information visualization focuses on abstract, nonphysical data such as text, hierarchies, and

statistical data. Data-mining techniques are primarily oriented toward information visualization.

The challenge for nonphysical data is in designing a visual representation of multidimensional

samples (where the number of dimensions is greater than three). Multidimensional-information

visualizations present data that is not primarily plenary or spatial. One-, two-, and three-

dimensional, but also temporal information-visualization schemes can be viewed as a subset of

multidimensional information visualization. One approach is to map the nonphysical data to a

39

virtual object such as a cone tree, which can be manipulated as if it were a physical object.

Another approach is to map the nonphysical data to the graphical properties of points, lines, and

areas.

(IVT) into two broad categories: traditional IVT and novel IVT. Traditional methods of 2D and

3D graphics offer an opportunity for information visualization, even though these techniques are

more often used for presentation of physical data in scientific visualization. Traditional visual

metaphors are used for a single or a small number of dimensions, and they include:

2. Histograms that show the distribution of variables value.

Color-coding is one of the most common traditional IVT methods for displaying a one-

dimensional set of values where each value is represented by a different color. This

representation becomes a continuous tonal variation of color when real numbers are the values of

a dimension. Normally, a color spectrum from blue to red is chosen, representing a natural

variation from "cool" to "hot", in other words from the smallest to the highest values.

With the development of large datawarehouses, data cubes became very popular information-

visualization techniques. A data cube, the raw-data structure in a multidimensional database,

organizes information along a sequence of categories. The categorizing variables are called

dimensions. The data, called measures, are stored in cells along given dimensions. The cube

dimensions are organized into hierarchies and usually include a dimension representing time.

The hierarchical levels for the dimension time may be year, quarter, month, day, and hour.

Similar hierarchies could be defined for other dimensions given in a datawarehouse. Multi-

dimensional databases in modern datawarehouses automatically aggregate measures across

hierarchical dimensions; they support hierarchical navigation, expand and collapse dimensions,

40

enable drill-down, drill-up, or drill-across, and facilitate comparisons through time. In a

transaction information in the database, the cube dimensions might be product, store, department,

customer number, region, month, year. The dimensions are predefined indices in a cube cell and

the measures in a cell are roll-ups or aggregations over the transactions. They are usually sums

but may include functions such as average, standard deviation, percentage, etc.

2. Product: shoes, shirts

3. Month: January, February, March,…, December

Then, the cell corresponding to [north, shirt, February] is the total sales of shirts for the northern

region for the month of February.

Novel information-visualization techniques can simultaneously represent large data sets with

many dimensions on one screen. Some possible classification of these new techniques are

2. Icon-based techniques

3. Pixel-oriented techniques

4. Hierarchical techniques

sets. We will present some illustrative examples of these techniques.

The Scatter-Plot Matrix Technique is an approach that is very often available in new data-mining

software tools. A grid of 2D scatter plots is the standard means of extending a standard 2D scatter

plot to higher dimensions. If you have 10-dimensional data, a lO × 10 array of scatter plots is

used to provide a visualization of each dimension versus every other dimension. This is useful

for looking at all possible two-way interactions or correlations between dimensions. Positive and

negative correlations, but only between two dimensions, can be seen easily. The standard display

41

quickly becomes inadequate for extremely large numbers of dimensions, and user-interactions of

zooming and panning are needed to interpret the scatter plots effectively.

42

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