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INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY ISLAMABAD

MAIN CAMPUS

Health issues and their Solutions in Pakistan


Pakistan Studies

SUBMITTED TO
Sir Munib Ali Bukhari

SUBMITTED BY
Mehmood khan
4960-FMS/BBA/S17
CLOUD COMPUTING

Early history of Cloud Computing


During the 1960s
the initial concepts of time-sharing became popularized via RJE (Remote Job Entry); this
terminology was mostly associated with large vendors such as IBM and DEC.
During the 1970s
Full-time-sharing solutions were available by the early 1970s on such platforms as Multics (on GE
hardware), Cambridge CTSS, and the earliest UNIX ports (on DEC hardware).
During the 1990s
Telecommunications companies, who previously offered primarily dedicated point-to-point data
circuits, began offering virtual private network (VPN) services with comparable quality of service,
but at a lower cost.
During the 2000s
Since 2000, cloud computing has come into existence.
In August 2006, Amazon created subsidiary Amazon Web Services and introduced its Elastic
Compute Cloud (EC2).In April 2008, Google released Google App Engine in beta.
During the 2010s
In February 2010, Microsoft released Microsoft Azure, which was announced in October 2008.
In July 2010, Rackspace Hosting and NASA jointly launched an open-source cloud-software
initiative known as OpenStack.
Definition of Cloud Computing
The National Institute of Stands and Technology (NIST) defines it
"a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of
configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications and services)
that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider
interaction."
Characteristics of Cloud Computing
Cloud computing exhibits the following key characteristics:
•Cost reductions are claimed by cloud providers. A public-cloud delivery model converts capital
expenditures (e.g., buying servers) to operational expenditure .
•Device and location independence enable users to access systems using a web browser
regardless of their location or what device they use (e.g., PC, mobile phone).
•Maintenance of cloud computing applications is easier, because they do not need to be installed
on each user's computer and can be accessed from different places .

MIS AND E-BUSINESS MEHMOOD KHAN


CLOUD COMPUTING

•peak-load capacity increases (users need not engineer and pay for the resources and equipment
to meet their highest possible load-levels)
•Performance is monitored by IT experts from the service provider, and consistent and loosely
coupled architectures are constructed using web services as the system interface.
Advantages of Cloud Computing
Cost Savings
Perhaps, the most significant cloud computing benefit is in terms of IT cost savings. Businesses,
no matter what their type or size, exist to earn money while keeping capital and operational
expenses to a minimum. With cloud computing, you can save substantial capital costs with zero
in-house server storage and application requirements.
Reliability
With a managed service platform, cloud computing is much more reliable and consistent than in-
house IT infrastructure.
Manageability
Cloud computing provides enhanced and simplified IT management and maintenance capabilities
through central administration of resources, vendor managed infrastructure .
Strategic Edge
Ever-increasing computing resources give you a competitive edge over competitors, as the time
you require for IT procurement is virtually nil.
Disadvantages of Cloud Computing
Downtime
As cloud service providers take care of a number of clients each day, they can become
overwhelmed and may even come up against technical outages. This can lead to your business
processes being temporarily suspended. Additionally, if your internet connection is offline, you
will not be able to access any of your applications, server or data from the cloud.
Security
Although cloud service providers implement the best security standards and industry
certifications, storing data and important files on external service providers always opens up risks.
Using cloud-powered technologies means you need to provide your service provider with access
to important business data.

MIS AND E-BUSINESS MEHMOOD KHAN


CLOUD COMPUTING

Vendor Lock-In
Although cloud service providers promise that the cloud will be flexible to use and integrate,
switching cloud services is something that hasn’t yet completely evolved. Organizations may find
it difficult to migrate their services from one vendor to another.
Limited Control
Since the cloud infrastructure is entirely owned, managed and monitored by the service provider,
it transfers minimal control over to the customer. The customer can only control and manage the
applications, data and services operated on top of that, not the backend infrastructure itself.

MIS AND E-BUSINESS MEHMOOD KHAN


CLOUD COMPUTING

REFERENCES

https://lecturenotes.in/subject/366/cloud-computing-cc
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/221635452_Lecture_Notes_in_Computer_Science

MIS AND E-BUSINESS MEHMOOD KHAN