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A Correlational Study: The Leadership Styles in Relation to Age,

Gender and Socio-economic Status of the College Student Leaders of

the University of the East-Manila

A Research Proposal Submitted to the College of Business


University of the East


In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements

In Math in the Modern World

Submitted by:

Arguelles, Erika D. Mangubat, Angel Mae R.

Asas, Paul Ruis A. Resente, Lorreine Joy A.

Benson, Ynnad C. Sibayan, Hyacinth Kaye

Gannaban, Rachelle
September 2018



A. Background and Rationale ……………………………………........…….……

B. Statement of the Problem ……………………………………………………

C. Significance of the Study ………………………………………...…....……..

D. Conceptual Framework…...…………………………...…………………...…

E. Scope and Limitation of the Study…………..…….………………..……...…

F. Definition of Terms…………….…………………………………………..…


A. The Leadership Styles in Relation to Age……………………………………

B. The Leadership Styles in Relation to Gender…………………………………

C. The Leadership Styles in Relation to Socio-economic Status…………………


A. Materials…………………...……….…………………………………………

B. Methods…………………………………………………………………….…

C. Schematic Diagram……………………………...……………………………

D. Statistical Tools………………………………...……………………………..

A. Background and Rationale

The idea of leadership is evident in the Philippines even before the

colonization of the Spanish and Americans through the existing accounts primarily

written by the people who were present during the time, like Fray Juan de Plasencia,

an spanish missionary and a member of the Franciscan Order who wrote, Customs of

the Tagalogs, which contains the hierarchy of the Filipinos from what they call Datu

which means Chief up to the slave of some sorts who are expected to obey what the

person had been told to do so and to abide with the laws created to maintain a

harmonious and peaceful community. But, it was during the coalition of the Filipinos

and Americans, by which the Filipinos through their chosen representative, Emilio

Aguinaldo, beseech for help from the Americans in order to vanquish and conquer

their own land that was colonized by the Spanish. The Filipinos was able to attain

their independence apart from the Spaniards but it was not long enough before the

new conqueror arrived, the Americans. However, unlike the Spaniards who forbid

Filipinos to be taught of, may it be in writing and in leading, the Americans do

otherwise. The Americans did taught Filipinos to write, to speak in English language

and even the system they were using in the field of government, the democratic

system of governance which the Philippine government was currently implementing.

In other words, it was the Americans who formally introduced to the Filipinos the idea

of leadership.
With regards to leadership, Martin Luther King gave a definition of a genuine

leader. According to him, "A genuine leader is not a searcher for consensus but a

molder of consensus." By this quote, it can be assumed that one's effectivity as a

leader is not measured by the number of his followers but, is measured by how he was

able to unite his followers as one. Thus, would result for the follower's conformity of

the laws promulgated by the government.

Based upon the research made by Kurt Lewin, a psychologist, together with

other researchers in 1939, there are 3 different kinds of styles namely: Authoritarian

Leadership Style, Democratic Leadership Style and Laissez-Faire Leadership Style.

The Authoritarian Leadership Style focused on both command of the leader and

control of the followers. Authoritarian leaders provide clear expectations for what

needs to be done, when it should be done and how it should be done. There is a clear

division between the leader and the followers. Authoritarian leaders make decisions

independently with little or no input from the rest of the group. The Democratic

Leadership Style, is the most effective leadership style. Democratic leaders offer

guidance to group members and at the same time, also participate in the group and

allow input from other group members. And lastly, the Laissez-faire Leadership Style,

known as the least productive of all three leadership styles. The leaders under this

type of leadership style offer little or no guidance and leave the decision-making to

the group members.

For the purpose of this research, the kinds of leadership styles aforementioned

above will be correlated in connection with the variables, age, gender and socio-

economic status.

B. Statement of the Problem

This study aims to determine the leadership styles of the college student

leaders of the University of the East-Manila. Generally, it aims to answer the

following questions:

1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of:

1.1. age;
1.2. gender; and
1.3. socio-economic status?
2. What is the leadership style of the respondents?
3. What is the leadership style of the respondents according to their:
3.1. age;
3.2. gender; and
3.3. socio-economic status?

C. Significance of the Study

The findings of the study may prove that the efficacy as a leader may vary

according to age, gender, and socio-economic status. This study will determine the

significant effects of the said factors in leadership styles of the college student leaders

of University of the East. The results of the study will be of great benefit to the


 Students- A good style of leadership might be a great motivator for the

students to become a good follower. Their satisfaction of the good leadership

will create a harmonious relationship between the two and unity will be their

focus in terms of achieving the general goals.

 Leaders- The result may serve as an influence to the college leaders and to

those who wants to be a leader which leadership style would be applicable for

them in terms of age, gender and socio-economic status.

 Other Researchers- This research can serve as a source of another study or can

be replicated using additional variables in another locale with different

respondents. The results will be a possible research literature for their own


D. Conceptual Framework

Below is the paradigm of the conceptual framework on the survey that

the researchers will be doing about the leadership styles in relation to age,

gender and socio-economic status of the college student leaders of the

University of the East-Manila.


Respondents’ profile Prepare the The leadership styles

questionnaire in relation to age,
The information gender and socio-
gathered with the use Validation of economic status of
of questionnaire questionnaire. the college leaders of
the University of the
Approval of


Analyze data

Figure 1. Paradigm of the Conceptual Framework

E. Scope and Limitations of the Study

This research paper aims to cover the answers regarding the leadership styles

in relation to age, gender and socio-economic status of the college leaders of the

University of the East - Manila. In this study, it is limited only in all college

department of tertiary level in the said university, namely, College of Arts and

Sciences, College of Business Administration, College of Computer Studies and

Systems, College of Education, College of Engineering, and College of Dentistry,

especially the student leaders and aspiring ones aging eighteen and above. The study

is also limited to student council officers and class officers of each college

department. Furthermore, the leadership styles that will be used in the study will be

limited to Authoritarian, Democratic and Laissez-Faire.

F. Definition of Terms

The following are the definitions of terms as they are used in the study:

1. Authoritarian Leadership Style- this refers to a leader which dictates policies

and procedures, decides what goals are to be achieved, and directs and

controls all activities without any meaningful participation by the subordinates

or followers.
2. Democratic Leadership Style- also known as participative leadership or shared

leadership, is a type of leadership style in which members of the group take a

more participative role in the decision-making process. It is also charged with

deciding who is in the group and who gets to contribute to the decisions that

are made.
3. Laissez-Faire Leadership Style- also known as delegative leadership, is a type

of leadership style in which leaders are hands-off and allow group members to

make the decisions. Leader This refers to the person who leads or commands a

group, organization, or country. Leadership style- is the manner and approach

of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivating people.


A. Leadership Styles in Relation to Age

Bhargava R. Kotur, S. A ba Hagan analyze the influence of age and gender on

k leadership style through the three leadership style namely: The Autocratic,

Democratic and Laissez-faire leadership style. Maximum authority is exhibited in the

Autocratic leadership style and this leader always wants to command, order his

Fellowes to comply. This leader order but will not listen to his/her followers (Bass,

1990). In the other hand in Democratic leadership style the leader gives equal priority

to each individual him/her and feels himself/herself as an important member of the

organization (Adeyemi, 2007). In Laissez-faire leadership style the leader leaves the

subordinate free to make decision and exercise power, the leaders have least role and
participation in the discussion made by his/her group members in the organization

(Ogensanwo, 2000).

These three leadership styles - Autocratic, Democratic and Laissez-faire has

their own merits and limitations tools and none of these could be universally applied.

Depending in the situation on the followers - leaders has to choose his leadership style

in order to be effective (Bass, 1990). The objective of this study is to know if the age

and gender has factors greatly affects the leadership style of a person. The study is

focused on the workers in the sugar factory at Chitoor. In order to collect the data,

random sampling technique was used I the survey. In the sampling technique they

randomly select 112 participants. The method of data collection is questionnaire to

collect the information from the participants. With the used of 3 leadership styles the

researchers were able to analyze that the Democratic leadership style is more

dominant among the participants, Laissez-faire comes next and Autocratic leadership

style is exhibited by least number of employees. As we can see in this study 1-25 yrs.

Old 2 out of 2 are on democratic leadership style, from age 26-35 yrs. out of 21

persons, 5 is on Autocratic, the dominant is the democratic which 14 persons chose it

and lastly 2 persons is on Laissez-faire leadership style. At the age of 36-45 yrs. Out

of 35 person 3 was on Autocratic, 22 prefer democratic and 10 was Laissez-faire

leadership style and at the age of 46 and above most of the participants of the

participants displaying Democratic leadership style with the total of 32 out of 54

participants 4vwiyb the Autocratic and 18 is on Laissez-faire. And also, as we can see

out of the total 112 participants 70 of the applying Democratic Leadership style. And

with the conclusion the study indicates that out of the three leadership styles the
Democratic leadership style Is dominant with the workers of sugar factory in Chitoor

and with increasing age the workers exhibit lesser authority on their fellow workers.

B. Leadership Styles in Relation to Gender

Leadership styles had been an interesting subject to researchers ever since.

The idea of leadership embarked on a new wider aspect of studies and researches

constituting various factors which can be correlated to leadership such as age, gender,

position, culture and the like, in which, this may contribute, may brought new ideas

and of significance, especially in the field of politics. Based on the study made by

Susan P. Kellett -Forsyth entitled, A study of the relationship between leadership style

and gender, Leadership is one of the numerous factors that shape world's existence.

The absence of leadership results to having no means of influencing the people to

reach necessary goals. Using the definition of Bernard Bass of Leadership, that it is

the interaction between the members of the group and that it occurs when one member

modifies the motivation and the competencies of others in the group, Susan P. Kellett

-Forsyth, presented the complexity of the study of Leadership. Another definition of

Leadership was based on the field manual of the military armies of the United States.

It defines leadership as the process of influencing others to accomplish the mission by

providing purpose, direction and motivation in which, in this definition given, there

are four factors involved namely: the leader, the led, the environment and the

communications. The objective of this study is to determine the predominant

leadership style of the participants consisting of thirty men and thirty-four women in

relation to gender. The sample group all in all is composed of 64 participants. Before

the methodologies was conducted, an assumption was made that the results would

reveal that women prescribed to a more participative leadership style of leadership. In

order to achieve the objective of the study, the researcher utilizes and apply the

Central Tendency Theorem in order to support any findings as valid. The respondents

are not randomly selected but, are those who volunteered out of their free will as

respondents of the study.

The research methodology used by the researcher, the Command Philosophy

Statement and the Leader Behavior Analysis Survey, was designed to test the validity

and to determine whether women officers in the United States Army use a more

participative leadership styles than their male counterparts. In addition to this, it is

expected that the tools to provide the data to relate leadership style to gender used

would reveal the differences in leadership style that were attributable to gender

differences. The Command Philosophy Statement were analyzed using a multi-frame

orientation and the result were expressed in terms of the study's participants'

frequency of use of the four frames (Bolman and Deal): the structural frame, the

human resources frame, the political frame and the symbolic frame. The structural

Frame is operated under the assumption that the organizations exists primarily to

accomplish established goals with coordination and control through the exercise of

authority and impersonal rules. The human resources frame focused on the people of

the organization. Stated here that people are the most critical resource in the

organization. For the political frame, this saw organizations as coalitions that included

a diverse set of individuals and interest groups. And lastly, the symbolic frame in

which organizations were judged not by what they did but by what they appeared.

As for the Leader Behavior Analysis Survey, it was used to identify the

subject’s predominant leadership style. There are four leadership styles. The S1 style
is highly directive with low supportive behavior that was mostly aligned with the

autocratic leadership style. The S2 style was both highly directive and highly

supportive. The S3 style was more analogous to a participative leadership style. And

lastly, the S4 style exhibited low directive and low supportive behavior. With the use

of these two research method, the researcher was able to make an analysis that there

was no significant differences between men and women in terms of the leadership

styles and frame analysis. Since, under structural frame, the average frequency of

frame response is 2.83 whereas, the average frequency of women is 2.73. Under

Human resources frame, the average frequency of frame response of men is 6.13 and

the average frequency of frame response of women is 5.17. Under Political frame, the

average frequency of frame response of men is .2 whereas, the average frequency of

frame response of women is .35. And lastly, under Symbolic frame, the average

frequency of frame response of men is 1.6 and the average frequency of frame

response of women is 1.3. While, in terms of leadership style by gender, 60% of the

participants were rated higher in the S3 leadership style and 34% were rated higher in

the S2 leadership style. The combination of those rated higher in S1 and S4 leadership

styles is 6% of the study's population. In conclusion, men and women were very

similar in their choice of leadership styles and that, men and women made more

statements that corresponds with the human resource frame compared to other frames.

One of the recommendations is that, one may adopt the leadership styles of one's

superior and peers. More so, one may apply the research method used as well as the

instruments in any field especially in military.

C. Leadership Styles in Relation to Socio-economic Status

People have different perceptions as to how we define Leadership. Leadership

may mean different things to different people. Akhtar (2012) explained that leadership

is a product of one’s position, personality traits, and observable behaviors, depending

on the situation in which it is employed and conditional to how the leader and his

followers react and interact with each other. He further explained that, in

organizations, leadership refers to the influence of leaders and followers to achieve

organizational objectives. It involves directing, controlling, motivating, and inspiring

staff towards the achievement of organizational goals. According to Iqbal, Anwar, &

Haider (2015), leadership is a process by which a manager can direct, guide, and

influence the behavior and work of others toward the achievement of specific goals in

a given situation. Furthermore, the authors stressed that leadership entails the ability

of a manager to inspire the subordinates to work with confidence and zeal, it involves

persuasion and explanation as well as ability to identify, affirm, and renew the values

of the group the leader represents.

Akhbar (2012) analyzed the relationship of managers’ leadership styles with

gender, experience and socioeconomic status. He identified three different types of

leadership styles, namely, transformational, transactional, and charismatic. The main

behaviors of a transformational leader include establishing goals, building a good

image, demonstrating confidence, and creating motivation. Transformational leaders

motivate their followers by being optimist, establishing ambitious goals, and

projecting an idealized vision. The transactional leader focuses on clarifying roles and

tasks, and providing followers with material or psychological rewards on the

achievement of contractual obligations. The charismatic leadership has a well-defined

vision and mission, and is trustworthy and loyal. A charismatic leader also has
extraordinary talent, high self-esteem, persuasive skills, care, devotion, and extreme

influence on followers.

Juarez & Contreras (2012) examined the influence of optimism and

socioeconomic characteristics on leadership practices. They also mentioned three

types of leadership styles, including transformational, charismatic, and transactional.

According to them, transformational leaders are not afraid to face challenges, they

promote adaptation, encourage participatory decision-making, and are open to change.

They are innovative, possess negotiation skills, persistent, supportive, and thus,

enhancing performance. A charismatic leader creates a positive vision of the future

and has an impact on the emotional temperament of the group, because of his or her

openness, positive information processing, and transmission of expectations. A

transactional leader rewards or punishes according to performance of the followers.

He or she closely monitors the activities of subordinates, pays attention to mistakes

and deviations, and takes actions to correct them.

Wall, Pettibone, & Kelsey (2005) analyzed the impact of socioeconomic status on

leadership potential in an agricultural leadership program. They found that income,

education, and gender had statistically significant effects on an individual’s level of

community involvement. Individuals with higher incomes tend to participate more in

community leadership activities than those with lower incomes. Moreover, individuals

with higher educational levels tend to participate more in community leadership

activities than those with lower educational levels also. Female respondents were

more involved in community leadership activities than male respondents.

Loiseau (2015) discussed the types of leadership styles. The author identified

eleven types of leadership styles, specifically, autocratic, bureaucratic, charismatic,

democratic, servant, laissez-faire, people-oriented, task oriented, transactional,

transformational, and environmental. The autocratic leader makes the decision alone,

has total authority, and imposes his or her will. The bureaucratic leader believes in the

structure of procedures and focuses on the pre-established measures whether he or she

is successful or not. The charismatic leader leads by injecting energy and eagerness

into the team members. The democratic leader listens to the team’s ideas and analyzes

them, but has the responsibility to make the final decision. The servant leader

facilitates goal achievement by giving his or her team members what they need in

order to be productive. The laissez-faire leader is a leader that does not lead at all, he

or she fails in supervising team members, resulting in the lack of control and bad

service. The people-oriented leader is the one that promotes effectiveness and

efficiency, by supporting, training and developing the personnel; thus, increasing job

satisfaction and interest in doing the job well. The task-oriented leader focuses on the

job, and concentrates on the specific tasks assigned to each team member to fulfill a

goal. The transactional leader assigns tasks, and rewards or punishes subordinates for

the team’s performance. The transformational leader motivates the team to be

effective and efficient. The environmental leader encourages team members to affect

their emotional and psychological temperament to feel they are part of the team.


A. Materials
The researchers will use a prepared questionnaire from Northouse, P.G. which
employed a 5-point scale to identify the leadership style of the respondents. the
respondents to agree to.

This Leadership Style Questionnaire helps incoming leaders understand their

preferred leadership style. The questionnaire provides three categories of leadership
style (Authoritative, Democratic, Laissez faire) which are determined by a
participant’s cumulative score. Additional descriptions of each style are also included
in the questionnaire that provides further insight into each style. The extent of their
agreement was measured using the following pointing system:
Also, age and gender will be required to determine its relation to the output of their

leadership styles. While in determining their socio-economic status, we will make use

of the social class in determining their social and economic standing in the society

according to.:

 Upper Class – Elite.

 Upper Middle Class.
 Lower Middle Class.
 Working Class.
 Poor

B. Methods

The selection of the college student leaders for the research sample will come
from various college departments. The selection of samples from the population of
college students will be done out of clustering. A total of six (6) college departments
were formed from clustering. From each cluster, there will be 50 college student
leaders that will be randomly selected basing on their convenience and discretion.

C. Schematic Diagram

A Correlational Study: The Leadership Styles in

Relation to Age, Gender and Socio-economic Status
of the College Student Leaders of the University of
the East-Manila

Preparation of the questionnaires

Background of the Respondents from
clusters of Colleges

Results of the Survey

Analysis of Data

Interpretation of Findings and Formulation of


Figure 2. The Schematic Diagram

D. Statistical Tools

After getting the scores from the answers of the respondents, we will get the

mean of the total scores from each respondent to determine the central tendency in

relation to their age, gender, and socio-economic status. The formulas\ for mean is:
After getting the mean of the score, we will determine the standard deviation

of the scores of all the respondents. The formula of the standard deviation is:

Now we have the standard deviation, we will be able to determine the z-scores

of the particular values in the curve. The formula for obtaining the z-score is: