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A COMPARISON OF THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT CURING METHODS IN THE

STRENGTH OF CONCRETE

A Project Study Presented to

the Faculty of the Department of Civil Engineering

College of Engineering and Architecture,

University of the Cordilleras

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree

Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering

by
Almadin, Khyzel B.
Al-matari, Mohammed H.
Asiong, Daisy S.
Dar, Paulo C.
Dayao, Luke S.
Os-osa, John Dave U.

April 2019
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
TITLE PAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i

APPROVAL SHEET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

DEDICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

TABLE OF CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii

LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

LIST OF FIGURE/S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

CHAPTER

1 THE PROBLEM

Background of the Study . . . . . . . . . 1

Conceptual/Theoretical Framework . . . . 8

Significance of the Study . . . . . . . . 21

Research Paradigm . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Statement of the Problem and Hypotheses . 23

Scope, Limitations & Delimitations . . . . 23

Definition of Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

2 DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

Research Design and Methodology . . . . . 30

Population and Locale of the Study . . . . 30

Data Gathering Tools . . . . . . . . . . . 31

Data Gathering Procedure . . . . . . . . . 35

ii
PAGE

Treatment of Data . . . . . . . . . . . 41

CHAPTER

3 PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND

INTERPRETATION OF DATA

Xxxxxxxxxx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx . . . . . . . . . . . .

4 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . .

REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

APPENDICES

A Anticipated Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

B Gantt Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

C Cost . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

CURRICULUM VITAE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

iii
LIST OF TABLES

Table No. Table Title Page

1 Correction Factor . . . . . . . 15

2 xxxxxxxx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx . . . . . . . . . . . .

4 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx . . . . . . . . . . . .

5 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx . . . . . . . . . . . . .

iv
LIST OF FIGURES

Figure No. Figure Title Page

1 Sprinkling . . . . . . . . . . . 5

2 Burlap Curing . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

3 Steam Curing . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

4 Conceptual Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

5 Theoretical Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

6 Research Paradigm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

7 Coarse and Fine Aggregates. . . . . . . . . . 31

8 Water Faucet in UC-CEA Laboratory . . . . . . 32

9 Holcim Portland Cement . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

10 A roll of Berlene Curing Blanket . . . . . . 34

11 Universal Testing Machine (UTM). . . . . . . . 41

v
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Chapter 1

THE PROBLEM

Background of the Study

Concrete is a stone-like material obtained by permitting a

carefully proportioned mixture of cement, sand and gravel or other

aggregate, and water to harden in forms of the shape and dimensions

of the desired structure (Nilson, Dawin & Dolan, 2010). Concrete

is a ubiquitous material and its versatility and ready availability

have ensured that it has been and will continue to be of great and

increasing importance for all types of construction throughout the

world(Domone & Illston, 2010). The factors that make concrete a

universal building material are so pronounced that it has been

used, in more primitive kinds and ways than at present, for

thousands of years, starting with lime mortars from 12,000 to 6000

BCE in Crete, Cyprus, Greece, and the Middle East (Nilson, Dawin

& Dolan, 2010). Concrete is one the most important materials that

used up lots of natural resources. In the modern era, the use of

concrete had been the backbone of the construction industry of the

nation. The development of the local construction industry demands

for higher concrete volume higher which indirectly increase the

need for larger natural resources supply to produce concrete (Yu,

Ing & Choo, 2017). Concrete is the most widely used man made

construction material in the world. And is second only to water as


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the most utilized substance on the planet. It is obtained by the

mixing cementing materials, water and aggregates, and sometimes

admixtures, in required proportions (Nagesh, Kumar, Chincholi &

Nagaraj, n.d.). As cited by researchers led by Aguilar, concrete

industries are projected to grow from 8.5 to 10.3 trillion US

dollars in a span of five years, 2015-2020 (Construction

Intelligence Center, 2015). These figures means billions of metric

of raw materials, about 53 billion metric tons of natural

aggregates forecast in 2017 (Freedonta, 2014). However, there is

a critical shortage of natural aggregates for production of

concrete, thus, concrete which serve no longer value such as

deteriorated concretes creates severe ecological and environmental

problem (Schachermayer, et. al., 2000).

Demands on modern concrete are increasing, while raw

materials are changing and budgets are shrinking, together

requiring that closer attention is needed to ensure that the best

value is obtained from the cementitious materials in the mixture

(Taylor, 2014). In the last decade large investments in

infrastructural structures are made (High Speed Link and

Betuweroute) and new investments are foreseen. These structures

are and will be designed for a lifetime of 80 or 100 years or more.

Not only for technical reasons, but also for economic reasons.

During this lifetime the structure is exposed to several

environmental influences. Whether a concrete structure can resist


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these environmental influences depends, among other things, on the

ingress rate of liquids and gasses (Bouwmeester & Schlangen, 2008).

Concrete failures at site are associated to several reasons; right

from concrete mix design, properties of materials used, mixing,

placing, compaction, curing procedures and many more (Kulkarni &

Pereira, 2011). With these in hand, it opened doors to every

researchers to incorporate and synthesize as to prolong the life

span of concrete in structure and increase its serviceability, one

of which introduces the proper use of curing. Proper curing is

believed to reduce unwanted waste from rejected concrete not

meeting the standard or desired strength, reserve natural sources

(aggregates, minerals, etc.), influences aspects in the concrete

structure both its physical and mechanical properties (compressive

strength, durability, etc.) and many more.

Curing plays an important role on strength development and

durability of concrete. Curing takes place immediately after

concrete placing and finishing, and involves maintenance of

desired moisture and temperature conditions, both at depth and

near the surface, for extended periods of time. Properly cured

concrete has an adequate amount of moisture for continued hydration

and development of strength, volume stability, resistance to

freezing and thawing, and abrasion and scaling resistance

(Zemajtis, 2018). Fresh concrete gains strength most rapidly

during the first few days and weeks. Structural design is generally
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based on the 28-day strength, about 70 percent of which is reached

at the end of the first week after placing. The final concrete

strength depends greatly on the conditions of moisture and

temperature during this initial period. The maintenance of proper

conditions during this time is known as curing (Nilson, Dawin &

Dolan, 2010).

Three (3) general method of curing concrete is provided,

namely; “Water curing”, “Membrane or Cover curing”, and “Heat

curing”. Water curing is done by spraying or sprinkling water over

the concrete surface to ensure that the concrete surface remains

continuously moist, this prevents the moisture from the body of

concrete from evaporating and contributes to the strength gain of

concrete. It includes five (5) sub-types; ponding, sprinkling,

fogging and mist curing, and wet coverings. While membrane curing

is done by wrapping the concrete, under this method includes;

formwork, plastic sheeting, and membrane curing compounds. Lastly,

steam curing is a process for accelerating the early hardening of

concrete and mortars by exposing it to steam and humidity, this

type of system is most commonly used for precast concrete products

where standard products are manufactured in the factory and the

turnaround time of the formwork is very quick (Kulkarni & Pereira,

2011). Shown in Figures 1, 2 and 3 are the most commonly used

curing, in construction site, of each of the general method

aforementioned; sprinkling, burlap curing and steam curing.


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Figure 1: Sprinkling

Figure 2: Burlap Curing


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Figure 3: Steam Curing

Source: https://gharpedia.com/concrete-curing-methods/

Advancement in the development of research regarding this

matter is still challenging and ongoing. Raheem, Soyingbe & Emenike

(2013), proposed a study focused on the effect of six particular

curing methods (Water Submerged, Spray, Polythene, Burlap, Moist

Sand, and Air curing) on the density and compressive strength of

concrete with curing durations of 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days, the

study concluded that moist sand curing method generates the highest

compressive strength, whereas, air curing produce the least.

Similar study was conducted by Yu, Ing, & Choo (2017) where they

introduced a replacement aggregate but focuses still on the effect

of curing methods on its compressive strength, the researchers

uses only two methods, full water curing and air-open curing, with
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curing duration of 1, 7 and 28 days, it is suggested that water

curing is most suitable for the specimen being experimented. Other

study, Aminur, et. al. (2010), suggested likewise that water curing

is likely the best curing method to attain strength development.


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Conceptual and Theoretical Framework

Conceptual Framework

Concrete Curing Methods

Concrete
Development

Concrete Strength

Figure 4: Conceptual Framework

The concept of our study is to compare which curing method

affects the strength of a concrete the most considering its

development in 7 days of curing, 14 days of curing and 28 days of

curing. The concrete to be used in this study shall have the same

concrete mix ratio for all the three (3) methods. Our study will

follow a procedural method as indicated in the ASTM manual and

AASHTO including the specimen’s 7-day strength, 14-day strength,

and 28-day strength. For the curing, standards for each of the

chosen three methods are adopted in this study.


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Steam curing of concrete at atmospheric pressure has the

advantage of accelerating the hydration reactions of Portland

cement. Consequently, the material develops compressive strength

and reduces its permeability in a shorter time compared with

standard curing under ambient conditions. Under normal ambient

conditions, depending on the type of cement and its fineness, the

compressive strength can reach up to 50 % of the final strength in

3 days, and 80 % in 10 days. (Wilson, Gupta, 2003)

The advantage of using burlap is that it can hold water on

horizontal and vertical surfaces. For sprinkling the surface of

the concrete, it provides excellent curing when the air temperature

is above freezing. (Gebler, et. al., 2008)


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Theoretical Framework

Sand Cement Gravel

Concrete

Mold

Curing of
Concrete

Sprinkling Burlap Steam

7 Days 14 Days 28 Days

Flexural
Compressive
Strength
Strength Test
Test

Figure 5: Theoretical Framework

The theoretical framework of the study portrays a step-by-

step procedure in obtaining the strength of a concrete. It includes

the computation for the concrete ratio which will be used

throughout and the data for concrete mixing. It is also compromised

by curing methods for the concrete.

Curing plays an important role on strength development and

durability of concrete. American Concrete Institute (ACI)

Committee 301 recommends a minimum curing period corresponding to


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concrete attaining 70 percent of the specified compressive

strength2. The often specified seven-day curing commonly

corresponds to approximately 70 percent of the specified

compressive strengths.

The first step in this study is the laboratory concrete mix

proportioning to prepare a concrete mix proportion according to

specification and to determine its properties. A trial mix design

procedure is to be followed in accordance to ASTM C 192-69, ASTM

C 143-71, AASHTO T 126-70, and AASHTO T 119-74. Concrete trial mix

data and the batch quantities will be determined.

A. Designed strength: _____________________psi

a. W-C Ratio for Strength: _________________

b. W-C Ratio for exposure: _________________

c. W-C Ratio for use: ______________________

d. Exposure Condition: _____________________

e. Size of coarse aggregate used: _____________________

f. Texture and Shape of coarse aggregate:


____________________

g. Absorption: _______________%

h. Specific Gravity (Dry): ____________________

i. Dry-rodded unit weight: ___________________

j. Fineness Modulus of Fine Aggregate: ________________

k. Absorption: ______________%
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l. Specific Gravity (Dry): ____________________

m. Desired Slump: __________________

n. Actual Slump: ___________________

o. Water Content: __________________

p. Cement Factor: __________________

q. Unit Weight of Concrete: ________________

r. Mixture Proportion: __________________

This procedure is for calculating the approximate quantities

of coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, cement, and water needed to

make one cubic yard of air-entrained concrete of a specified

compressive strength. This calculation should be done before the

beginning of the laboratory period. It includes the 28-day

compressive strength for the concrete, properties of the coarse

and fine aggregate including maximum aggregate size, fineness

modulus, of the fine aggregate, effective absorption of the fine

and coarse aggregate, the dry rodded unit weight of the coarse

aggregate, and the shape of the coarse aggregate and slump of the

concrete mix.

The next procedure is the laboratory batching. Record all the

weights in the data. The weights of cement, water, coarse and fine

aggregates computed in the first procedure will be adopted and put

in larger mixing pan. Coarse and fine aggregates are added into

the mixing pan to produce a concrete mix with the desired slump
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and with good workability. Then slump shall be tested. When the

batch is judged to be satisfactory, the remaining supplies of

aggregates are weighed and recorded in the data sheet.

In testing the slump, the mold should be dampened and placed

in the mixing board. The mold shall be firmly held down against

the board. The slump cone with concrete is filled in three layers,

each approximately one-third of the volume of the mold. Each layer

shall be rodded with 25 strokes, distributed uniformly over the

cross-section of the cone. The rod shall lightly penetrate the

previous layer. The slump shall be measured immediately by

determining the difference between the height of the mold and the

height of the subsided concrete. After the slump measurement is

completed, the side of the concrete frustum should be tapped gently

with the tamping rod. The behavior of the concrete under this

treatment is a valuable indication of cohesiveness. A well-

proportioned mix will gradually slump to lower elevation and retain

its original form, while a poor mix will crumple, segregate and

fall apart.

The cylindrical concrete and beam concrete specimen shall be

formed by placing the concrete in the cylinder and beam mold in

three layers of approximately equal volume. Each volume shall be

rodded with 25 strokes using a tamping rod. The strokes should be

distributed uniformly over the cross section of the mold. Also the

mold filled with concrete should be tapped gently with the tamping
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rod. This treatment will help to consolidate the concrete and to

drive out the air bubbles trapped in the concrete.

After 24 ± 8 hours, test specimen shall be removed from the

molds and stored in the curing room.

After curing the specimen for 28 days, perform the compression

test and the splitting tension test of concrete. For the test of

flexural strength of concrete, this covers the determination of

the flexural strength of small size concrete specimens by the use

of a simple beam with center point loading. The load is applied

slowly until beam breaks and the UTM shall provide its maximum

load.

Compressive Strength

The compressive strength of concrete a very important factor

in designing a building. Compressive strength test results are

primarily used to determine that the concrete mixture as delivered

meets the requirements of the specified strength, f’c, in the job

specification.

Strength test results from cast cylinders may be used for

quality control, acceptance of concrete, or for estimating the

concrete strength in a structure for the purpose of scheduling

construction operations such as form removal or for evaluating the

adequacy of curing and protection afforded to the structure.

Cylinders tested for acceptance and quality control are made and
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cured in accordance with procedures described for standard-cured

specimens in ASTM C 192, Standard Practice for Making and Curing

Concrete Test Specimens in the Laboratory. Cylindrical specimens

are tested in accordance with ASTM C 39, Standard Test Method for

Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens.

The compressive strength of the specimen can be calculated by

dividing the maximum load carried to the average cross-sectional

area of the specimen.

𝐏
𝐂𝐒 = (𝑬𝒒𝒖𝒂𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏 𝟏)
𝐀

Where, CS = Compressive Strength in MPa

P = failure load in N

A = cross sectional area in mm2

If the specimen length to diameter ratio is 1.75 or less,

correct the result obtained by multiplying the appropriate

correction factor (Table 1) to the compressive strength of the

concrete.

Table 1: Correction Factor

L/D: 1.75 1.50 1.25 1.00

Factor 0.98 0.96 0.93 0.87


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Use interpolation to determine correction factors for L/D

values between those given in table 1.

Note: Correction factors depend on various conditions such as

moisture condition, strength level, and elastic modulus. Average

values are given in table 1. These correction factors apply to

low-density concrete weighing between 100 and 120 lb/ft3 [1600 and

1920 kg/m3] and to normal density concrete. They are applicable to

concrete dry or soaked at the time of loading and for nominal

concrete strengths from 2000 to 6000 psi [14 to 42 MPa]. For

strengths higher than 6000 psi [42 MPa] correction factors may be

larger than the values listed above.

Flexural Strength of Concrete

Flexural strength is one measure of the tensile strength of

concrete. It is a measure of an un-reinforced concrete beam or

slab to resist failure in bending. It is measured by loading 6 x

6-inch (150 x150 mm) concrete beams with a span length of at least

three times the depth. The flexural strength is expressed as

Modulus of Rupture in psi (MPa) and is determined by standard test

methods ASTM C 78 (third-point loading) or ASTM C 293 (center-

point loading).

MR (maximum flexure stress at failure)

𝟑𝐏𝐋
𝐌𝐑 = (𝑬𝒒𝒖𝒂𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏 𝟐)
𝟐𝐛𝐡𝟐
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Where: MR = modulus of rapture

P = maximum load applied indicated by the testing machine

L = span length

b = average width of specimen at the fracture

h = average depth of specimen at the fracture

Flexural MR is about 10 to 20 percent of compressive

strength depending on the type, size and volume of coarse

aggregate used. The MR determined by third-point loading is

lower than the MR determined by center-point loading, sometimes

by as much as 15%.

Sprinkling

In curing concrete using sprinkling method, the temperature

of the curing water shall not be lower than 10 C (20 F) cooler

than the surface temperature of the concrete at the time the water

and concrete come in contact. Water shall be potable or shall meet

the requirements of ASTM C 94, and shall be free of materials that

have the potential to stain concrete. Equipment shall consist of

soaker hoses, lawn sprinklers, or a combination thereof.

Perform sprinkling for final curing by using either soaker

hoses or lawn sprinklers. Exercise care so the surface of the

concrete is not eroded. Use soaker hoses for initial curing of

concrete walls and columns after time of initial setting and prior
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to the forms being removed. Place hoses at the top of walls and

columns so water will enter between concrete and form work. Keep

the concrete surfaces continuously wet. However, the sprinklers do

not have to be permanently; they may be on an intermittent timer.

Sprinklers require a major water supply, can be wasteful of

water and may need a drainage system to handle the run-off. The

alternative is to have a closed system where the water is collected

and recycled.

Steam Curing

In steam curing, the strength development of concrete is very

rapid. This method can best be used in pre cast concrete work. In

steam curing the temperature of steam should be restricted to a

maximum of 750C as in the absence of proper humidity (about 90%)

the concrete may dry too soon. In case of hot water curing,

temperature may be raised to any limit, by 1000C.

Steam curing is advantageous where early strength gain in

concrete is important or where additional heat is required to

accomplish hydration, as in cold weather. Two methods of steam

curing are used: live steam at atmospheric pressure (for enclosed

cast-in-place structures and large precast concrete units) and

high-pressure steam in autoclaves (for small manufactured units).

A typical steam-curing cycle consists of an initial delay

prior to steaming, a period for increasing the temperature, a


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period for holding the maximum temperature constant, and a period

for decreasing the temperature.

Steam curing at atmospheric pressure is generally done in an

enclosure to minimize moisture and heat losses. Tarpaulins are

frequently used to form the enclosure. Application of steam to the

enclosure should be delayed until initial set occurs or delayed at

least 3 hours after final placement of concrete to allow for some

hardening of the concrete. However, a 3- to 5- hour delay period

prior to steaming will achieve maximum early strength.

Steam temperature in the enclosure should be kept at about

60°C (140°F) until the desired concrete strength has developed.

Strength will not increase significantly if the maximum steam

temperature is raised from 60°C to 70°C (140°F to 160°F). Steam-

curing temperatures above 70°C (160°F) should be avoided; they are

uneconomical and may result in damage. It is recommended that the

internal temperature of concrete not exceed 70°C (160°F) to avoid

heat induced delayed expansion and undue reduction in ultimate

strength. Use of concrete temperatures above 70°C (160°F) should

be demonstrated to be safe by test or historic field data.

Concrete temperatures are commonly monitored at the exposed

ends of the concrete element. Monitoring air temperatures alone is

not sufficient because the heat of hydration may cause the internal

temperature of the concrete to exceed 70°C (160°F). Besides early

strength gain, there are other advantages of curing concrete at


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temperatures of around 60°C (140°F); for example, there is reduced

drying shrinkage and creep as compared to concrete cured at 23°C

(73°F) for 28 days (Klieger 1960 and Tepponen and Eriksson 1987).

Excessive rates of heating and cooling should be avoided to

prevent damaging volume changes. Temperatures in the enclosure

surrounding the concrete should not be increased or decreased more

than 22°C to 33°C (40°F to60°F) per hour depending on the size and

shape of the concrete element.

The curing temperature in the enclosure should be held until

the concrete has reached the desired strength. The time required

will depend on the concrete mixture and steam temperature in the

enclosure.

Wet Coverings or Wet Burlap

Fabric coverings saturated with water, such as burlap, cotton

mats, rugs, or other moisture-retaining fabrics, are commonly used

for curing.

Burlap must be free of any substance that is harmful to

concrete or causes discoloration. New burlap should be thoroughly

rinsed in water to remove soluble substances and to make the burlap

more absorbent. Wet, moisture-retaining fabric coverings should be

placed as soon as the concrete has hardened sufficiently to prevent

surface damage. Care should be taken to cover the entire surface

with wet fabric, including the edges of slabs. The coverings should
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be kept continuously moist so that a film of water remains on the

concrete surface throughout the curing period.

Significance of the Study

The study is expected to generate a satisfactory finding where

it could provide and offer an information to other researchers and

enthusiast students exploring similar fields. The information

established in the study is believed to greatly awaken the

awareness of many construction engineers on what curing method

would best suited depending on the nature of the construction,

availability of resources, and weather conditions. The data

presented in this study could also open a door to the uprising

development of concrete structures which will benefit the public,

researchers, and the economic growth of the country as it provides

a general evidence and as a basis on establishing longer life span

of all kinds of concrete structures.

Research Paradigm

The study is guided by a schematic paradigm as shown in Figure

6. The study uses the typical I-P-O format (input, process,

outcome) which outlines the approaches in conducting this study.

The input includes; materials (aggregates, cement, water), mix

batch of concrete materials, one (1) sample for 7 days, one (1)

sample for 14 days, and one (1) sample for 28 days. The process

includes the following; mix design and property testing of each of


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the samples as per ASTM standards mentioned in the input. And

finally, the expected outcome is the different effect of different

curing methods on the flexural and compressive strength of each of

the samples.

INPUT
• Materials for concrete
• Mix batch for three
separate curing durations

PROCESS
• Mix Design
• Property testing of cured
specimen

OUTCOME
• Curing Effects on the
strength concrete
specimen

Figure 6. Research Paradigm


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Statement of the Problem

The main aim of this study is to assess and compare the effect

of the three (3) different method of curing used in concrete

especially on its flexural and compressive strength. The three (3)

curing methods to be used are sprinkling method of curing, wet

burlap method of curing, and steam method of curing.

Specifically, it sought to answer the following:

1. What is the difference in compressive strength of each of

the curing being held?

2. What is the difference in flexural strength of each of the

curing being held?

3. What is the percentage in the development of strength of

each of the curing after a consecutive curing durations

(seven, fourteen and twenty-eight days)?

Scope, Limitation and Delimitation of the Study

The study focuses mainly on analysis of a material property

by testing, to be more specific, a comparison study of the effect

of the different curing method on the strength of concrete

material, generally its compressive strength. Thus, the study

attempts to enlighten and help future researchers as it serves as

a guide to fully understand the topic at hand.


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The performance of the study is limited in the city of Baguio

only. Data will be obtained by direct measurement, manual solving,

solving using softwares (excel), and laboratory experiments. The

experiments is to be conducted on the College of Engineering and

Architecture (CEA) laboratory of the University of the Cordilleras

(UC) or on Saint Luis University (SLU) whichever is available.

Test for tensile and bending were not included in the gathering of

data.

The time for conducting the research is limited only to the

months of April to August of 2019. A gantt chart is provided in

the appendix which lists all the activities held.

Definition of Terms:

AASHTO

The American Association of State Highway and Transportation

Officials is a standard setting body which publishes

specifications, test protocols and guidelines which are used in

highway design and construction throughout the United States.

Abrasion Resistance

Abrasion resistance is the ability of a material to resist

surface wear caused by flat rubbing contact with another material.

Admixture
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A chemical or mineral added to a concrete mix before or during

mixing to improve or change qualities such as setting time, air

entrainment, workability, etc.

Aggregate

Aggregate is a granular material, such as sand, gravel,

crushed stone and iron blast-furnace slag, and when used with a

cementing medium forms a hydraulic cement concrete or mortar.

ASTM

ASTM International, formerly known as American Society for

Testing and Materials, is an international standards organization

that develops and publishes voluntary consensus technical

standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems, and

services.

Cement

The bond or matrix between the particles in a rock,

particularly that binding the sand grains in a sandstone, quartzite

or conglomerate. A powder that, mixed with water, binds a stone-

sand mixture into a strong concrete within a few days. Most

cements, except high-alumina cement, contains at least some

Portland cement.

Coarse Aggregates
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For concrete, aggregates which stays on a sieve of 5 mm square

opening. For bituminous materials, aggregates which stays at 3 mm

sieve.

Compressive Strength

Compressive strength is thee capacity of a material or

structure to withstand loads tending to reduce size. It is a key

value for design of structures. The resistance expressed in force

per unit area of a structural material at failure in a compression

test.

Compression Test/ Cube Test/ Cylinder Test

The crushing of bricks, stone, concrete, etc. to determine

their ultimate compressive strength.

Concrete

Concrete is a composite material made from several readily

available constituents (aggregates, sand, cement, water). A

mixture of water, sand, stone and a binder (nowadays usually

Portland cement) which hardens to a stone-like mass.

Consistency

Consistency is the fluidity or degree of wetness of concrete.

It is a major factor in indicating the workability of freshly mixed

concrete.
The Problem
27

Curing

Curing is the process of controlling the rate and extent of

moisture loss from concrete during cement hydration.

Drying Shrinkage

Drying shrinkage refers to the loss of moisture from concrete

that has set. It is the contracting of a hardened concrete mixture

due to the loss of capillary water.

Durability

Durability is an ability of a structure member to resist

deterioration that impairs performance or limits service life of

the structure in the relevant environment considered in the design.

Fine Aggregates

Sand or grit for concrete which passes a sieve of mesh 5 mm

square. This is coarser than sand in the classification of soils.

Sand or grit for bituminous road-making which passes 3 mm square

mesh.

Flexural Strength

Flexural strength is one measure of the tensile strength of

concrete. It is a measure of an un-reinforced concrete beam or

slab to resist failure in bending. It is measured by loading 6 x


The Problem
28

6-inch (150 x150 mm) concrete beams with a span length of at least

three times the depth.

Heat of Hydration

Heat given off by the chemical action of the wetting of

quicklime (B) or any sort of hydraulic cement. The second is slower

and less evident than the first, but may be as large. When a large

mass of concrete is cast, ‘thermal cracking’ may result during

cooling. According to ACI guide, mass concrete, 1987, the most

effective way to reduce the heat of hydration is to reduce the

cement content either directly or by substituting a pozzolan for

up to 30% of it. Low-heat cement may help. See pre-cooling of

concrete.

Plastic Shrinkage Cracking

Plastic shrinkage cracking occurs when fresh concrete is

subjected to a very rapid loss of moisture during its plastic

state. Plastic shrinkage cracks are caused by a combination of

factors such as air and concrete temperature, relative humidity,

and wind velocity at the surface of the concrete. Plastic shrinkage

cracks are generally parallel to each other.

Slump

A slump is a form of mass wasting that occurs when a coherent

mass of loosely consolidated materials or rock layers moves a short


The Problem
29

distance down a slope. Movement is characterized by sliding along

a concave-upward or planar surface.

Slump Test

The concrete slump test measures the consistency of fresh

concrete before it sets. It is performed to check the workability

of freshly made concrete, and therefore the ease with which

concrete flows. It can also be used as an indicator of an

improperly mixed batch.

Universal Testing Machine

A universal testing machine, also known as a universal tester,

materials testing machine or materials test frame, is used to test

the tensile strength and compressive strength of materials.

Workability

Workability of concrete is the property of freshly mixed

concrete which determines the ease and homogeneity with which it

can be mixed, placed, consolidated and finished. An increase in

water-cement ratio increases the workability of concrete.


Design and Methodology
30

Chapter 2

DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

This chapter gives an outline of research methods that were

followed in the study. The Researchers describes the research

design that was chosen for the purpose of this study and the

reasons for this choice. The materials that was used for data

collection is also described and the procedures that were followed

to carry out this study are included. The researcher also discusses

the methods used to analyze the data.

Research Design and Methodology

The research method that was employed for this study is

experimental, as the data collected is derived in laboratory

testing. Also, quantitative method was used in the investigation

and comparison of the different flexure and compressive strength

of concrete applied with different curing techniques or methods.

Population and Locale of the Study

In this study, fifty-two (52) specimens of concrete were

produced, twenty-seven (27) concrete cylinder (6 x 12 inch)

primarily for the compressive strength determination and twenty-

seven concrete beam (6 x 6 x 21 inch) for flexural strength

determination. Three methods of curing were conducted having three

different curing time period (7 days, 14 days, and 28 days,

respectively). Three samples in both concrete cylinder and beam


Design and Methodology
31

specimens were used per curing method and per curing time period

and will be average so that a more accurate data will be obtained.

The testing of the mechanical properties such as sieve analysis,

water absorption, unit weight and etc. were conducted at UC-CEA

material testing laboratory. Also, concrete mixing and the

compressive strength testing, using a Universal Testing Machine

(UTM) was done in the same laboratory.

Materials:

Data was obtained from observation and the results taken from

an actual testing of material properties and results recorded by

the Universal Testing Machine (UTM) from the testing of the

concrete specimens.

Aggregates:

Figure 7. Coarse and Fine Aggregates

All the aggregates will be purchased at WilContruct

Enterprise located along Bonifacio Street, Baguio City. The price

of the material is ranging from 1000.00 – 1400.00 Php per cubic

meter. Course aggregates components used for this study will be


Design and Methodology
32

conforming the AASHTO No. 467 gradation and included 1 ½-inch round

combined, ¾-inch round combined, and 3/8-inch round combined. Fine

aggregates components will be conforming the AASHTO Type 1

gradation and included coarse sand combined and blend sand

combined.

Water:

Figure 8. Water Faucet in UC-CEA Laboratory

The potable tap water in the University of the Cordilleras –

College of Engineering and Architecture (UC-CEA) Material Testing

Laboratory was used for the casting and for the curing of concrete

specimens.
Design and Methodology
33

Cement:

Figure 9. Holcim Portland Cement

The cementitious material used for this study was a 40

kilogram Holcim Portland Cements. The material will be obtained at

the same enterprise with the aggregates and the price is ranging

from 220.00 – 240.00 Php per 40kg of Cement bag. The cement is

commonly used in most general construction sites. This is cement

is manufactured by Holcim Philippines, Inc. located at Quirino,

Bacnotan, La Union Philippines.


Design and Methodology
34

Burlene Curing Blanket:

Figure 10. A roll of Burlene Curing Blanket

The Burlene Curing Blanket was used as cover in curing of

concrete in one of the curing method that will be implementing in

this study.

Methodology:

In this study, there will be a three procedural phases that

will be employed. The first phase will be the testing and

determination of material properties that will be used for the

casting of the concrete specimens. Also, the proportion of concrete

mixture will be discussed in the same phase. Second phase will be

the procedure of the implementation of the different curing

techniques or methods on the concrete specimens. Lastly, the Third

phase will be the compressive strength determination by testing

the concrete specimens on the UTM.


Design and Methodology
35

Phase 1: Testing of Material and Proportion of Concrete Mixture

All procedures are ASTM compliant.

Determination of Moisture Content of Course Aggregate

Determination by weight was used in this experiment. The

container was filled to the mark with water, and determined the

weight in grams. Then the container was set to dry condition. The

container was filled by layers of aggregate with the use of tamping

rod, 25 strokes for every layer until the can is filled to the

marked. The weight of the sample was determined. With the sample

still in the can, the container was filled with water until the

original mark and removed the entrained air and weight in grams

was determined. Then, the amount of water as displaced by sample

was calculated as follows:

Vs = Wc + Ws – W

Where:

Vs – weight of water as displaced by the sample

Wc – weight of water

Ws – weight of the sample

W – weight of the sample with water

The total moisture content on dry basis (Pt) was calculated given

the formula.

Pt = Pd + Pa

Where: Pd = P[1 + (Pa/100)]


Design and Methodology
36

Determination of Unit Weight of Coarse Aggregate

Unit weight of aggregate is significant in that it gives a

measure of the voids in a unit volume of aggregate. The void of

the aggregate depends upon many factors, among them are: size,

shape, gradation, moisture content and compaction. For general

information and for comparison of different aggregates, the

standard conditions used in determining the unit are dry and

compact.

In the laboratory, the container was filled with aggregate

one-third full, and then leveled the surface and tamped with 25

strokes, evenly distributed over the surface. Second, the

container was filled with aggregate two-thirds full, leveled and

tamped 25 times again over the surface. Enough force was used to

penetrate the last layer of aggregate placed in the container.

Then, the container was filled with aggregates overflowing. The

net weight and the unit weight of the aggregates in the container

was determined.

Determination of Specific Gravity and Absorption of Coarse

Aggregate.

Basically, specific gravity is the ratio of a given volume of

material to the weight of an equal volume of the water. However,

there are several variations of the definitions depending upon the

material and purposes for which the value of the specific gravity

is to be used. In concrete work, the term specific gravity


Design and Methodology
37

customarily refers to the density of the individual particle, not

to the aggregate mass as a whole. The most common definition of

the aggregate in concrete is based upon the bulk volume of the

individual aggregate in a saturated surface-dry condition (SSD).

The bulk (over-dry) specific gravity and apparent specific gravity

are used to a lesser degree. Solid unit weight in kilometer per

cubic meter of an aggregate is customarily defines as the specific

gravity time 9.81 kilonewton per cubic meter.

The absorption capacity was determined by finding the weight

of an aggregate under the SSD condition and an over-dry condition.

The difference in weight expressed as a percentage of the oven-

dry sample weight is the absorption capacity. Coarse aggregate are

considered to SSD when they have been wiped free of visible

moisture films with the cloth after the aggregate have been soaked

in water for a long period of time (over 25hours). The saturated

surface-dry condition of fine aggregate is usually taken as that

at which a previously wet sample just become free-flowing.

The procedure done in the laboratory was, the aggregates were

soaked in water for 24 hours. And then wiped off the variable

moisture films with cloth to set the aggregate to saturated

surface-dry condition. Then the sample was placed in the wire mesh

basket, Measured SSD weight (B) of aggregates using a digital

balanced and determined its weight in water. The wet aggregates

were placed in the oven and dry to constant weight (A). From the
Design and Methodology
38

obtained values of A, B, and C, three types of specific gravity,

and absorption of the aggregate was calculated by the given

formulas:

1. Apparent Specific Gravity = A / A – C

2. Bulk Specific Gravity (SSD) = B / B – C

3. Bulk Specific Gravity (Dry) = A / B – C

4. Absorption = ( B – A / A )x 100%

Concrete Mix Proportioning

This procedure is for calculating the approximate quantities

of coarse aggregates, fine aggregates, cement, and water needed to

make one cubic yard of air-entrained concrete of a specified

compressive strength.

The water to cement ratio we used in the concrete mix

proportioning constant 0.6 for all the samples. Base on the water-

cement ratio, the maximum aggregate size, the fineness modulus of

the fine aggregate, we computed the quantities of the coarse

aggregate, fine aggregate, cement, and water in kilograms.

The concrete specimens were prepared using the Class A and a

Mixture of 1:2:4 proportion.


Design and Methodology
39

Slump Test

In testing the slump, the mold should be dampened and placed

in the mixing board. The mold shall be held down against the board.

Fill the slump cone with concrete in three layers, each

approximately one – third of the volume of the mold. Each layer

shall be rodded with 25 strokes, distribute uniformly over the

cross-section of the cone. The rod shall lightly penetrate the

previous layer. After the top layer has been rodded, the surface

of the concrete shall be stuck off with trowel so that the cone is

exactly filled. The shall be immediately removed from the concrete

by raising it carefully in a vertical direction. The lump shall be

measured immediately by determining the difference between the

height of the mold and the height of the subsided concrete. After

the slump measurement is completed, the side of the concrete

frustum should be tapped gently with the tamping rod. The behavior

of the concrete under this treatment is a valuable indication of

cohesiveness. A well-proportioned mix will gradually slump to

lower elevation and retain is original form, while a poor mix will

crumple, segregate and fall apart.

Phase 2: Implementation of Curing Methods

The researchers will be employing three different Curing

methods on the concrete specimens, namely, Steaming method,

Sprinkling method, and Burlap Cover method. Each method will be


Design and Methodology
40

having three different curing time period, seven days, fourteen

days, and twenty-eight days respectively.

Steaming Method:

In this method, the researcher will be conducting a live

steaming kind curing method. The concrete specimens will be placed

in a steaming bath in Itogon, Benguet since the method requires

only a low atmospheric pressure on the concrete specimens and since

the researchers were not able to find a laboratory that have an

available steaming chamber. The concrete specimens will have a

different curing time period from the other curing methods and

will be kept in the steaming bath for 6 hours, 12 hours, and 24

hours.

Sprinkling Method;

In this method, the concrete specimens will be also placed

and exposed in the UC-CEA material testing laboratory but will be

kept moist by sprinkling the specimens with water twice a day. The

researchers will be checking and keeping the specimens moist by

sprinkling them with water 9 o’clock in the morning and 5 o’clock

in the afternoon.
Design and Methodology
41

Burlap cover Method:

In this method, the concrete specimens will be covered and

sealed with a pre-soaked burlene curing blanket. The burlap will

make the concrete moist and is used as a barrier for the prevention

of moisture loss in the specimens. The burlap should be thoroughly

rinsed in water to remove soluble substances and to make the burlap

more absorbent.

Phase Three: Testing of Concrete Specimens;

Figure 11. Universal Testing Machine (UTM)

All testing and determination of the flexural and compressive

stress of the concrete specimens will be performed using the

Universal Testing Machine (UTM). Compressive strength of concrete

is the most common performance measurement used by engineers when

designing building and structures. Flexure and compressive


Design and Methodology
42

strength for both the concrete cylinder and beam will follow the

specifications outlined in the American Society for Testing and

Materials (ASTM) standards.

Microsoft Office:

The software is used in the study for the paper presentation,

data presentation and for an accurate computation in the analysis

of data needed for Chapter 3.


References
43

References

Nilson, A., Darwin, D., & Dolan, C. (2010), Design of Concrete

Structures, 14th Edition, New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Gharpedia (2018), Different Methods of Curing Concrete: Know

Before Curing, Retrieved from: https://gharpedia.com/concrete-

curing-methods/

Zemaltis, J. (2018), Role of Concrete Curing, Portland Cement

Association, Retrieved from:

https://www.cement.org/learn/concrete-technology/concrete-

construction/curing-in-construction

Kulkarni, A. & Pereira, C. (2011), Significance of Curing of

Concrete for Durability of Structures, NBM Media Pvt. Ltd. All,

Retrieved From: https://www.nbmcw.com/tech-

articles/concrete/25057-significance-of-curing-of-concrete-for-

durability-of-structures.html

Nagesh, Kumar, A., Chincholi, C., & Nagaraj (n.d.), Curing of

Concrete, Vishveshvaraya Technological University, Belgaum,

Retrieved from:

https://www.academia.edu/32598279/Curing_of_Concrete

Raheem, A., Soyingbe, A., & Emenike, A. (2013), Effect of Curing

Methods on Density and Compressive Strength of Concrete,

International Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 3, 55-


References
44

64, Retrieved from:

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Aa_Raheem/publication/30241

5335_Effect_of_curing_methods_on_density_and_compressive_strengt

h_of_concrete/links/5885f3c84585150dde4a7e01/Effect-of-curing-

methods-on-density-and-compressive-strength-of-concrete.pdf

Aminur, M., Harunur, M., Teo, D., Abu, M. (2010), Effect of

aggregates and curing conditions on the

compressive strength of concrete with age, Journal of Civil

Engineering, 2, 1-6, Retrieved from:

http://publisher.unimas.my/ojs/index.php/JCEST/article/download/

71/48

Domone, P., & Illston, J. (2010), Construction Materials: Their

nature and behavior, Fourth edition, Spon Press, 270 Madison

Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA

Yu, T., Ing, D., & Choo, C. (2017), The Effect of Different Curing

Methods on the Compressive Strength of Eggshell Concrete, Indian

Journal of Science and Technology, 10, 2-4, Retrieved from:

http://umpir.ump.edu.my/id/eprint/17401/7/The%20Effect%20of%20Di

fferent%20Curing%20Methods%20on%20the%20Compressive%20Strength%2

0of%20Eggshell%20Concrete.pdf

Taylor, P. (2014), Curing Concrete, CRC Press, Taylor and Francis

Group, 6000, Broken Sound Parkway, Retrieved from:


References
45

https://books.google.com.ph/books/about/Curing_Concrete.html?id=

Wv7NBQAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=kp_read_button&redir_esc

=y#v=onepage&q&f=false

J.G. Wilson, N.K. Gupta, (2004). Equipment for the investigation

of the accelerated curing of concrete using direct electrical

conduction, Measurement.

Steven Gebler, et. Al (2008). Guide to curing concrete. ACI308-

R01.

ASTM International (2010). ASTM C 39-72. Standard Test Method

for Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens.

American Society for Testing and Materials. Annual book of ASTM

standards 2010.

Jackson, Emmanuel Nana; Akomah, Benjamin Boahene. (2018).

Comparative Analysis of the Strength of Concrete with Different

Curing Methods in Ghana

Rahman, M.S. et al. (2012). Effect of Curing Methods on

Compressive Strength of Concrete.

Akinwumi, I.I. et.al. (2014). Effects of Curing Condition and

Curing Period on the Compressive Strength Development of Plain

Concrete.
References
46

Gokul, T. et.al. (2016). Effects of Different Types of Curing on

Strength of Concrete.

Nithya, K. et.al. (2017). Experimental Study on Self- Curing

Concrete.

Pamnani, N. et.al. (2013). Comparison of Compressive Strength of

Medium Strength Self Compacted Concrete by Different Curing

Techniques.

Reddy, B. S. K. et.al. (2014). Use of Magnetic Water for Mixing

and Curing of Concrete.

Naderi, M. et.al. Comparison of Different Curing Effects on

Concrete Strength

Krishna, R. M. V. et.al. (2010). A Study on the Influence of

curing on the Strength of a Standard Grade Concrete Mix.

Reddy, K. V. K. et.al. (2013). A Comparative Study on Methods of

Curing Concrete –Influence of Humidity.


Appendices
47

Anticipated Problems

1) Difficulty in gathering data.

Data are the most essential part of the project, without

these, the project would take time and can lead to failure.

2) Conflict on the researchers’ schedule.

Schedule can be quite troublesome as it can result to loss

of productivity in the project.

3) Cooperation of the group.

The cooperation of researchers plays a vocal role on the

project, without cooperation, the project would greatly

suffer.

4) Availability of equipment used in gathering data.

Projects need tools to generate outcomes, sometimes

equipments define the feasibility of project. Without

these, the project can lead to certain termination.

5) Weather condition that delays the performance of the

project.

June and July are one of the months where typhoon is to be

expected. This means that there is a possibility of

cancellation of class which then result to inattentive in

performing necessary procedure.

6) Examinations, quizzes and other school projects which

interferes the project.


Appendices
48

Performing the study is sometimes delayed due to taking a

preparation in exams.
Appendices
49

April May
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Task 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Reading of Journals
Topic Proposal
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
First Finalization
First Revision
Transfer of materials
Data Gathering Part 1
Data Gathering Part 2
Data Gathering Part 3
Data Analysis Part 1
Data Analysis Part 2
Data Analysis Part 3
Results
Conclusion &
Recommendation
Abstract
Acknowledgement &
Appendices
Checking
Revision
Final Presentation
Appendices
50

June July
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Appendices
51

Project Run-down Estimates

Chapters 1 and 2:
Paperworks 300
Food 750
Travel 630
Others 200
Data Gathering:
Materials 8240
Testing 5200
Chapters 3 and 4
Paperworks 300
Food 5000
Travel 2352
Others 500
Total: 23472
MOHAMMED H. AL-MATARI Person on ID must
be in formal
attire
Abdullah Sulayman St., Alfayha’a ID is passport
Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia size (35mm x
+63906-370-0073 25mm)

Almatari0566@gmail.com

OBJECTIVE:
To build career in a growing organization, where I can get
the opportunities to prove my abilities by accepting challenges,
fulfilling the organizational goal and climb the career ladder
through continuous learning and commitment.

PERSONAL INFORMATION:
Age: 24
Height: 164 cm
Weight: 75 kg
Birthday: Oct. 15, 1994
Birthplace: Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Father’s Name: Hussein Saleh Hussein
Mother’s Maiden Name: Norah Mohsen
Religion: Islam
Civil Status: Single

ORGANIZATIONS:
Loya Brand Company
Warehouse porter, S.Y.: 2010-2011
Loya Brand Company
Store manger, S.Y.: 2011-2012

1
SKILLS:
Languages: Arabic, English and Tagalog(basics)
Computer Skills: Well verse in Microsoft Word, Microsoft
Excel, Microsoft PowerPoint, 2dMatrix, and AutoCAD.

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND:

Tertiary: University of the Cordilleras


Governor Pack Road, Baguio City
Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering
2019-Present

Secondary: Ibn Hajer High School


Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
2009-2013

Elementary: Ibn Sena Elementary School


Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
2003-2009

CHARACTER REFERENCES:
Engr. Alma A. Aguilar
Head, Department of Civil Engineering University of the
Cordilleras.
0920 507 3791

Engr. Nelson G. Notarte


OIC-Dean, University of the Cordilleras.
0908 209 7161

2
Engr. Nathaniel Vicent Lubrica
UC-RIO Director University of the Cordilleras
0920 507 3791

I certify that the above information is true and correct to the


rest of my knowledge.

Al-Matari, Mohammed H.

3
KHYZEL BALIGAN ALMADIN
Proper Ampucao,
Itogon, Benguet, 2604 Philippines
+639-3005-82076
almadinkhyzel@gmail.com

OBJECTIVE:
To achieve a position where I can portray excellence
through the contribution and application of my knowledge and
adopting new learnings in my profession.

PERSONAL INFORMATION:
Age: 21
Height: 149 cm
Weight: 45 kg
Birthday: July 26, 1997
Birthplace: Baguio City
Father’s Name: Mark Benjamin Almadin Sr.
Mother’s Maiden Name: Jeane Baligan
Religion: Christian
Civil Status: Single

ORGANIZATIONS:
Philippine Institute of Civil Engineers (PICE)
Member, S.Y. 2017-Present

1
SKILLS AND QUALIFICATIONS:
Bachelor’s Degree in Civil Engineering
Registered/ Licensed Engineer
Professional Regulation Commission (Manila, Philippines)

Basic AutoCAD
Basic MS Office Applications
Computer Programming (Visual Basic)
Have knowledge on Estimates
Have knowledge in Project Management
Knowledgeable on the design and analysis of Structural
Systems

SEMINARS AND TRAININGS ATTENDED


OSHS Law “Ligtas ang Maingat”
Speaker: Professor Elson I. Soneja, MMPA, Senior IT
BBCCC Bldg. Assumption Road, Baguio City
October 6, 2018

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND:
Tertiary: University of the Cordilleras
Governor Pack Road, Baguio City
Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering
2013-Present

Secondary: Ampucao National High School


Itogon, Benguet
2010-2013

Saint Louis High School


Philex Mines, Tuba Benguet
2009-2010

2
Elementary: Ampucao Elementary School
Itogon, Benguet

2003-2009

CHARACTER REFERENCES:
Engr. David C. Angiwan, BSCE, MSCE
University of the Cordilleras
+6393988630

Engr. Nelson G. Notarte


OIC, Dean, University of the Cordilleras
0908-209-7161

Engr. Alma A. Aguilar


Head, Department of Civil Engineering
University of the Cordilleras
0977-832-0032

I certify that the above information is true and correct to the


rest of my knowledge.

Khyzel Baigan Almadin

3
DAISY S. ASIONG

Purok 10 Dontogan Baranggay,


Baguio City, 2600 Philippines
+63912-299-2102
dasiong53@gmail.com

OBJECTIVE:
To immerse myself in the actual practice of the discipline
that I have chosen where I can be able to learn and at the same
time apply the knowledge and experiences I gained so far.

PERSONAL INFORMATION:
Age: 26
Height: 160 cm
Weight: 55 kg
Birthday: May 22, 1992
Birthplace: Baguio City
Father’s Name: Lopez P. Asiong Sr.
Mother’s Maiden Name: Rosalina A. Solis
Religion: Roman Catholic
Civil Status: Single

ORGANIZATIONS:
Philippine Institute of Civil Engineers (PICE)
Member, S.Y. 2016-2019

1
SKILLS:
Engineering Computer Application (AutoCAD)
Basic MS Office Applications
Good communication and analytical skills

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND:
Tertiary: University of the Cordilleras
Governor Pack Road, Baguio City
Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering
2016-Present
2008-2011

Secondary: Sto. Tomas National High School


(BCNHS – Sto. Tomas Annex)
Sto. Tomas Central, Baguio City
2004-2008

Elementary: Dontogan Elementary School


Dontogan, Baguio City
1998-2004

CHARACTER REFERENCES:
Engr. Nelson G. Notarte, BSCE, MSCE
OIC- Dean, University of the Cordilleras
+63999-570-8541

Engr. Alma A. Aguilar, BSCE, MSCE


Head, Department of Civil Engineering
University of the Cordilleras
+63977-832-0032

Engr. David C. Angiwan, BSCE, MSCE


Department of Civil Engineering
University of the Cordilleras
+63939-398-8630

2
I certify that the above information is true and correct to the
rest of my knowledge.

Daisy S. Asiong

3
PAULO C. DAR
#111 Purok 2 Dontogan Barangay,
Baguio City, 2600 Philippines
+639-361-154-133
paulo_dar@yahoo.com/darpaulo17@gmail.com

CAREER OBJECTIVE
“Strive Towards personal & professional growth by embarking on new
and challenging assignments with an aim to bring process
improvements, imaginative logistics and business profitability.
Providing value addition to the task assigned.”

Personal Profile
Birthdate: September 17, 1996
Age: 22
Gender: Male
Civil Status: Single
Nationality: Filipino
Weight: 67kgs
Height: 178cm
Religion: Assemblies of God
Place of Birth: Baguio General Hospital, Baguio
City
Father’s Name: Rolando Y. Dar
Mother’s Maiden Name: Veronica A. Codillo
Sibling’s Name: Nicole Mae C. Dar
Justin Jay C. Dar

ORGANIZATIONS
Philippine Institute of Civil Engineers UC – SC
Member SY 2013 – 2017
Business Manager SY 2017 – 2018
President SY 2018 – 2019 (First Trimester Only)

University of the Cordilleras Percussion and Orchestra


Active Scholar/Member since 2013

1
SKILLS and QUALIFICATIONS
 Have knowledge in Project Management
 AutoCAD, Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, Microsoft Power
point, Visual Basic, Sketch Up, ETABS, Matrix 2D.
 Estimates
 Knowledgeable on design of fundamentals structure parts
 Can work Under Pressure
 Have a good communication skill and globally competitive
 Flexible and willing to learn new things

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUD
Tertiary: University of the Cordilleras
Governor pack road, Baguio City
SY 2013 - Present

Secondary: Pines City National High School


Palma St. Baguio City
SY 2009 – 2013

Elementary: Baguio Central Elementary School


F. Yandoc St. Baguio City
2003 - 2009

CHARACTER REFERENCE

Gladys R. Corpuz
OSAS SDO – Coordinator
University of the Cordilleras
+639169442013

Donna A. Villanueva
PICE Baguio Executive Secretary
PICE Baguio Chapter
+63175064519

Paul Louie F. Serrano


UCPO – Coordinator
University of the Cordilleras
+63917892115

2
I hereby certify that the information’s stated above are true and
correct with the best of my Knowledge

Paulo C. Dar

3
Person on ID must
be in formal
LUKE S. DAYAO attire

ID is passport
IC 48c Betag, size (35mm x
La Trinidad Benguet, 2601 Philippines 25mm)

+639-497-122-509
dayao.luke@gmail.com

OBJECTIVE:
Seeking a challenging career with a well-oriented
environment that will help me to capitalized the technical
knowledge and skills that I have acquired so far. Also, to
support the development of my continuing learning for the field
of Discipline that I have chosen.

PERSONAL INFORMATION:
Age: 25
Height: 165 cm
Weight: 65 kg
Birthday: December 14, 1993
Birthplace: La Trinidad, Benguet
Father’s Name: Amado Dayao Sr.
Mother’s Maiden Name: Heralda Saldo
Religion: Born Again
Civil Status: Single

ORGANIZATIONS:
Philippine Institute of Civil Engineers (PICE)
Member, S.Y. 2013-2019
ROTARACT La Trinidad – Sharelife Community
Member, S.Y. 2017-Present

1
SKILLS:
Engineering Computer Applications (AutoCAD, STAAD, Sketch
Up)
Basic MS Office Applications
Knowledge on Estimates
Adaptability & Team Player
Flexible and willing to learn
Good communication and analytical skills

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND:
Tertiary: University of the Cordilleras
Governor Pack Road, Baguio City
Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering
2016-Present

Saint Louis University


Bonifacio Street, Baguio City
Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering
2010-2014

Secondary: H.O.P.E Christian Academy


Sitio Taroy Wangal, La Trinidad, Benguet
2006-2010

Elementary: La Trinidad Central School


Poblacion, La Trinidad, Benguet
2003-2006

Faith Learning Center


Betag, La Trinidad, Benguet
2000-2003

CHARACTER REFERENCES:
Engr. Nelson G. Notarte
OIC- Dean, University of the Cordilleras
0908 209 7161

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Engr. Alma A. Aguilar
Head, Department of Civil Engineering
University of the Cordilleras
0977 832 0032

Engr. Nathaniel Vincent Lubrica


UC-RIO Director
University of the Cordilleras
0920 507 3791

Atty. Franco G. Bawang, Jr.


CDA CAR-Regional Director
Cooperative Development Authority - CAR
0920 106 9662

I certify that the above information is true and correct to the


rest of my knowledge.

Luke S. Dayao

3
Person on ID must
be in formal
JOHN DAVE ULSINO OS-OSA attire

ID is passport
Upper Wangal, size (35mm x
La Trinidad, Benguet, 2601 Philippines 25mm)

+639-4869-50654
johndaveososa@gmail.com

OBJECTIVE:
To seek a career-oriented environment where I can be able
to learn and at the same time apply the knowledge and
experiences I gained so far.

PERSONAL INFORMATION:
Age: 20
Height: 156 cm
Weight: 62 kg
Birthday: April 26, 1998
Birthplace: Kapangan, Benguet
Father’s Name: Johnny D. Os-osa
Mother’s Maiden Name: Erlinda Ulsino
Religion: Lutheran
Civil Status: Single

ORGANIZATIONS:
Philippine Institute of Civil Engineers (PICE)
Member, S.Y. 2015-Present

1
SKILLS:
Computer Literate (AutoCAD, Sketch Up)
Basic MS Office Applications
Fast Learner
Good Analytical Skills

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND:
Tertiary: University of the Cordilleras
Governor Pack Road, Baguio City
Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering
2015-Present

Secondary: San Jose School of La Trinidad Inc. High School


Department
Poblacion La Trinidad, Benguet
2011-2015

Elementary: Puguis Elementary School


Puguis La Trinidad, Benguet
2004-2011

CHARACTER REFERENCES:
Engr. David C. Angiwan, BSCE, MSCE
University of the Cordilleras
+6393988630

Engr. Nelson G. Notarte


OIC, Dean, University of the Cordilleras
0908-209-7161/email

Engr. Alma A. Aguilar


Head, Department of Civil Engineering
University of the Cordilleras
0977-832-0032/email

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I certify that the above information is true and correct to the
rest of my knowledge.

John Dave U. Os-osa