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# Coordinate Systems and Transformations

&
Vector Calculus

By:
Hanish Garg
12105017
ECE Branch
PEC University of Technology
Coordinate Systems
• Cartesian or Rectangular Coordinate System

## Choice of the system is based on the symmetry of the

problem.
Cartesian Or Rectangular Coordinates
P (x, y, z) z

  x   P(x,y,z)
  y  
y
  z  
x
A vector A in Cartesian coordinates can be written as

( Ax , Ay , Az ) or Ax a x  Ay a y  Az a z
where ax,ay and az are unit vectors along x, y and z-directions.
Cylindrical Coordinates
z
P (ρ, Φ, z)
0 
z

P(ρ, Φ, z)
0    2
  z   x Φ
ρ y

## A vector A in Cylindrical coordinates can be written as

( A , A , Az ) or A a  A a  Az a z
where aρ,aΦ and az are unit vectors along ρ, Φ and z-directions.
x= ρ cos Φ, y=ρ sin Φ, z=z
y
  x  y ,   tan
2 2 1
,z  z
x
The relationships between (ax,ay, az) and (aρ,aΦ, az)are

## a x  cos a  sin a

a y  sin a  cos a
az  az
or
a  cos ax  sin a y
a   sin a x  cos a y
az  az
Then the relationships between (Ax,Ay, Az) and (Aρ, AΦ, Az)are

## A  ( Ax cos   Ay sin  )a  ( Ax sin   Ay cos  )a  Az a z

A  Ax cos   Ay sin 
A   Ax sin   Ay cos 
Az  Az
In matrix form we can write

 A   cos  sin  0  Ax 
 A    sin  cos  0  Ay 
  
 Az   0 0 1  Az 
Spherical Coordinates
z
P (r, θ, Φ) 0r P(r, θ, Φ)
θ r
0  
0    2 x Φ
y

## A vector A in Spherical coordinates can be written as

( Ar , A , A ) or Ar ar  A a  A a
where ar, aθ, and aΦ are unit vectors along r, θ, and Φ-directions.
x=r sin θ cos Φ, y=r sin θ sin Φ, Z=r cos θ

x2  y2 1 y
r  x 2  y 2  z 2 ,  tan 1 ,   tan
z x
The relationships between (ax,ay, az) and (ar,aθ,aΦ)are
ax  sin  cos ar  cos  cos a  sin a
a y  sin  sin ar  cos  sin a  cos a
az  cos ar  sin a
or
ar  sin  cos a x  sin  sin a y  cos a z
a  cos  cos a x  cos  sin a y  sin a z
a   sin a x  cos a y
Then the relationships between (Ax,Ay, Az) and (Ar, Aθ,and AΦ)are
A  ( Ax sin  cos   Ay sin  sin   Az cos  )ar
 ( Ax cos  cos   Ay cos  sin   Az sin  )a
 ( Ax sin   Ay cos  )a
Ar  Ax sin  cos   Ay sin  sin   Az cos 
A  Ax cos  cos   Ay cos  sin   Az sin 
A   Ax sin   Ay cos 
In matrix form we can write

##  Ar   sin  cos  sin  sin  cos    Ax 

  
 A   cos  cos  cos  sin   sin    Ay 
 A    sin  cos  0   Az 
 
z z
P(r, θ, Φ)
Cartesian Coordinates P(x,y,z)
θ r P(x, y, z) y

y x
x Φ

## Spherical Coordinates Cylindrical Coordinates

P(r, θ, Φ) z P(ρ, Φ, z)

z
P(ρ, Φ, z)

r y
x Φ
Differential Length, Area and Volume
Cartesian Coordinates

Differential displacement
dl  dxax  dya y  dza z

Differential area

## dS  dydza x  dxdzay  dxdyaz

Differential Volume
dV  dxdydz
Cylindrical Coordinates

ρ ρ

ρ ρ

ρ ρρ

ρ ρ
Differential Length, Area and Volume
Cylindrical Coordinates

Differential displacement
dl  da  da  dza z

Differential area

## dS  ddza   ddza  dda z

Differential Volume
dV  dddz
Spherical Coordinates
Differential Length, Area and Volume
Spherical Coordinates
Differential displacement
dl  drar  rda  r sin da

Differential area
dS  r sin ddar  r sin drda  rdrda
2

Differential Volume
dV  r sin drdd
2
Line, Surface and Volume Integrals

Line Integral
 A.dl
L

## Surface Integral    A.dS

S

Volume Integral  p dv
V
v
The Del Operator

vector quantity.
f Vector

## • Divergence of a vector is a scalar .A

quantity.
• Curl of a vector is a vector quantity.
 A
• The Laplacian of a scalar A
 A
2
Del Operator
  
Cartesian Coordinates   ax  a y  az
x y z

 1  
Cylindrical Coordinates  a  a  a z
   z

 1  1 
Spherical Coordinates   ar  a  a
r r  r sin  
VECTOR CALCULUS
DIVERGENCE OF A VECTOR
DIVERGENCE THEOREM
CURL OF A VECTOR
STOKES’S THEOREM
Suppose T1  x, y, z  is the temperature at P1  x, y, z  ,
and T2  x  dx, y  dy , z  dz  is the temperature at P2
as shown.

## The differential distances dx, dy, dz are the

components of the differential distance
vector dL :
dL  dxa x  dya y  dza z
However, from differential calculus, the
differential temperature:
T T T
dT  T2  T1  dx  dy  dz
x y z

But, dx  dL  a x
dy  dL  a y
dz  dL  a z
So, previous equation can be rewritten as:
T T T
dT  a x  dL  a y  dL  a z  dL
x y z
 T T T 
  a x  ay  a z   dL
 x y z 

## The vector inside square brackets defines the

change of temperature dT corresponding to a
vector change in position dL .
This vector is called Gradient of Scalar T.

## For Cartesian coordinate:

V V V
V  ax  ay  az
x y z

## For Circular cylindrical coordinate:

V 1 V V
V  a  a  az
   z
For Spherical coordinate:
V 1 V 1 V
V  ar  a  a
r r  r sin  
EXAMPLE

## Find gradient of these scalars:

z
(a) V  e sin 2 x cosh y

(b) U   z cos 2
2

## (c) W  10r sin  cos

2
SOLUTION TO EXAMPLE

## (a) Use gradient for Cartesian coordinate:

V V V
V  ax  ay  az
x y z
 2e z cos 2 x cosh ya x  e z sin 2 x sinh ya y
 e z sin 2 x cosh ya z
SOLUTION TO EXAMPLE (Cont’d)

## (b) Use gradient for Circular cylindrical

coordinate:

U 1 U U
U  a  a  az
   z
 2 z cos 2a   2 z sin 2a
  2 cos 2a z
SOLUTION TO EXAMPLE (Cont’d)

## (c) Use gradient for Spherical coordinate:

W 1 W 1 W
W  ar  a  a
r r  r sin  
 10 sin 2  cosa r  10 sin 2 cosa
 10 sin  sin a
DIVERGENCE OF A VECTOR

## Illustration of the divergence of a vector

field at point P:

## Positive Negative Zero

Divergence Divergence Divergence
DIVERGENCE OF A VECTOR (Cont’d)

## The divergence of A at a given point P

is the outward flux per unit volume:

 A  dS
div A    A  lim s
v  0 v
DIVERGENCE OF A VECTOR (Cont’d)

## What is  A  dS ?? Vector field A at

closed surface S
s
DIVERGENCE OF A VECTOR (Cont’d)

Where,
 
       A  dS
 A  dS 
       
s  front back left right top bottom
And, v is volume enclosed by surface S
DIVERGENCE OF A VECTOR (Cont’d)

## Ax Ay Az

A   
x y z
For Circular cylindrical coordinate:

1  1 A Az
A 
 
A  
 

z
DIVERGENCE OF A VECTOR (Cont’d)

1   A sin  
1  2
A  2
r r

r Ar  
r sin  

1 A
r sin  
EXAMPLE

2

2

## (c) W  1 cosa r  r sin  cosa  cosa

r2
SOLUTION TO EXAMPLE

coordinate:

## Px Py Pz

P   
x y z

x

 2
  
x yz  0   xz 
y z
 2 xyz  x

39
SOLUTION TO EXAMPLE (Cont’d)

## (b) Use divergence for Circular cylindrical

coordinate:
1  1 Q Qz
Q 
 
Q  
 

z

1  2
 
 
 sin    
1  2
 

 z   z cos 
z
 2 sin   cos
SOLUTION TO EXAMPLE (Cont’d)

## (c) Use divergence for Spherical coordinate:

1  W sin  
W  2
1  2
r r

r Wr  r sin  

1 W
r sin  
1 
 2 cos  
r r
1 
r sin  
 
r sin 2  cos

1 
 cos 
r sin  
 2 cos cos
DIVERGENCE THEOREM

## It states that the total outward flux of

a vector field A at the closed surface S
is the same as volume integral of
divergence of A.

 A  dS     AdV
V V
EXAMPLE

A vector field D   3a  exists in the region
between two concentric cylindrical surfaces
defined by ρ = 1 and ρ = 2, with both cylinders
extending between z = 0 and z = 5. Verify the
divergence theorem by evaluating:

(a)  D  ds
S

(b)    DdV
V
SOLUTION TO EXAMPLE

##  D  dS  Dinner  Douter  Dbottom  Dtop

S
Where,
2 5
Dinner     3a   ddz(a  )
 1
 0 z 0
2 5
     a   ddz(a  )
4
 10
 1
 0 z 0
SOLUTION TO EXAMPLE (Cont’d)
2 5
Douter     a   ddz(a  )
3
 2
 0 z 0
2 5
    4a   ddz(a  )  160
 2
 0 z 0
2 2
Dbottom     3a   dd (a z ) 0
z 0
 1  0
2 2
Dtop     3a   dd (a z ) 0
z 5
 1  0
SOLUTION TO EXAMPLE (Cont’d)

Therefore

 D  dS  10  160  0  0
S
 150
SOLUTION TO EXAMPLE (Cont’d)

## (b) For the right side of Divergence Theorem,

evaluate divergence of D

D
1 
 
 
 3  4 2
5 2 2
     DdV     dddz
 2
So, 4
z  0   0  1

 2 
5 
 4 2   
     150
   r 1    0  z  0 
 
CURL OF A VECTOR

## The curl of vector A is an axial

(rotational) vector whose magnitude is
the maximum circulation of A per unit
area tends to zero and whose direction
is the normal direction of the area
when the area is oriented so as to
make the circulation maximum.
CURL OF A VECTOR (Cont’d)

  A  dl 
 
Curl A    A   lim s a n max
 s 0 s 
 
Where,
 
 A  dl           A  dl

s  ab bc cd da 
CURL OF A VECTOR (Cont’d)

## The curl of the vector field is concerned

with rotation of the vector field. Rotation
can be used to measure the uniformity
of the field, the more non uniform the
field, the larger value of curl.
CURL OF A VECTOR (Cont’d)

ax ay az
  
A 
x y z
Ax Ay Az

##  Az Ay   Az Ax   Ay Ax 

A     ax     ay     az
 y z   x z   x y 
CURL OF A VECTOR (Cont’d)

## For Circular cylindrical coordinate:

a a az
1   
A 
   z
A A Az
 1 Az A   Az A 
 A     a     a
   z    z 
1   A  A 
    az
    
CURL OF A VECTOR (Cont’d)

## For Spherical coordinate:

ar a a
1   
A  2
r sin  r  
Ar rA r sin  A
1   sin A  A  1  1 Ar  rA  
 A    a r    a
r sin      r  sin   r 
1  (rA )  Ar  
   a
r  r  
EXAMPLE

2

2

## (c) W  1 cosa r  r sin  cosa  cosa

r2
SOLUTION TO EXAMPLE

##  Pz Py   Pz Px   Py Px 

P     ax     ay     az
 y z   x z   x y 
   
 0  0 a x  x 2 y  z a y  0  x 2 z a z
 
 x 2 y  z a y  x 2 za z
SOLUTION TO EXAMPLE (Cont’d)

##  1 Qz Q   Q Qz  1   Q  Q 

Q     a     a     az
   z   z     x y 
z 
 sin    2 a   0  0 a
  
1

 3 2 z   cos a z


1

z sin    a   3z  cos a
3
z
SOLUTION TO EXAMPLE (Cont’d)

## 1   sin W  W  1  1 Wr  rW  

W    a r    a
r sin      r  sin   r 
1   (rW ) Wr  
   a
r  r  
   cos  
1  cos sin    r sin  cos   1 1  r 2
 r cos  
   a r    a
r sin      r  sin   r 

 
  cos 2  

1  (r sin  cos )
2
    r  a

r r  
 
 
SOLUTION TO EXAMPLE (Cont’d)

1 1
 cos2  r sin  sin  ar  0  cos a
r sin  r
1 sin  
  2r sin  cos  2 a
r r 
 cos 2  cos
  sin  a r  a
 r sin   r
 1
  2 cos  3  sin a
 r 
STOKE’S THEOREM

## The circulation of a vector field A around

a closed path L is equal to the surface
integral of the curl of A over the open
surface S bounded by L that A and curl
of A are continuous on S.

 A  dl     A   dS
L S
STOKE’S THEOREM (Cont’d)
EXAMPLE

## By using Stoke’s Theorem, evaluate  A  dl

for

A   cosa   sin a
SOLUTION TO EXAMPLE (Cont’d)

Stoke’s Theorem,

 A  dl     A   dS
L S
Evaluate right side to get left side,
where, dS  dda z and
1
 A  1   sin a z

SOLUTION TO EXAMPLE (Cont’d)

60 0 5
1
   A   dS     1   sin dda z
S  30 0  2
 4.941
EXAMPLE

## Verify Stoke’s theorem for the vector field

B   cosa   sin a for given figure by evaluating:

## (a)  B  dL over the

semicircular contour.

## (b)    B  dS over the

surface of semicircular
contour.
SOLUTION TO EXAMPLE

(a) To find  B  dL

 B  dL   B  dL   B  dL   B  dL
L1 L2 L3

Where,

## B  dL   cosa   sin a   da   da  dza z 

  cosd   sin d
SOLUTION TO EXAMPLE (Cont’d)

 2   0 
So  B  dL     cosd      sin d 
   
L1    0    0, z  0    0  z 0
2
1 2
   02
 2   0

 2    
  cosd    sin d 
 B  d L 
  

  
L2   2  z 0   0    2, z  0

 0   2 cos   0
4
SOLUTION TO EXAMPLE (Cont’d)

 0    
 B  dL     cosd      sin d 
 
L3    2    0, z  0      z 0
0
 1 2
    02
 2  r 2

## Therefore the closed integral,

 B  dL  2  4  2  8
SOLUTION TO EXAMPLE (Cont’d)

(b) To find    B  dS
  B     cosa   sin a 
1      
 0  sin  a     cos   0a
   z   z  
1   
   sin     cos a z
    
1
 0 a   0 a  sin    sin  a z

 1
 sin  1  a z
 
SOLUTION TO EXAMPLE (Cont’d)

Therefore
 
2
 1 
    B  dS     sin  1   a z   dda z
 0  0    
 2
   sin    1dd
 0  0

   
2 
    cos   2     
1
8
  2   
  0 
 0
LAPLACIAN OF A SCALAR

written as:
V
2

## Where, Laplacian V is:

 2V    V
     V V V 
  ax  a y  az    ax  ay  az 
 x y z   x y z 
LAPLACIAN OF A SCALAR (Cont’d)

## For Cartesian coordinate:

V V V
2 2 2
V 2  2  2
2
x y z
For Circular cylindrical coordinate:

1   V  1  V 2
V
2
V
2
  2 
       z 2
LAPLACIAN OF A SCALAR (Cont’d)

## For Spherical coordinate:

1   2 V  1   V 
 V  2 r  2  sin 
2

r r  r  r sin     
1 V2
 2 2
r sin   2
EXAMPLE

## Find Laplacian of these scalars:

z
(a) V  e sin 2 x cosh y
(b) U   z cos 2
2

2

## You should try this!!

SOLUTION TO EXAMPLE

z
(a)  V  2e sin 2 x cosh y
2

(b)  U 0
2

10 cos
(c) W
2
1  2 cos2 
r
Thank You !!!