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Coordinate Systems and Transformations

&
Vector Calculus

By:
Hanish Garg
12105017
ECE Branch
PEC University of Technology
Coordinate Systems
• Cartesian or Rectangular Coordinate System

• Cylindrical Coordinate System

• Spherical Coordinate System

Choice of the system is based on the symmetry of the


problem.
Cartesian Or Rectangular Coordinates
P (x, y, z) z

  x   P(x,y,z)
  y  
y
  z  
x
A vector A in Cartesian coordinates can be written as

( Ax , Ay , Az ) or Ax a x  Ay a y  Az a z
where ax,ay and az are unit vectors along x, y and z-directions.
Cylindrical Coordinates
z
P (ρ, Φ, z)
0 
z

P(ρ, Φ, z)
0    2
  z   x Φ
ρ y

A vector A in Cylindrical coordinates can be written as

( A , A , Az ) or A a  A a  Az a z
where aρ,aΦ and az are unit vectors along ρ, Φ and z-directions.
x= ρ cos Φ, y=ρ sin Φ, z=z
y
  x  y ,   tan
2 2 1
,z  z
x
The relationships between (ax,ay, az) and (aρ,aΦ, az)are

a x  cos a  sin a


a y  sin a  cos a
az  az
or
a  cos ax  sin a y
a   sin a x  cos a y
az  az
Then the relationships between (Ax,Ay, Az) and (Aρ, AΦ, Az)are

A  ( Ax cos   Ay sin  )a  ( Ax sin   Ay cos  )a  Az a z


A  Ax cos   Ay sin 
A   Ax sin   Ay cos 
Az  Az
In matrix form we can write

 A   cos  sin  0  Ax 
 A    sin  cos  0  Ay 
  
 Az   0 0 1  Az 
Spherical Coordinates
z
P (r, θ, Φ) 0r P(r, θ, Φ)
θ r
0  
0    2 x Φ
y

A vector A in Spherical coordinates can be written as


( Ar , A , A ) or Ar ar  A a  A a
where ar, aθ, and aΦ are unit vectors along r, θ, and Φ-directions.
x=r sin θ cos Φ, y=r sin θ sin Φ, Z=r cos θ

x2  y2 1 y
r  x 2  y 2  z 2 ,  tan 1 ,   tan
z x
The relationships between (ax,ay, az) and (ar,aθ,aΦ)are
ax  sin  cos ar  cos  cos a  sin a
a y  sin  sin ar  cos  sin a  cos a
az  cos ar  sin a
or
ar  sin  cos a x  sin  sin a y  cos a z
a  cos  cos a x  cos  sin a y  sin a z
a   sin a x  cos a y
Then the relationships between (Ax,Ay, Az) and (Ar, Aθ,and AΦ)are
A  ( Ax sin  cos   Ay sin  sin   Az cos  )ar
 ( Ax cos  cos   Ay cos  sin   Az sin  )a
 ( Ax sin   Ay cos  )a
Ar  Ax sin  cos   Ay sin  sin   Az cos 
A  Ax cos  cos   Ay cos  sin   Az sin 
A   Ax sin   Ay cos 
In matrix form we can write

 Ar   sin  cos  sin  sin  cos    Ax 


  
 A   cos  cos  cos  sin   sin    Ay 
 A    sin  cos  0   Az 
 
z z
P(r, θ, Φ)
Cartesian Coordinates P(x,y,z)
θ r P(x, y, z) y

y x
x Φ

Spherical Coordinates Cylindrical Coordinates


P(r, θ, Φ) z P(ρ, Φ, z)

z
P(ρ, Φ, z)

r y
x Φ
Differential Length, Area and Volume
Cartesian Coordinates

Differential displacement
dl  dxax  dya y  dza z

Differential area

dS  dydza x  dxdzay  dxdyaz


Differential Volume
dV  dxdydz
Cylindrical Coordinates

ρ ρ

ρ ρ

ρ ρρ

ρ ρ
Differential Length, Area and Volume
Cylindrical Coordinates

Differential displacement
dl  da  da  dza z

Differential area

dS  ddza   ddza  dda z

Differential Volume
dV  dddz
Spherical Coordinates
Differential Length, Area and Volume
Spherical Coordinates
Differential displacement
dl  drar  rda  r sin da

Differential area
dS  r sin ddar  r sin drda  rdrda
2

Differential Volume
dV  r sin drdd
2
Line, Surface and Volume Integrals

Line Integral
 A.dl
L

Surface Integral    A.dS


S

Volume Integral  p dv
V
v
The Del Operator

• Gradient of a scalar function is a


vector quantity.
f Vector

• Divergence of a vector is a scalar .A


quantity.
• Curl of a vector is a vector quantity.
 A
• The Laplacian of a scalar A
 A
2
Del Operator
  
Cartesian Coordinates   ax  a y  az
x y z

 1  
Cylindrical Coordinates  a  a  a z
   z

 1  1 
Spherical Coordinates   ar  a  a
r r  r sin  
VECTOR CALCULUS
GRADIENT OF A SCALAR
DIVERGENCE OF A VECTOR
DIVERGENCE THEOREM
CURL OF A VECTOR
STOKES’S THEOREM
GRADIENT OF A SCALAR
Suppose T1  x, y, z  is the temperature at P1  x, y, z  ,
and T2  x  dx, y  dy , z  dz  is the temperature at P2
as shown.
GRADIENT OF A SCALAR (Cont’d)

The differential distances dx, dy, dz are the


components of the differential distance
vector dL :
dL  dxa x  dya y  dza z
However, from differential calculus, the
differential temperature:
T T T
dT  T2  T1  dx  dy  dz
x y z
GRADIENT OF A SCALAR (Cont’d)

But, dx  dL  a x
dy  dL  a y
dz  dL  a z
So, previous equation can be rewritten as:
T T T
dT  a x  dL  a y  dL  a z  dL
x y z
 T T T 
  a x  ay  a z   dL
 x y z 
GRADIENT OF A SCALAR (Cont’d)

The vector inside square brackets defines the


change of temperature dT corresponding to a
vector change in position dL .
This vector is called Gradient of Scalar T.

For Cartesian coordinate:

V V V
V  ax  ay  az
x y z
GRADIENT OF A SCALAR (Cont’d)

For Circular cylindrical coordinate:


V 1 V V
V  a  a  az
   z
For Spherical coordinate:
V 1 V 1 V
V  ar  a  a
r r  r sin  
EXAMPLE

Find gradient of these scalars:


z
(a) V  e sin 2 x cosh y

(b) U   z cos 2
2

(c) W  10r sin  cos


2
SOLUTION TO EXAMPLE

(a) Use gradient for Cartesian coordinate:

V V V
V  ax  ay  az
x y z
 2e z cos 2 x cosh ya x  e z sin 2 x sinh ya y
 e z sin 2 x cosh ya z
SOLUTION TO EXAMPLE (Cont’d)

(b) Use gradient for Circular cylindrical


coordinate:

U 1 U U
U  a  a  az
   z
 2 z cos 2a   2 z sin 2a
  2 cos 2a z
SOLUTION TO EXAMPLE (Cont’d)

(c) Use gradient for Spherical coordinate:

W 1 W 1 W
W  ar  a  a
r r  r sin  
 10 sin 2  cosa r  10 sin 2 cosa
 10 sin  sin a
DIVERGENCE OF A VECTOR

Illustration of the divergence of a vector


field at point P:

Positive Negative Zero


Divergence Divergence Divergence
DIVERGENCE OF A VECTOR (Cont’d)

The divergence of A at a given point P


is the outward flux per unit volume:

 A  dS
div A    A  lim s
v  0 v
DIVERGENCE OF A VECTOR (Cont’d)

What is  A  dS ?? Vector field A at


closed surface S
s
DIVERGENCE OF A VECTOR (Cont’d)

Where,
 
       A  dS
 A  dS 
       
s  front back left right top bottom
And, v is volume enclosed by surface S
DIVERGENCE OF A VECTOR (Cont’d)

For Cartesian coordinate:

Ax Ay Az


A   
x y z
For Circular cylindrical coordinate:

1  1 A Az
A 
 
A  
 

z
DIVERGENCE OF A VECTOR (Cont’d)

For Spherical coordinate:

1   A sin  
1  2
A  2
r r

r Ar  
r sin  

1 A
r sin  
EXAMPLE

Find divergence of these vectors:

(a) P  x yza x  xza z


2

(b) Q   sin a    za  z cosa z


2

(c) W  1 cosa r  r sin  cosa  cosa


r2
SOLUTION TO EXAMPLE

(a) Use divergence for Cartesian


coordinate:

Px Py Pz


P   
x y z


x

 2
  
x yz  0   xz 
y z
 2 xyz  x

39
SOLUTION TO EXAMPLE (Cont’d)

(b) Use divergence for Circular cylindrical


coordinate:
1  1 Q Qz
Q 
 
Q  
 

z


1  2
 
 
 sin    
1  2
 

 z   z cos 
z
 2 sin   cos
SOLUTION TO EXAMPLE (Cont’d)

(c) Use divergence for Spherical coordinate:

1  W sin  
W  2
1  2
r r

r Wr  r sin  

1 W
r sin  
1 
 2 cos  
r r
1 
r sin  
 
r sin 2  cos

1 
 cos 
r sin  
 2 cos cos
DIVERGENCE THEOREM

It states that the total outward flux of


a vector field A at the closed surface S
is the same as volume integral of
divergence of A.

 A  dS     AdV
V V
EXAMPLE

A vector field D   3a  exists in the region
between two concentric cylindrical surfaces
defined by ρ = 1 and ρ = 2, with both cylinders
extending between z = 0 and z = 5. Verify the
divergence theorem by evaluating:

(a)  D  ds
S

(b)    DdV
V
SOLUTION TO EXAMPLE

(a) For two concentric cylinder, the left side:

 D  dS  Dinner  Douter  Dbottom  Dtop


S
Where,
2 5
Dinner     3a   ddz(a  )
 1
 0 z 0
2 5
     a   ddz(a  )
4
 10
 1
 0 z 0
SOLUTION TO EXAMPLE (Cont’d)
2 5
Douter     a   ddz(a  )
3
 2
 0 z 0
2 5
    4a   ddz(a  )  160
 2
 0 z 0
2 2
Dbottom     3a   dd (a z ) 0
z 0
 1  0
2 2
Dtop     3a   dd (a z ) 0
z 5
 1  0
SOLUTION TO EXAMPLE (Cont’d)

Therefore

 D  dS  10  160  0  0
S
 150
SOLUTION TO EXAMPLE (Cont’d)

(b) For the right side of Divergence Theorem,


evaluate divergence of D

D
1 
 
 
 3  4 2
5 2 2
     DdV     dddz
 2
So, 4
z  0   0  1

 2 
5 
 4 2   
     150
   r 1    0  z  0 
 
CURL OF A VECTOR

The curl of vector A is an axial


(rotational) vector whose magnitude is
the maximum circulation of A per unit
area tends to zero and whose direction
is the normal direction of the area
when the area is oriented so as to
make the circulation maximum.
CURL OF A VECTOR (Cont’d)

  A  dl 
 
Curl A    A   lim s a n max
 s 0 s 
 
Where,
 
 A  dl           A  dl

s  ab bc cd da 
CURL OF A VECTOR (Cont’d)

The curl of the vector field is concerned


with rotation of the vector field. Rotation
can be used to measure the uniformity
of the field, the more non uniform the
field, the larger value of curl.
CURL OF A VECTOR (Cont’d)

For Cartesian coordinate:


ax ay az
  
A 
x y z
Ax Ay Az

 Az Ay   Az Ax   Ay Ax 


A     ax     ay     az
 y z   x z   x y 
CURL OF A VECTOR (Cont’d)

For Circular cylindrical coordinate:


a a az
1   
A 
   z
A A Az
 1 Az A   Az A 
 A     a     a
   z    z 
1   A  A 
    az
    
CURL OF A VECTOR (Cont’d)

For Spherical coordinate:


ar a a
1   
A  2
r sin  r  
Ar rA r sin  A
1   sin A  A  1  1 Ar  rA  
 A    a r    a
r sin      r  sin   r 
1  (rA )  Ar  
   a
r  r  
EXAMPLE

Find curl of these vectors:

(a) P  x yza x  xza z


2

(b) Q   sin a    za  z cosa z


2

(c) W  1 cosa r  r sin  cosa  cosa


r2
SOLUTION TO EXAMPLE

(a) Use curl for Cartesian coordinate:

 Pz Py   Pz Px   Py Px 


P     ax     ay     az
 y z   x z   x y 
   
 0  0 a x  x 2 y  z a y  0  x 2 z a z
 
 x 2 y  z a y  x 2 za z
SOLUTION TO EXAMPLE (Cont’d)

(b) Use curl for Circular cylindrical coordinate

 1 Qz Q   Q Qz  1   Q  Q 


Q     a     a     az
   z   z     x y 
z 
 sin    2 a   0  0 a
  
1

 3 2 z   cos a z



1

z sin    a   3z  cos a
3
z
SOLUTION TO EXAMPLE (Cont’d)

(c) Use curl for Spherical coordinate:

1   sin W  W  1  1 Wr  rW  


W    a r    a
r sin      r  sin   r 
1   (rW ) Wr  
   a
r  r  
   cos  
1  cos sin    r sin  cos   1 1  r 2
 r cos  
   a r    a
r sin      r  sin   r 

 
  cos 2  

1  (r sin  cos )
2
    r  a

r r  
 
 
SOLUTION TO EXAMPLE (Cont’d)

1 1
 cos2  r sin  sin  ar  0  cos a
r sin  r
1 sin  
  2r sin  cos  2 a
r r 
 cos 2  cos
  sin  a r  a
 r sin   r
 1
  2 cos  3  sin a
 r 
STOKE’S THEOREM

The circulation of a vector field A around


a closed path L is equal to the surface
integral of the curl of A over the open
surface S bounded by L that A and curl
of A are continuous on S.

 A  dl     A   dS
L S
STOKE’S THEOREM (Cont’d)
EXAMPLE

By using Stoke’s Theorem, evaluate  A  dl


for

A   cosa   sin a
SOLUTION TO EXAMPLE (Cont’d)

Stoke’s Theorem,

 A  dl     A   dS
L S
Evaluate right side to get left side,
where, dS  dda z and
1
 A  1   sin a z

SOLUTION TO EXAMPLE (Cont’d)

60 0 5
1
   A   dS     1   sin dda z
S  30 0  2
 4.941
EXAMPLE

Verify Stoke’s theorem for the vector field



B   cosa   sin a for given figure by evaluating:

(a)  B  dL over the


semicircular contour.

(b)    B  dS over the


surface of semicircular
contour.
SOLUTION TO EXAMPLE

(a) To find  B  dL

 B  dL   B  dL   B  dL   B  dL
L1 L2 L3

Where,

B  dL   cosa   sin a   da   da  dza z 


  cosd   sin d
SOLUTION TO EXAMPLE (Cont’d)

 2   0 
So  B  dL     cosd      sin d 
   
L1    0    0, z  0    0  z 0
2
1 2
   02
 2   0

 2    
  cosd    sin d 
 B  d L 
  

  
L2   2  z 0   0    2, z  0

 0   2 cos   0
4
SOLUTION TO EXAMPLE (Cont’d)

 0    
 B  dL     cosd      sin d 
 
L3    2    0, z  0      z 0
0
 1 2
    02
 2  r 2

Therefore the closed integral,

 B  dL  2  4  2  8
SOLUTION TO EXAMPLE (Cont’d)

(b) To find    B  dS
  B     cosa   sin a 
1      
 0  sin  a     cos   0a
   z   z  
1   
   sin     cos a z
    
1
 0 a   0 a  sin    sin  a z

 1
 sin  1  a z
 
SOLUTION TO EXAMPLE (Cont’d)

Therefore
 
2
 1 
    B  dS     sin  1   a z   dda z
 0  0    
 2
   sin    1dd
 0  0

   
2 
    cos   2     
1
8
  2   
  0 
 0
LAPLACIAN OF A SCALAR

The Laplacian of a scalar field, V


written as:
V
2

Where, Laplacian V is:

 2V    V
     V V V 
  ax  a y  az    ax  ay  az 
 x y z   x y z 
LAPLACIAN OF A SCALAR (Cont’d)

For Cartesian coordinate:

V V V
2 2 2
V 2  2  2
2
x y z
For Circular cylindrical coordinate:

1   V  1  V 2
V
2
V
2
  2 
       z 2
LAPLACIAN OF A SCALAR (Cont’d)

For Spherical coordinate:

1   2 V  1   V 
 V  2 r  2  sin 
2

r r  r  r sin     
1 V2
 2 2
r sin   2
EXAMPLE

Find Laplacian of these scalars:


z
(a) V  e sin 2 x cosh y
(b) U   z cos 2
2

(c) W  10r sin  cos


2

You should try this!!


SOLUTION TO EXAMPLE

z
(a)  V  2e sin 2 x cosh y
2

(b)  U 0
2

10 cos
(c) W
2
1  2 cos2 
r
Thank You !!!