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Chapter 1


If I have the belief that I can do it, I shall surely acquire the capacity to do it
even if I may not have it at the beginning.

Mahatma Gandhi

Teachers have a central role, as they have a strong impact of the attainment of
learners. Reflective teachers keep their practice under constant review and adjust it
in the light of desired learning outcomes and of the individual needs of students. As
a key competence, entrepreneurship does not necessarily involve a specific school
subject. Rather, it requires a way of teaching in which experiential learning and
project work have a main role. Teachers do not provide students with the answers,
but help them to research and identify right questions and find the best answers. To
inspire their pupils and students, and to help them develop an enterprising attitude,
teachers need a wide range of competences related to creativity and
entrepreneurship; they require a school environment where creativity and risk-taking
are encouraged, and mistakes are valued as a learning opportunity.teachers have a
critical role to play in this. They are facilitators of learning and multipliers of ideas.
They shape learning processes and can help students to achieve entrepreneurial
learning outcomes - concrete knowledge, skills and attitudes.

Every individual acts in a distinct manner. Since people act differently, the basic
question is ‘why they do what they do’? The answer to this question lies considerably
in the explanation of motivation. The term, ‘motivation’ comes from the Latin
word ‘movere’ which means ‘to move’. Motivation, as the base-building block of
human action has been studied extensively. Studies on motivation broadly refer to
two areas (a) motivating self, and (b) motivating others. Available literature suggests
that it is imperative to understand the underlying concept of motivation in order to
formulate a theoretical base for both the aspects. Motivational theories are based on
the fact that behavior is essentially purposeful and directed towards the attainment
of a goal. Thus, the concept “motive” refers to the purpose underlying all goal
directed actions. All motives, however, may not be equally important to the context
of the goal. Some action arises from a biological or physiological need, over which
people do not have much control. Such motives are common to the entire animal
kingdom. But there are certain crucial and other higher order needs which are
common to human beings. The distinctly human motives are largely unrelated to
biological and survival needs. These are related to feelings of self-esteem,
competency, social acceptance, etc.

An Entrepreneur is a person who perceives a need and then brings together

manpower, material and capital required to meet that need. In other words, an
entrepreneur is an individual or team that identifies the opportunity, gathers the
necessary resources, creates and ultimately responsible for the performance of the
An entrepreneur is a person who is able to express and execute the urge, skill,
motivation and innovative ability to establish a business or industry of his own,
either alone or in collaboration with his friends. His motive is to earn profit through
the production or distribution of goods or services. Adventurism, willingness to face
risks, innovative urge and creative power are the inborn qualities of
entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship can also be explained as a process of executing
a work in a new and better way
"An entrepreneur is not an innovation but an organization builder or one who has
the skill to build an organization and who must be able to harness the new ideas of
different innovators to the best of the organization."

Peter F. Drucker defines an entrepreneur as one who always searches for change,
responds to it and exploits it as an opportunity. Innovation is the specific tool of
entrepreneurs, the means by which they exploit change as an opportunity for a
different business or service.

Meaning of Entrepreneur
The word entrepreneur comes from the French word „entreprendre‟, which means
„to do something, and in the Middle era it was originally used in the sense of a
„person‟ who is active, who gets things done. Number of definitions is available for
the term Entrepreneur. Richard Cantillonwas the first philosopher to use this term in
1755 in his essay on “The Nature of Commerce”. According to him an entrepreneur
was one who buys factor services at certain prices in order to combine them to
produce a product and sell it at uncertain prices at the moment at which he commits
himself to his costs. This analysis recognizes that an entrepreneur has the willingness
to bear risk.
On the basis of different social researchers, entrepreneur is a person who changes
raw material into goods by taking risk in the market for profit. Entrepreneur uses his
ability to organize a business venture to achieve the goals.
Entrepreneurship is very important for economic development. Bheemappa (2003)
described entrepreneurship as the creative an innovative response to the
environment, which can take place in variety of fields of social endeavor business,
industry, agriculture, education, social work and it is potent limiting factors in
economic development. Ganeshan (2001) stated that entrepreneurship is the capacity
for innovation and caliber to introduce innovative techniques in the business
J.A. Schumpeter (1947) has given a model of economic development. According to
Schumpeter, entrepreneurs renew the economic activities by introducing new ideas,
new processes, new products and services for the development of an economy.
McClelland found high correlation between the need for achievement motivation
(n/ach) and successful economic activities in his study of motivational orientation.
He has viewed that Jains and Parsis in India progressed economically due to high
degree of their need for achievement motivation as a result of their child rearing
practices. K.L.
Sharma explains that McClelland comes closer to Weber when he takes legends,
child rearing practices and ideologies as factors generating need for achievement
motivation because these reflect ethical values too. McClelland tries to relate
motivation directly with entrepreneurship assuming that it is the immediate cause of
the entrepreneurship.
Hagen stated that the disadvantaged minority group is mostly the source of
entrepreneurship. He argues that the forces of disruption against the stability of
traditional society will be powerful to have creative personalities. The ‘withdrawal
of status respect’ may occur when a traditionally alike group is displaced by force
from its previous status by another traditional group, or when any superior group
changes its attitude toward a subordinate group, or on migration to other place or a
new society.
The historical views imply that entrepreneurs are not equally distributed in the
population, and the minorities, on the basis of religion, ethnic, migration or displaced
elites have provided most of the entrepreneurial talent but not all the minority groups
are the sources of entrepreneurship.
However, Kunkel argues that the marginal situation is not the guarantee for the
growth of entrepreneurship. There must be some additional significant factors at
work. Kunkel’s model suggests that entrepreneurial behavior is a function of the
surrounding social structure and it is influenced by manipulability economic and
social incentives. Therefore, his model is based upon experimental psychology but
identifies sociological variables as the determinants of entrepreneurial growth.


Max Weber analyzed religion and its impact on economic aspect of the culture.
According to him, religious beliefs are the driving force for generating
entrepreneurial activity. The beliefs play a very crucial role in determining the future
course of action on the entrepreneurs. He observed that the spirit of entrepreneurial
growth depends upon a specific value orientation of individuals and it is generated
by ethical values. His observations were based on the relationship that he found
between protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism. It was also found to be true in
the Indian context of communities.
But in the Indian context, Tripathi observes that the commercial development of
Jains is not due to their ethic but it is due to their emergence from Hindu Vaishya,
i.e. the traditional commercial community in India. He also disagrees that caste has
restriction on people of non-business strata to enter manufacturing as he observes
that several Brahmins have entered into manufacturing concerns. Therefore Weber’s
model is not adequate to explain or to analyse the entrepreneurship in Indian
situation as it is developed from the western social system.
Young’s theory of entrepreneurship is a theory of change based on society’s
incorporation of reactive sub-groups. According to Young’s theory,
entrepreneurship emerges in a group if the following conditions coincide:
• when a group experiences low status recognition;
• when they are denied of access to important social networks;
• when the group has better institutional resources, than other groups in the society
at the same level, then the entrepreneurship emerges.


Motivation is defined as “an inner force that drives individuals to accomplish
personal and organizational goals”.
A person’s motivation influences their decisions, and therefore plays a key role in
predicting which entrepreneurs will pursue successful opportunities.
entrepreneurs differ in how they view the risk of expending resources before
knowing the
distribution of outcomes.
Motivations lie at the heart of these different views, and help to explain the
variability in decision-making patterns across entrepreneurs.
Motivations have been found to help entrepreneurs develop the knowledge, skills,
and abilities necessary to be successful.

MENTREPRENEURIAL MOTIVATION: Entrepreneurs are concerned mainly

with influencing the environment, individuals and institutions to achieve their goals.
In other words, they are driven by, what can be called, power motivation.

A 'motive' is something that causes you to act. There could be many elements that
drive (or reduce) your motivation for participating in entrepreneurial activities.
First, there is a difference between 'intent' and 'motivation.' many academic
entrepreneurs never intended to become entrepreneurs. Some chose
entrepreneurship because it was the only option left to commercialize an innovation;
others fell into it almost by accident. But all (or nearly all) were strongly motivated
by some underlying force or drive. Nearly all wanted to see their invention
commercialized, whether or not that process led to fame or fortune. Some sought
humanitarian or social benefits, while others simply wanted to improve an industry
or business.
There is also a difference between 'capacity' and 'motivation'. Unfortunately, we are
unaware of any effective test for entrepreneurial capacity. We'll talk later about
whether entrepreneurs are 'born' or 'made', but the bottom line appears to be that the
only way to test entrepreneurial capacity is to put an individual in an entrepreneurial
environment and see what happens.
A critical distinction can be drawn between intrinsic and extrinsic sources of
motivation. Extrinsic motivation is imposed from external sources such as peer
influence or institutional pressures. Many people, including researchers are
motivated by the need to be appreciated, recognised, and rewarded by external
sources. Publications, research grants, tenure and academic awards are all example
of extrinsic goals that motivate researchers.
Intrinsic motivation includes the aspirations, dreams, and goals that people generate
internally. One intrinsic motivating force is survival, perhaps best represented in the
commercial realm by the need to make money. A second motivating force is the
desire to make a difference, either by individual effort or as part of a larger cause. A
third motivating force is the general desire to feel pleasure and to participate in
pleasurable experiences. Some motivations can present both intrinsic and extrinsic
elements. For example, people need to make money to maintain a minimum living,
but some people are driven to make a fortune to satisfy extrinsic motivation of peer
All of these may be relevant to deciding your interest in entrepreneurship. Our
research suggests that financial considerations are not the primary driver for
academic researchers who take on entrepreneurial activities. In addition, most stress
how difficult and often frustrating the process can be. And it is very important to
note that the majority of technology ventures are not successful.
i)Entrepreneurial Core

Motivation to start a career with an entrepreneurial venture is gathered from

this factor. The motivations classified under this factor are the need to take
calculated risk and the confidence to deal with it effectively, the need to be
independent, the need to provide good products and services to people, the
need to provide employment and to feel competent to utilise the financial
grants and loans from the government and bank.

ii)Work Core

The need to exploit one’s innate talent and potential in a profession, the
motivation to use one’s skills of decision-making and problem-solving in a
career, the need to be creative and innovative in an endeavour and the need to
achieve something that others usually do not, form part of the list of
motivation classified under this dimension.

Iii) Social Core

Among the needs classified under the social core motives are the need to
assume a leadership role where one has access to power and influence over
others, to attain high social status and to earn the respect of people. These
prominent social motivations of many individuals can be explained in terms
of the psychogenic needs of dominance and exhibition.

IV) Individual Core

One of the items measured under this dimension, is the motivation to assert
one’s individuality by desiring a personally preferred work style and lifestyle.

v)Economic Core

To get over shortage of money is one of the important motives of the middle-
class small-scale entrepreneur and also the rural entrepreneur. To make money
to clear debts and the need to supplement the family income are also similar
motives. To make the family rich and to get the best monetary returns for
one’s talent seems to be the inclination of the educated youth nowadays. They
get the opportunity to attain a professional degree and want to climb up the
social ladder. To ensure financial stability of children is a motive of well-
meaning parents who have decided that getting into business in spite of the
risks involved is the best way to make good money. These are motives
classified under the economic core.


Every role has a skill and competency requirement. For a teacher or a

performing artist, for example, it is the skill to communicate that plays a
decisive role in their effectiveness besides, of course, their knowledge. For a
craftsman or an artist, it is the creativity and skill in the chosen craft.
entrepreneurship, need to have a knack for spotting business
opportunities and creativity and innovation in developing and delivering a
product or service.
a task is feasible, practical and sustainable. For every task one needs
certain competencies. Whereas competencies reinforce a person’s
perception of feasibility of a career option, there also has to be the will and
urge, a ‘perception of the desirability.’ Is it not paradoxical that
entrepreneurship has a key role to play in economic development, yet there are
very few who ever think of it as a career option? And, it is not that they may
be lacking in skills. What one often finds is the lack of motivation!
Competencies equip you with the knowledge of how to do (‘know-how’) of
entrepreneurial behaviour and motivation provides answers to why to do
(‘know-why’) of entrepreneurial behaviour. is also linked to reward expectations,
be these financial, social status or psychological satisfaction. In case of
entrepreneurship, successful
performance of the venture itself becomes a reward for the entrepreneur.

every career draws on the competencies of an individual. Some of these

competencies may be general and some peculiar to
the chosen career. competencies to mean abilities and skills. However, we would
desist from calling these as personality traits as such a conceptualization only
reinforces the mistaken belief that entrepreneurs are born rather than made. We
believe that recognition of these competencies as abilities and skills makes
entrepreneurship as a teachable and learnable behaviour. a set of entrepreneurial
competencies developed by the Entrepreneurship Development Institute of India
(EDI) Ahemdabad. These competencies were identified by a thorough research
procedure based on critical analysis of the case studies of the successful
(i) Initiative- acting out of choice rather than compulsion, taking the lead
rather than waiting for others to start.
(ii) Sees and Acts on Opportunities- A mindset where one is trained to
look for business opportunities from everyday experiences. Recall
‘oranges’ example.
(iii) Persistence- A ‘never say die’ attitude, not giving up easily, striving
Information seeking continuously until success is achieved.
(iv) Knowing- Knowing who knows, consulting experts, reading relevant
material and an overall openness to ideas and information.
(v) Concern for High Quality of Work- Attention to details and
observance of established standards and norms.
(vi) Commitment to Work Contract- Taking personal pains to complete
a task as scheduled.
(vii) Efficiency Orientation- Concern for conservation of time, money and
(viii) Systematic Planning- Breaking up the complex whole into parts, close
examination of the parts and inferring about the whole; e.g.
simultaneously attending to production, marketing and financial
aspects (parts) of the overall business strategy (the whole).
(ix) Problem solving-Observing the symptoms, diagnosing and curing.
(x) Self-confidence- Not being afraid of the risks associated with business
and relying on one’s capabilities to successfully manage these.
(xi) Assertiveness- Conveying emphatically one’s vision and convincing
others of its value.
(xii) Persuasion- Eliciting support of others in the venture.
(xiii) Use of Influence Strategies- Providing leadership.
(xiv) Monitoring- Ensuring the progress of the venture as planned.
(xv) Concern for Employee Welfare- Believing in employee well being as
the key to competitiveness and success and initiating programmes of
employee welfare.

 Entrepreneurial Potential: it is ability and skill required to become entrepreneur.

It includes risk-taking, leadership quality, desion making, organizing.


Entrepreneurial teachers have a passion for teaching. They are inspirational, open-
minded and confident, flexible and responsible - but also, from time to time, rule-
breakers. They listen well, can harness and sell ideas and can work student- and
action- oriented. They are team players and have a good network.
They seek to close the gap between education and economy and include external
experts in their teaching; focusing on real-life experiences. They always refer to the
economic aspect of a topic; and business-related subjects play an important role in
their classes – across the disciplines.
They follow a flexible and adaptable study plan and prefer interdisciplinary, project-
based learning; using training material rather than textbooks. They put emphasis on
group processes and interactions; and understand the class room sometimes as a
‘clash room’, giving room for diversity – a diversity of opinions, answers and
solutions and the reflection about the learning process.
An entrepreneurial teacher is more of a coach than someone who lectures. They
support the individual learning processes of students and the development of
personal competences. Entrepreneurial competences require active methods of
engaging students to release their creativity and innovation
Entrepreneurial competency and skills can be acquired or built only through hands-
on, real life learning experiences Entrepreneurial skills can be taught across all
subjects as well as a separate subject
Entrepreneurship should focus on intrepreneurs as well as entrepreneurs, in light of
the fact that most students will use entrepreneurial skills within companies or public
To give entrepreneurship education real traction, there is a need to develop learning
outcomes related to entrepreneurship and related assessment methods and quality
assurance procedures for all levels of education. These should be designed to help
teachers progress in the acquisition of entrepreneurial knowledge, skills and attitudes
The entrepreneurship education agenda should be promoted beyond teacher
education institutions to businesses and the wider community
Teachers and schools will not be able to realise their ambitions without
An entrepreneurial teacher has a clear educational concept, seeking to equip student
teachers with the ability to teach for the world of tomorrow. This concept is
embedded in the entire curriculum

An entrepreneurial teacher education institution has a vision for its future needs and
a clear view of how entrepreneurship education fits into the broader curriculum
and development plan

An entrepreneurial seeks to find the right people, recruit them and allow them the
space to develop their ideas

An entrepreneurial teacher promotes a strong practical component to learning

supported by a solid theoretical basis

“A Study of Secondary School Teachers Entrepreneurial Motivation in relation to

their Entrepreneurial Competencies and Entrepreneurial Potential.”


The definition of the terms used by the researcher is as follows:
 Entrepreneurial Motivation: Entrepreneurs are concerned mainly with
influencing the environment, individuals and institutions to achieve their goals. It
also included entrepreneurial core, work core, social core, individual core and
economic core.
 Entrepreneurial Competencies – the sum of our experiences and the knowledge,
skills, values and attitudes we have acquired during our lifetime, which are necessary
for effective performance in a job or life role. It also included initiative, concern for
high quality of work, problem solving, and self-confidence.
 Entrepreneurial Potential: it is ability and skill required to become entrepreneur.
It includes risk-taking, leadership quality, desion making, organizing.
 Secondary School Teachers: Teacher having graduated or postgraduate degree
with B.Ed has a professional qualification and are teaching 9 th to 10th standard of
SSC, ICSE and CBSE boards.


“A Study of Secondary School Teachers Entrepreneurial Motivation in relation to

their Entrepreneurial Competencies and Entrepreneurial Potential.”
The definition of the terms used by the researcher is as follows:
 Entrepreneurial Motivation: Entrepreneurs are concerned mainly with
influencing the environment, individuals and institutions to achieve their goals. It
also included entrepreneurial core, work core, social core, individual core and
economic core.
 Entrepreneurial Competencies – the sum of our experiences and the knowledge,
skills, values and attitudes we have acquired during our lifetime, which are necessary
for effective performance in a job or life role. It also included initiative, concern for
high quality of work, problem solving, and self-confidence.
 Entrepreneurial Potential: it is ability and skill required to become entrepreneur.
It includes risk-taking, leadership quality, desion making, organizing.
 Secondary School Teachers: Teacher having graduated or postgraduate degree
with B.Ed has a professional qualification and are teaching 9 th to 10th standard of
SSC, ICSE and CBSE boards.


To Study of Secondary School Teachers Entrepreneurial Motivation in relation to
their Entrepreneurial Competencies and Entrepreneurial Potential.


 To measure secondary school teachers entrepreneurial motivation on the basis
 Age
 Gender
 Teaching Experience
 Teaching Subject
 Type of Board
 Educational Qualification
 Caste
2) To measure secondary school teachers entrepreneurial competencies on the basis
 Age
 Gender
 Teaching Experience
 Teaching Subject
 Type of Board
 Educational Qualification
 Caste
 To measure secondary school teachers entrepreneurial potential on the basis of:
 Age
 Gender
 Teaching Experience
 Teaching Subject
 Type of Board
 Educational Qualification
 Caste
 To ascertain relationship of entrepreneurial motivation of secondary school
teachers with entrepreneurial competencies on the basis of:
 Age
 Gender
 Teaching Experience
 Teaching Subject
 Type of Board
 Educational Qualification
 Caste

 To ascertain relationship of entrepreneurial motivation of secondary school

teachers with entrepreneurial potential on the basis of:
 Age
 Gender
 Teaching Experience
 Teaching Subject
 Type of Board
 Educational Qualification
 Caste

 There is no significant difference between secondary school teachers
entrepreneurial motivation on the basis of:
 Age
 Gender
 Teaching Experience
 Teaching Subject
 Type of Board
 Educational Qualification
 Caste
2) There is no significant difference between secondary school teachers
entrepreneurial competencies on the basis of:
 Age
 Gender
 Teaching Experience
 Teaching Subject
 Type of Board
 Educational Qualification
 Caste

3) There is no significant difference between secondary school teachers

entrepreneurial potential on the basis of:
 Age
 Gender
 Teaching Experience
 Teaching Subject
 Type of Board
 Educational Qualification
 Caste

4) There is no significant relationship between of secondary school teachers

entrepreneurial motivation and entrepreneurial competencies on the basis of:
 Age
 Gender
 Teaching Experience
 Teaching Subject
 Type of Board
 Educational Qualification
 Caste

5) There is no significant relationship between of secondary school teachers

entrepreneurial motivation and entrepreneurial potential on the basis of:
 Age
 Gender
 Teaching Experience
 Teaching Subject
 Type of Board
 Educational Qualification
 Caste


The study would be delimited to the teachers of Navi Mumbai.
The study will be conducted on secondary school teachers only.
The study will be delimited to only English medium school.
For the purpose of the study the researcher will collect data only secondary school
The study will use only quantitative paradigm and not the qualitative paradigm.
The study will be limited to SSC, ICSE, CBSE board IGCSE and IB boards will not
be considered.

Since teachers play a major role in the development of students. The finding will be
very useful for both prospective and practicing teacher. Mechanism for actualizing
an opportunity often initially exists mainly in the entrepreneurs mind, making the
entrepreneurs idea for how to exploit the opportunity a personal interpretation of the
opportunity. This idea is basically what we would call vision. Such judgment may
be mistaken: entrepreneurs sometimes believe that they have identified valuable
opportunities. A teacher tends to be innovative with different approaches to achieve
the goals. Teachers always prepared to try out alternatives. For them, the method of
choice is the method which will work best. So, if the common sense approach fails,
they will invent new ones. They are ingenious at adapting and modifying whatever
is at hand to solve the problems or achieve the objective. It will be helpful to identify
the secondary school teachers’ competency in the subject as well as teaching
techniques. This study also helpful to find out secondary school teachers potential
that has a great impact on students character building. This study can be helpful for
principle to accept responsibility for ones actions. Accept full responsibility for
success or failure. Motivated teachers, students to achievement and recognize

Research may be defined as the application of the scientific method in the study of
problems. Research is a systematic attempt to obtain answers to meaningful questions about
phenomena or events through the application of scientific procedures.

“Research is a systematic and objective analysis and recording of controlled observation

that may lead to the development of generalizations, principles, or theories, resulting in prediction
and possibly ultimate control of events.”1 Hence this calls for preparing a plan or a research design.
Decisions regarding what, where, when, how much, by what means concerning the research study
constitute the research design.

This is essential as only with the help of a research design or the ‘blue print’ as it is
popularly known; it becomes possible for the researcher to obtain maximum utilization of time,
energy and finances.

"A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a
manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure.” 1

Selltiz, C. et. Al (1962): Research Methods in Social Sciences (revised) New York, Holt, Rhinehart and
Winston, p.50.
A research design is a conceptual structure and strategy of investigation within which
research is conducted, it constitutes the blue print for the collection, measurement and analysis of

Research design is the most vital and critical aspect of an investigation as it involves the
whole process of planning and execution of investigation and the analyses of the data.

Need For Research Design

‘Research design is needed because it facilitates the smooth sailing of the various research
operations, thereby making the research as efficient as possible yielding maximal information with
minimal expenditure of effort, time and money. Just as for better, economical and attractive
construction of a house a blueprint is needed (or what is commonly called the map of the house)
well thought out and prepared by an expert architect, similarly a research design or a plan is needed
in advance of data collection and analysis of our research.’1

According to Edward Vockell, “A good research design merely makes our reasoning

Research Methods
Research methods are of utmost importance in a research process. They describe the various
steps of the plan of attack to be adopted in solving a research problem such as the manner in which
the problems are formulated, the definition of terms, the choice of subjects for investigation, and
the validation of data gathering tools, the collection, analysis and interpretation of data and the
process of inferences and generalization.

Research methods can be classified into three basic categories as follows:

Kothari, C.R. (1985): Research Methodology- Methods and Techniques. New Delhi: Wiley
Easter Ltd. p. 45
Edward Vokell L. (1983): Educational Research, NewYork; MacMillan Publishing Co.Inc,
1. Historical Research.
2. Descriptive Research.
3. Experimental Research

Historical Research: Historical research, as the term implies, is research based on describing the
past. This type of research includes for instance investigations like the recording, analysis and
interpretation of events in the past with the purpose of discovering generalizations and deduction
that can be useful in understanding the past, the present and to a limited extend, can anticipate the

Experimental Research: It is an attempt by the researcher to maintain control over all factors that
may affect the result of an experiment. In doing this, the researcher attempts to determine or predict
what may occur. Experimental research involves manipulation of an independent variable
constant. Effect is observed of the manipulation of the independent variable constant. Effect is
observed of the manipulation of the independent variables on the dependent variable.

Descriptive Research: Descriptive research is used to obtain information concerning the current
status of the phenomena to describe, “What exists” with respect to variables or conditions in a
situation. There are different types of descriptive research methods which range from survey,
which describes the status quo, the correlational study which investigates the relationship between
variables, to developmental studies which seek to determine changes over type. Descriptive studies
are more than just a collection of data; they involve measurement, classification, analysis,
comparison and interpretation.

A descriptive study investigates phenomena in their natural settings. Such studies provide
information useful to the solution of local problems as well as provide data to form the basis of
research of a more fundamental nature. A descriptive research differs from other types of research
in purpose and scope. It involves events that have already taken place and are related to a present
Descriptive studies are of the following types:
 Correlational studies
 Causal- comparative studies
 Case studies
 Survey
 Developmental studies

Methodology of the Present Study

The present study was of the descriptive type as it attempted to ascertain the relationship of
Secondary School Teachers Entrepreneurial Motivation in relation to their Entrepreneurial
Competencies and Entrepreneurial Potential.
For the purpose of the present study, the co-relational method was used to determine the
extent of relationship between the variables of the study. Also, the causal- comparative method
was used to compare Entrepreneurial Motivation of Teachers on the basis of their Entrepreneurial
Competencies and Entrepreneurial Potential.

Correlational Method: Correlation research is concerned with discovering and measuring

the degree of relationship between two or more variables. Correlation research only indicates
whether a relationship exists, it does not indicate any cause effect relationship. The correlation
approach is valuable when variables are complex and can not be manipulated. It also permits the
measurement of several variables and their inter relationships simultaneously in redistrict setting
such a research is often conducted for the purpose of making predictions.

Correlation research seeks to determine whether and to what degree, a statistical

relationship exists between two or more variables. Correlations either establish relationships or
use existing relationships to make predictions. A correlation is a quantitative measure of the degree
of correspondence between two or more variables. The degree of correlation is known as
correlation coefficient which is a number between -1.00 and +1.00.
Correlation research does not necessarily establish cause and effect relationships of
Entrepreneurial Motivation of Teachers with of their Entrepreneurial Competencies and
Entrepreneurial Potential.

The Causal- Comparative Method: In many researches, the investigators would like to
examine the possible effects of variables that are difficult or impossible to manipulate
experimentally. Efforts are made to identify the factors, which play a role in the occurrence of an
event or a condition.

This is a method of testing out possible antecedents of events that have already happened
and can not be engineered or manipulated by the investigator.

In this method, the researcher attempts to determine the cause or reason for pre-existing
differences in groups of individuals’ causal comparative research attempts to determine reasons or
causes, for the existing condition. Here, the groups are different on some variable and the
researcher tries to identify the main factor that has led to this difference. Such research is also
known as ex-post-facto (Latin for “after the fact”) research as both the effect and the supposed
cause have already occurred and must be studied in retrospect.

The causal comparative studies typically involve comparison of two or more groups (which
differ on one independent variable) on one dependent variable. The dependent variable in causal
comparative research is the change or difference occurring as a result of the independent variable.
The independent variable in causal comparative research is an activity or characteristic believed
to make a difference with respect to some behavior. The independent variable in causal
comparative research can not be manipulated. Definition and selection of the comparison groups
are very important parts of a causal comparative research. The independent variable differentiating
the groups must be clearly and operationally defined, since each group represents a different
In the present investigation, the causal comparative method was used to compare Entrepreneurial
Motivation of Teachers on the basis of their Entrepreneurial Competencies and Entrepreneurial

Sampling is used to draw valid inferences or generalizations on the basis of careful
observation of variables within a relatively small proportion of the population. A sample design is
a definite plan for obtaining a sample from a given population. It refers to the technique or the
procedure the researcher would adopt in selecting items for the sample. Sampling design is
determined before data are collected.

Technique of Sampling
In order to obtain a representative sample from the population, a researcher employs various
sampling techniques. These techniques are subsumed into different sampling designs. There are
basically two types of sampling:

 Probability Sampling.
 Non- Probability Sampling.

Probability Sampling:
These types of sampling result in all members of a given population have the same chance
of being chosen for the sample.
There are four types of probability sampling:

I. Simple Random Sampling

II. Systematic Sampling
III. Stratified Random Sampling
IV. Cluster Sampling
Non Probability sampling:
Non probability sampling are those that use that use whatever subjects are available rather
than following a specific subject selection process some non probability sampling procedures may
produce samples that do not accurately reflect the characteristics of a population of interest.

There are four type of non probability sampling are as follows:

I.Convenience Sampling
II. Quota Sampling
III. Dimensional Sampling
IV. Snowball Sampling

A sample is a small proportion of a population selected for observation and analysis.

John L.Hayrman Jr defines sample as, “the group of individuals, events or situations or the
like which will be involved in a study”.1

According to Goode and Hatt, “A sample as the name implies is a smaller representation
of a larger whole.”2

In accordance to the design of the study, the sample consisted of 550 students including
boys and girls from the IXth Standard English medium schools of Navi Mumbai.


Hayrman John L in Sharma, Resaerch Methods in Social Sciences, Sterling Publishers Pvt.Ltd.,
NewDelhi, p.191.
Goode and Hatt in Best W. John (1978): Research in Education, (3rd ed.) New Delhi,
Prentice Hall India Pvt.Ltd.
The first step in developing any sample design is to clearly define the population. A
population is any group of individuals who have one or more characteristics in common that are
of interest to the researcher.2
For the purpose of the present study, the population comprised of ninth standard students
English medium school situated in Navi Mumbai, affiliated to the SSC board.
The data were collected from the ninth Standard English medium school situated in Navi Mumbai.

The researcher used probability sampling as the sampling design. The researcher employed
stratified random sampling. The technique for sampling was three- stage sampling.

1) At the first stage, schools were selected out on the basis of areas in Navi Mumbai using
simple random sampling technique. (lottery method)
2) At the second stage, schools were selected from location of Vashi to Ghansoli.
3) At the third stage, students were selected from these schools IX standard using
incidental sampling technique due to reasons beyond the researcher’s control.

The following is the list of schools included in the sample of the present study:
Tools included in this category are questionnaires, Checklists, Rating scales, Scores Cards
and Attitude Scales.

In order to carry out any type of research investigation, the data are gathered in order to test
the hypotheses. There are several methods and procedures for collection of data. The researcher
has to select from the available tools one that would yield the required data for testing the

In order to achieve the objective of the study, the investigator would use the following tools:
 Entrepreneurial Motivation Scale-(V.Vijaya and T.J.Kamalanabham,2009)
 Entrepreneurial Competencies Scale
 Entrepreneurial Potential Scale-( Vandana Gupta,2013)
Of the preceding tools, Entrepreneurial Motivation Scale is standardizing tool prepared by
V.Vijaya and T.J.Kamalanabham, 2009. Entrepreneurial Competencies Scale were modified by
the researcher to suite the needs of the present investigation, standardize tool developed
entrepreneurship development institute of India, Ahmadabad. Entrepreneurial Potential Scale is
standardizing tool prepared by Vandana Gupta, 2013

Data collection would be done in the secondary school all over Navi Mumbai.
Entrepreneurial Motivation Scale
’s Entrepreneurial Motivation Scale is standardizing tool prepared by V.Vijaya and
T.J.Kamalanabham, 2009lightly important’, ’important’, ’very important’
and ’extremely
The five point scale range over not important, slightly important ,important , very important
extremely important. The scoring ranged from 0 to 4 respectively.


’. The scoring ranged from 0 to 4 respectively.

 Entrepreneurial Competencies Scale

Entrepreneurial Competencies Scale were modified by the researcher to suite the needs of the
present investigation, standardize tool developed entrepreneurship development institute of India,
 test-retest stability coefficient 0.66, N = 223.


Rating of Statements Score Competency

___+ ____ + ____ + ____ - ___ + 6 = _____ Initiative
(1) (15) (29) (43) (57)
___- ____ + ____ + ____+ ___ + 6 = _____ Sees and Acts on
(2) (16) (30) (44) (58)----------- opportunities
___+ ____ + ____ - ____ + ___ + 6 = _____ Persistence
(3) (17) (31) (45) (59)
___+ ____ - ____ + ____+ ___ + 6 = _____ Information
(4) (18) (32) (46) (60) seeking
___+ ____ + ____- ____ + ___ + 6 = _____ Concern for high
(5) (19) (33) (47) (61) Quality of work
___+ ____ + ____ + ____ - ___ + 6 = _____ Commitment to
(6) (20) (34) (48) (62) Work Contract
___- ____ + ____ + ____ + ___ + 6 = _____ Efficiency
(7) (21) (35) (49) (63) Orientation
___+ ____ + ____ - ____ + ___ + 6 = _____ Systematic
(8) (22) (36) (50) (64) Planning
___+ ____ - ____ + ____+ ___ + 6 = _____ Problem Solving
(9) (23) (37) (51) (65)
___- ____ + ____ + ____+ ___ + 6 = _____ Self-confidence
(10) (24) (38) (52) (66)
___+ ____ - ____ + ____+ ___ + 6 = _____ Assertiveness
(11) (25) (39) (53) (67)
___+ ____+ ____ + ____ - ___ + 6 = _____ Persuasion
(12) (26) (40) (54) (68)
___- ____ + ____ + ____ + ___ + 6 = _____ Use of influence
(13) (27) (41) (55) (69) Strategies
___- ____ - ____ - ____ - ___ + 18 = _____ Correction Factor
(14) (28) (41) (55) (70)
1. The correction factor (the total of items 14,28, 42, 56 and 70) is used
to determine whether or not a person tries to present a very favourable
image of himself. If the total score on this factor is 20 or greater, then
the total scores on the 13 competencies must be corrected to provide a
more accurate assessment of the strength of the competencies for that
2. Use the following numbers when figuring the corrected score:
If the correction subtract the following
Factor score is : correction number from
the total score for each
competency :
24 or 25 7
22 or 23 5
20 or 21 3
19 or less 0
3. Use the page below to correct each competency before using the
Profile Sheet.
1. Transfer the corrected competency score to the profile sheet by
marking “X” at the appropriate point on the dotted horizontal line for
each competency.
2. Draw a heavy line over the dotted horizontal line for each competency,
from the left vertical line to the point you have marked with an “X”.
The heavy lines you have drawn graphically represent the strength of
each competency.
3. The following is an example of how to create the profile sheet.
If the score for Initiative is 19, it will appear as follows:
Initiative ______________X___________
0 5 10 15 20 25
Competency Original Correction Corrected
Score - number* = Total
Initiative _______ - __________ = ___________
Sees and acts on
Opportunities _______ - __________ = ___________
Persistence _______ - __________ = ___________
Information seeking _______ - __________ = ___________
Concern for High Quality of
Work _______ - __________ = ___________
Commitment to work
Contract _______ - __________ = ___________
Efficiency Orientation _______ - __________ = ___________
Systematic Planning _______ - __________ = ___________
Problem solving _______ - __________ = ___________
Self-Confidence _______ - __________ = ___________
Assertiveness _______ - __________ = ___________
Persuasion _______ - __________ = ___________
Use of influence Strategies _______ - __________ = ___________
Corrected Total Score ___________



attendant is essentially accretive activity or an innovative function. ENTREPRENEURIAL spirit is
characterised by innovation and creativity, risk taking, initiative taking. It is a knack of sensing
opportunity where others see chaos, contradiction and confusion.

ENTREPRENEURIAL POTENTIAL is the ability and skill required to become an entrepreneur

a) Creative and innovation

b) Risk- taking
c) Initiative -taking
d) Leadership qualities
e) Self- Confidence
f) Decision Making
g) Organizing
h) Autonomy SA A U D SD
Creative and innovation
1 I am regularly coming up with new ideas on how to do
thing better or more efficiently.
2 I am able to find solution to challenges and problems.
3 I try things that are very new and different from what I
have done before.

Scoring of the attitude toward inclusive education rating scale

Type of sttement +ve -ve
sa 5 1
a 4 2
un 3 3
Sd 2 4
d 1 5


Data collection is essentially an important part of the research process so that the
inferences, hypotheses or generalizations tentatively held may be identified as valid, verified as
correct or rejected as untenable.

For the purpose of data collection a formal letter from the Head of the Department of
Education was obtained. The letter served as the basis for seeking permission for data collection
from schools.
The researcher personally visited the schools to seek permission and on the appointed date
and time, collected data. The researcher enjoyed the process of data collection and the
opportunities to meet new people, thus getting an insight into the functioning of schools in Navi

There were also some disappointing days when, for instance, on reaching the school again
for collecting the data schools make excuse not to give the permission for that day. Thus another
date was given to the researcher to come back for the collection. Many trips to the same school
had to be made by the researcher.


Analysis is a crucial process of research. Analysis is a form of description of data gathered

in a systematic and scientific way. Statistical analysis acts as a quantitative link for the

communication of results.

Analysis of data involves studying the tabulated material in order to determine the inherent

facts. It involves breaking down the existing complex factors into simpler parts and then putting

the parts together in new arrangements for the purpose of interpretation.

For the present study the data subjected to two types of analysis:

1. Descriptive Analysis

2. Inferential Analysis

1) Descriptive Analysis:
Descriptive Analysis provides valuable information about the nature of a particular group

about the nature of a particular group of individuals. The statistical measures used in describing

and analyzing the data are:

 Measures of Central tendencies

 Mean
 Median
 Mode
 Measures of Variability
 Standard deviation
 Measures of dispersion
 Skewness
 kurtosis

2) Inferential Analysis:

Inferential Analysis allows for testing of hypothesis in terms of determining the relationship,

if any, which exist between two or more variables and differences among the two sample group.

The inferential methods used for testing of hypothesis for the present study were:

 Co-efficient of correlation(r)


 ‘t' Test

The review of literature involves locating reading and evaluating research reports as well
as reports of casual observation and opinion related to the research topic.

Research studies are conducted with in depth analysis, insight and intensive logical
thinking. The contribution of the earlier researches also proves to be of great help to the trainee

Review also guides the researcher and helps to understand the rationale of the other
researchers for conducting the research in the area which he/she has selected.

It also highlights the areas where further research can be taken up .this enables the
researcher to look into various aspect and dimensions of the study before deciding the actual
problem of the study.
Purposes of literature review are as follows:

 It helps to eliminate duplication of researches because researcher finds out what

researches have been done in the area and what has not been done in the area.
 It provides useful hypotheses for one’s study.
 It provides helpful suggestions for research methodology, tools, sampling techniques and
sample size.
 It provides a background for the research and makes the reader aware of the status of the
issue at hand.
 It helps the researcher in limit his/her problems and refining it better
 It enables the researcher to identify research topics that have been overlooked.
For this purpose, the researcher has classified the reviews under the following two broad
1. Researches Conducted in India
2. Researches Conducted Abroad.

In each of the broad section, the researches are further classified into the following sub-
a. Researches on Entrepreneurial Motivation.
b. Researches on Entrepreneurial Competencies .
c. Researches on Entrepreneurial Potential
Studies on Entrepreneurial Motivation.

Studies done in India

Murugesan & Sankaran (2006) in their study of 153 entrepreneurs of Tamil Nadu (India) found
that the majority of entrepreneurs were motivated mainly by the urge to attain economic
independence such as the desire to earn money and to be self-employed.
Chowdhary & Monika Prakash (2007) in their exploratory study of entrepreneurial motives of 179
young Indian entrepreneurs found that autonomy and freedom dominated the motives for

Khanka (2009) conducted research on 243 Indian North Eastern (Assamese) entrepreneurs on
entrepreneurial motivation showed that entrepreneurs were primarily motivated by the need for
economic achievement, personal growth, autonomy and recognition; the desire to contribute to the
community was not found to be an important reason to become an entrepreneur.

Vidyu Lata (1990) suggests that security, prestige, power and social service are equally potential
motives. Thus, various motives have been identified as factors of entrepreneurial motivation.
Studies done in Abroad
McClelland (1961) studied that individuals who are high in nAch are more likely than those who
are low in nAch to engage in activities or tasks that have a high degree of individual responsibility
for out comes, require individual skill and effort, have a moderate degree of risk, and include clear
feedback on performance. Further, McClelland argued that entrepreneurial roles are characterized
as having a greater degree of these tasks attributes than other careers; thus, it is likely that people
high in nAch will be more likely to pursue entrepreneurial jobs than other types of roles.

Johnson (1990) conducted a traditional review of 23 studies, which varied

regarding samples, measurement of nAch, and definitions of entrepreneurship. Based onthis group
of studies, Johnson concluded that there is a relationship between nAch and entrepreneurial
activities—in this case, nAch distinguished firm founders from othermembers of society.

Collins, Locke, and Hanges (2000) conducted the first and only meta-analysis of nAch and
entrepreneurship studies, examining 63 nAch and entrepreneurship studies. The overall finding of
the meta-analysis is that nAch is significantly related to founding acompany. The nAch both
differentiated between entrepreneurs and others (mean r =.21)and predicted the performance of the
founders’ firms (mean r =.28). Further, they found nosignificant differences in the predictive
validity of three different measures of nAch (TAT,questionnaires, and the Miner Sentence
Completion Scale).
Collins et al. (2000) found that the relationship between nAch entrepreneurial activity was
moderated by several factors. First, nAch was a more robust predictor of group-level effects than
individual level effects Second, they found that while nAch is a strong differentiator between firm
founders and non managerial employees (mean r =.39), it is not a strong differentiator between
firm founders and managers (mean r =.14).
Collins et al. (2000) concluded that nAch is an effective tool for differentiating between firm
founders and the general population but less so for differentiating between firm founders and
managers. Further, they concluded that nAch might be particularly effective at differentiating
between successful and unsuccessful groups of firm founders. Thus, nAch could play a very useful
role in explaining entrepreneurial activity.

Studies on Entrepreneurial Competencies

Studies done in India
Dr. Shipra Vaidya(2007) studies on Developing Entrepreneurial Life Skills: An Experiment in
Indian Schools.
Objectives: The study is a systematic and rigorous exploration of entrepreneurial construct among
elementary stage students(11-14 years) by (i) Developing an activity based module comprising
seven interdisciplinary themes relating to entrepreneurship (ii) Organizing an educational camp
emphasizing experimental learning to conceptualize the term and its related meanings, as a part of
this initiative.
Prior work: The study is mainly built upon two studies:
(i) Inspirational Tales: Propagating Entrepreneurial Narratives amongst children (Smith, R. 2002,
in Indian University of Aberdeen),
(ii) Developing Entrepreneurial Life Skills (Brains, J. 2002, and Durham University). In India, no
systematic efforts have been made to conceptualize this concept into school education.
However little available is reported below:
1. The recommendations of Focus Group paper on Work and Education, National Curriculum
Framework, 2005 (NCERT).
2. Summer camps organized by Entrepreneurship Development Institute, Ahmadabad to foster
entrepreneurial spirit among children.
3. An NGO DHRIITI has been involved in imparting entrepreneurship education in schools, as an
outside project out of the school timetable.
4. The Central Board of Secondary Education has started an add-on course in Entrepreneurship at
the higher secondary stage in India.
Approach: Action Research and Problem-Based-Learning is used to study the impact on children.
The study has been conducted in a classroom setting with the help of social-science teachers.
Children had no prior knowledge of entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship is seen as a non-cognitive
technique. The module motivates the child to progress from one step to another through
interrelated themes. Emphasis is on seeing-recalling from their immediate surroundings, learning
from outside experiences and moving from familiar to unfamiliar.
Continuous evaluation of understanding is done through textual activities and pictorial problems;
participatory learning is the focus of the study.
Results: Subsidiary findings being many, the study mainly highlighted:
The complex phenomenon of entrepreneurship can be brought down to elementary stage in an
integrated manner.
Entrepreneurial values can be developed in a social setting rather than only seen as an economic
activity. The inspirational nature of curriculum motivates the child to grow with enterprising spirit,
develop life skills to face challenges of life rather than pushing the child into it.

Singh and Misra (2011) studied on theory-based life style interventions to improve academic
competence among school adolescents. Therefore, present study examined the effect of Life Style
Intervention Programme (LSIP) introduced through a psycho-education programme on academic
competence in a sample (N = 100) of students in a residential school located at Mankapur, Gonda
in Uttar Pradesh, India. Academic competence (AC) was evaluated through a self-report measure.
The results indicated that adolescents who participated in a 15-day LSIP reported of increased AC.
Also, some of the aspects significant for academic performance (i.e., self-esteem, anxiety,
depression, optimism)as secondary outcomes were also assessed.
The findings have implications for life style education efforts in schools, which could have a major
impact on the academic performance of students.

Megha Pradhan (2008) report on Entrepreneurship in India National Knowledge Commission.

Methodology: The methodology adopted in preparing this report is based on one-on-one
interviews with one hundred and fifty-five entrepreneurs from diverse backgrounds, in selected
cities across India, as well as collecting information from consultations with other relevant
stakeholders in the entrepreneurial ecosystem (such as educational institutions, incubation centers,
the financial community, chambers of commerce, entrepreneurial associations etc.) across the
A successful Entrepreneurship ecosystem is the function of a number of factors working in
tandem. Key ‘Entrepreneurial Triggers’ are: Individual Motivations, Socio-cultural Factors,
Access to Early-Stage Finance Education and Business Environment.

Studies done in Abroad

Chandler & Jansen (1992) studied the relationship between business founders’ self-perceived
competencies and venture performance, and identified five competency areas associated with
successful business founders. These include human and conceptual competencies, ability to
recognize opportunities, drive to see venture through to fruition, technical-functional
competencies, and political competencies.

Bird (1995) has provided a more complete working list of entrepreneurial competencies through a
summary of much of the entrepreneurship literature. This list has considered those competencies
that have had empirical support and those that are theoretical and speculative.
As we see from the above discussion, business founders are expected to possess a variety of
competencies if they are to succeed. However, entrepreneurs might not have all the competencies
at all times and in all situations.

Jennifer Rowley (2010) study on Entrepreneurial competencies: a literature review and

development agenda.
Purpose – Entrepreneurial competencies are seen as important to business growth and success. The
purpose of this paper is therefore to undertake a literature review of research on entrepreneurial
competence in order to: provide an integrated account of contributions relating to entrepreneurial
competencies by different authors working in different countries and different industry sectors and
at different points in time; and develop an agenda for future research, and practice in relation to
entrepreneurial competencies.
Design/methodology/approach – The article starts with a review of the development of the concept
of Competence, with particular reference to its use in the context of management competencies. It
then draws together views on the notion of entrepreneurial competence before exploring and
summarizing research on the link between entrepreneurial competencies and business performance
and growth. A core section then compares the models of entrepreneurial competencies cited in the
literature, and on this basis proposes a set of entrepreneurial competencies which can be used as
the basis for further research and practice. Finally, the different perspectives adopted by
researchers to the measurement of entrepreneurial competencies are reviewed.
Findings – Conclusions suggest that although the concept of entrepreneurial competencies is used
widely by government agencies and others in their drive for economic development and business
success, the core concept of entrepreneurial competencies, its measurement and its relationship to
entrepreneurial performance and business success is in need of further rigorous research and
development in practice.
Originality/value – This article integrates previous models of entrepreneurial competencies
towards the development of an entrepreneurial competency framework.

Edgar Izquierdo(2008) study on The Importance of Competencies for Entrepreneurship: A View

from Entrepreneurs and Scholars’ Perspective, The sample size for the group of entrepreneurs is
rather small (n = 25), so the results should be treated with caution when making generalizations.
The findings presented in this study require further validation; these preliminary results suggest
which competencies would-be entrepreneurs should develop for a successful entrepreneurial
These findings also offer cues that may be used to differentiate entrepreneurs from non-

Studies on Entrepreneurial Potential

Studies done in India
Gupta (2007) examined the role of socially constructed gender stereotypes and their influence on
men and women's entrepreneurial intentions. They found that men and women did not differ in
their entrepreneurial intentions.

Varma(2012) study on Pursuit of a Computing Degree: Cultural Implications for American

Indians. While a number of challenges contribute to the American Indian population's disconnect
from information technology (IT), the most glaring is the low number of American Indian students
pursuing computer science (CS) studies--a degree essential to IT's entry into and diffusion across
communities. Yet, research is scant on factors that contribute to the low number of American
Indians pursuing CS. This article employs cultural relevancy theory as a framework for defining
the role of culture among the American Indian population and its impact on enrollment, retention,
and degree completion in CS. Using data derived from in-depth interviews of 50 American Indian
students at six Hispanic serving Institutions (HSIs) and Tribal colleges and universities (TCUs),
this article examines these students' experiences in CS programs. It shows slightly more than half
of the students experienced different types and levels of conflicts between their culture and a career
in CS. This was the case more with American Indian students attending HSIs than TCUs. The
study suggests that increasing the number of American Indians attaining a CS degree hinges on
(1) the expansion of CS programs at TCUs, (2) HSIs embracing and responding to American Indian
cultural knowledge, perspectives and responsibilities, and (3) greater collaboration between TCUs
and HSIs.

Nandini (2013) study on qualitative inquiry into the presence of international students in an Indian
Technical University, through the voices of the faculty, who are appointed as international
students' counselors. A case study methodology was employed with document analysis and
interviews to perceive how technical faculty managed students from varying cultural backgrounds.
International students were admitted by the Center for International Affairs, a body in the
university, in the three categories, namely, foreign nationals (FN), children of nonresident Indians
(NRI), and children of Indian workers in Gulf countries (CWIGC). The focus of counseling turned
out to be largely on academic performance and related parameters like class attendance. Besides
this, the majority of the international student populations were the culturally similar students of
Indian origin, with nonresident-Indian parents or relatives, living and working in Western and
Middle East countries. These factors were the prime reasons that the faculty perceived themselves
as well prepared to handle the role of international-students' counselors. A limitation of the study
was the low volume of international students and fact that the majority of international student
population turned out to be the culturally similar students of Indian origin. Although cultural
differences were few in such a case, there were inherent differences between the Indian education
system and the educational systems of the origin countries, which provided the necessary focus.
Perspectives on the impact of travel abroad, the reasons of internationalization in Indian
universities, and the various problems international students face in a different education system
were explored. The faculty counselors expressed their view that the university needed many
preparatory reforms before it could confidently welcome a large number of international students
from various countries.

Studies done in Abroad

J. Kroon (2003) developing the next generation of potential entrepreneurs:
Co-operation between schools and businesses. Literature study, complemented by an empirical
survey among business people affiliated with the Chambers of Business, was used as the method
of research. Conclusions from the study included that respondents strongly agreed that learnership
and involvement of business s people with schools are essential. It can therefore be recommended
that attention be given to an entrepreneurial youth learnership programme for secondary schools.

Kourilskva and Walstad (1998) scrutinized a national sample of female and male high school
students concerning their entrepreneurship knowledge and attitude in the United States. They
focused on whether or not there are any significant gender differences in these areas. Their results
revealed that there were many similarities between females and males with respect to their
knowledge of and opinions about entrepreneurship.

Clarken (2012) research on human resource development is in actualizing individual and collective
thinking, feeling and choosing potentials related to our minds, hearts and wills respectively. These
capacities and faculties must be balanced and regulated according to the standards of truth, love
and justice for individual, community and institutional development, health and well-being. These
cognitive, affective and cognitive faculties are the dynamic focal points for effective interactions
with our environments, and are key aspects of learning and development actualized in pursuing
the spiritual principles of truth, love and justice. Human nature is conceptualized as consisting of
physical, psychological and spiritual qualities. The dynamics among them are considered. The
mind, heart and will are associated with the cognitive, emotional and moral intelligences. A brief
description of these capacities, faculties, standards and intelligences are given and their importance
for human resource development explained. Developing human resources is an intellectual,
emotional and moral endeavor. Truth, love and justice as the guiding principles for human resource
development and actualizing potential.

Baran(2012)This study aims to reveal Second Life (SL) residents' profiles, first hand
experiences, opinions about SL and its potential as an educational environment. The members of
14 Turkish Island in SL answered a questionnaire including Likert-type, open ended and multiple-
choice items and participated in interview sessions. Researchers collected 118 questionnaires and
interviewed with 10 users. The results showed a general picture about the Turkish SL user profile.
They agree on SL potential about providing better communication with people. Also, they keep
their SL character in line with the one they have in real life, while changing their physical
appearances. Many active SL users in this study do not have an apparent thought about the
applicability of SL in education and most of them are not willing to participate in its educational
applications in SL. This study concludes by offering suggestions to practitioners about how to use
SL in e-learning.

Gardner (2010) studies on Stress among Prospective Teachers: A Review of the Literature.
Student-teacher distress has the potential to impact on the individuals who are to become teachers,
the profession and the education system. This review examines what is known of psychological
distress among university students, teachers and student-teachers, the demands associated with
their practical experiences and the known impact of psychological distress. A brief overview of
contemporary stress management approaches is also presented. The reviewer contends that the
potential problem for prospective teachers requires a holistic approach, beginning through
understanding contemporary strategies available to individual university students, and
preventative stress management programs provided within tertiary education, which may be made
available to future student-teachers.
Patricia (2010) Ontario-based qualitative study examined secondary school and college textbooks'
treatment of trigonometric representations in order to identify potential sources of student
difficulties in the transition from secondary school to college mathematics. Analysis of networks,
comprised of trigonometric representations, identified numerous issues around the treatment of
trigonometry in selected secondary and college textbooks that may contribute to a lack of
coherence for the learner. The results of this study have the potential to inform discussions around
the teaching and learning of trigonometry at the secondary and college educational levels to
ultimately provide a more seamless transition for students.

Adrianna(2013) The overarching goal for this project was to examine the potential for increasing
IDA use for educational purposes and to explore higher education's involvement with IDAs, as
well as the potential for greater participation. The three main objectives for the project were to: (1)
describe and understand current education IDA initiatives, particularly those with postsecondary
involvement and partnerships; (2) examine the potential of IDAs for increasing access to education
for low-income students; and (3) explore challenges to and facilitators of growth and expansion of
education IDAs and involvement of the postsecondary sector. The study concludes that education
IDAs have limited, but important, potential to help low-income students in the following ways: (1)
Reaching key populations often outside the reach of financial aid; (2) Creating access to higher
education; (3) Increasing retention; (4) Providing financial education to break the cycle of poverty;
(5) Decreasing the debt burden and default rates; and (6) Increasing funding for low-income
students by leveraging existing scholarships. Recommendations for policymakers and institutional
leaders are provided in order to realize the potential of education IDAs.

Conclusion from the review

From the above studies, it can be concluded that entrepreneurial motivation has been studied in
western countries. In India, very few studies done on entrepreneurial motivation based on Maslow
and Mc Clleland theory. It was also evident from the review that entrepreneurial motivation was
not studied at different level of education it was also worth seeing through the review that
entrepreneurial competencies were rarely done in Indian scenario. Hence the researcher attempts
to find out and identify the variable for the present research. The review reveals that entrepreneurial
motivation are studied on different variable like personality, self- efficacy, locus of control while
sample for these research were university students, industry entrepreneurs, working women.
Entrepreneurial potential was studied on the following variable like leadership, decision making
where sample comprised of low income students, institutional leader. Hence it was clear that no
relational study was done on entrepreneurial motivation on the basis on entrepreneurial
competencies and entrepreneurial potential of secondary school teacher. Therefore, researcher
selects these variables for the present study.

Analysis 1
Entrepreneurial potential

total ent.pot

Mean 243.1517
Standard Error 1.15212
Median 248
Mode 249
Deviation 20.70613
Sample Variance 428.744
Kurtosis -0.83739
Skewness -0.41587
Range 96
Minimum 189
Maximum 285
Sum 78538
Count 323

femle ent.pot. male ent pot.

Mean 241.8482 Mean 246.101

Standard Error 1.482716 Standard Error 1.668119
Median 245 Median 248
Mode 249 Mode 248
Standard Standard
Deviation 22.19126 Deviation 16.59757
Sample Variance 492.4522 Sample Variance 275.4795
Kurtosis -1.09549 Kurtosis 0.024709
Skewness -0.29769 Skewness -0.62397
Range 96 Range 72
Minimum 189 Minimum 199
Maximum 285 Maximum 271
Sum 54174 Sum 24364
Count 224 Count 99

age upto 30 ent pot age upto 60ent pot.

Mean 245.7553 Mean 242.083

Standard Error 2.176058 Standard Error 1.354285
Median 251 Median 248
Mode 270 Mode 249
Standard Standard
Deviation 21.09767 Deviation 20.49405
Sample Variance 445.1115 Sample Variance 420.0062
Kurtosis -1.22949 Kurtosis -0.66693
Skewness -0.43433 Skewness -0.42556
Range 72 Range 96
Minimum 199 Minimum 189
Maximum 271 Maximum 285
Sum 23101 Sum 55437
Count 94 Count 229
open ent pot cast cast

Mean 243.0975 Mean 246.6

Standard Error 1.169502 Standard Error 2.441311
Median 248 Median 248
Mode 249 Mode #N/A
Standard Standard
Deviation 20.85522 Deviation 5.458938
Sample Variance 434.94 Sample Variance 29.8
Kurtosis -0.87012 Kurtosis -2.14382
Skewness -0.4061 Skewness -0.20655
Range 96 Range 13
Minimum 189 Minimum 240
Maximum 285 Maximum 253
Sum 77305 Sum 1233
Count 318 Count 5

total ent moti

Mean 57.55385
Standard Error 0.907175
Median 56
Mode 62
Deviation 16.35432
Sample Variance 267.4639
Kurtosis -1.29083
Skewness 0.247542
Range 57
Minimum 32
Maximum 89
Sum 18705
Count 325

female moti male moti

Mean 57.96903 Mean 56.60606
Standard Error 1.097748 Standard Error 1.61336
Median 56 Median 50
Mode 62 Mode 62
Standard Standard
Deviation 16.50277 Deviation 16.05273
Sample Variance 272.3413 Sample Variance 257.6902
Kurtosis -1.32227 Kurtosis -1.2033
Skewness 0.208292 Skewness 0.341008
Range 57 Range 54
Minimum 32 Minimum 34
Maximum 89 Maximum 88
Sum 13101 Sum 5604
Count 226 Count 99

upto 30 moti upto 60moti

Mean 58.75532 Mean 57.06494

Standard Error 1.654129 Standard Error 1.085018
Median 61 Median 56
Mode 62 Mode 62
Standard Standard
Deviation 16.03738 Deviation 16.49084
Sample Variance 257.1976 Sample Variance 271.9479
Kurtosis -1.33564 Kurtosis -1.26673
Skewness 0.145647 Skewness 0.292775
Range 54 Range 57
Minimum 34 Minimum 32
Maximum 88 Maximum 89
Sum 5523 Sum 13182
Count 94 Count 231

gradute master moti

Mean 57.72093 Mean 58.64198
Standard Error 1.763256 Standard Error 1.731009
Median 56 Median 62
Mode 62 Mode 62
Standard Standard
Deviation 16.35176 Deviation 15.57908
Sample Variance 267.38 Sample Variance 242.7077
Kurtosis -1.24095 Kurtosis -1.3746
Skewness 0.326532 Skewness 0.111339
Range 55 Range 53
Minimum 34 Minimum 35
Maximum 89 Maximum 88
Sum 4964 Sum 4750
Count 86 Count 81

gra+bed moti master +bed moti

Mean 55.64384 Mean 57.28788

Standard Error 1.951892 Standard Error 2.049705
Median 49 Median 56
Mode 35 Mode 71
Standard Standard
Deviation 16.67697 Deviation 16.65188
Sample Variance 278.1214 Sample Variance 277.2851
Kurtosis -1.19279 Kurtosis -1.27772
Skewness 0.434724 Skewness 0.208444
Range 54 Range 56
Minimum 34 Minimum 32
Maximum 88 Maximum 88
Sum 4062 Sum 3781
Count 73 Count 66

open moti Caste moti

Mean 57.55313 Mean 57.6
Standard Error 0.918842 Standard Error 4.874423
Median 56 Median 56
Mode 62 Mode 48
Standard Standard
Deviation 16.43674 Deviation 10.89954
Sample Variance 270.1664 Sample Variance 118.8
Kurtosis -1.30257 Kurtosis -0.05476
Skewness 0.245834 Skewness 0.876076
Range 57 Range 26
Minimum 32 Minimum 48
Maximum 89 Maximum 74
Sum 18417 Sum 288
Count 320 Count 5

Cbsc icse moti ssc moti

Mean 57.85593 Mean 57.52055 Mean 7
Standard Standard Standard 1.41612
Error 1.513342 Error 1.915262 Error 6
Median 56 Median 56 Median 56
Mode 62 Mode 44 Mode 62
Standard Standard Standard 16.3928
Deviation 16.4391 Deviation 16.36401 Deviation 4
Sample Sample Sample 268.725
Variance 270.244 Variance 267.7808 Variance 2
Kurtosis -1.31111 Kurtosis -1.27815 Kurtosis -1.2814
Skewness 0.197211 Skewness 0.260319 Skewness 4
Range 57 Range 54 Range 54
Minimum 32 Minimum 34 Minimum 34
Maximum 89 Maximum 88 Maximum 88
Sum 6827 Sum 4199 Sum 7679
Count 118 Count 73 Count 134

upto 10 moti upto 15moti

Mean 3 Mean 55.52
0.94239 3.38679
Standard Error 9 Standard Error 8
Median 56 Median 56
Mode 62 Mode 75
Standard 16.3228 Standard 16.9339
Deviation 3 Deviation 9
Sample 266.434 Sample
Variance 9 Variance 286.76
Kurtosis -1.2862 Kurtosis -1.40622
Skewness 6 Skewness 0.28395
Range 57 Range 54
Minimum 32 Minimum 34
Maximum 89 Maximum 88
Sum 17317 Sum 1388
Count 300 Count 25

pt lan

Mean 56.47222 Mean 56.55682

Standard Error 2.699643 Standard Error 1.638252
Median 49 Median 56
Mode 35 Mode 62
Standard Standard
Deviation 16.19786 Deviation 15.36817
Sample Variance 262.3706 Sample Variance 236.1806
Kurtosis -1.35577 Kurtosis -1.20495
Skewness 0.290986 Skewness 0.280689
Range 53 Range 55
Minimum 35 Minimum 34
Maximum 88 Maximum 89
Sum 2033 Sum 4977
Count 36 Count 88
Mean 58.02679
Standard Error 1.585683
Median 56.5
Mode 62
Deviation 16.7813
Sample Variance 281.6119
Kurtosis -1.33669
Skewness 0.1655
Range 56
Minimum 32
Maximum 88
Sum 6499
Count 112

ss eco

Mean 58.38202
Standard Error 1.802741
Median 56
Mode 88
Deviation 17.00702
Sample Variance 289.2388
Kurtosis -1.34762
Skewness 0.282736
Range 53
Minimum 35
Maximum 88
Sum 5196
Count 89

total com fem male com

208.566 208.818 207.989

Mean 2 Mean 6 Mean 9
Standard 0.98595 Standard 1.19516 Standard 1.74907
Error 9 Error 9 Error 5
Median 210 Median 211 Median 210
Mode 216 Mode 216 Mode 216
Standard 17.7746 Standard 17.9673 Standard 17.4030
Deviation 4 Deviation 2 Deviation 8
Sample 315.937 Sample 322.824 Sample 302.867
Variance 7 Variance 7 Variance 2
- - -
Kurtosis 0.63659 Kurtosis 0.61539 Kurtosis 0.67165
- - -
Skewness 0.02232 Skewness 0.02757 Skewness 0.01655
Range 71 Range 70 Range 69
Minimum 173 Minimum 174 Minimum 173
Maximum 244 Maximum 244 Maximum 242
Sum 67784 Sum 47193 Sum 20591
Count 325 Count 226 Count 99

upto 30 com upto 60

Mean 209.8511 Mean 208.0433

Standard Error 1.856371 Standard Error 1.164274
Median 211.5 Median 210
Mode 216 Mode 216
Standard Standard
Deviation 17.99818 Deviation 17.69544
Sample Variance 323.9346 Sample Variance 313.1286
Kurtosis -0.65437 Kurtosis -0.61852
Skewness -0.03855 Skewness -0.01838
Range 70 Range 70
Minimum 173 Minimum 174
Maximum 243 Maximum 244
Sum 19726 Sum 48058
Count 94 Count 231
open c caste

Mean 208.8375 Mean 191.2

Standard Error 0.985611 Standard Error 9.13455
Median 210 Median 180
Mode 216 Mode 180
Standard Standard
Deviation 17.63115 Deviation 20.42547
Sample Variance 310.8575 Sample Variance 417.2
Kurtosis -0.61245 Kurtosis 1.182122
Skewness -0.02053 Skewness 1.354596
Range 71 Range 50
Minimum 173 Minimum 174
Maximum 244 Maximum 224
Sum 66828 Sum 956
Count 320 Count 5

cbsc c icse ssc

209.110 211.246 206.626

Mean 2 Mean 6 Mean 9
Standard 1.50607 Standard 1.98009 Standard 1.66450
Error 4 Error 3 Error 7
Median 210 Median 214 Median 205
Mode 216 Mode 216 Mode 216
Standard 16.3601 Standard 16.9179 Standard 19.2680
Deviation 5 Deviation 2 Deviation 6
Sample 267.654 Sample 286.216 Sample 371.258
Variance 4 Variance 1 Variance 2
- - -
Kurtosis 0.57478 Kurtosis 0.09715 Kurtosis 0.84757
- 0.09285
Skewness 0.03891 Skewness 0.22702 Skewness 5
Range 68 Range 71 Range 70
Minimum 175 Minimum 173 Minimum 174
Maximum 243 Maximum 244 Maximum 244
Sum 24675 Sum 15421 Sum 27688
Count 118 Count 73 Count 134

upto 10 upto 15

Mean 208.54 Mean 208.88

Standard Error 1.027572 Standard Error 3.56993
Median 210 Median 211
Mode 216 Mode 215
Standard Standard
Deviation 17.79806 Deviation 17.84965
Sample Variance 316.771 Sample Variance 318.61
Kurtosis -0.63966 Kurtosis -0.46282
Skewness -0.02825 Skewness 0.057114
Range 71 Range 66
Minimum 173 Minimum 177
Maximum 244 Maximum 243
Sum 62562 Sum 5222
Count 300 Count 25

lan pt math sci

209.79 209.13 208.38

Mean 55 Mean 89 Mean 39
Standard 1.8719 Standard 3.0297 Standard 1.6297
Error 57 Error 87 Error 51
Median 213 Median 212.5 Median 210
Mode 216 Mode 216 Mode 216
Standard 17.560 Standard 18.178 Standard 17.247
Deviation 51 Deviation 72 Deviation 66
Sample 308.37 Sample 330.46 Sample 297.48
Variance 15 Variance 59 Variance 19
- - -
0.4745 0.4982 0.7155
Kurtosis 9 Kurtosis 9 Kurtosis 1
- - -
0.0338 0.0899 0.0051
Skewness 7 Skewness 9 Skewness 7
Range 70 Range 67 Range 69
Minimum 173 Minimum 175 Minimum 175
Maximum 243 Maximum 242 Maximum 244
Sum 18462 Sum 7529 Sum 23339
Count 88 Count 36 Count 112
ss eco c

Mean 207.3483
Standard Error 1.978827
Median 210
Mode 216
Standard Deviation 18.66822
Sample Variance 348.5023
Kurtosis -0.67783
Skewness 0.012988
Range 70
Minimum 174
Maximum 244
Sum 18454
Count 89