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FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA


PASIR GUDANG LABORATORY MANUAL

LIST OF ENGINEERING ACTIVITY ACCORDING TO LEVEL OF OPENNESS

ENG.
WEEK TOPIC LEVEL HOURS
ACTIVITY

1 1 Identification of Minerals 0 2

2 Identification of Igneous 0
2 2
3 Identification of Sedimentary 0

3 4 Identification of Metamorphic 0 2

Geological map 1-Introduction to Contour and 0


4 5 2
Horizontal Strata

Geological map 2-Introduction to Strike and 0


5 6 2
Dip

Geological map 3-Introduction to True & 0


6 7 2
Apparent Dip and Thickness of Beds

Practical Test 1
7 2
(Identification of Minerals/Rocks/Geological Map)

8 8 Engineering Testing- Rebound Hardness Test 1 2

9 9 Durability-Slake Durability Test 0 2

Engineering Testing-Uniaxial Compression 0


10
Strength Test
10 2
11 Engineering Testing-Point Load Test 0

Practical Test 2
11 (Rebound Hardness/Slake Durability/Uniaxial Compressive 2
Strength/ Point Load)

12, 13 &
Site Visit/Technical Talk 6
14

TOTAL 28 hrs

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FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
PASIR GUDANG LABORATORY MANUAL

Total of engineering activity = 11

 Total of engineering activity for Level 0 = 10 (91 %)


 Total of engineering activity for Level 1 = 1 (9 %)

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FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
PASIR GUDANG LABORATORY MANUAL

Faculty of Civil Engineering


Universiti Teknologi Mara
Pasir Gudang

GENERAL LABORATORY SAFETY PROCEDURES AND RULES

When using the equipment or run the experiments you must;

a) Not to point the open end of a test tube, breaker or any glassware that being
heated at yourself or anyone else.
b) Keep the lab clean and neat before and after conducting an experiment.
c) Keep the work area clear of all materials except those needed for your work.
d) If a piece of equipment fails while being used, report it immediately to your lab
assistant or tutor. Never try to fix the problem yourself because you could harm
yourself and others.
e) If the chemicals are splashed in your eyes, immediately used tab water to flush
your eyes with water. If you are wearing contact lenses, remove them
immediately and continue rinsing your eyes for at least 15 minutes.
f) If the chemicals are splashed on your skin or clothing, immediately flush the
affected areas with large quantities of water or if a large area is affected, use the
safety shower.
g) Wash your hands thoroughly before leaving the laboratory.

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FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
PASIR GUDANG LABORATORY MANUAL

COURSE GEOLOGY
COURSE CODE ECG253
LEVEL OF OPENNESS 0
CATEGORY TRADITIONAL
DEGREE OF OPEN-ENDED (%) 0
PERIOD OF ACTIVITY 1 WEEK

TITLE Rock and Minerals- Identification of minerals

1.1 Introduction

The traditional methods of conducting laboratory activities will not be


able to provide the avenue for students to enhance independent
learning activities and inculcate creativity and innovation. Level 0 is
fully prescriptive where problem, ways & means and answers are
provided to the students. However it is still necessary especially to first
and second year students.

In this laboratory, Dana (1985) states that each mineral possesses


certain physical properties or characteristics by which it may be
recognized or identified. Some are subjected to certain simple tests.
Physical properties are useful in mineral identification.

A mineral can be defined as a natural inorganic substance having a


PREAMBLE particular chemical composition or range of composition and a regular
atomic structure to which its crystalline form is related. To study rocks,
it is necessary to know the rock forming minerals.

Minerals have definite set of physical properties that result from their
crystalline structure and composition. Most minerals require thousands
of years to develop and others need just a few years. Minerals are
formed either in the molten rock or magma, near the Earth’s surface or
deep within the Earth’s crust due to the result of transformation

1.2 Objective

The objective of the laboratory test is to identify physical properties of


minerals

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FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
PASIR GUDANG LABORATORY MANUAL

1.3 Learning Outcomes

At the end of this laboratory session, student should be able to:-


i. Describe the origin of metamorphic rocks.
ii. Distinguish between the processes that produce various types
of metamorphic rocks.
iii. Identify and classify metamorphic rocks.

1.4 Theoretical Background

i. Mineral Names

Refer mineral samples from Reference Set.

ii. Colour

The colour of the mineral is that seen by eye. Colour may be


influenced by impurities in the sample, the light in the room or
strong reflective surfaces. Minerals may vary greatly in colour
from one specimen to another. Certain minerals have constants
colours, e.g. azurite – blue and melachite – green. Therefore,
colour is a general rather than specific indicator.

iii. Luster

Luster is reflected from the surface of a mineral, the amount of


light is a function of the state of the surface. Luster is described in
terms of the degree of brightness.

Table 1.1 : Minerals Luster (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2009)

Luster Characteristics
Metallic Like polished metal
Submetallic Less brilliant
Dull e.g. chalk or clay
Vitreous Like broken glass e.g. quartz or topaz
Silky Like strands of fibre parallel to surface

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FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
PASIR GUDANG LABORATORY MANUAL

Table 1.2 : Relative Hardness of Minerals (Encyclopedia


Britannica, 2009)

Relative Minerals Mineralogy


Hardness
10 Diamond Carbon
9 Corundum Alumina
8 Topaz Aluminium silicate
7 Quartz Silica
6 Feldspar Alkali silica
5 Apatite Calcium phosphate
4 Fluorite Calcium fluoride
3 Calcite Calcium carbonate
2 Gypsum Hydrated calcium sulphate
1 Talc Hydrated magnesium
silicate

v. Streak

Streak is the colour of the mineral’s powder when it is scraped


along a roughened surface such as an unglazed pottery. The
mark left behind can be a characteristic feature of the mineral.
The streak is not necessarily the same as the colour of a mineral,
e.g. hematite (black) – reddish brown, topaz or corundum – no
streak at all.

vi. Transparency

Transparency is a measure of how clearly an object can be seen


through a crystal.

Table 1.3 : Minerals Transparency (Encyclopedia Britannica,


2009)

Transparency Characteristics
Transparent An object is seen clearly through crystal
Subtransparent An object is seen with difficulty
Translucent An object cannot be seen, but the light is
transmitted through the crystal
Subtranslucent Light is transmitted only by the edges of a
crystal
Opaque No light is transmitted, this includes all
metallic minerals

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FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
PASIR GUDANG LABORATORY MANUAL

2 Problem Statement

In civil engineering projects, aggregates are used as construction


materials and the existence of rock layers contribute to strength and
resistance to foundations and applied pressure. Minerals have
different varieties and properties that contribute to the physical and
mechanical properties of the rock mass; therefore it is essential to
determine the physical characteristics of the minerals.

The physical characteristics of minerals include hardness, atomic


structure, cleavage, colour and streak. Composition of these minerals
PROBLEM
formed rocks, and with their existence, these characterize the different
STATEMENT
rock types based on the crystallization at depth or near the surface
based on Bowen’s reaction.
It is essential to identify the mineral as it contributes to the physical
and mechanical properties

In a group, students are given a box of mineral samples. Student


should be able to identify the hardness of minerals by using the Moh’s
Scale Hardness and be able to classify according to the physical
properties of minerals.

3.1 Apparatus

i. Minerals from Reference Set


ii. Moh’s Scale of Hardness Set
iii. Information & Hints from theoretical background

3.2 Procedures

Students should learn to identify and observe the samples accordingly


by doing a few physical tests as guided in Appendix 1. The followings
are the physical tests required in the observations:-
WAYS & MEANS
i. The mineral are named by referring from the Reference set.
ii. The colour of minerals is identified through observation.
iii. The minerals are observed into light to see the luster of minerals.
iv. The minerals are stretch by using Moh’s Scale of Hardness Set to
identify the mineral hardness.
v. The colour of the minerals (Streak) is identified by stretching the
minerals.
vi. The minerals are put into the light to measure the transparency of
minerals

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FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
PASIR GUDANG LABORATORY MANUAL

4 Result and Analysis

The group is required to submit the team report of the experiment. All
observed data need to be tabulated in the table provided in Appendix
1 based on the following criteria:

RESULTS i. Mineral names


ii. Colour
iii. Luster
iv. Hardness
v. Streak
vi. Transparency
vii. Sketches

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FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
PASIR GUDANG LABORATORY MANUAL

Appendix 1: Identification of Minerals


Sketch/
Picture
Transparency
Streak
Hardness
Luster
Colour
Name

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FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
PASIR GUDANG LABORATORY MANUAL

COURSE GEOLOGY
COURSE CODE ECG253
LEVEL OF OPENNESS 0
CATEGORY TRADITIONAL
DEGREE OF OPEN-ENDED (%) 0
PERIOD OF ACTIVITY 1 WEEK

TITLE Rock and Minerals-Identification of Igneous Rock

1.1 Introduction

The traditional methods of conducting laboratory activities will not be


able to provide the avenue for students to enhance independent
learning activities and inculcate creativity and innovation. Level 0 is
fully prescriptive where problem, ways & means and answers are
provided to the students. However it is still necessary especially to
first and second year students.

Rocks that are formed by crystallization of a melt are igneous rock


and they may be formed at depth (intrusive or plutonic) or on the
surface (extrusive or volcanic). In general, igneous rocks that cool
rapidly (i.e. volcanic rock) are very fine-grained whereas rocks that
cool slowly (i.e. plutonic rocks) are coarse-grained.

PREAMBLE 1.2 Objective

The objective of this laboratory test is to recognize, identified and


observed distinguishing features of igneous rock specimen in the
laboratory.

1.3 Learning Outcomes

At the end of the laboratory activities, students would be able to:

i. Recognize types of igneous rock formation in Malaysia.


ii. Evaluate the physical properties of igneous rocks for civil
engineering application.
iii. Understand igneous rock forming on the earth.

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FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
PASIR GUDANG LABORATORY MANUAL

1.4 Theoretical Background

i. Criteria for Distinguishing Igneous Rock


In describing any rock, one should proceed from the general to the
particular, nothing firstly its colour, behaviour on weathering and any
other striking features and then deciding whether it is igneous or
other types of rock. The outstanding characteristics of the igneous
rocks is given below, but must be emphasized that one
characteristic by itself proof positive that the rock belongs to a
certain class.

Table 2.1: Characteristics of Igneous Rocks


Rock Type Characteristic
Interlocking grains, massive structures
Texture such as glassy, prophyritic, phaneritic,
Igneous aphantic
High feldspar or ferromagnesian content
Absent of stratification or fossils

ii. Texture of Igneous Rocks

Table 2.2: Texture of Igneous Rocks

Texture Definition Cooling History Example


Comprised of Slow cooling of
large crystals magma deep
that are clearly underground and the Granite,
Phaneritic
visible to the mineral grains are diorite
hand or without visible
a hand lens
Consists of Rapid cooling in
small crystals volcanic
that cannot be environments having Basalt,
Aphanitic
seen by the eye few phenocrysts rhyolite
with or without a (larger grains)
hand lens.

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FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
PASIR GUDANG LABORATORY MANUAL

Composed of at Two stages of


least two cooling, one at depth
minerals having where larger
a conspicuous phenocrysts formed
(large) and a second at or
difference in near the surface
Porphyritic grain size. The where the matrix Andesite
larger the grains grains crystallized.
are termed
phenocrysts and
the finer grains
are either matrix
or groundmass.
Non-crystalline Results from cooling
where the rock that are so fast that
Glassy contains no the minerals do not Obsidian
mineral grains. have a chance to
crystallize.
Refers to Very fast cooling
vesicles (holes, with rapid gas
pores or escape forming
cavities) within bubbles in the non-
the igneous crystalline rocks.
rock. Vesicles Pumice,
Vesicular
result of gas scoria
expansion
(bubbles) often
occurs during
volcanic
eruption.
Comprised Pyroclastic rocks
numerous that are blown out
grains or into the atmosphere
fragments that during violent
Fragmental have been eruptions. Tuff
welded together
by the heat of
volcanic
eruption.

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FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
PASIR GUDANG LABORATORY MANUAL

2 Problem Statement

Rocks of all kinds are made up of an assemblage of minerals. For


civil engineering purposes, there are several other features of rocks
in addition to mineral content which will help with identification. It is
PROBLEM only in igneous rock that details of the mineralogy are required to
STATEMENT accurately identify the rock. For engineering proposes such accurate
identification is required.

In a group, students are given a box of igneous rock samples.


Student should be able to identify the rock samples according to
Igneous Classification Chart given in Appendix 2 (b).

3.1 Apparatus

i. Igneous rock from reference set


ii. Igneous classification chart

3.2 Procedures

Students should learn to familiarize and observe the samples by


WAYS & MEANS referring the igneous classification charts and tabulate the results
observation in the Appendix 2(b) attached.

i.
The mineral are named by referring from the Reference set.
ii.
The texture of minerals is identified through observation.
iii.
The colour of minerals is identified through observation.
iv.The grain size and origin of the igneous rocks is identified from
Table 2.2 in theoretical background.
v. Mineral composition of the igneous rocks is determined from
Appendix 2(a)

4 Result and Analysis

The group is required to submit the team report of the experiment. All
observed data need to be tabulated in the table provided in Appendix
2(b). Students are required to complete Appendix 2(b) based on the
following criteria:

RESULTS i. Rock name


ii. Texture
iii. Colour
iv. Grain size
v. Mineral composition
vi. Origin
vii. Sketches

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CHEMICAL Acid Intermediate Basic Ultrabasic
COMPOSITION
> 65% 55% - 65% 45% - 55% < 45%
(SiO2 content)
Dark
COLOUR Light Dark minerals
25 – 50% dark minerals Essentially all dark
PASIR GUDANG

< 25%dark minerals precominant


minerals
100 Biotite
Muscovite Magnetite & Ilmenite

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75
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

Plagioclase
FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM

MINERAL Orthoclase Olivine


50
COMPOSITION

% 25
25
Augite
Quartz Hornblende

0
LABORATORY MANUAL

Very coarse Pegmatite Syenite pegmatite Diorite pegmatite Gabbro pegmatite

Medium to coarse, Granite Syenite Diorite Gabbro Peridotite,


phaneritic dunite
Appendix 2 (a): Classification of Igneous Rocks

Microgranite Microdiorite Microgabbro and


Fine to medium, Aplite Microsyenite (dolerite) pyroxene
even, phaneritic
Granite porphyry Syenite porphyry Diorite porphyry Basaltic or
Aphanitic, Quartz porphyry porphyritic dolerite

TEXTURE
porphyritic
Rhyolite Trachyte Dacite, andesite Basalt Pierite
Aphanitic, even or Obsidian, pumice Tachylite
porphyritic Trachyte-tuff and Dacite and andesite- Basalt-tuff and
Rhyolite-tuff and agglomerate tuff and agglomerate agglomerate

Sept 2018-Jan 2019


Fragmental agglomerate
FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
PASIR GUDANG LABORATORY MANUAL
Origin
Composition Appendix 2 (b): Tabulation of Igneous Rock Identification
Mineral
Grain Size
Colour
Texture
Rock Name

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FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
PASIR GUDANG LABORATORY MANUAL

COURSE GEOLOGY
COURSE CODE ECG253
LEVEL OF OPENNESS 0
CATEGORY TRADITIONAL
DEGREE OF OPEN-ENDED (%) 0
PERIOD OF ACTIVITY 1 WEEK

TITLE Rock and Minerals-Identification of Sedimentary Rock

1.1 Introduction

The traditional methods of conducting laboratory activities will not be


able to provide the avenue for students to enhance independent
learning activities and inculcate creativity and innovation. Level 0 is
fully prescriptive where problem, ways & means and answers are
provided to the students. However it is still necessary especially to
first and second year students.

Weathering processes break down rock into finer and finer material
and such material is often transported and deposited as sediment.
PREAMBLE The processes of compaction and cementation of this sediment over
a long period of time turn the sediment into rock. The formation of
rock in this way is termed "lithification".

Sedimentary rocks are divided into two broad classes, detrital


sedimentary rocks and chemical sedimentary rocks.

1.2 Objective

The objective of the laboratory test is to identify physical properties


and mineralogy of sedimentary rocks.

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FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
PASIR GUDANG LABORATORY MANUAL

1.3 Learning Outcomes

At the end of this laboratory session, student should be able to:-


i. Describe the origin of sedimentary rocks.
ii. Explain how textures of sedimentary rocks provide evidence of
their origin.
iii. Analyze the mineralogical composition of sedimentary rocks
and classify the sedimentary rocks.

1.4 Theoretical Background

Sedimentary rocks are formed from fine constituent of rock usually


from mountainous areas which are transported to lower elevation due
to certain processes. The origin of sedimentary rocks involves four
major processes which are:

i. Weathering – an interaction between rocks exposed at the


Earth’s surface and element in the atmosphere. The pre-
existing rocks can disintegrate and decompose either by
physically or chemically. The material can be transported
easily by various agents such as streams, wind, groundwater
and glaciers.

ii. Transportation – running water is the most effective form of


sediment transport.

iii. Deposition – takes place due to settlement of sediments and


loose aggregates. The depositional environment determines
the characteristic of sedimentary formed (physical, chemical,
and biological condition).

iv. Lithification (compaction or cementation) – compaction is the


process whereby loose sediments are compacted to a denser
state by additional stress from cumulative material deposited
from time to time or even tectonic forces.

v. Cementation is an important process that transforms sediment


into solid rock. The process takes place by filling the voids in
pore space by chemical precipitation.

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FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
PASIR GUDANG LABORATORY MANUAL

Classification of Sedimentary Rocks

Sedimentary rocks are formed by the accumulation of sediments.


There are three basic types of sedimentary rocks:
i. Clastic Sedimentary rocks such as breccia, conglomerate,
sandstone and shale that are formed from mechanical
weathering debris. These rocks are formed by the
lithification of weathered rock debris that has been
physically transported and deposited. During the transport
process, the particles that make up these rocks often
become rounded due to abrasion or can become highly
sorted.

ii. Chemical sedimentary rocks such as rock salt and some


limestones, that form when dissolved materials precipitate
from solution; and,
iii. Organic sedimentary rocks such as coal and some
limestones

Criteria to Distinguish Sedimentary Rocks

Rock Type Physical Characteristic


Fragmental Texture
Beddings & Laminations
Sedimentary Color
Surface markings (ripple marks & mud cracks)
Fossils

2 Problem Statement

Rocks of all kinds are made up of an assemblage of minerals. For


civil engineering purposes, there are several other features of rocks in
PROBLEM addition to mineral content which will help with identification. For
STATEMENT engineering proposes such accurate identification is required.

In a group, students are given a box of sedimentary rocks samples.


Students should be able to classify the rock samples according to
Sedimentary Classification Chart given in Appendix 3 (a).

3.1 Apparatus

i. Magnifying hand lens


ii. Sedimentary rock specimens labeled
iii. Sedimentary classification chart
WAYS & MEANS

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FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
PASIR GUDANG LABORATORY MANUAL

3.2 Procedures

Students should learn to familiarize and observe the samples by


referring the sedimentary classification charts and tabulate the result
from the observation in the Appendix 3 (a) attached.

i. The sedimentary rocks are named by referring from the Reference


set.
ii. The texture of sedimentary rocks is identified through observation.
iii. The colour of sedimentary rocks is identified through observation.
iv. Mineral composition of the sedimentary rocks is determined from
Appendix 3(a)

4 Result and Analysis

The group is required to submit the team report of the experiment. All
observed data need to be tabulated in the table provided in Appendix
3(b) based on the following criteria:

RESULTS i. Rock name


ii. Color
iii. Texture
iv. Mode of origin
v. Composition of rock
vi. Classification
vii. Sketch

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FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
PASIR GUDANG LABORATORY MANUAL

Appendix 3 (a): Sedimentary Classification Chart

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FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
PASIR GUDANG LABORATORY MANUAL

Appendix 3 (b): Identification of Sedimentary Rock


Sketch/
Picture
Classification
Composition
of Rock
Mode of
Origin
Texture
Colour
Rock Name
Sample No.

©FKA, UiTM, PASIR GUDANG September 2018


FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
PASIR GUDANG LABORATORY MANUAL

COURSE GEOLOGY
COURSE CODE ECG253
LEVEL OF OPENNESS 0
CATEGORY TRADITIONAL
DEGREE OF OPEN-ENDED (%) 0
PERIOD OF ACTIVITY 1 WEEK

TITLE Rock and Minerals-Identification of Metamorphic Rock

1.1 Introduction

The traditional methods of conducting laboratory activities will not be


able to provide the avenue for students to enhance independent
learning activities and inculcate creativity and innovation. Level 0 is
fully prescriptive where problem, ways & means and answers are
provided to the students. However it is still necessary especially to first
and second year students.

The rocks are form due to the transformation of pre-existing igneous


or sedimentary that has been buried deeply within the crust because
of the movement of lithospheric plates. The rocks are subjected to
changes in the temperature, pressure and chemical environments
inside the earth crust. The principle agents of metamorphism are
temperature, pressure, and chemical active solution. There are two (2)
types of metamorphism which are Contact Metamorphism and
PREAMBLE Regional Metamorphism. This geologic event brings about
metamorphism changes (change in texture and mineralogy).

1.2 Objective

The objective of the laboratory test is to identify physical properties


and mineralogy of metamorphic rocks.

1.3 Learning Outcomes

At the end of this laboratory session, student should be able to:-


i. Describe the origin of metamorphic rocks.
ii. Distinguish between the processes that produce various types
of metamorphic rocks.
iii. Identify and classify metamorphic rocks.
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FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
PASIR GUDANG LABORATORY MANUAL

1.4 Theoretical Background

Criteria for distinguishing metamorphic rock


Under metamorphism, rocks may undergo changes in their mineral
composition leading to formation of new mineral and changes in
texture.

Table 4.1: Criteria for Distinguishing Metamorphic Rock

Rock Type Physical Characteristic Process of


Metamorphism
Metamorphic Foliated - Schistosity, slaty Compaction – the
cleavage, Gneissic grain move closer
banding, Phyllitic, together, rock
Lineation. become denser, and
porosity is reducing.
Non-foliated – granular &
no preferred orientation.

Structure and grain - The Recystallization –


coarser grained granular growth of new
rocks results from high- crystals, no changes
grade metamorphism in in the overall
which great pressure from chemistry, and new
many directions. crystals grow from the
present minerals.

2 Problem Statement

Rocks of all kinds are made up of an assemblage of minerals. For civil


engineering purposes, there are several other features of rocks in
PROBLEM addition to mineral content which will help with identification. For
STATEMENT engineering proposes such accurate identification is required.

In a group, students are given a box of metamorphic rocks samples.


Students should be able to classify the rock samples according to
Metamorphic Classification Chart given in Appendix 4(a).

3.1 Apparatus

i. Metamorphic rock from reference set


ii. Metamorphic classification chart
WAYS & MEANS

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FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
PASIR GUDANG LABORATORY MANUAL

3.2 Procedures

Students should learn to familiarize and observe the samples by


referring the Metamorphic classification charts and tabulate the results
from the observation in the Appendix 4(a) attached.

i. The metamorphic rocks are named by referring from the Reference


set.
ii. The structure of metamorphic rocks is determined by referring the
physical characteristic of the rocks.
iii. The parent rock, grain size, mineral composition, and types of the
metamorphic rocks is determined from Appendix 4(a)

4 Result and Analysis

The group is required to submit the team report of the experiment. All
observed data need to be tabulated in the table provided in Appendix
4b. Students are required to complete Appendix 4b based on the
following criteria:
RESULTS
i. Rock name
ii. Structure
iii. Grain
iv. Mineral composition
v. Parent Rock
vi. Metamorphism type
vii. Sketches

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FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
PASIR GUDANG LABORATORY MANUAL

Appendix 4 (a): Metamorphic Classification Chart

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FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
PASIR GUDANG LABORATORY MANUAL

Appendix 4 (b): Identification of Metamorphic Rocks


Sketch/
Picture
Metamorphism
Type
Parent Rock
Composition
Mineral
Grain
Structure
Rock Name
Sample No.

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FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
PASIR GUDANG LABORATORY MANUAL

COURSE GEOLOGY
COURSE CODE ECG253
LEVEL OF OPENNESS 0
CATEGORY TRADITIONAL
DEGREE OF OPEN-ENDED (%) 0

PERIOD OF ACTIVITY 1 WEEK

TITLE Geological Map 1-Introduction to Contour and Horizontal Strata

1.1 Introduction

The traditional methods of conducting laboratory activities will not be


able to provide the avenue for students to enhance independent learning
activities and inculcate creativity and innovation. Level 0 is fully
prescriptive where problem, ways & means and answers are provided to
the students. However it is still necessary especially to first and second
year students.

In this laboratory study, a geological map is one which shows in the first
place, the occurrence and distribution of the rocks at the surface of the
ground. Conventional sign may show certain facts of observation about
them. The geological map allows the geological structure of the country
to be inferred.
PREAMBLE

1.2 Objective

The objective of this laboratory test is to plot the contour and determine
the horizontal beddings.

1.3 Learning Outcomes

At the end of the laboratory activities, students would be able to:

i. Plot the contour from the given geological map.


ii. Determine the horizontal bedding and layer sequences of rock.
iii. Work in a group to produce technical report.

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1.4 Theoretical Background

Beds of rocks are bounded by bedding surfaces, which may be


horizontal, tilted or bent in any form or direction. A series of beds which
have been laid down regularly one on the other, and which may be
treated as a whole, form a conformable series. It follows that the lower
beds are the older. In such a series of bedding surfaces are parallel.
Each bedding surface is usually common to two beds of rock, being the
top of one and the bottom of the one next above. In the simplest case,
these surfaces are planes: bedding planes.

Figure 5.1: Geological map of an existing site

i. Contour
Hills and valleys are usually carved out of layered sequences of rock or
strata. In simplest case we can consider strata are horizontal. Rarely are
they so in nature, they are frequently found elevated hundreds of metres
above their position of deposition and titling has usually accompanied
such uplift. The pattern of outcrops of the bed where the strata are
horizontal is a function of the topography, the highest beds in the
sequence (the youngest) will outcrop on the highest ground and the
lowest beds in the sequence (the oldest) will outcrop in the deepest
valleys.

ii. Section Drawing


Draw a base line, the exact length of the line A-B on Map 1 (19 cm).
Mark off on the base line the points at which the contour lines cross the
line of section: for example 85 mm from A mark the point corresponding
to the intersection of the 700m contour. From the base line, erect a
perpendicular corresponding in length to the height of the ground and,
since it is important to make vertical and horizontal scales equal
wherever practicable, a perpendicular of length 14mm must be erected
to correspond to the 700m contour (since 1000m = 2cm and 100m =
2mm). Sections can readily be drawn on metric squared paper.
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2 Problem Statement

Maps are essential tools in geology. In fact, maps are as important in


geology as written texts are in the study of literature. By studying maps,
a geologist can see the shape and geology of the earth's surface and
deduce the geological structures that lie hidden beneath the surface.It
PROBLEM
takes some training to read maps skillfully. Civil engineering geologists
STATEMENT
are trained in map reading and map making. Many geologists have
experience mapping some part of the earth's surface.

In a group, students are given geological map in Appendix 1(a).


Students need to plot the contour and determine horizontal beddings.
From the ground profile, the occurrence and distribution of the rocks at
the surface of the ground can be determined.

3.1 Apparatus

i. Geological Map 1
ii. Graph Paper/ Drawing Paper A4
iii. Ruler
iv. Pencils
v. Colour Pencils

3.2 Procedures

i. Plot the cross-section with the horizontal and vertical scales


accordingly to the scale of the geological map on a piece of graph
paper or blank sheet. Refer Figure 1. The vertical scale is normally
exaggerated to improve visibility of the profile.
ii. Draw a line to join the line of cross-section on the map, says A - B.
WAYS & MEANS iii. Using a blank piece of paper, mark the points of intersection
accordingly between the lines with the contours respective to its
heights. Transfer the points to the cross-section profile respective to
the heights of the contours.
iv. Join the points to form the profile of the ground elevation.

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4 Result and Analysis

The group is required to submit the team report of the experiment.

By referring to Appendix 5a,


i. Complete the outcrop of each rock-type on the given map.
ii. Plot the outcrop of each rock - type on the cross-section profile.

RESULTS

Figure 1 : Plotting format for X-section

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Appendix 5 (a): Geological Map 1


Cut here (to be attached with your report)

Date
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Time
Group

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Appendix 5 (b): Key to shading widely used on geological maps and text figures

Outcrop Rock type Shading colour

Sandstone Yellow

Sandstone Yellow

Shale Orange

Shale Orange

Sandy Shale Orange

Limestone Blue

Sandy Limestone Blue

Clay or Mudstone Brown

Marl Brown

Conglomerate Green

Coal Black

Breccia Green

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COURSE GEOLOGY
COURSE CODE ECG253
LEVEL OF OPENNESS 0
CATEGORY TRADITIONAL
DEGREE OF OPEN-ENDED (%) 0
PERIOD OF ACTIVITY 1 WEEK

TITLE Geological Map 2-Introduction to Strike and Dip

1.1 Introduction

The traditional methods of conducting laboratory activities will not be


able to provide the avenue for students to enhance independent
learning activities and inculcate creativity and innovation. Level 0 is
fully prescriptive where problem, ways & means and answers are
provided to the students. However it is still necessary especially to
first and second year students.

In this laboratory activity, a geological map is one, which shows in the


first place, the occurrence and distribution of the rocks at the surface
of the ground. Conventional sign may show certain facts of
observation about them. The geological map allows the geological
structure of the country to be inferred.

PREAMBLE
Beds of rocks are bounded by bedding surfaces, which may be
horizontal, tilted or bent in any form or direction. A series of beds
which have been laid down regularly one on the other, and which may
be treated as a whole, form a conformable series. It follows that the
lower beds are the older. In such a series of bedding surfaces are
parallel. Each bedding surface is usually common to two beds of rock,
being the top of one and the bottom of the one next above. In the
simplest case, these surfaces are planes: bedding planes.
Just as it is possible to define the topography of the ground by means
of contour lines, therefore we can draw contour lines on a bedding
plane.

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Figure 6 : Fold

1.2 Objective

The objective of this laboratory test is top lot the contour and
determine the dip and strike of the rock strata.

1.3Learning Outcomes

At the end of the laboratory activities, students would be able to:

i. Plot the contour from the given geological map.


ii. Determine the dip and strike of the rock strata
iii. Work in a group to produce technical report.

2 Problem Statement

Maps are essential tools in geology. In fact, maps are as important in


geology as written texts are in the study of literature. By studying
maps, a geologist can see the shape and geology of the earth's
surface and deduce the geological structures that lie hidden beneath
the surface.It takes some training to read maps skillfully. Civil
PROBLEM
engineering geologists are trained in map reading and map making.
STATEMENT
Many geologists have experience mapping some part of the earth's
surface.

In a group, students are given geological map in Appendix 6.


Students need to plot the contour and determine the dip and strike of
rock strata. From the subsurface profile, the occurrence and
distribution of the rocks at the surface of the ground can be
determined.

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3.1 Apparatus

i. Geological Map 2
ii. Graph Paper/ Drawing Paper A4
iii. Ruler
iv. Pencils
v. Colour Pencils

3.2 Procedures

The group is required to design and plot ground profile in order to


determine the dip and strike of the rock strata.
WAYS & MEANS
i. Plot the cross-section with the horizontal and vertical scales
accordingly to the scale of the geological map on a piece of graph
paper or blank sheet. The vertical scale is normally exaggerated
to improve visibility of the profile.
ii. Draw a line to join the line of cross-section on the map, says X -
Y.
iii. Using a blank piece of paper, mark the points of intersection
accordingly between the lines with the contours respective to its
heights.
iv. Transfer the points to the cross-section profile respective to the
heights of the contours.
v. Join the points to form the profile of the ground elevation.

4 Result and Analysis

The group is required to submit the team report of the experiment.


The group will be require to prepare the technical report of the
laboratory results highlighting the procedures of plotting the map, and
analyze subsurface profile to address the problem given.

RESULTS
By refering to Geologigal Map 2;

i. Colour all the outcrops based on the shading code given


(Appendix 6 and Appendix 5b)
ii. Draw the line and mark the points of intersection respective to its
heights
iii. Plot the outcrop of each rock type
iv. Determine the strike and dip of the fold

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Appendix 6: Geological Map 2


Cut here (to be attached with your report)

Date
Approved by
Time
Group

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COURSE GEOLOGY
COURSE CODE ECG253
LEVEL OF OPENNESS 0
CATEGORY TRADITIONAL
DEGREE OF OPEN-ENDED (%) 0
PERIOD OF ACTIVITY 1 WEEK

Geological Map 3-Introduction to True & Apparent Dip and


TITLE
Thickness of Beds

1.1 Introduction

The traditional methods of conducting laboratory activities will not be


able to provide the avenue for students to enhance independent learning
activities and inculcate creativity and innovation. Level 0 is fully
prescriptive where problem, ways & means and answers are provided to
the students. However it is still necessary especially to first and second
year students.

In this laboratory, dip is the angle between a horizontal plane and a


inclined plane. Dip is always measured perpendicular to strike. Dip
angles range from 0° for a horizontal bed to 90° for a vertical bed. Strike
is the compass dierction of aline formed by the intersection of a
horizontal plane and it usually expressed relative to the north.

PREAMBLE

Figure 7.1: Strike and dip direction of rock strata

On map 3, the contour 1100 m for the geological boundary D-E


coincides with the 1000 m structure contour for boundary C-D. Thus,
along this strike direction, the top of bed D is 100 m higher than its bed.
This is the thickness of the bed that would be penetrated by a borehole
drilled at point X.

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Vertical thickness (VT) and True thickness (T)


Vertical thickness of inclined bed is greater than the True thickness,
since the True thickness is measured perpendicular to the geological
boundaries. The angle α in between T and VT is equal to the angle of
dip.
Cosine α = T/VT
Thus, T = VT cosine α

This mean the T of a bed is equal to the VT multiplied by cosine of the


angle of dip.

Angel of dip

T
α VT

Figure 7.2: Section showing the relationship between the vertical


thickness (VT) and true thickness (T) of a dipping bed

1.2 Objective

The objective of this laboratory test is to determine the dip and strike
of the rock strata and identify the vertical and true thickness of the
rock strata

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1.3 Learning Outcomes

At the end of this laboratory session, student should be able to:-


i. Describe the origin of sedimentary rocks.
ii. Explain how textures of sedimentary rocks provide evidence of
their origin.
iii. Analyze the mineralogical composition of sedimentary rocks and
classify the sedimentary rocks.

2 Problem Statement

Maps are essential tools in geology. In fact, maps are as important in


geology as written texts are in the study of literature. By studying maps,
a geologist can see the shape and geology of the earth's surface and
deduce the geological structures that lie hidden beneath the surface. It
PROBLEM
takes some training to read maps skilfully. Civil engineering geologists
STATEMENT
are trained in map reading and map making. Many geologists have
experience mapping some part of the earth's surface.

In a group, students are given geological map in Appendix 7. Students


need to plot the contour and determine the vertical and true thickness of
the rock strata. From the subsurface profile, the occurrence and
distribution of the rocks at the surface of the ground can be determined.

3.1 Apparatus

i. Geological Map 3
ii. Graph Paper/ Drawing Paper A4
iii. Ruler
iv. Pencils
v. Colour Pencils

3.2 Procedures
WAYS & MEANS
The group is required to design and plot ground profile in order to
determine the vertical and true thickness of rock strata.

i. Plot the cross-section with the horizontal and vertical scales


accordingly to the scale of the geological map on a piece of graph
paper. The vertical scale is normally exaggerated to improve visibility
of the profile.
ii. Draw a line to join the line of cross-section on the map, says Y - Z.
iii. On the geological map, draw the strike line and mark the points of
intersection accordingly between the lines with the contours
respective to its heights. Name the intersection line.

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iv. Transfer the points to the cross-section profile respective to the


heights of the contours.
v. Join the points to form the profile of the ground elevation.
vi. Fold the geological map 3 to form the Y – Z cross section. Locate the
X mark which the borehole position.
vii. Draw the borehole cross section on the profile of ground elevation.

4 Result and Analysis

The group will be require to prepare the technical report of the laboratory
results highlighting the procedures of plotting the map, and analyze
subsurface profile to address the problem given.

By refering to Geological Map 3;


RESULTS
i. Colour all the outcrop based on the shading code given (Appendix
7).
ii. Draw the line and mark the points of intesrection of contours respect
to the heights.
iii. Plot the outcrop of each type of rock (cross section profile)
iv. Plot the borehole cross-section and determine VT and T

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Appendix 7 : Geological Map 3


Cut here (to be attached with your report)

Date
Approved by
Time
Group

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COURSE GEOLOGY
COURSE CODE ECG253
LEVEL OF OPENNESS 1
CATEGORY PARTIALLY OPEN ENDED
DEGREE OF OPEN-ENDED (%) 33
PERIOD OF ACTIVITY 1 WEEK

TITLE Engineering Testing-Rebound Hardness Test

1.1 Introduction

Level 1 laboratory activity refers to condition where the problem and ways & means
are guided and given to the students. However the answers to the assignment are
left to the students to solve using the group creativity and innovativeness. The
activity is hope to slowly introduced and inculcate independent learning amongst
students and prepare them for a much harder task of open ended laboratory
activities.

In this laboratory activity, this experiment deals with determination of rock strength
when a certain load implied on the rocks. Students should be able to conduct the
experiment, understand the theory and recognize the rock strength on different
types of rocks in Malaysia. The hardness of rock is dependent on the type and
quantity of the various mineral constituents of the rock and the bond strength that
exists between the mineral grains. Tests for each property have been developed to
stimulate or correlate with field experience.
PREAMBLE

1.2 Objective

To determine the uniaxial compressive strength of rock indirectly and quickly, both
in the field and in the laboratory.

1.3 Learning Outcomes

At the end of the laboratory activities, students would be able to:


i. To determine a rock strength on different types of rock formation in
Malaysia.
ii. To evaluate the physical properties of rocks for civil engineering application.
iii. To identify the hardness characteristic of a rock.

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1.4 Theoretical Background

A Schmidt hammer, also known as a Swiss hammer or a rebound hammer, is a


device to measure the elastic properties or strength of concrete or rock. It was
invented by Ernst Schmidt.

Figure 8: Rebound Hammer

Rebound hammer test is undertaken using Schmidt’s hammer L-type (N-type for
concrete material). Test procedure is simple and equipment is portable and easy to
operate. Test can be undertaken on site and the number of test is unlimited. Test
can be carried out on the surface of irregular block or, on core samples does not
involve destruction of sample (minimize sample usage). Index value obtained is
rebound number (R), which is an indicator on the degree of hardness of rock
surface being tested. Rebound hammer test is frequently used in estimating the
compressive strength of joint surface in rock. The value of R can be used to
estimate the compressive strength of rock using the following equation (Franklin,
1989):
Log10 JCS = 0.00088(γ)(R) + 1.01

Where,
JCS – compressive strength of rock surface (MPa)
γ – unit weight of rock (kN/m3)

The term JCS means joint compressive strength, which implies the surface
strength of joints (fracture planes) in rock. This means that rebound hammer test
can also be used to estimate the surface strength of joint in addition to rock block
sample. For fresh rock (weathering grade I), JCS is approximately equals to the
UCS of the rock material. In other words when rock is not weathered, its surface
compressive strength is approximately equals to the strength of its material
composition (usually measured by UCT)

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2 Problem Statement

The potential for instability in the rock surrounding tunnel, underground mine
openings and construction sites is an ever-present threat to both safety of men and
equipment in construction sites. One of the assessment required for construction
site is to classify the rock mass. The development of rock classification for
engineering purposes has been provided by Dearman (1974) for assessing rock
quality. The strength of rock is the main characteristics to analyse before any civil
engineering works could be design and constructed. The crucial information that
needs to be address is given below.
PROBLEM
1. The strength value of each test that was carried out.
STATEMENT
2. The classification of rock strength based on any related standard.
3. Non-destructive strength test on site and classification of weathered rock based
on their characterization.

Each group is required to select a site as research area and find rock samples with
adequate size to be used (igneous, sedimentary or metamorphic). The group is
required to design and conduct suitable and related laboratory tests to obtain the
relevant rock strength parameters to address the three (3) related problems
mentioned above. Two (2) laboratory tests to be designed will be conducted in
series in two (2) consecutive weeks.

3.1 Apparatus
i. Schmidt Rebound Hammer which is consists of a steel hammer and
a plot of compressive strength vs. rebound hammer reading.
ii. Rock specimen.

3.2 Procedures

i. Sample to be tested can be in form of rock mass or rock material.


For samples in the form of rock material it can be either in regular or
irregular lumps. (When possible use larger pieces of rock for the
Schmidt hardness tests)
WAYS & ii. The hammer plunger is mounted towards the face of rock and it is
MEANS perfectly near to vertical, before taking the readings. (The test
surface shall be smooth and flat over the area covered by the
plunger)
iii. If any slanting reading taking, the angle should be recorded as α,
and correction of reading should be made immediately.
iv. Hammer is mounted to the test surface and pressure is applied on
the hammer. The button on its side is pressed to retain the reading,
R.
v. The correct plot of compressive strength vs. hammer reading is
selected and the reading for compressive strength corresponds to
hammer reading is taken.
vi. The test is repeated for several times on sample, and the average of
compressive strength is calculated.

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3 Results and analysis

The group is required to submit the team report of the experiment.

i. Record the data for type of sample, rock mass or rock material
(regular or irregular sample), orientation of the hammer axis in the
test and the Schmidt hardness value.
ii. Estimate the compressive strength of rock using the chart in
Appendix 8.
iii. Estimate the compressive strength of rock using proper equation.
iv. Classify the weathering grade and the description of the sample
using Table 8.

Table 8: Classification of weathered rock based on their characterize by


Geotechnical control office in Hong Kong. (Brand and Phillipson, 1984)

Grade Description Typical Distinctive Characteristics

VI Residual soil Soil formed by weathering in place but with original


texture of rock completely destroyed.
RESULTS Rock wholly decomposed but rock texture
V
Complete preserved.
decomposed No rebounds from N Schmidt hammer.
rock
Slakes readily in water.
Geological pick easily indents surface when pushed.
Rock weakened, large pieces can be broken by
hand.
Highly Positive N Schmidt rebound value up to 25.
decomposed Does not slake readily in water.
IV rock
Geological pick cannot be pushed into surface.
Hand penetrometer strength index = 250kPa
Individual grains may be plucked from surface.
Completely discolored.
Considerably weathered but possessing strength
Moderately such that pieces 55mm in diameter cannot be
decomposed broken by hand.
III rock N Schmidt rebound value 25 to 45.
Rock material not friable.

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Discolored along discontinuities.


Slightly
II decomposed Strength approaches that of fresh rock.
rock N Schmidt rebound value greater than 45.
More than one blow of hammer to break specimen.
I Fresh rock No visible sign of weathering not discolored.

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Appendix 8: Data sheet for rebound hardness test

Rebound Average, Compressive Average,


Number, (R) Strength, (MPa) Weathering
Sample (R) Strength Description
Grade
1 2 3 4 5 Value 1 2 3 4 5 (MPa)

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COURSE GEOLOGY
COURSE CODE ECG103
LEVEL OF OPENNESS 0
CATEGORY PARTIALLY OPEN ENDED
DEGREE OF OPEN-ENDED (%) 0
PERIOD OF ACTIVITY 1 WEEK

TITLE Durability-Slake Durability Test

1.1 Introduction

The traditional methods of conducting laboratory activities will not be


able to provide the avenue for students to enhance independent
learning activities and inculcate creativity and innovation. Level 0 is
fully prescriptive where problem, ways & means and answers are
provided to the students. However it is still necessary especially to
first and second year students.

Slake durability indices important geotechnical parameters that can


be used in characterizing the strength of rock fragments and their
durability to weathering. The slake durability test was developed to
evaluate the influence of alteration on rocks by measuring their
resistance to deterioration and breakdown when subjected to wetting
and drying cycles.
PREAMBLE

1.2 Objective

The objective of the laboratory test is to determine slake durability of


aggregate.

1.3 Learning Outcomes

At the end of this laboratory session, student should be able to:-


i. Use the right tools for Slake Durability Test
ii. Determine the Slake Durability Index
iii. Work in a group to produce technical report

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1.4 Theoretical Background

The slake durability test, proposed by Franklin and Chandra (1972), is


a standardized measurement of the weight loss of rock lumps when
repeatedly rotated through an air water interface. The procedure has
been standardized by the ISRM (Franklin, 1979) and the ASTM
(ASTM D4644-87).

The slake durability test apparatus is shown in Figure 9. It consists of


two drums 100 mm long and 140 mm in diameter, containing about
500 g of rocks (10 lumps) in each drum. Sieve mesh forms the walls
of the drums with openings of 2 mm. The drums rotate at a speed of
20 rpm for a period of 10 minutes in a water bath. The rock in the
drums is subject to different cycles of wetting in the bath and drying in
the oven. The percentage of rock retained inside the drum, on a dry
weight basic, is reported as the slake durability index, Id. A smaller Id
means that a greater amount of rock was broken into small pieces
and lost through the sieve.

Figure 9 : Slake Durability Test Equipment

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Table 9 gives the slake durability classification suggested by Franklin


and Chandra (1972) based on the value of Id2. It is also
recommended that the value of Id1 be used whenever the values of
Id2 range between 0 and 10%

Table 9.1: Slake Durability Index Classification (Franklin and


Chandra, 1972)

Id2 (%) Durability Classification


0 – 25 Very Low
25 – 50 Low
50 –75 Medium
75 – 90 High
90 – 95 Very High
95 – 100 Extremely High

Table 9.2: Visual Descriptions of the Remaining Rock Pieces after


the Second Cycle (Franklin and Chandra, 1972)

Id2 (%) Visual Description


I Pieces remain virtually unchanged
II Pieces consist of small and large pieces
III Pieces consist of exclusively small fragments

2 Problem Statement

Engineering with rock typically requires measurement of the rock


strength, or the ability of the rock to withstand loading. Some rock
PROBLEM types, particularly shale and other week rocks, are subject not only to
STATEMENT loading failure but also to abrasion failure.

In a group, students are given rocks samples to carried out Slake


Durability Test. Students should be able to analyze the data using the
classification index given in Table 9.1 and 9.2.

3.1 Apparatus

i. 140 mm diameter drum with 100 mm long 2 mm mesh walls


ii. Through to contain drum and water
WAYS & MEANS
iii. Motor drive (20 rpm)
iv. Rock samples
v. Information & hints

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3.2 Procedures

i. Around 8 to 10 rock specimens each weighing 40 to 60 g


giving a total weight of 450 to 550 g are selected to represent
the sample.
ii. The weights of the clean dry and empty drums are recorded as
D.
iii. The selected specimens are placed in the drum and dried to
constant weight at a temperature of 105°C (requires between
3 to 12 hours in an oven)
iv. After drying in the oven, the drum assembly for each test is
weighed and recorded as A.
v. The drums are then placed in the related water tank and
coupled in the series to the motor drive unit (the samples are
tested after cooling).
vi. The tank is filled with slaking fluid, normally tap water at 20°C
or distilled water to a level of 20mm below the drum axis,
submerging almost half the drum.
vii. The test is immediately set in motion where the drums are
rotated for 20 revolutions during a period of 10 minutes.
viii. At the end of the period the drive is immediately switched off,
the drums removed from the tank and the assemblies with the
specimens are dried in the oven at the temperature of 105°C.
ix. The masses of the oven dried drums and specimens are
recorded as B.
x. Step (6) – (9) is repeated and mass C is recorded. The net
loss of the samples weight are calculated and tabulated.

4 Result and Analysis

The group will be required to prepare the technical report of the


RESULTS
laboratory results highlighting the procedures of testing adopted, data
acquisition process, analysis carried out and the relevancy of the
parameters obtain to address the problem given.

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UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
PASIR GUDANG LABORATORY MANUAL

©FKA, UiTM, PASIR GUDANG September 2018


FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
PASIR GUDANG LABORATORY MANUAL

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FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
PASIR GUDANG LABORATORY MANUAL

COURSE GEOLOGY
COURSE CODE ECG253
LEVEL OF OPENNESS 0
CATEGORY TRADITIONAL
DEGREE OF OPEN-ENDED (%) 0
PERIOD OF ACTIVITY 1 WEEK

TITLE Engineering Testing-Uniaxial Compression Strength Test

1.1 Introduction

The traditional methods of conducting laboratory activities will not be


able to provide the avenue for students to enhance independent
learning activities and inculcate creativity and innovation. Level 0 is
fully prescriptive where problem, ways & means and answers are
provided to the students. However it is still necessary especially to first
and second year students.

In this partially open laboratory activity the students are required to


carry out tests to determine the uniaxial compressive strength of rocks.

1.2 Objectives
PREAMBLE
To measure the uniaxial compressive strength of rock sample in the
form of specimen of regular geometry.

1.3 Learning Outcomes

At the end of the laboratory activities, students would be able to:

i. Identify the correct apparatus and procedure to conduct the


uniaxial compressive strength
ii. Analyse test data and present the results in proper technical
format
iii. Perform effectively as a team in carrying out the task and
produce the relevant technical report.

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1.4 Theoretical Background

Most characterization and classification of rock is by uniaxial


compressive strength (UCS). The strength of rock is the ability to
sustain maximum compressive load, before it fails. Load at failure is
considered when more than 50 percent of sample by volume has
broken. Uniaxial compressive strength is determining for length to
diameter of sample is equal to 2.0, with diameter equal to 50mm.
Therefore, when diameter of sample not equal to 50mm or length to
diameter ratio is not equal to 2.0, the compressive strength must be
corrected to the equivalent σ50 for standardization.

Influence of sample sizes on uniaxial compressive strength


The UCS of sample diameter (d) mm, σcd is related to UCS of diameter
50mm, σc50 by following relationship:

σcd = σc50 [50/d]0.18 Hoek and Brown (1980a) (10.1)

Length to diameter ratio L/Ø :

If 2 > L/Ø > 1⁄3 σc1=σp/(0.778 + 0.22 p/Ø) (10.2)


If L/Ø >2 σc2 = 8σp / [7 + 2 (Ø/L)] (10.3)

2 Problem Statement

The uniaxial compressive strength of a rock is one of the simplest


measures of strength to obtain. It may be regarded as the highest
stress that a rock specimen can carry when a unidirectional stress is
applied, normally in axial direction, to the end of a cylindrical
specimen. In other words the unconfined compressive strength
represents the maximum load
PROBLEM
supported by the specimen during the test divided by the cross-
STATEMENT
sectional are of the specimen. The behaviour of rock in uniaxial
compressive is influenced to some extent by the test conditions. The
most important of these is the length-diameter ratio of specimen.

As a group you are required to collect the rocks sample and conduct
the uniaxial compressive strength with supervision by an assistant
engineer to operate the appropriate apparatus available in the
laboratory.

3.1 Apparatus

WAYS & MEANS i. Universal Testing Machine (UTM) or Compression machine


ii. Sample of rock (core sample of 1:2 diameter to its length)

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PASIR GUDANG LABORATORY MANUAL

3.2 Procedure

i. For diametral test, core the samples so that the length should be
more than 0.5 of the depth or the diameter (L>0.5D) as in Figure
10.1.
ii. The sides of the specimen shall be smooth and free of abrupt
irregularities and straight to within 0.3 mm over the full length of
the specimen.
iii. Record the dimensions (i.e. diameter, length etc.) and weight of
samples.
iv. Set up the Universal Testing Machine (UTM) or Compression
machine comprising a loading frame, pump, ram and platens), a
system for measuring the load P required to break the sample and
a system for measuring the distance D between the platens.
Figure 12.2 shows the full set up of compression machine and
Universal Testing Machine (UTM).
v. Place the sample between the two platens (as shown in Figure
10.2). One of the platen must has spherical seat.
vi. Move the platens tips to touch both the top and bottom of the rock
sample. Note: Sample must be confirmed smooth and straight.
vii. Fill all the sample properties as required by the system of
operation i.e. dimension, weight etc. Set the program to produce
load – time graph and stress – strain graph.
viii. The loading rates must be set in range of 0.5 to 1.0 MPa/s as to
make sure the sample shall fail between 5 – 0 minutes duration.
ix. Start the test. The hydraulic compression machine will
automatically stop load when the rock sample has failed.
x. Save the data in the computer and print out the graphical output.
Take the pictures of failed samples to record the modes of failure.

Figure 10.1: Sample dimensions requirement for UCS test

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Rock sample position

Figure 10.2: Hydraulic compression testing machine

4 Result and Analysis

The group is required to submit the team report of the laboratory


results highlighting the data acquisition process, analysis carried out
and the relevancy of the set-out output to achieve the objective.

For sample diameter equal to 50 mm and length to diameter ratio


equal to 2, Uniaxial Compressive strength is calculated by:

RESULTS σ = P/A (MPa) (10.4)

where,
P – failure load at failure
A – cross sectional area of sample

Otherwise, use the equation (10.2) and (10.3) to determine the


equivalent uniaxial compressive strength.

Tabulate all the data and test result in appropriate Appendix 10.

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UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
PASIR GUDANG LABORATORY MANUAL

Appendix 10 : Tabulation of Uniaxial Compressive Strength Test


Rock type
Mode of
failure
σ (MPa)
UCS,
failure, P (kN)
Load at
A (mm2)
Area,
Length,
L (mm)
Diameter,
D (mm)
Sample no

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UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
PASIR GUDANG LABORATORY MANUAL

COURSE GEOLOGY
COURSE CODE ECG253
LEVEL OF OPENNESS 0
CATEGORY TRADITIONAL
DEGREE OF OPEN-ENDED (%) 0
PERIOD OF ACTIVITY 1 WEEK

TITLE Engineering Testing-Point Load Test

1.1 Introduction

The traditional methods of conducting laboratory activities will not be


able to provide the avenue for students to enhance independent
learning activities and inculcate creativity and innovation. Level 0 is
fully prescriptive where problem, ways & means and answers are
provided to the students. However it is still necessary especially to
first and second year students.

In this laboratory activity, this experiment deals with determination of


rock strength when a certain load implied on the rocks. Students
should be able to conduct the experiment, understand the theory and
recognize the rock strength on different types of rocks in Malaysia.
The hardness of rock is dependent on the type and quantity of the
various mineral constituents of the rock and the bond strength that
exists between the mineral grains.
PREAMBLE
1.2 Objective

The objective of this laboratory test is to determine and classified the


strength index of rocks materials. Students also, need to understand
the theory and recognize the rock strength on different types of rocks
in Malaysia.

1.3 Learning Outcomes

At the end of the laboratory activities, students would be able to:


i. To determine a rock strength on different types of rock formation
in Malaysia.
ii. To evaluate the physical properties of rocks for civil engineering
application.
iii. To understand the theory rock test.

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1.4 Theoretical Background

The Point Load Test was developed to provide a quick and reliable
measurement of the strength of unprepared rock core samples, both
in the field and the laboratory. The apparatus consists of a small
loading frame which is activated by a hydraulic hand pump and rams
(Figure 11.1). Rock core is placed between pointed platens of
standard dimensions and loaded until failure occurs (Rusnak & Mark,
2000). The point load strength index:

The results give a measure of the tensile strength of the rock. Tests
may most reliably be carried out across the core diameter, but results
can also be obtained when discs of core are loaded axially. The
shape and size of each particle tested in a Point Load Test can
influence the results of the test, as will natural variations in rock
quality and competence. The best possible shape for greatest
accuracy is cylindrical, such as core. If core samples are not
available, square or rectangular particles are preferred. Shapes to
avoid are concave or convex particles and triangular shaped
particles.

To avoid partial shearing, the surfaces where the platens contact the
particle should be flat and parallel. This will also minimize the
possibility of the particle falling out during the test. The Point Load
Index is normalized to a thickness of 50 mm; however, examining
larger particles reduces the effect of shape and rock texture. Samples
should also be as competent as possible, without any obvious pre-
existing
flaws.

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PASIR GUDANG LABORATORY MANUAL

For this point load strength of rock, the tests are performed in
accordance to the shape of the rock specimens. There are 4 types of
tests for point load strength determination:
i. The diametral test
ii. The Axial test
iii. The block test
iv. The irregular lump test

Figure 11.1: Specimen shape requirements for (a) Diametral test, (b)
Axial test, (c) Block test, (d) irregular lump test (ISRM, 1985)

2 Problem Statement

The potential for instability in the rock surrounding tunnel,


PROBLEM underground mine openings and construction sites is an ever-present
STATEMENT threat to both safety of men and equipment in construction sites. One
of the assessment required for construction site is to classify the rock
mass. The development of rock classification for engineering
purposes has been provided by Dearman (1974) for assessing rock
quality. The strength of rock is the main characteristics to analyse

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UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
PASIR GUDANG LABORATORY MANUAL

before any civil engineering works could be design and constructed.


The crucial information that needs to be address is given below.

1. The strength value of each test that was carried out.


2. The classification of rock strength based on any related standard.

Each group is required to select a site as research area and find rock
samples with adequate size to be used (igneous, sedimentary or
metamorphic). The group is required to design and conduct suitable
and related laboratory tests to obtain the relevant rock strength
parameters to address the three (3) related problems mentioned
above. Two (2) laboratory tests to be designed will be conducted in
series in two (2) consecutive weeks.

3.1 Apparatus

i. Point load equipment


ii. Sample of rock (core sample of 1:2 diameter to its length)
iii. Weighing
iv. Vernier Calipers

WAYS & MEANS

Figure 11.2: Point load test machine

3.2 Procedure

i. For diametral test, core the sample so that the length should
be more than 0.5 of the depth or diameter (L>0.5D).
ii. For axial test, core the sample so that the sample depth
should be less than the width (diameter) but not lesser than
0.3 of the width (0.3W<D<W).
iii. For block test, cut samples into cubical rectangle shape with

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length more than 0.5 of its depth (L>0.5D) and the depth
should less than the width but lesser than 0.3 of the width
(0.3W<D<W).
iv. For irregular lump test, apply the same requirement for block
test.
v. For a block or core specimen, determine its length by taking
the average of four lengths measured at four equally spaced
points on the circumference and record to the nearest 5 mm.
vi. For a block or core specimen, determine its diameter by taking
the average of two diameters measured at right angles to
each other approximately midway along the length of the
specimen and record to the nearest 5 mm.
vii. The test surface of all specimens, either in the laboratory or in
the field, shall be smooth to the touch and free of joints,
fractures, or other obvious localized discontinuities to a depth
of at least 6 cm. In situ rock shall be flat and free of surface
grit over the area covered by the plunger. If the surface of the
test area is heavily textured, grind it smooth with the abrasive
stone.
viii. Place the sample between two platens. For every type of point
load strength test, the positioning of specimen between the
platen is important to be check so that the width and depth are
correct so, the effective are obtained is correct.
ix. The tips of platens must touch the top and bottom of the rock
specimen.
x. Slowly level the platens to avoid apply any pressure or force
to specimen before the test.
xi. Push the plunger.
xii. The load is increased such that failure occurs within 10 to 60
second.
xiii. The failure load “P” is recorded.
xiv. Repeat test for other rocks sample.

4 Result and Analysis

The group is required to prepare the team report of the laboratory


results. The report should contain calibration data for the test at least
the following information for each sample tested:
i. The sample number, source location and rock type, and the
RESULTS nature and in situ orientation of any plane or any weakness.
ii. Information of water content of the rock at the time testing
iii. Information whether specimen loaded parallel or
perpendicular with respect to planes of weakness.
iv. A tabulation of the values of P, D, (W and De if required), Is
(F if required) and Is(50) for each specimen in the sample.
Tabulate all the data and test result in Appendix 11

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Appendix 11: Tabulation physical properties of Point Load Strength Test


Remarks
Failure
Density, ρ
(kg/m3)
V (mm3)
Volume,
Effective
Area, A
(mm2)
W (mm)
Width,
D (mm)
Depth,
M (kg)
Mass,
Sample no

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Rock type
Is(50)= FIs
(Mpa)
Is= P/De2
(Mpa)
F=(De/50)
De(m)
failure, P (N)
Load at
Sample no

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