milling operation explained

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milling operation explained

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MILLING OPERATION

with a number of cutting teeth rotating about a fixed axis.

• The workpiece is fed pass the cutter and each tooth removes the material

during interaction with the workpiece.

• The feed motion is provided to the workpiece and the cutting speed to the

cutter. The process involves intermittent cutting with each tooth producing

the chip of variable thickness.

• The milling operation is broadly classified as plain (or peripheral) and face

(or end) milling.

the feed motion, the process is called up milling and when they are in the

same sense, the operation is called down milling.

• In up milling, the chip thickness is zero at the start of the cut and increases

to a maximum value just before the tooth disengages the workpiece, while

in down milling, the chip thickness is maximum at the start of the cut and

drops to zero at the end of the cut.

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13-10-2017

• In the cross section of the chip produced by typical plain milling

operation, the path traced by the cutting edge is actually trochoidal, but

it is approximated as an arc.

much smaller than the cutter diameter D. The chip produced by the

single cutting edge will therefore be confined within the two arcs of

radius equal to D/2.

figure 1. From the triangles obc and abc, we get

D 2 D

2

l 2 = − − d + d 2

2 2

or

l = dD

2

13-10-2017

• If t is the mean chip thickness and b is the chip width, then volume of

an individual chip can be evaluated as

VCHIP = lt b = t b dD

• The volume of an undeformed chip can also be obtained by the

following expression v.b.d

VCHIP =

n.N

where v is the table speed and N is the rpm of the cutter having n

number of teeth.

• Equating the above two equations, the mean undeformed chip

thickness can be evaluated as

v d

t=

n.N D

Approximating the chip section acc’a’ by a triangle, the maximum

undeformed chip thickness

tmax = 2t

3

13-10-2017

• For applying the orthogonal cutting theory, the rake angle is the same

as the radial rake angle when helix angle is zero. The chip thickness

although varies from 0 to tm may be approximated as t

• In symmetrical face milling, as the tool passes over the workpiece, the chip

thickness increases to a maximum value and then decreases. If B is the

width of the workpiece and D is cutter diameter, the chip length l can be

evaluated from figure 2 as

l = arc AB = D.χ

1/ 2

B 2

cos χ = 1 −

D

• Expanding both sides of the equation and neglecting the higher order

terms, we get

2 4

χ2 1 B 1 B

1− + .......... = 1 − − − .......

2! 2 D 8 D

4

13-10-2017

1/ 2 1/ 2

B B B 2

2

χ=

1 + and l = B 1 +

D 2 D 2 D

• If t is the average thickness of the chip and d is the depth of cut, then the

volume of an individual chip can be evaluated as

1/ 2

B 2

VCHIP = t .d .B 1 +

2 D

• If where v is the table speed and N is the rpm of the cutter having n

number of teeth, dividing the material removed from workpiece in time τ

by the number of chips produced, we get

v.d .B

VCHIP =

n.N

• Therefore from the above two equations, average undeformed chip

thickness can be evaluated as

2 −1 / 2

v B

t= 1 +

n.N 2 D

• Expanding the power term and neglecting the higher orders, we can write

v 1 B

2

t= 1 −

n.N 2 2 D

• It is clear that in milling operations, the undeformed chip size or the size of

the cut taken by an individual tooth is of prime importance.

5

13-10-2017

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