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EFFECTIVENESS OF COMPUTER AIDED

INSTRUCTIONS (CAI) IN TEACHING MAPEH: BASIS FOR


INTERVENTION

An Action Research

In Partial Fulfillment

Of the requirement on How to Conduct an Action research

By:

GLENDELL GEM T. DE ASIS

CHERRYL M. CUBICO

LIZA G. TRASPORTE

ROSELLE B. ROA

November 07, 2016


CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Globalization and technological change—processes that have accelerated

in tandem over the past fifteen years—have created a new global economy

“powered by technology, fueled by information and driven by knowledge.”The

emergence of this new global economy has serious implications for the nature

and purpose of educational institutions. As the half-life of information continues to

shrink and access to information continues to grow exponentially, schools cannot

remain mere venues for the transmission of a prescribed set of information from

teacher to student over a fixed period of time. Rather, schools must promote

“learning to learn,” i.e., the acquisition of knowledge and skills that make possible

continuous learning over the lifetime. “The illiterate of the 21st century,”

according to futurist Alvin Toffler, “will not be those who cannot read and write,

but those who cannot learn, unlearn, and relearn.”

Information and communication technologies (ICTs)—which include radio

and television, as well as newer digital technologies such as computers and the

Internet—have been touted as potentially powerful enabling tools for educational

change and reform. When used appropriately, different ICTs are said to help

expand access to education, strengthen the relevance of education to the

increasingly digital workplace, and raise educational quality by, among others,

helping make teaching and learning into an engaging, active process connected

to real life.

A meta-analysis was performed to synthesize existing research comparing

the effects of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) versus traditional instruction

(TI) on students’ achievement in Taiwan. Fifty-two studies were located from four

sources, and their quantitative data was transformed into effect size (ES). The

overall grand mean of the study-weighted ES for all 52 studies was 0.55. The

results suggest that CAI is more effective than TI in Taiwan. In addition, two of
the seventeen variables selected for this study (i.e., statistical power, and

comparison group) had a statistically significant impact on the mean ES.

The results from this study suggest that the effects of CAI in instruction are

positive over TI.

The way the class was maneuver where depended on the teacher who

utilizes it. Hence, whatever the technique and style of the teachers in teaching

was always the crucial point. No wonder, many teachers were now trying to

innovate the old learning styles and replacing it with new and more fun

techniques like the Computer Aided Instruction (CAI). Despite the revolutionary

advances in the field of computer-based education, technology remains simply a

tool. Potentially powerful and stimulating, the computer is only an inert object that

can never be a substitute for the personal touch of the classroom teacher.

Without proper integration of computers into the curriculum, the benefits of

technology to foster children’s learning cannot be fully achieved, regardless of

the creative potential of any software used. Responsibilities of the teacher in the

computer-enriched classroom begin before the computer is introduced to the

students. In providing a rich, challenging, and appropriate learning environment,

teachers must take an active role in selecting the software that will truly enhance

children’s learning and development. (McPherson and Nunes, 2004). Over the

past 15 years, the fundamental nature and use of technology has changed.

Throughout Canada and the United States (US), computer-assisted instruction

(CAI) has been used over the years to support student learning. In some of these

instances the literature is contradictory. However, many research studies do

suggest that CAI was used in appropriately and can have positive impacts on

student learning. CAI seems to be especially effective in the area of literacy.

Studies reported significant effects of CAI on reading skills of pre-schoolers,

elementary school students, at-risk students, students with Special Needs and

English Language Learners (ELL) (Chambers et al., 2008; Stetter & Hughs,

2011). In the Philippines, Liceo de Cagayan University implemented an

Interactive Courseware for Preschoolers to develop their social skills. It enhances


the traditional way of teacher’s instructional strategies to encourage the pupils’

interests in learning with the computer environment that is creative enough to

please them. This Interactive Courseware for Preschoolers is a type of computer-

based instruction with its text and animations in a graphical form for the

preschoolers to learn interactively with the lessons that are presented with facts

and able to have a recap on what they have just learned by taking the interactive

quizzes. This can provide the pupils with a more flexible, creative and

entertaining environment for their learning experiences.

Statement of the Problem:

1. What is the mean score of the Pre-Test and Post Test of the control and

experimental group?

2. Is there a significant difference in the mean score of the control and

experimental group?

3. What intervention can be formulated?

Null Hypothesis

There is no significant difference in the mean score of the control and

experimental group.

Conceptual Framework

PRE-TEST POST TEST

 AGE
 GENDER
 SOCIO-
ECONOMIC
STATUS
The diagram shows the two independent variables, the pre-test and post-test

with the intervening variable; age, gender, and socio-economic status.

Significance of the Study

The finding of the study will redound to the benefits of the society as well

as the Department of Education considering that Computer Aided Instructions

(CAI) plays an important role in teaching MAPEH. The greater demand for

teachers with computer background justifies the need for more effective life-

changing teaching approaches. Thus, schools that apply the recommended

approach derived from the results of this study will be able to train students

better. Administrators will be guided on what should be emphasized by the

teachers in the school curriculum to improve students’ performance in MAPEH.

For the researcher, the study will help them uncover critical areas in the

educational process that many researchers were able to explore. Thus, a new

theory on learning MAPEH is arrived

Scope and Limitation of the Study

This research is conducted to determine the pre-test and post-test results in

teaching MAPEH using computer aided instruction of Milagrosa National High

School, particularly the Grade 7 level as perceived by the 40 Grade 7 students;

controlled and experimental group during the school year 2016-2017. The

aspects looked into were the age, gender and the socio-economic status of the

students.
Operational Definition:

CAI – Computer Aided instruction an application of computer in implementing

instructions. It is an integration of software and hardware.

Pre-test – a preliminary test administered to determine students’ baseline

knowledge or preparedness for an educational experience or course of study.

Post-test – a test given to students after completion of an instructional program

or segment and often used in conjunction with a pre-test to measures their

achievement.

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

The study of statistics can be tedious especially because of a lot of

formulas to work with and computations that are long and difficult to use.

Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) could be of great help because of the drill-

and-practice, tutorial, or simulation activities offered either by themselves or as

supplements to traditional teacher directed instruction. (Cotton, 2001). Cotton

found in her study that computer software provides many instructional benefits

and CAI can have a much greater impact on student learning.

In a classroom utilizing CAI, students often work independently or in pairs

at computers around the room. Software effectively guides students through a

series of interrelated activities and instruction, addressing a variety of learning

styles.

The use of a CD-ROM tutorial is ideal to support traditional classrooms.

The pedagogy of a teacher’s text extends into a highly visual, hands-on learning

environment that is available any time. CD-ROM methods for teaching oral

medication administration, Jeffries (2001) generate higher satisfaction and

greater cognitive gains for the multimedia group.

In a study by Christopher L. Aberson et al. (2002) of Humboldt State

University, he found out that students (n = 84) enrolled in introductory and

intermediate statistics courses overwhelmingly rated the tutorial as clear, useful,


and easy to use. Students who used the tutorial outperformed those who did not

on a final examination.

Michael Szabo’s (2001) study showed that much research has been

focused on the effectiveness of CAI, which is demonstrated through improved

test scores (Williams & Brown, 1990). Effectiveness has also been measured

through "heightened affective responses, or better attitudes, reduced learning

time, higher course completion rates, an increased retention duration, and finally

cost" (Williams & Brown, 1990, p. 214). Generally the effectiveness of CAI has

been determined by comparing CAI with traditional classroom instruction (Clark,

1985).

Anderson-Cook, C.M. and Dorai-Raj, Sundar (2003) found in their study

on the use of applets in statistics courses that students in introductory statistics

classes react very positively to the applets, both in terms of enjoying being able

to experiment with them as well as being better able to discuss the concepts

relating to statistical power.

Researchers have also found that CAI enhances learning rate i.e.,

students learned the same amount of material in less time than the traditionally

instructed students or learned more material given the same amount of time.

(Cotton, 2001). Moreover, students receiving CAI also retain their learning better

(Cotton, 2001)

Most researchers concluded that the use of CAI leads to more positive

student attitudes than the use of conventional instruction. This general finding

has emerged from studies of the effects of CAI on student attitudes as cited by

Cotton (2001).

In what follows the treatment group consists of those who received the

CAI and worked in teams and the control group received the traditional method of

teaching some selected topics of basic statistics. The detailed description of the

treatment and control groups is found in Section 3.


CHAPTER II

METHODOLOGY

Research Design

CAI (Computer Aided Instruction) the medium of instruction in a

computer model that is saved on a CDROM, which can provide multimedia,

including text, graphics, charts, slides, similar to the actual teaching by providing

a single screen. This study used descriptive-quantitative design to identify the

effectiveness of Computer Aided Instruction (CAI) in teaching MAPEH.

Research Locale

This study will be conducted in Milagrosa National High School, located at

Milagrosa, Alicia, Zamboanga Sibugay.

Milagrosa National High School was founded on September 08, 1995. At

present, Milagrosa National High School has a population of 272 students and 14

teachers.

Respondents

The respondents of this study are the Grade 7 students of Milagrosa

National High School.

Population sampling

Random sampling will be used for this particular study in Milagrosa

National High School.

Statistical tool

Mean will be used to determine the effectiveness of the CAI.

T-test will be applied to interpret the scores of the pre-test and post-test.
URL’s

http://www.studymode.com/essays/Computer-Aided-Instruction-56562615.html

http://www.amstat.org/publications/jse/v16n1/ragasa.html

http://cai-atcomink.blogspot.com/2012/07/the-importance-of-cai.html