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GURU

AC Circuits

ALTERNATING CURRENT Section - 1

Most of the electric power generated and used in the world in the form of a.c. i.e., alternation current. The

magnitude of alternating current changes continuously with time and its direction is reversed periodically. It

is represented by

I = I0 sin t or I = I0 cos t

Here, I is instantaneous value of current i.e., magnitude of current at any instant of time t and I0 is the peak

value of maximum value of a.c. It is also called amplitude of a.c., is called angular freqneucy of a.c.

2

Also, 2 v

T

where, T is the time period or period of a.c. It is equal to the time taken by the a.c. to go through one

complete cycle of variation.

The term used for a.c. holds equally for alternation voltage which may be represented by

V = V0 sin t or V = V0 cos t

In general,

I I 0 sin(t )

V V0 sin(t )

JEEMAIN.GURU

Average Current (Mean Current)

As we know an alternating current is given by

i = i0 sin (t + ) . . . .(i)

The mean or average value of ac over any time t is given by

t

i dt

0

iavg = t

dt

0

t

i 0 sin t

0

iavg = t

dt

0

T

i 0 cos t

iavg = –

T 0

=–

T

i 0 cos 2 cos

0 (As T = 2)

T

Since ac is positive during the first half cycle and negative during the other half cycle so iavg will be zero for

long time also. Hence the dc instrument will indicate zero deflection when connected to a branch carrying ac

current. So it is defined for either positive half cycle or negative half cycle. Now to find mean value of current

i = i0 sin t for positive half cycle. i.e. from t = 0 to t = T/2

T 2

i 0 sin t

2i0

iavg 0 T 2 0.637 i 0

. . . .(5)

dt

0

JEEMAIN.GURU

2v0

Similarly vavg = 0.637 v0 . . . .(6)

R.M.S. Value of Alternating Current

The notation rms refers to root mean square, which is given by square root of mean of square current.

2

i.e., irms = iavg

T

2

i dt 1T 2 2 i20 T

0

i2 avg = T = i0 sin (t ) dt =

T0 2T 0

[1 cos 2(t )]dt

dt

0

T

i20 sin 2(t )

= t

2T 2 0

= T

2T 2 2

i0

irms = 0.707 i0 . . . .(7)

2

V0

Similarly the rms voltage is given by Vrms = 0.707 v0 . . . .(8)

2

The significance of rms current and rms voltage may be shown by considering a resistance R carrying a

current i = i0 sin (t + )

The voltage across the resistor will be

V = Ri = (i0 R) sin (t + )

The thermal energy developed in the resistor during the time t to t + dt is

i2 R dt = i02 R sin2 (t + ) dt

T T

U = i Rdt = R i02 sin 2 (t )dt

2

0 0

1 T

2 2 = 2 RT

= RT T i 0 sin ( t ) dt . . . .(9)

0 i rms

JEEMAIN.GURU

It means the root mean square value of ac is that value of steady current, which would generate the

same amount of heat in a given resistance in a given time.

So in ac circuits, current and ac voltage are measured in terms of their rms values. Like when we say that the

house hold supply is 220V ac it means the rms value is 220V and peak value is 220 2 = 311 1V.

Illustration - 1 If the voltage (in volts) in an ac circuit is represented by the equation, V = 220 2 sin

(314 t – ), (where t is in seconds). Calculate (a) peak and rms value of the voltage (b) frequency of ac.

SOLUTION :

(a) For ac voltage, The rms value of voltage

V = V0 sin (t – ) V0

Vrms = ; Vrms = 220 V

The peak value 2

(b) As = 2f, 2f = 314

V0 = 220 2 = 311

1V,

314

i.e., f= = 50 Hz

2

Illustration - 2 The electric current in a circuit is given by i = i0 (t/T) for some time. Calculate the rms

current for the period t = 0 to t = T for i0 20 3 A.

SOLUTION :

The mean square current is Thus, the rms current is

1T 2 i02 T 2 i02 2 i0

avg

i2

T 0

i0 (t / T )2 dt

T3 0

t dt

3

irms = iavg .

3

= 20 A

RC Circuit

When an AC voltage V(t) is applied across an RC circuit, the current I (t) is also an alternating current.

Let I = Im cos t

then VR = Im R cos t

q 1 1

VC I dt sin t I m

C C C

1 1

VC I m cos t C X C called reactance of capacitor

C 2

JEEMAIN.GURU

V VR VC (Instantaneous)

1

I m R cos t I m cos t

C 2

1

V (t ) I m R 2 cos(t )

2 2

C

1

where tan 1

RC

V V V 1

The ratio Z is called impedance Z m rms R 2

I I m I rms C2

2

1

tan 1

RC

Note : All values drawn in the phasor diagram are rms values.

Vm

Vrms Vm Vrms 2

Z.

I rms Im Im

I rms 2

(a) Voltage across R is in phase with I.

(b) Voltage across C lags behind I by

2

1 1

(c) V across RC combination lags behind I by tan

RC

1 T 2

In general, rms value of a periodic function f (t ) f (t ) dt

T 0

RL Circuit

I (t) = Im cos t ; VR = Im R cos t

dI

VL L ( L ) I m sin t L I m cos t

dt 2

V(t) = VR(t) + VL(t)

[ L X L called reactance of inductor]

JEEMAIN.GURU

V (t ) VR (t ) VL (t ) (Instantaneous)

I m R cos t L I m cos t

2

V (t ) I m R 2 2 L2 cos (t )

L

tan1

R

L

Voltage across RL combination leads I by tan1

R

V V

Impedance Z m rms R 2 2 L2

Im I rms

Phasor Diagram

(Using rms values of VR, VL, V and I)

(a) VR across R is in phase with I.

(b) VL across L leads I by /2

1 L

(c) V across RL combination leads I by tan

R

LCR Circuit

I (t) = Im cos t

V = VR + VC + VL

1

I m R cos t I m cos t I m L cos t

C 2 2

1

(a) L

C

1 2

V (t ) I m R 2 L cos ( t ) ;

C

1

L

tan1 C

V leads I by .

R

JEEMAIN.GURU

1

(b) L

C

1

V (t ) I m R 2 L cos (t ) ;

C

1

L

tan1 C

R V lags behind I by .

1

(c) L

C

V(t) = Im R cos t V and I are in same phase.

2

1 1

Z R2 L or Z R2 L Z=R

C C

1 T 1 T 2

Pav V (t ) I (t ) dt I m R cos 2 t dt

T 0 T 0

2

Im 2

Pav R I rms R

T

Average Power across L

1 T

Pav V (t ) I (t ) dt

T 0

I2 T

m L cos L cos t

T 0 2

Pav = 0 acros L.

During one half cycle, L stores energy and during next half cycle it supplies this energy back to the circuit.

Average Power across C

1 T

Pav V (t ) I (t ) dt

T 0

I2 T 1

m cos t cos t 0

2 0 C 2

C also stores and gives back this energy alternately during each half cycle.

JEEMAIN.GURU

If Vrms is the total supply voltage and is the phase difference between current and voltage.

(cos is also known as power factor).

Resonance in LCR circuit

1

When L and Z = R, it is called resonant condition.

C

Resonance frequency :

1 1

0 v0

LC 2 LC

= 0° and cos = 1 i.e. power factor is unity.

(a) Resonance occurs when

1

XL – XC = 0 or

LC

V

(b) Current reaches a maximum value of at resonance.

R

V2

(c) Power dissipated is maximum and is rms (current and power are maximum because Z is minimum).

R

V V2

Irms rms , P rms R

Z Z

(d) Current is in phase with voltage ( = 0).

Parallel AC Circuits

RC Circuit

Using phasor diagram

I 2 I C2 I R2 (rms values)

2 2 2

Vrms Vrms Vrms

Z R X

C

1 1 1 1

Xc

Z R2 X c2 c

JEEMAIN.GURU

Let V Vm sin t

V

I m sin(t )

z

I V / xc R

tan c R c tan 1 R c

IR V / R Xc

Current through source leads v by

L – R Circuit

Using phasor diagram

I 2 I c2 I R2 (rms values)

2 2

Vrms Vrms Vrms 2

Z

XL R

1 1 1

( xL L )

2

z R xL2

Let V Vm sin t

V

I m sin( t )

z

I R R R

tan L tan 1

IR XL L L

Current thorugh source lags voltage by ,

LCR Circuit :

(A) IC I L (rms)

X L XC

2

I 2 I R2 IC I L (rms values)

2 2 2

Vrms Vrms Vrms Vrms

Z R X X

C L

2

1 1 1 1

Z 2 X

R C XL

JEEMAIN.GURU

Let V V0 sin t

V

I 0 sin(t )

Z

1 1

I I X XL

tan C L C

IR 1

R

Current though source leads voltage by .

(B) IC I L (rms)

X L XC

2

I 2 I R2 I L IC (rms value)

2 2 2

Vrms Vrms Vrms Vrms

Z R X X

L C

2

1 1 1 1

Z R2 X L X C

Let V V0 sin t

V

I 0 sin(t )

Z

1 1

I I X XC

tan L C L

IR 1

R

Current through source lags voltage by .

(C)

XC X L

I I R (rms)

Vrms Vrms

Z R

JEEMAIN.GURU

ZR

Let V V0 sin t

V

I 0 sin t , 0

Z

Current though source and voltage are in same phase.

0.8 A while in capacitance is 0.6 A. The current drawn from the source is

x 10–1. Find the value of x ?

SOLUTION :

In this ac circuit = 0 sin t is applied across an inductance and

capacitance in parallel, current in inductance will lag the applied voltage

while across the capacitor will lead both by

2

I = IL – IC (rms)

= 0.8 – 0.6

2

0.2 x2

10

JEEMAIN.GURU

(a) capacitive reactance and impedance

(b) maximum and rms current

(c) phase angle and voltages R across and C.

SOLUTION :

1 1

(a) X C 10 VR(rms) = Irms R = 11.6 × 7 = 81.2 V

C 2 vC

1

Z R 2 X C2 12.2 VC ( rms ) I rms 11.6 10 11.6 10 116 V

C

V 200

(b) peak value of current Total Vrms m 141.5V

2 2

V 200 V

Im m 16.4 A (It can be seen that V2rsm = V2Rrms + V2Crms).

Z 12.2 Note that :

rms value of current V

I (t ) m sin (2 v t )

V I Z

I rms rms or m

Z 2 11

(c) phase angle I(t) = 16.4 sin (3.14t )

36

1 10

tan 1 tan1 55

RC 7

(V lags or I bads by 55°)

Example - 2 Find the rms and instantaneous current and voltage across R and L.

SOLUTION :

2 2 2 Z 92 6.282 10.97

Z R L

V 200 / 2

where XL = 100 × 20 × 10–3 = 6.28 is the (a) I rms rms 12.89 A

inductive reactance. Z 10.97

12 Subjective Solved Examples Self Study Course for IITJEE with Online Support

JEEMAIN.GURU

I peak I m m

Z 10.97 (c) VL(rms) = Irms L = 12.89 × 6.28 = 80.94 V

18.23 A(or I m I rms 2) 200

V(total ) 141.4 V

2

L 6.28

tan 1 tan 1 35 2 2

(check that Vrms VR L2L )

R 9 rms rms

I(t) = Im sin (100t – 35°)

= 18.23 sin (100t – 35°)

Example - 3 Find :

(a) Instantaneous current I(t)

(b) rms values of I and V across elements

(c) power factor

(d) power input

(e) resonant frequency

(f) impedance, current and power at resonance conditions.

Given that XC = 4, XL = 8.

SOLUTION :

1

(a) Z R 2 ( X L X C )2 (b) I rms m 40 A

2

XL = L = 8 V(rms) = Irms R = 120 V

Z 32 (8 4) 2 5 I

V( rms )C rms 160V

C

1 V(rms) = Irms L = 320 V

XC 4

wC

R X XC

cos 1 tan1 L 53 Check that V(2rms ) R V(2rms ) L Vrms

2

C

Z R

As XL > XC , V leads or I lays by 53° = 200 V = Vrms

(d) Power input = power dissipation

V

m sin(314t ) ( 53) = Vrms Irms cos

Z

84.6sin(314t ) ( 53) = 200 × 40 × 0.6 = 4800 W (or I2rms R)

Self Study Course for IITJEE with Online Support Subjective Solved Examples 13

JEEMAIN.GURU

1

(e) V0 35.4 Hz Power = Vrms Irms cos = Vrms Irms

2 LC

200 40000

(f) Z0 = R = 3 at resonance 200 W

3 3

V V 200

I rms rms rms A at resonance

Z R 3

AC source. The emf of the source is 10 V. Box P contains a capacitance

of 1F in series with a resistance of 32. Coil Q has a self-inductance

4.9 mH and a resistance of 68 in series. The frequency is adjusted so

that the maximum current flows in P and Q. Find the impedance of P

and Q at this frequency. Also find the voltage across P and Q respec-

tively.

SOLUTION :

As this circuit is a series LCR circuit, current will be 5924 77

maximum at resonance,

12

1 and Z R 2 L 2

i.e, Q 2

LC

12

1 105 10 5 2

68 4.9 103

2

4.9 103 106 7 rad/s

7

V 10 1

with I A 9524 97.6

R 32 68 10

So the impedance, 1

and hence, VP IZ P 77 7.7 N

2

12 10

1

2

Z P R1 1

C and VQ IZQ 97.6 9.76V

10

12

2

2 7

32 106

5

10

14 Subjective Solved Examples Self Study Course for IITJEE with Online Support

JEEMAIN.GURU

Example - 5 A current of 4A flows in a coil when connected to a 12 V DC source. If the same coil is

connected to a 12 V, 50 rad/s AC source a current of 2.4 A flows in the circuit. Determine the inductance of

the coil. Also find the power developed in the circuit if a 2500 F capacitor is connected in series with the

coil.

SOLUTION :

XL 4

In case of a coil as Z R 2 2 L2 But as X L L, L 0.08

50

V V

i.e., I Now when the capacitor is connected to the above

Z 2 2 2 circuit in series,

R L

So when DC is applied 1 1

As X C

V C 50 2500 106

I

R

103

12 8

i.e., R 3 125

4

and when AC is applied, So, Z R 2 X L X C 2

V

2

I 32 4 8 5

Z

V 12 V 12

i.e., Z 5 and hence, I 2.4 A

I 2.4 Z 5

So, Pav. Vrms I rms cos

or R 2 X L2 52 (As Z R 2 X L2 )

R

So, X L2 52 R 2 52 32 4 2

I rms Z I

rms

Z

2 2

i.e., XL = 4 i.e., Pav. I rms R 2.4 3 17.28W

Example - 6 For a resistance R and capacitance C in series, the impedance is twice that of a parallel

combination of the same elements. What is the frequency of applied emf ?

SOLUTION :

As shown in figure, in case of series combina- 12

2

tion, 2 2 2 1

Zs R X C R

C

In case of parallel combination,

12

1 1 2

1

i.e.,

Z P R 2 X C

Self Study Course for IITJEE with Online Support Subjective Solved Examples 15

JEEMAIN.GURU

R

i.e., ZP 2 R 2C 2 1 R2

2 2 2 4

1 C R

2C 2 1 2 R 2C 2

For ZS = 2ZP 1

Z S2 4 Z P2 RC

f

2 RC

Considering the inductor and capacitor to be ideal, find :

(a) The current through the circuit, I

(b) The voltage across 100 resistor

(c) The voltage across 5 resistor

SOLUTION : (C)

V

I2 0.2 2

( L)2 R22

I 2 lags behind V by 45 as L R2 L R2

So I1 leads I 2 by 45 45 90

V

I1 0.1 2

2 0.1 10 0.316

1 2

R1 P.D. across R1 100 0.1 2 10 2 V

c

P.D. across R2 50 0.2 2 10 2 V

1

I1 Lead V by 45 as R

c

16 Subjective Solved Examples Self Study Course for IITJEE with Online Support

JEEMAIN.GURU

THINGS TO REMEMBER

1. Most of the electric power generated and used in the world is in the form of a.c. i.e., alternating current. The

magnitude of alternating current changes continuously with time and its direction is reversed periodically. It is

represented by

I I 0 sin t or I I0 cos t

In general,

I I 0 sin(t )

V V0 sin(t )

As we know an alternating current is given by

i i0 sin(t ) …(i)

t

i dt

iavg 0t 0

i dt

0

T

2

i dt

i 2avg 0T

dt

0

i

irms 0

2

4. RC Circuit

VR I m R cos t

Self Study Course for IITJEE with Online Support Things to Remember 17

JEEMAIN.GURU

1

VC I m cos t

C 2

1

V (t ) I m R 2 cos(t )

2 2

C

V V 1

Z m rms R 2

I m I rms 2C 2

1

tan 1

RC

5 RL Circuit

VR I m R cos t

VL L I m cos

2

V (t ) I m R 2 2 L2 cos(t )

L

tan 1

R

V V

Z m rms R 2 2 L2

I m I rms

6. LCR Circuit

1

(a) L

C

2

1

V (t ) I m R 2 L cos(t );

C

1

L

tan 1 C

V leads I by .

R

18 Things to Remember Self Study Course for IITJEE with Online Support

JEEMAIN.GURU

1

(b) L

C

2

1

V (t ) I m R 2 L cos(t );

C

1

L

tan 1 C

R V lags behind I by .

1

(c) L

C

V (t ) I m R cos t V and I are in same phase.

2

1 1

Z R2 L or Z R2 L

C C

ZR

I2 2

Pav m R I rms R

2

Pav 0

Pav 0

1

When L and Z = R, it is called resonance condition.

L

Resonance Frequency :

1 1

0 v0

LC 2 LC

Self Study Course for IITJEE with Online Support Things to Remember 19

JEEMAIN.GURU

X L XC 0 or 1

LC

V

(b) Current reaches a maximum value of at resonance.

R

V2

(c) Power dissipated is maximum and is rms (current and power are maximum because Z is minimum).

R

2

Vrms Vrms

I rms , P R

Z Z2

(d) Current is in phase with voltage ( 0).

9. Parallel AC Circuits

RC Circuit

I 2 I C2 I R2 (rms values)

V

I m sin(t )

z

1 1 1

2

Z R X c2

tan 1 R c

I 2 I c2 I R2 (rms values)

V

I m sin( t )

z

R

tan 1

L

1 1 1

2

Z R X L2

20 Things to Remember Self Study Course for IITJEE with Online Support

JEEMAIN.GURU

(A) IC I L (rms)

V

I 0 sin(t )

Z

1 1

I I X XL

tan C L C

IR 1

R

2

1 1 1 1

Z R2 X C X L

(B) IC I L (rms)

V

I 0 sin(t )

Z

1 1

I I X XC

tan L C L

IR 1

R

2

1 1 1 1

Z R2 X L X C

(C) IC I L (rms)

V

I 0 sin t , 0

Z

Z=R

Self Study Course for IITJEE with Online Support Things to Remember 21

JEEMAIN.GURU

Vidyamandir Classes

My Chapter Notes

JEEMAIN.GURU

Vidyamandir Classes

Illustration - 1

JEEMAIN.GURU

Vidyamandir Classes

JEEMAIN.GURU

Vidyamandir Classes

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