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The Industrial Revolution is the name historians have given to the period in history when there was a large and rapid change in the way things were made. It began in Great Britain in the middle of the 18th century, and spread to Europe and the Americas by the early 19th century. It meant that instead of most things being made by hand in small workshops, they were made more cheaply in large quantities by powered machines in factories. New ideas and inventions were also taken up in mining, the working of metals, and in the transportation of goods. The most important new invention of the industrial revolution was the steam engine. The steam engine, invented by James Watt, was used to power the factories and pump out the deeper mines. It was also used in railway engines. The heat from burning coal became the main source of power.

Based upon your own opinion, answer these questions in complete sentences and with legible handwriting!
1. How would you define the Industrial Revolution?

2. When and where did the Industrial Revolution begin?

3. What is the picture of and what does it have to do with the Industrial Revolution?

4. Name 3 things from the reading that were improved upon during the Industrial Revolution…

5. What became the main source of power during the Industrial Revolution?

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According to the latest report of the International Labor Organization (ILO), 246 million children between the ages of 5-17 engage in child labor. The majority of the world's 211 million working children between the ages of 5-14 are found in the Asia-Pacific region (127.3 million or 60%), SubSaharan Africa (48 million or 23%), Latin America and the Caribbean (17.4 million or 8%), and the Middle East and North Africa (13.4 million or 6%). The rest can be found in both transitional and developed economies. Asia has the highest total number of child workers. They work under hazardous conditions in brick factories, mines, carpet-weaving centers, leather tanning shops, glass and match factories, and plantations growing products such as coffee, tea, tobacco, etc. They work as domestic servants and as scavengers. And because they work long hours under abusive conditions, they are not able to obtain the education necessary to improve their lives. Furthermore, their health is often severely damaged through years of exposure to hazardous materials and substances. Many, if they survive, are crippled, mangled, and deformed before they are able to properly mature.

Based upon your own opinion, answer these questions in complete sentences and with legible handwriting!
1. How many children worldwide are engaged in child labor?

2. What do you think that this picture represents/means?

3. How many child laborers are in Sub-Saharan Africa?

4. What are some of the hazardous jobs that these children engage in?

5. Why do you think children work in these jobs? Why don’t they go to school?

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Industrialization would never have happened so rapidly if it wasn't for the rapid development of new ideas, methods and machinery. This PDN briefly describes two important early inventions when “set the stage” for the Industrial revolution that was to come. The Spinning Jenny The Spinning jenny was a machine that could spin threads of wool. It was invented by jasmes hargreaves in 1770 and initially could spin 8 threads at once. Hargreaves developed this machine to the extent that it could spin 120 threads at any one time. These machines were small enough to fit into cottages and rapidly increased production (by hand a person can only spin one thread at a time).

The Steam Engine The first steam powered devices were pumps. The first practical one being developed by Thomas Newcomen. This steam powered pump was used to not only pump water from mines but also to blow air into furnaces, and for pumping drinking water into towns. James Watt's development of the steam engine led to a large number of further developments. using steam to create energy meant that this new form of powering a machine could be used anywhere, rather than just next to a stream/ river as with the Water Frame. The steam engine is best associated with the invention of trains but also was used to power machinery in factories, to power lifts in mines and for many other purposes.

Based upon your own opinion, answer these questions in complete sentences and with legible handwriting!
1. What invention is being used in the picture?

2. Based upon the context, what do you think “set the stage” means?

3. Who invented the Steam Engine?

4. How did the spinning Jenny kill the cottage industries (not in reading must know)?

5. How do you think the world changed with the invention of the steam engine?

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During slavery, most black slaves were denied formal education and in fact many laws were passed in the South prohibiting slave literacy in the aftermath of various slave rebellions. Even free blacks in the century before and after the Civil War were limited in their access to mainstream, quality education and vocational training. This limited education and training meant that, for the most part, blacks were shut out of professional occupations and confined to working in industries deemed acceptable for them, such as domestic services, some manual trades, and agriculture. Nevertheless a small number of exceptionally talented blacks were able to obtain an education and, through their life's work, make significant contributions to American life. Unlike black slaves, free blacks prior to the Civil War were entitled to receive patents for their inventions. Though, again, because blacks lacked educational and vocational opportunities, few had the necessary skills or experience to develop their inventive ideas or patent them. Despite these constraints, there were a number of successful black inventors whose inventions proved useful and important. Thomas Jennings, the first known African American to hold a patent, used the money he earned from his invention to fund abolitionist causes. Some slaves, who were skilled craftsmen, did create devices or techniques that benefited their masters' enterprises. According to a decision by the federal government in 1858, though, neither the slave nor the slave owner could claim ownership rights to such an invention. In 1870, following the Civil War, the U.S. patent laws were revised so that anyone, regardless of race, could hold a patent. Consequently the number of patents issued to African Americans soared.

Based upon your own opinion, answer these questions in complete sentences and with legible handwriting!
1. What do you think is happening in the picture?

2. Why weren’t there many slaves who were able to invent great things?

3. Who was the first African American to hold a patent for an invention?

4. What did he do with the money that he earned from his invention?

5. What happened in 1870?

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Charles Drew was born in 1904 in Washington, DC. He attended DC public schools, including Paul Lawrence Dunbar High School, named after a famous African American poet. At Dunbar High School, Charles excelled in sports. He played football, baseball, basketball, and track. In both his junior and senior years, he won medals for his achievements in sports. He was awarded the James E. Walker Memorial medal for being his school's best all around athlete. Next, Charles applied to Amherst College in Massachusetts. He was accepted there on an athletic scholarship. Amherst must have been glad that they had offered Drew the athletic scholarship, because he went on to be a star quarterback on their football team. He was also a MVP in baseball; he was captain of his track team. He was also a high hurdles champion, not just of his college but also on the national level. In 1926, Charles Drew graduated from Amherst, one of only 16 African-American graduates in the decade of the 1920's.
At that time, there were few opportunities for African-American students, but Drew found a good medical school called McGill University in Montreal, Canada. There he studied medicine and continued to play sports on the side. When his father died, in 1934, he returned to Washington, DC to be near his family. He continued to study and practice medicine in the Washington, DC area. Drew had become interested in the study of blood transfusions. It had recently been discovered that people had different blood types -- A, B, AB, or O. A transfusion of the right type of blood could save a person's life. However, blood was perishable; it would only keep for about a week. Drew found a way to store blood much longer by using only the part of the blood called plasma. The use of dried plasma later made transfusions even more widely available.
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In 1940, Dr. Drew was put in charge of a transfusion program for people in Britain wounded in World War II. Since British cities were being bombed daily for much of the war, there were many people who were badly wounded and in need of a transfusion. Dr. Drew's program saved many, many lives.

Based upon your own opinion, answer these questions in complete sentences and with legible handwriting!
1. What was the major medical accomplishment of Charles Drew?

2. Why do you think that storing of blood for a longer time helps to save more lives?

3. What other accomplishments did drew have in college?

4. What hardships does the text say that drew faced while in college?

5. When and where were Charles Drew born?

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During the time of the industrial revolution in the United States, many businesses became very large. Many of the owners of these businesses would use different strategies in order to make even more money and become more powerful. The first thing that they would do was to create horizontal integration. The picture on the left represents what some people think happens when companies practice horizontal integration. Horizontal integration means buying up or taking over all of the companies that sell the same product as you. In the case of the picture on the left, business owner John D. Rockefeller owned the company Standard Oil. They would get oil out of the ground and sell it. He began buying up all of the other oil companies until eventually he owned almost all of the oil companies that existed in the U.S. This allowed him to set whatever prices he wanted. He didn’t have to lower his prices to beat the other companies because he owned all of them! The picture shows an oil drum shaped like a killer octopus that says standard oil on it. The octopus is taking over everything in its path. The second strategy used is called vertical integration. This is when a company buys up all of the businesses that it takes in order to make a finished product. For example, Rockefeller might have to pay the railroad companies a bunch of money to ship his oil from one part of the country to the next. But if he were to buy out and own the railroad companies as well as all of the oil companies, then he wouldn’t lose money giving it to the railroad companies. That way his business could make even more money because it saves money. Another example would be if a company that sells T-Shirts were to buy all of the cotton factories, the cotton fields, the factories that make the shirts, the trucks that ship the cotton, etc. Buying every company that helps you make your finished product is an easy way to think about what vertical integration means.

Based upon your own opinion, answer these questions in complete sentences and with legible handwriting!
1. How would you define horizontal integration?

2. This picture shows horizontal integration. One concept of horizontal integration is a company is taking over everything. How does this picture show a company taking over?

3. How might John D. Rockefeller practice, according to the text, horizontal integration?

4. According to the text, what is vertical integration?

5. How might Rockefeller practice vertical integration?

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" Law? Who cares about the law. Haven’t I got the power?" (Comment alleged to have been made by Cornelius Vanderbilt, when warned that he might be violating the law) This quote, for many people, sums up what it meant for someone to be a Robber Baron during the Industrial Revolution. During the Industrial Revolution, there were a few men who became extremely wealthy. Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller, and J.P. Morgan are just a few of the men who gained extreme wealth through owning business and using the strategies of horizontal and vertical integration. Even though a hundred years has passed since the heyday of these great industrialists and financiers, debate continues: were these men captains of industry, without whom this country could not have taken its place as a great industrial power, or were they robber barons, limiting healthy competition and robbing from the poor to benefit the rich? Captain of industry can be defined as a wealthy business owner who did mostly good and used his money to help other people in America. A Robber Baron can be defined as a wealthy business owner who was mostly greedy, exploited workers, and used the laws or bullying tactics to keep out competition. Where do we draw the line between unfair business practices and competition that leads to innovation, investment, and improvement in the standard of living for everyone? Would the industrial economy have succeeded without entrepreneurs willing to take competition to its extremes?

Based upon your own opinion, answer these questions in complete sentences and with legible handwriting!
1. Based upon the quote at the top, how did Vanderbilt feel about having to follow laws?

2. How does the text define captain of industry? How does it define Robber Baron?

3. What two business strategies did many of these men use in order to become wealthy?

4. Can you make a connection between Robber Barons not following the laws and businesses today not following laws?

5. Based upon what you know, do you think the artist of the picture thinks that Carnegie was a Captain of Industry or a Robber Baron?

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The Ford Motor Company (often known as Ford) is an American company that makes cars. It is named after its the man who made it, Henry Ford. In 1896, Henry Ford had an idea to make a Quadricycle. It was the first "horseless carriage" that he built. It was very different from cars we drive now, and even from what he produced a few years later, but in a way it's the starting point of Ford's career as a businessman. Until the Quadricycle, Ford's tinkering had been experimental, theoretical—like the gas engine he built on his kitchen table in the 1890's, which was just an engine with nothing to power. Enoguh people liked the Quadricycle, and much could be done with the Quadricycle, that it started the beginning of Ford's business. Ford Motor Company went into the business on June 16, 1903, when Henry Ford and 11 business helpers signed the company's beginning papers. The first Ford car, the Model A, was being sold in Detroit, Michigan a few months later. With $28,000 (around 16 000 pounds), the pioneering industrialists made what was to become one of the world's largest companies. Few places like Ford are as said to have shaped the the world's largest companies. Few places like Ford are as said to have shaped the history and development of industry and society in the 20th century as Ford Motor Company. Perhaps Ford Motor Company's single greatest contribution to automotive manufacturing was the moving assembly line. First implemented at the Highland Park plant (in Michigan, US) in 1913, the new technique allowed individual workers to stay in one place and perform the same task repeatedly on multiple vehicles that passed by them. The line proved tremendously efficient, helping the company far surpass the production levels of their competitors—and making the vehicles more affordable. Henry Ford insisted that the company's future lay in the production of affordable cars for a mass market. Beginning in 1903, the company began using the first 19 letters of the alphabet to name new cars. In 1908, the Model T was born. 19 years and 15 million Model T's later, Ford Motor Company was a giant industrial complex that spanned the globe. In 1925, Ford Motor Company acquired the Lincoln Motor Company, thus branching out into luxury cars.

List a few things that you see in this picture. _____________________ _________________________ __________________
Based upon your understanding of the reading, answer the following questions:
1. When was Ford’s first car created?

2. How many businesses owners helped Ford start his business? How much money did he invest in starting the business?

3. What was the “greatest contribution to automotive manufacturing?”

4. How did the assembly line help the Ford Motor Company?

5. According to the graph, how do you think Ford’s Model T changed the United States?

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The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire in New York City on March 25, 1911, was the largest industrial disaster in the history of the city of New York, causing the death of 148 garment workers who either died from the fire or jumped to their deaths. It was the worst workplace disaster in New York City until September 11th, 2001. The fire led to legislation requiring improved factory safety standards and helped spur the growth of the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union, which fought for better working conditions for sweatshop workers in that industry. The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Building, also known as the Asch Building and as the Brown Building, survives and was named a National Historic Landmark.

On the afternoon of March 25, 1911, a fire began on the eighth floor, possibly sparked by a lit match or a cigarette or because of faulty electrical wiring. A New York Times article also theorized that the fire may have been started by the engines running the sewing machines in the building. To this day, no one knows whether it was accidental or intentional. Most of the workers who were alerted on the tenth and eighth floors were able to evacuate. However, the warning about the fire did not reach the ninth floor in time. The ninth floor had only two doors leading out. One stairwell was already filling with smoke and flames by the time the seamstresses realized the building was on fire. The other door had been locked, ostensibly to prevent . workers from stealing materials or taking breaks and to keep out union organizers. The single exterior fire escape, a flimsy, and poorly-anchored iron structure, soon twisted and collapsed under the weight of people trying to escape. The elevator also stopped working, cutting off that means of escape, partly because the panicked workers tried to save themselves by jumping down the shaft to land on the roof of the elevator.

List a few things that you see in this picture. _____________________ _________________________ __________________
Based upon your understanding of the reading, answer the following questions:
1. How many workers died in this tragic fire?

2. What kind of laws did the fire lead to?

3. What are a few of the theories about how the fire started?

4. Why were the doors locked at the time?

5. Make a connection to this event and explain which type it is (t-t, t-s, t-w)

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When people first moved to the United States, most of them were farmers. Most of the things that people used were made by hand. It took a long time to do things or make items that people needed. In the 1800s, this slowly began to change. This change was called the Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution started in Britain. In the 1700s inventors made new machines. These machines changed the textile industry. This industry made material that people could use for clothes and other items. For hundreds of years, spinning wheels had been used to make thread. But the spinning wheel was very slow. It could only spin one thread at a time. James Hargreaves invented a machine called the spinning jenny. It could spin many threads at one time. Other inventions helped to make cloth faster. One man built a loom that used water for power. This helped the workers make the material faster. One man could make more cloth in one day than he ever could before. These new inventions changed how people worked. Before the inventions, many goods were made at home. After the new machines were invented, factories were started. Many people would come to one place and make the goods. These people would earn money for when they worked. More and more people moved from farms to factories. Working in factories wasn't easy. The hours were very long and the workers weren't always paid a lot. This didn't stop a lot of people from working there anyway. Many immigrants saw these jobs as a chance to make a life in America. In a very short time, the Industrial Revolution would change the United States.

List a few things that you see in this picture. _____________________ _________________________ __________________
Based upon your understanding of the reading, answer the following questions:
1. What did most people do when they moved to the United States?

2. In what country and when did the Industrial Revolution start?

3. How did the spinning wheel change over time?

4. What were some of the hardships that people faced as they moved from farms to factories?

5. Make a connection to this event and explain which type it is (t-t, t-s, t-w)

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Garrett Augustus Morgan, was an African-American businessman and inventor whose curiosity and innovation led to the development of many useful and helpful products. A practical man of humble beginnings, Morgan devoted his life to creating things that made the lives of other people safer and more convenient. Among his inventions was an early traffic signal, that greatly improved safety on America's streets and roadways. Indeed, Morgan's technology was the basis for modern traffic signal systems and was an early example of what we know today as Intelligent Transportation Systems. The son of former slaves, Garrett A. Morgan was born in Paris, Kentucky on March 4, 1877. His early childhood was spent attending school and working on the family farm with his brothers and sisters. While still a teenager, he left Kentucky and moved north to Cincinnati, Ohio in search of opportunity. In the early years of the 20th century, it was not uncommon for bicycles, animal-powered wagons and new gasoline-powered motor vehicles to share the same streets and roadways with pedestrians. Accidents were frequent. After witnessing a collision between an automobile and a horse-drawn carriage, Morgan was convinced that something should be done to improve traffic safety. While other inventors are reported to have experimented with and even marketed traffic signals, Garrett A. Morgan was the first to apply for and acquire a U.S. patent for such a device. The patent was granted on November 20, 1923. Morgan later had the technology patented in Great Britain and Canada as well.

List a few things that you see in this picture. _____________________ _________________________ __________________
Based upon your understanding of the reading, answer the following questions:
1. What was common about the things that Garrett Morgan attempted to invent?

2. According to the text, what was one of Morgan’s early inventions?

3. What did Morgan spend his early childhood doing?

4. What caused Morgan to want to create the first traffic signal?

5. How did Morgan differ from the other inventors of traffic signals?

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Madame CJ Walker was born Sarah Breedlove on December 23, 1867 in Delta, Louisiana. She is the fifth of six children of Owen and Minerva Anderson Breedlove. She was the first Breedlove child born after slavery. She came up with a system called the Walker system, the system's key elements where shampoo, pomade "hair grower", a great amount of brushing, and the application of heated metal combs through the hair. This method transformed stubborn lusterless hair to shinning smoothness. Before this time AfricanAmerican women who wanted to straighten their hair had to lay it on a flat surface and press it with a flat iron.
Walker established her first business in Denver in July, 1905. She added the prefix Madame to her name and took her inventions on the road, and soon demonstrated her excellent marketing skills door-to-door. By September 1906 she left Denver and began to travel throughout the south and promoting her products, giving lectures, and demonstrations in homes, clubs and churches. She had a major increase in her success and opened a second office in Pittsburgh in 1908, which her daughter A'Lelia managed. In 1910, Walker transferred her Denver and Pittsburgh offices to a new headquarters in Indianapolis, were a plant was built to serve as the center of Walker enterprises. The company's name was the Walker College of Hair Culture and Walker Manufacturing. Madame Walker was president and sole owner of her company. She employed about three thousand people. Walker constantly made headlines because she was a great woman who achieved so many things through her own time and effort.

List a few things that you see in this picture. _____________________ _________________________ __________________
Based upon your understanding of the reading, answer the following questions:
1. True or False? Madam CJ Walker was born during slavery.

2. Please explain, in your own words, Walker’s system for hair straitening.

3. Where did Walker move her new headquarters to in 1910?

4. At her peak, how many people did Walker employ?

5. Make a connection to this event and explain which type it is (t-t, t-s, t-w)

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