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VISVESVARAYA TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY,

BELAGAVI -590018

SEMINAR REPORT ON
“ FIBER REINFORCED CONCRETE”
(15CVS86)
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the
award of BACHELOR DEGREE IN CIVIL ENGINEERING
SUBMITTED BY
KUMAR ANAND PRADHAN
(1MV15CV024)

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING


SIR M VISVESVARAYA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
(AFFILIATED TO VISVESVARAYA TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY)
BANGALORE-562157
FIBER REINFORCED CONCRETE SIR MVIT

SIR M. VISVESVARAYA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY


BANGALORE-562157

(AFFILIATED TO VISVESVARAYA TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY, BELAGAVI)


DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that KUMAR ANAND PRADHAN of 8th semester


,bearing USN:1MV15CV024 of Department of Civil Engineering has
satisfactory completed the Seminar (15CVS86) on the topic “ FIBER
REINFORCED CONCRETE ” for the partial fulfillment of the award of
BACHELOR DEGREE IN CIVIL ENGINEERING as prescribed by the
Visvesvaraya Technological University , Belagavi during the academic
year 2018-19.

Signature of staff in charge Signature of the HOD

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FIBER REINFORCED CONCRETE SIR MVIT

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I thank Dr. V.R Manjunath, Principal, SIR M. VISVESVARAYA


INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY for his encouragement and support.

I wish to express my sincere thanks to Mr. HP Mahendra Babu , Head of


Department of Civil Engineering , SIR M. VISVESVARAYA INSTITUTE OF
TECHNOLOGY for extending necessary facilities.

I would like to thank Prof. K.V.R Prasad ,Associate Professsor, for guidance
and support in preparation of this Seminar report.

I also express my immense pleasure and deep sense of gratitude to the teaching
staff of Civil Engineering Department , Sir M. Visvesvaraya Institute of
Technology for their full co-operation and support.

Finally I would like to thank and acknowledge the help given to me by parents
and friends , without whom this seminar report would not have reached its
completion.

KUMAR ANAND PRADHAN


1MV15V024

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ABSTRACT
The usefulness of fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) in various civil engineering applications is
indisputable. Fiber reinforced concrete has so far been successfully used in slabs on grade,
architectural panels, precast products, offshore structures, structures in seismic regions, thin
and thick repairs, crash barriers, footings, hydraulic structures and many other applications.
Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC) is gaining attention as an effective way to improve the
performance of concrete. Fibers are currently being specified in tunneling, bridge decks,
pavements, loading docks, thin unbonded overlays, concrete pads, and concretes slabs. These
applications of fiber reinforced concrete are becoming increasingly popular and are exhibiting
excellent performance.

Fiber-reinforced concrete (FRC) is concrete containing fibrous material which increases its
structural integrity. It contains short discrete fibers that are uniformly distributed and randomly
oriented. Fibers include steel fibres, glass fibers , synthetic fibers and natural fibers

This study presents understanding strength of fibre reinforced concerte. Mechanical properties
and durability of fiber reinforced concrete.

KEYWORDS: Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete, tensile strength, compressive strength

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CONTENTS

S. NO TOPIC PAGE NO.

1. History of concrete 6
2. Introduction 7
3. Effects of fibers in concrete 8
4. Necessity of fibers reinforced concrete 9
5. Factors Affecting Properties of Fiber
9-13
Reinforced Concrete
6. Different Types of Fiber Reinforced
13-16
Concrete
7. Advantages and disadvantages of FRC 17
8. Strength Properties of FRC 18
9. Applications of FRC 19
10. Conclusion 20

References 21

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History of Reinforced Concrete

Fibers have been used for concrete reinforcement since prehistoric times though technology
has improved significantly, as is applicable for other fields.

In the early age, straw and mortar were used for producing mud bricks, and horsehair was used
for their reinforcement. As the fiber technology developed, cement was reinforced by asbestos
fibers in the early twentieth century.

During the middle of the twentieth century, extensive research was in progress for the use of
composite materials for concrete reinforcement. Later, the use of asbestos for concrete
reinforcement was discouraged due to the detection of health risks.
New materials like steel, glass, and synthetic fibers replaced asbestos for reinforcement. Active
research is still in progress on this important technology. Fiber Reinforced Concrete is
considered to be one of the greatest advancements in the construction engineering during the
twentieth century.

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INTRODUCTION

Compared to other building materials such as metals and polymers, concrete is significantly
more brittle and exhibits a poor tensile strength. Based on fracture toughness values, steel is at
least 100 times more resistant to crack growth than concrete. Concrete in service thus cracks
easily and this cracking creates easy access routes for deleterious agents resulting in early
saturation, freeze-thaw damage, scaling, discoloration and steel corrosion.
The concerns with the inferior fracture toughness of concrete are alleviated to a large extent
by reinforcing it with fibers of various materials. The resulting material with a random
distribution of short, discontinuous fibers is termed fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) and is
slowly becoming a well accepted mainstream construction material. Significant progress has
been made in the last thirty years towards understanding the short and long-term performances
of fiber reinforced cementitious materials, and this has resulted in a number of novel and
innovative applications. Concrete is one of the most versatile building materials. It can be cast
to fit any structural shape from a cylindrical water storage tank to arectangular beam or column
in a high rise building. The advantages of using concrete include high compressive strength,
good fire resistance, high water resistance, low maintenance, and long service life. The
disadvantages of using concrete include poor tensile strength, low strainof fracture and
formwork requirement. The major disadvantage is that concrete develops micro cracks during
curing. It is the rapid propagation of these micro cracks under applied stress that is responsible
for the low tensile strength of the material. Hence fibres are added to concrete to overcome
these disadvantages.
The addition of fibres in the matrix has many important effects. Most notable among
The improved mechanical characteristics of Fibre Reinforced Concrete (FRC) are its
superior fracture strength, toughness, impact resistance, flexural strength resistance to fatigue,
improving fatigue performance is one of the primary reasons for the extensive use
of Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete(SFRC)in pavements, bridge decks, offshore structures
and machine foundation, where the composite is subjected to cyclically varying load during
its lifetime.
The main reasons for adding steel fibres to concrete matrix is to improve the post cracking
response of the concrete, i.e., to improve its energy absorption capacity and apparent
ductility and to provide crack resistance and crack control. Also,it helps to maintain structural

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integrity and cohesiveness in the material. The initial researches combined with the large
volume of follow up research have led to the development of a wide variety of material
formulations that fit the definition of Fibre Reinforced Concrete.
Steel fibre’s tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, stiffness modulus and mechanical
deformations provide an excellent means of internal mechanical interlock. This provides a
user friendly product with increased ductility that can be used in applications of high impact
and fatigue loading without the fear of brittle concrete failure. Thus, SFRC exhibits better
performance not only under static and quasi-statically applied loads but also under fatigue,
impact, and impulsive loading.

Effect of Fibers in Concrete

Fibres are usually used in concrete to control plastic shrinkage cracking and drying shrinkage
cracking. They also lower the permeability of concrete and thus reduce bleeding of water. Some
types of fibres produce greater impact, abrasion and shatter resistance in concrete. Generally
fibres do not increase the flexural strength of concrete, so it can not replace moment resisting
or structural steel reinforcement. Some fibres reduce the strength of concrete.

The amount of fibres added to a concrete mix is measured as a percentage of the total volume
of the composite (concrete and fibres) termed volume fraction (Vf). Vf typically ranges from
0.1 to 3%. Aspect ratio (l/d) is calculated by dividing fibre length (l) by its diameter (d). Fibres
with a non-circular cross section use an equivalent diameter for the calculation of aspect ratio.
If the modulus of elasticity of the fibre is higher than the matrix (concrete or mortar binder),
they help to carry the load by increasing the tensile strength of the material. Increase in the
aspect ratio of the fibre usually segments the flexural strength and toughness of the matrix.
However, fibres which are too long tend to “ball” in the mix and create workability problems.

Some recent research indicated that using fibres in concrete has limited effect on the impact
resistance of concrete materials.This finding is very important since traditionally people think
the ductility increases when concrete reinforced with fibres. The results also pointed out that
the micro fibres is better in impact resistance compared with the longer fibres.

Necessity of Fiber Reinforced Concrete

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1. It increases the tensile strength of the concrete.

2. It reduce the air voids and water voids the inherent porosity of gel.

3. It increases the durability of the concrete.

4. Fibres such as graphite and glass have excellent resistance to creep, while the same is
not true for most resins. Therefore, the orientation and volume of fibres have a
significant influence on the creep performance of rebars/tendons.
5. Reinforced concrete itself is a composite material, where the reinforcement acts as the
strengthening fibre and the concrete as the matrix. It is therefore imperative that the
behavior under thermal stresses for the two materials be similar so that the differential
deformations of concrete and the reinforcement are minimized.

6. It has been recognized that the addition of small, closely spaced and uniformly
dispersed fibers to concrete would act as crack arrester and would substantially improve
its static and dynamic properties.

Factors Affecting Properties of Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Fiber reinforced concrete is the composite material containing fibers in the cement matrix in
an orderly manner or randomly distributed manner. Its properties would obviously, depends
upon the efficient transfer of stress between matrix and the fibers. The factors are briefly
discussed below:

1. Relative Fiber Matrix Stiffness


The modulus of elasticity of matrix must be much lower than that of fiber for efficient stress
transfer. Low modulus of fiber such as nylons and polypropylene are, therefore, unlikely to
give strength improvement, but the help in the absorption of large energy and therefore, impart
greater degree of toughness and resistance to impart. High modulus fibers such as steel, glass
and carbon impart strength and stiffness to the composite.

Interfacial bond between the matrix and the fiber also determine the effectiveness of stress
transfer, from the matrix to the fiber. A good bond is essential for improving tensile strength
of the composite.

2. Volume of Fibers

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The strength of the composite largely depends on the quantity of fibers used in it. Fig 1 and 2
show the effect of volume on the toughness and strength. It can see from Fig 1 that the increase
in the volume of fibers, increase approximately linearly, the tensile strength and toughness of
the composite. Use of higher percentage of fiber is likely to cause segregation and harshness
of concrete and mortar.

Fig.1: Effect of volume of fibers in flexure

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Fig.2: Effect of volume of fibers in tension


3. Aspect Ratio of the Fiber
Another important factor which influences the properties and behavior of the composite is the
aspect ratio of the fiber. It has been reported that up to aspect ratio of 75, increase on the aspect
ratio increases the ultimate concrete linearly. Beyond 75, relative strength and toughness is
reduced. Table-1 shows the effect of aspect ratio on strength and toughness.

Table-1: Aspect ratio of the fiber

Type of concrete Aspect ratio Relative strength Relative toughness

Plain concrete 0 1 1

With 25 1.5 2.0

Randomly 50 1.6 8.0

Dispersed fibers 75 1.7 10.5

100 1.5 8.5

4. Orientation of Fibers

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One of the differences between conventional reinforcement and fiber reinforcement is that in
conventional reinforcement, bars are oriented in the direction desired while fibers are randomly
oriented. To see the effect of randomness, mortar specimens reinforced with 0.5% volume of
fibers were tested. In one set specimens, fibers were aligned in the direction of the load, in
another in the direction perpendicular to that of the load, and in the third randomly distributed.

It was observed that the fibers aligned parallel to the applied load offered more tensile strength
and toughness than randomly distributed or perpendicular fibers.

5. Workability and Compaction of Concrete


Incorporation of steel fiber decreases the workability considerably. This situation adversely
affects the consolidation of fresh mix. Even prolonged external vibration fails to compact the
concrete. The fiber volume at which this situation is reached depends on the length and
diameter of the fiber.

Another consequence of poor workability is non-uniform distribution of the fibers. Generally,


the workability and compaction standard of the mix is improved through increased water/
cement ratio or by the use of some kind of water reducing admixtures.

6. Size of Coarse Aggregate


Maximum size of the coarse aggregate should be restricted to 10mm, to avoid appreciable
reduction in strength of the composite. Fibers also in effect, act as aggregate. Although they
have a simple geometry, their influence on the properties of fresh concrete is complex. The
inter-particle friction between fibers and between fibers and aggregates controls the orientation
and distribution of the fibers and consequently the properties of the composite. Friction
reducing admixtures and admixtures that improve the cohesiveness of the mix can significantly
improve the mix.

7. Mixing
Mixing of fiber reinforced concrete needs careful conditions to avoid balling of fibers,
segregation and in general the difficulty of mixing the materials uniformly. Increase in the
aspect ratio, volume percentage and size and quantity of coarse aggregate intensify the
difficulties and balling tendency. Steel fiber content in excess of 2% by volume and aspect ratio
of more than 100 are difficult to mix.

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It is important that the fibers are dispersed uniformly throughout the mix; this can be done by
the addition of the fibers before the water is added. When mixing in a laboratory mixer,
introducing the fibers through a wire mesh basket will help even distribution of fibers. For field
use, other suitable methods must be adopted.

Different Types of Fiber Reinforced Concrete


Following are the different type of fibers generally used in the construction industries.

1. Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete

2. Polypropylene Fiber Reinforced (PFR) cement mortar & concrete

3. GFRC Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete

4. Asbestos Fibers

5. Carbon Fibers

6. Organic Fibers

1. Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete


A no of steel fiber types are available as reinforcement. Round steel fiber the commonly used
type are produced by cutting round wire in to short length. The typical diameter lies in the
range of 0.25 to 0.75mm. Steel fibers having a rectangular c/s are produced by silting the sheets
about 0.25mm thick.

Fiber made from mild steel drawn wire. Conforming to IS:280-1976 with the diameter of wire
varying from 0.3 to 0.5mm have been practically used in India.

Round steel fibers are produced by cutting or chopping the wire, flat sheet fibers having a
typical c/s ranging from 0.15 to 0.41mm in thickness and 0.25 to 0.90mm in width are produced
by silting flat sheets.

Deformed fiber, which are loosely bounded with water-soluble glue in the form of a bundle are
also available. Since individual fibers tend to cluster together, their uniform distribution in the
matrix is often difficult. This may be avoided by adding fibers bundles, which separate during
the mixing process.

2. Polypropylene Fiber Reinforced (PFR) cement mortar and concrete

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Polypropylene is one of the cheapest & abundantly available polymers polypropylene fibers
are resistant to most chemical & it would be cementitious matrix which would deteriorate first
under aggressive chemical attack. Its melting point is high (about 165 degrees centigrade). So
that a working temp. As (100 degree centigrade) may be sustained for short periods without
detriment to fiber properties.

Polypropylene fibers being hydrophobic can be easily mixed as they do not need lengthy
contact during mixing and only need to be evenly distressed in the mix.

Polypropylene short fibers in small volume fractions between 0.5 to 15 commercially used in
concrete.

Fig. Polypropylene fiber reinforced cement-mortar and concrete


3. GFRC – Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete
Glass fiber is made up from 200-400 individual filaments which are lightly bonded to make up
a stand. These stands can be chopped into various lengths, or combined to make cloth mat or
tape. Using the conventional mixing techniques for normal concrete it is not possible to mix
more than about 2% (by volume) of fibers of a length of 25mm.

The major appliance of glass fiber has been in reinforcing the cement or mortar matrices used
in the production of thin-sheet products. The commonly used verities of glass fibers are e-glass

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used. In the reinforced of plastics & AR glass E-glass has inadequate resistance to alkalis
present in Portland cement where AR-glass has improved alkali resistant characteristics.
Sometimes polymers are also added in the mixes to improve some physical properties such as
moisture movement.

Fig. Glass-fiber reinforced concrete


4. Asbestos Fibers
The naturally available inexpensive mineral fiber, asbestos, has been successfully combined
with Portland cement paste to form a widely used product called asbestos cement. Asbestos
fibers here thermal mechanical & chemical resistance making them suitable for sheet product
pipes, tiles and corrugated roofing elements. Asbestos cement board is approximately two or
four times that of unreinforced matrix. However, due to relatively short length (10mm) the
fiber have low impact strength.

Asbestos fiber
5. Carbon Fibers

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Carbon fibers from the most recent & probability the most spectacular addition to the range of
fiber available for commercial use. Carbon fiber comes under the very high modulus of
elasticity and flexural strength. These are expansive. Their strength & stiffness characteristics
have been found to be superior even to those of steel. But they are more vulnerable to damage
than even glass fiber, and hence are generally treated with resign coating.

Fig.6: Carbon fibers


6. Organic Fibers
Organic fiber such as polypropylene or natural fiber may be chemically more inert than either
steel or glass fibers. They are also cheaper, especially if natural. A large volume of vegetable
fiber may be used to obtain a multiple cracking composite. The problem of mixing and uniform
dispersion may be solved by adding a superplasticizer.

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Advantages of FRC
 High modulus of elasticity for effective long-term reinforcement, even in the
hardened concrete.
 Does not rust nor corrode and requires no minimum cover.
 Ideal aspect ratio (i.e. relationship between Fiber diameter and length) which makes
them excellent for early-age performance.
 Easily placed, Cast, Sprayed and less labour intensive than placing rebar.
 Greater retained toughness in conventional concrete mixes.
 Higher flexural strength, depending on addition rate.
 Can be made into thin sheets or irregular shapes.
 FRC possesses enough plasticity to go under large deformation once the peak load
has been reached
Disadvantages of FRC
 Greater reduction of workability.
 High cost of materials.
 Generally fibers do not increase the flexural strength of
 concrete, and so cannot replace moment resisting or
 structural steel reinforcement.

Strength properties of FRC

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Applications of FRC
 Runway, Aircraft Parking, and Pavements.

For the same wheel load FRC slabs could be about one half the thickness of plain

concrete slab. FRC pavements offers good resistance even in severe and mild

environments. It can be used in runways, taxiways, aprons, seawalls, dock areas, parking

and loading ramps.

 Tunnel Lining and Slope Stabilization

Steel fiber reinforced concrete are being used to line underground openings and rock

slope stabilization. It eliminates the need for mesh reinforcement and scaffolding.

 Dams and Hydraulic Structure

FRC is being used for the construction and repair of dams and other hydraulic structures

to provide resistance to cavitation and severe erosion caused by the impact of large

debris.

 Thin Shell, Walls, Pipes, and Manholes


Fibrous concrete permits the use of thinner flat and curvedstructural elements. Steel
fibrous shortcrete is used in the construction of hemispherical domes.
 Agriculture
It is used in animal storage structures, walls, silos, paving, etc.
 Precast Concrete and Products
It is used in architectural panels, tilt-up construction, walls,fencing, septic tanks, grease
trap structures, vaults and sculptures.
 Commercial
It is used for exterior and interior floors, slabs and parking areas, roadways, etc.
 Warehouse / Industrial
It is used in light to heavy duty loaded floors.
 Residential -It includes application in driveways, sidewalks, pool construction,
basements, colored concrete, foundations, drainage, etc.

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CONCLUSION
The efficient utilisation of fibrous concrete involves improved static and dynamic properties
like tensile strength, energy absorbing characteristics, Impact strength and fatigue strength.
Also provides a isotropic strength properties not common in the conventional concrete. It
will,however be wrong to say that fibrous concrete will provide a universal solution to the
problems associated with plain concrete. Hence it is not likely to replace the conventional
structural concrete in total.

Superior crack resistance and greater ductility with distinct post cracking behavior are some of
the important static properties of FRC. The enormous increase in impact resistance and fatigue
resistance allow the new material to be used in some specified applications where conventional
concrete is at a disadvantage.

A new approach in design and in the utilization of this material, to account for both increase in
performance and economics is therefore,

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REFERENCES

 FIBRE REINFORCED CONCRETE- A CASE STUDY by Dr.ARCHANAA


DONGRE
 www.theconstructor.org
 Abdul Ghaffar, Amit S.Chavan, Dr.R.S. Tatwawadi, “ Steel Fibre Reinforced
Concrete” ,International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT).

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