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When you write an essay, it is important that you have certain elements in it to make sure that it is quality. You should always have an introductory paragraph. In the introduction, you are going to outline what it is you are going to discuss in your essay. You should include a thesis statement in that first paragraph. A thesis statement is a position statement on which you base the rest of your essay. In your body paragraphs, you should be attempting to prove your thesis. You should make statements, and then back them up with evidence. In your concluding paragraph, you should restate your thesis in a new and interesting way. We should always write our essays in a way that makes them interesting to the reader. No one wants to be board out of their mind!

Observations: Please list a few things you see in this picture ____________________ ____________________ Conclusions: Based upon the reading or your prior knowledge:
1. Make an inference…what is the joke in this picture? _____________________________________________________________________________ 2. Please write your thesis statement from your essay below: _____________________________________________________________________________ 3. Have you had someone read over your essay? If not, who could read over it? _____________________________________________________________________________ 4. What makes your essay interesting (what is the hook)? _____________________________________________________________________________ 5. Do you back up all of your statements with evidence? Give an example…

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The French and Indian War (1754-1763) was a seven-yearlong war between Britain and France (France was allied with the Indians). Although fighting began in 1754, the war did not officially begin until 1756. They were fighting for the control of much of North America. This war was a part of a larger war that was going on in Europe. At the beginning of the war, France controlled Canada and the Louisiana Territory. Britain controlled most of the east coast of North America. In one of the first battles of the war, Lieutenant Colonel George Washington and his Virginia troops (fighting for the British) were sent to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to remove the French from their new fort. Washington was defeated by the French, and the French soon controlled the entire region. In 1756, the British began to defeat the French, especially in naval battles. In 1759, General James Wolfe's army defeated the French at Quebec (although both Gen. Wolfe and his French adversary Gen. Montcalm both died during the battle).

When the French finally lost the war, the Treaty of Paris (signed on February 10, 1763) gave Britain control of Canada and the French areas east of the MIssissippi River. Spain gave Florida to Britain, and received the former French areas west of the Mississippi River. As a result of the war, the English colonists no longer needed the protection of the British against the French, and they became more independent from Britain. This war also resulted in higher taxes paid to Britain. These influences eventually led to the American Revolution.

Observations: Please list a few things you see in this picture ____________________ ____________________ Conclusions: Based upon the reading or your prior knowledge:
6. Make an inference…what groups of people are fighting in this Picture?

_____________________________________________________________________________ 7. What was the “French and Indian War”?: _____________________________________________________________________________ 8. Who won the war? _____________________________________________________________________________ 9. What were some effects of the war? _____________________________________________________________________________ 10. In what years was the war fought? _____________________________________________________________________________

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The Stamp Act was passed by the British Parliament on March 22, 1765. The new tax was imposed on all American colonists and required them to pay a tax on every piece of printed paper they used. Ship's papers, legal documents, licenses, newspapers, other publications, and even playing cards were taxed. The money collected by the Stamp Act was to be used to help pay the costs of defending and protecting the American frontier near the Appalachian Mountains (10,000 troops were to be stationed on the American frontier for this purpose). The actual cost of the Stamp Act was relatively small. What made the law so offensive to the colonists was not so much its immediate cost but the standard it seemed to set. In the past, taxes and duties on colonial trade had always been viewed as measures to regulate commerce, not to raise money. The Stamp Act, however, was viewed as a direct attempt by England to raise money in the colonies without the approval of the colonial legislatures. If this new tax were allowed to pass without resistance, the colonists reasoned, the door would be open for far more troublesome taxation in the future.

Observations: Please list a few things you see in this picture ____________________ ____________________ Conclusions: Based upon the reading or your prior knowledge:
11. Make an inference…What does this picture mean? _____________________________________________________________________________ 12. Why were colonists mad about the stamp act? _____________________________________________________________________________ 13. Why do you think that Britain wanted to tax the Colonists? _____________________________________________________________________________ 14. When was the Stamp Act passed? _____________________________________________________________________________ 15. Name 3 things that were taxed by the British government. _____________________________________________________________________________

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In the summer of 1766, King George III of England replaced Prime Minister Rockingham with William Pitt. Pitt was popular in the colonies. He opposed the Stamp Act and believed that colonists were entitled to all the rights of English citizens. Pitt suddenly became sick. Charles Townshend, Chancellor of the Exchequer, took over the effective reins of the government. Unlike his predecessor, Townshend was not concerned with the subtleties of the rights of American colonists. Townshend wanted to strengthen the power of the British parliament which would simultaneously strengthen the power of royal officials. He convinced the Parliament to pass a series of laws imposing new taxes on the colonists. These laws included special taxes on lead, paint, paper, glass and tea imported by colonists. In addition, the New York legislature was suspended until it agreed to quarter British soldiers. The Acts also insured that colonial officials, including governors and judges, would receive their salaries directly from the Crown.

Observations: Please list a few things you see in this picture ____________________ ____________________ Conclusions: Based upon the reading or your prior knowledge:
16. Make an inference…What is happening in this picture? _____________________________________________________________________________ 17. What did the Townshend Acts tax? _____________________________________________________________________________ 18. Make a prediction, how do you think the colonists are going to react? _____________________________________________________________________________ 19. When were the Townshend Acts passed? _____________________________________________________________________________ 20. What happened to the New York Legislature under this law?

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Some called Crispus Attucks, a forty-seven-old mulatto, a "hero" and a "patriot"--"the first martyr of the American Revolution." Others, such as John Adams, lawyer for the British soldiers, saw Attucks as the rabble-rousing villain whose "mad behavior" as responsible for the carnage of March 5, 1770. Attucks, believed to be the son of an African father and Natick Indian mother, was known around the lower docks 1770 as a hard man and a drifter. He resented the British presence in Boston. As a seaman on whaling voyages, he had worried about impressment into the British navy, while now as a part-time laborer he faced competition for work from British troops willing to do work during off-duty hours for lower wages. On the evening of March 5, 1770, Attucks was in the front lines of a group of thirty to sixty Americans--described by John Adams as "a motley rabble of saucy boys, negroes and mullatoes, Irish teagues and outlandish jack tarrs"-taunting private Hugh White, the sentry stationed in front of the Custom House near King Street. After other British soldiers rushed to White's assistance, the crowd continued to hurl insults, pieces of ice, and sticks. According to eyewitness testimony, Attucks fanned the flames, calling the soldiers "Lobsters!" and telling the crowd that the soldiers dared not fire. Then, according to one witness, Attucks took hold of a bayonet" of one of the soldiers, Hugh Montgomery, knocking him down with a club (or "cord stick") in his other hand. This testimony was disputed by another witness, James Bailey, who placed Attucks fifteen feet from Montgomery at the time he was struck with a stick. The assault on Montgomery brought on a hail of fire from British muskets that left five Americans dead and a half-dozen others injured. Attucks was the first to fall, stuck twice in the chest by bullets.

Observations: Please list a few things you see in this picture ____________________ ____________________ Conclusions: Based upon the reading or your prior knowledge:
1. Make an inference…What is happening in this picture? _____________________________________________________________________________ 2. Why do some people think Attucks resented the British being in Boston? _____________________________________________________________________________ 3. How did John Adams, future president, describe Crispus Attucks? _____________________________________________________________________________ 4. Describe Attucks behavior the night of March 5, 1770. _____________________________________________________________________________ 5. Do you see Attucks as a hero? Why or why not?

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The British East India Company had controlled all tea trading between India and the British colonies. As a result of the tea tax, the colonies refused to buy the British tea. Instead, they smuggled tea in from Holland. This left the British East India Company with warehouses full of unsold tea, and the company was in danger of going out of business. The British government was determined to prevent the British East India Company from going out of business. It was going to force the colonists to buy their tea. In May 1773, Prime Minister North and the British parliament passed the Tea Act. The Tea Act allowed the British East India Company to sell tea directly to the colonists, bypassing the colonial wholesale merchants. This allowed the company to sell their tea cheaper than the colonial merchants who were selling smuggled tea from Holland. This act revived the colonial issue of taxation without representation. The colonies once again demanded that the British government remove the tax on tea. In addition, the dockworkers began refusing to unload the tea from ships. The Governor of Massachusetts demanded that the tea be unloaded. He also demanded that the people pay the taxes and duty on tea. On the evening of December 16, 1773, a group of men calling themselves the "Sons of Liberty" went to the Boston Harbor. The men were dressed as Mohawk Indians. They boarded three British ships, the Beaver, the Eleanor and the Dartmouth, and dumped forty-five tons of tea into the Boston Harbor.

Observations: Please list a few things you see in this picture _________________ _________________ ____________________ Conclusions: Based upon the reading or your prior knowledge:
6. Make an inference…What is happening in this picture? _____________________________________________________________________________ 7. Why were the Colonists mad at the British government? _____________________________________________________________________________ 8. Why do you think that the British citizens were angry over the tax even though tea was cheap? _____________________________________________________________________________ 9. What group lead the Boston Tea Party? _____________________________________________________________________________ 10. Make a prediction: How do you think that the British Government is going to respond to the Boston Tea Party? _____________________________________________________________________________

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The Intolerable Acts or the Coercive Acts were names given by the American colonists to a series of laws passed by the British Parliament in 1774. The acts sparked outrage and resistance in the colonies and were important developments in the growth of the American Revolution. Four of the five acts were issued in direct response to the Boston Tea Party of December 1773; the British government hoped these punitive measures would, by making an example of Massachusetts, reverse the trend of colonial resistance to parliamentary authority that had begun with the 1765 Stamp Act. Many colonists viewed the acts as an arbitrary violation of their constitutional rights, and organized the First Continental Congress to coordinate their response. The colonists were not happy with this law. Great Britain hoped that the Intolerable Acts would isolate radicals in Massachusetts and cause American colonists to concede the authority of Parliament over their elected assemblies. It was a calculated risk that backfired, however, because the harshness of some of the acts made it difficult for moderates in the colonies to speak in favor of Parliament. The acts unintentionally promoted sympathy for Massachusetts and encouraged colonists from the otherwise diverse colonies to form the First Continental Congress.

This British cartoon, depicting the Intolerable Acts as an assault upon a Native American woman (a symbol of the American colonies), was copied and distributed by Paul Revere throughout the colonies.

Observations: Please list a few things you see in this picture (be mature) _________________ _________________ ____________________ Conclusions: Based upon the reading or your prior knowledge:
11. What is happening in this picture? _____________________________________________________________________________ 12. What were the Coercive Acts a response to? _____________________________________________________________________________ 13. What did the British hope to gain from passing the Coercive Acts? _____________________________________________________________________________ 14. What organization did the colonists form in response to the Coercive Acts? _____________________________________________________________________________ 15. How many different Acts were there within the Coercive Acts? _____________________________________________________________________________

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The committee of correspondence was a body organized by the local governments of the American colonies for the purposes of coordinating written communication outside of the colony. These served an important role in the American Revolution and the years leading up to it, the committee of correspondence rallied opposition on common causes and established plans for collective action, and so the group of committees was the beginning of what later became a formal political union among the colonies. As news during this period was typically spread in handwritten letters to be carried by couriers on horseback or aboard ships, the committees were responsible for ensuring that this news accurately reflected the views of their parent governmental body on a particular issue and was dispatched to the proper groups. Many correspondents were also members of the colonial legislative assemblies, and were active in the secret Sons of Liberty organizations. The earliest committees of correspondence were formed temporarily to address a particular problem. Once a resolution was achieved, they were disbanded. The first formal committee was established in Boston, in 1764, to rally opposition to the Currency Act and unpopular reforms imposed on the customs service.

Observations: Please list a few things you see in this picture _________________ _________________ ____________________ Conclusions: Based upon the reading or your prior knowledge:
16. Why did the Colonists create the Committees of Correspondence? _____________________________________________________________________________ 17. What modern group or organization does the committee correlate to? _____________________________________________________________________________ 18. When was the first committee created and what was it in response to? _____________________________________________________________________________ 19. What organization was prominent in its creation? _____________________________________________________________________________ 20. Why did the Colonists need the Committees of Correspondence? _____________________________________________________________________________

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The Daughters of Liberty were a successful group that proved women's involvement in politics could be beneficial for the country. As public support to boycott British goods increased, "Daughters of Liberty" joined the support to condemn British importation. The Daughters of Liberty used their traditional skills to weave yarn and wool into fabric known as "homespun". They were recognized as patriotic heroines for their success, which made America less dependent on British Textiles. In the countryside, while Patriots supported the non importation movements of 1765, and 1769, the daughters of liberty continued to support American resistance. In many small towns and villages women spun wool into homemade cloth. In 1774, the patriot women helped influence a decision made by Continental Congress to boycott all British goods. The decision to boycott British goods was due in large part to the patriot women who were determined to reach demands for homemade clothing. Although it is not often recognized, the groups of organizations formed by women were very influential during the war. Decisions made to boycott of British goods would not have been possible if the women had not created a substitute for the imported material. The "Daughters of Liberty" were working from sun up to sun down to prove their commitment to "the cause of liberty and industry". The daughters of liberty were one of the many groups of women who fought for woman's equality and supported the soldiers during the American Revolution. Abigail Adams was best known for the letters she sent to her husband urging him to "Remember the ladies" when he discussed the future of the country. She fought for women's equality during the war, and accomplished many things during her life. .

Observations: Please list a few things you see in this picture _________________ _________________ ____________________ Conclusions: Based upon the reading or your prior knowledge:
21. What is happening in this picture? _____________________________________________________________________________ 22. What were the “Daughters of Liberty”? _____________________________________________________________________________ 23. How did the daughters of liberty contribute to the freedom effort? _____________________________________________________________________________ 24. What was Abigail Adams famous for doing? _____________________________________________________________________________ 25. How important do you think the Daughters of Liberty were? Why do you think this? _____________________________________________________________________________

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