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ELECTRONI

CEDI
TION

This electronic edition is licensed to


Veritas
for 1 copy.
© International Maritime Organization
Model course 4.05
ENERGY EFFICIENT OPERATION
OF SHIPS

2014 EDITION

ELECTRONIC EDITION

London, 2014

Licensed to Veritas for 1 copy. © IMO


Print edition
First(ISBN: 978-92-801-1586-4)
published in 2014
First published
by the INTERNATIONAL MARITIME in 2014
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Electronic edition 2014

IMO978-92-801-1586-4
ISBN: PUBLICATION
Sales number: ET405E

IMO PUBLICATION
Sales number: T405E

Copyright © International Maritime Organization 2014

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This course was developed by the World Maritime University (WMU) in Malmö, Sweden.

IMO wishes to express its sincere appreciation to the WMU


for their valuable
Copyright expert assistance
© International and cooperation.
Maritime Organization 2014

All rights reserved.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
No part of this publication may be reproduced,
stored
This course wasindeveloped
a retrieval system, or transmitted
by the World in any form(WMU)
Maritime University or by any means,Sweden.
in Malmö,
without prior permission in writing from the
IMO wishes International
to express itsMaritime
sincere Organization.
appreciation to the WMU
for their valuable expert assistance and cooperation.

All rights reserved.


No part of this publication may be reproduced,
stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means,
without prior permission in writing from the
International Maritime Organization.

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Contents

Contents
Page

Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v

Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Purpose of the model courses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Use of the model course. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Lesson plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Presentation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Evaluation or assessment of participants’ progress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Part A: Course framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4


Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Entry standards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Course certificate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Course intake limitations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Staff requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Teaching facilities and equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Teaching aids (A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
IMO references (R). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Textbooks (T). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Bibliography (B). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Internet website references (W). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

Part B: Course Outline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7


Course outline. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Course timetable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

Part C: Detailed Teaching Syllabus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10


Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Part D: Instructor Manual. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19


Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Guidance notes for lectures and practical activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
1. Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2. Guidance on best practices for fuel efficient operation of ships. . . . . . . . . . . 20
3. Framework and structure of the SEEMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
4. Implementation and monitoring. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Framework for practical activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

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Part E: Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Method of evaluation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Validity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Reliability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Subjective testing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Objective testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Distracters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Guess factor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Scoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

Guidance on the Implementation of IMO Model Courses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

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Contents

Foreword
Since its inception the International Maritime Organization (IMO) has recognized the
importance of human resources to the development of the maritime industry and has given
the highest priority to assisting developing countries in enhancing their maritime training
capabilities through the provision or improvement of maritime training facilities at national
and regional levels. IMO has also responded to the needs of developing countries for
postgraduate training for senior personnel in administrations, ports, shipping companies
and maritime training institutes by establishing the World Maritime University in Malmö,
Sweden, in 1983.

Following the adoption of the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification


and Watchkeeping for Seafarers, 1978 (STCW), a number of IMO Member Governments had
suggested that IMO should develop model training courses to assist in the implementation
of the Convention and in achieving a more rapid transfer of information and skills regarding
new developments in maritime technology. IMO training advisers and consultants also
subsequently determined from their visits to training establishments in developing countries
that the provision of model courses could help instructors improve the quality of their
existing courses and enhance their implementation of the associated Conference and IMO
Assembly resolutions.

In addition, it was appreciated that a comprehensive set of short model courses in various
fields of maritime training would supplement the instruction provided by maritime academies
and allow administrators and technical specialists already employed in maritime
administrations, ports and shipping companies to improve their knowledge and skills in
certain specialized fields. With the generous assistance of the Government of Norway, IMO
developed model courses in response to these generally identified needs and now keeps
them updated through a regular revision process taking into account any amendments to
the requirements prescribed in IMO instruments and any technological developments in the
field.

These model courses may be used by any training institution and, when the requisite
financing is available, the Organization is prepared to assist developing countries in
implementing any course.

K. SEKIMIZU
Secretary-General

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Introduction

Introduction
n Purpose of the model courses

The purpose of the IMO model courses is to assist training providers and their teaching staff in
organizing and introducing new training courses, or in enhancing, updating or supplementing
existing training material, so that the quality and effectiveness of the training courses may
thereby be improved.

It is not the intention of the model course programme to present instructors with a rigid
“teaching package”, which they are expected to “follow blindly”. Nor is it the intention to
substitute the instructor’s presence with audiovisual or programmed material. As in all training
endeavours, the knowledge, skills and dedication of the instructors are the key components
in the transfer of knowledge and skills to those being trained through IMO model courses.

Rather, this document should be used as a guide with the course duration given as indicative
of the expected time required to cover the required outcomes. The parties may modify this
course to suit their respective training schemes.

For those following planned training schemes approved by the Administration, it is intended
that this training may form an integral part of the overall training plan and be complementary
to other studies. The training may be undertaken in progressive stages; for such candidates,
it is not appropriate to specify the duration of the learning, provided achievement of the
specified learning outcomes is properly assessed and recorded.

Because educational systems and the cultural backgrounds of participants in maritime


subjects vary considerably from country to country, the model course material has been
designed to identify the basic entry requirements and participants’ target group for each
course in universally applicable terms, and to specify clearly the technical content and levels
of knowledge and skills necessary to meet the technical intent of IMO conventions and
related recommendations.

n Use of the model course

To use this model course the instructor should review the course plan and detailed syllabus,
taking into account the information provided under the entry standards specified in the
course framework. The actual level of knowledge and skills and the previous technical
education of the participants should be kept in mind during this review. Any areas within the
detailed syllabus which may cause difficulties because of differences between the actual
participant entry level and that assumed by the course designer should also be identified.
To compensate for such differences, the instructor is expected to delete from the course,
or reduce the emphasis on, items dealing with knowledge or skills already attained by the
participants. The instructor should also identify any academic knowledge, skills or technical
training which participants may not have previously acquired.

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ENERGY EFFICIENT OPERATION OF SHIPS

By analysing the detailed syllabus and the academic knowledge required to allow training to
proceed, the instructor can design an appropriate pre-entry course, or alternatively, insert,
at appropriate points within the course, the elements of academic knowledge required to
support the technical training elements concerned.

Adjustment of the course objectives, scope and content may be necessary if, within the
respective maritime industry, the participants completing the course are to undertake duties
which differ from the objectives specified in the model course.

Within the Course Outline and Timetable (Part B) the course designers have indicated their
assessment of the time that should be allotted to each area of learning. However, it must
be appreciated that these allocations are arbitrary and assume that the participants have
fully met all entry requirements of the course. The instructor should therefore review these
assessments and may need to reallocate the time required to achieve each specific learning
objective.

n Lesson plans

Having adjusted the course content to suit the participant intake and any revision of the
course objectives, the instructor should draw up lesson plans based on the detailed syllabus.
The syllabus contains specific references to textbooks or teaching material suggested for
use in the course. Where no adjustment has been found necessary in the learning objectives
of the syllabus, the lesson plans may simply consist of the detailed syllabus with keywords
or other reminders added to assist the instructor in presenting the material.

n Presentation

The presentation of concepts and methodologies must be repeated in various ways until
the instructor is satisfied that the participant has attained each specific learning objective
or outcome. The syllabus is laid out with a learning objective format, and each objective
specifies what the participant must be able to do to achieve the learning objective.

n Evaluation or assessment of participants' progress

The nature of this course involves all the participants and the instructors in an on-going
process of individual and group evaluation. However, as this course doesn’t specify any time
for evaluation, the process of evaluation or assessment of participants’ progress should be
confirmed during practical activities related to the subject area concerned. A guideline on
evaluation is given in Part E of the course.

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Introduction

n Implementation

For the course to run smoothly and to be effective, considerable attention must be paid to
the availability and use of:
l properly qualified instructors
l support staff
l rooms and other training locations
l equipment, e.g. projectors and simulators
l textbooks, technical papers and
l other reference material.

Thorough preparation is the key to successful implementation of the course. IMO has
produced ‘Guidance on the implementation of IMO model courses’, which deals with this
aspect in greater detail and is included as an attachment to this course.

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ENERGY EFFICIENT OPERATION OF SHIPS

Part A: Course Framework


n Scope

This model course is designed to facilitate the delivery of training in order to promote the
energy efficient operation of ships. The course contributes to the IMO’s environmental
protection goals as set out in resolutions A.947(23) and A.998(25) by promulgating industry
“Best Practices”, which reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the negative impact
of global shipping on climate change. The course also covers essential subjects to develop
management tools to assist a shipping company in managing the environmental performance
of its ships. Therefore, the contents of the course reflect the guidance for the development
of a Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP), resolution MEPC.213(63), adopted
2 March 2012.

n Objectives

Having completed the course, the participants should be able to:


l state issues on climate change caused by the effect of greenhouse gas and
international measures having been taken since the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol
in 1997;
l identify considerations and actions taken by the International Maritime Organization
to reduce or limit greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping;
l discuss and apply the details of best practices for fuel efficient operation of ships;
l establish a ship energy efficiency management plan in a shipping company; and
l maintain the plan in managing the environmental performance of its ships based
on the four steps to improve energy efficiency of ships.

n Entry standards

Entry to the course is open to those engaged in ship operation both on board and on shore
who wish to improve their knowledge and understanding of the energy efficient operation of
ships, especially those who are in charge of activities associated with the development of an
SEEMP in shipping companies.

n Course certificate

Participants completing the course satisfactorily should be issued with a certificate of


participation or document describing the objectives of the course and attesting their
successful completion of it.

n Course intake limitations

The course intake is regulated by the number of participants in the class, of which the
maximum number of participants should be around twenty. As the course contains some
practical activities based on group discussion as well as the use of simulators, the total

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Part A: Course Framework

number of the participants should also be considered by the number of groups in the class.
The minimum number of participants in a group may be three. Otherwise it is difficult to
promote active discussion within a group. Another limitation for group sizes might be the
capacity of simulation facilities.

n Staff requirements

The instructor shall have appropriate knowledge and skills in instructional techniques for
implementing lectures in the classroom as well as practical activities utilizing simulators.
The instructor’s qualifications should be in accordance with requirements as laid down in
section AI/6 of the STCW Code. It is also recommended that the instructor in charge of the
course should either be a holder of a certificate of competency at the management level or
have sufficient working experience as personnel in fleet management in a shipping company.
All training and instruction should be given by properly qualified personnel. The instructors
should have the necessary qualification, knowledge and experience in the energy efficient
operation of maritime systems.

n Teaching facilities and equipment

For the theoretical part of the syllabus, a classroom equipped with at least an overhead
projector and a flipchart (or equivalent) will be required. A computer driven projector is ideal
as this can be used to demonstrate practice and displays of software tools and other relevant
technical systems in use on board or ashore to support energy efficient ship operations,
utilizing also desktop simulation and interactive CBT systems.

n Teaching aids (A)

A1 Instructor Manual and its appendix (Part D of the course)


A2 Ship handling simulator
A3 Engine room simulator
A4 Video-cassettes or DVDs about systems and procedures demonstrating energy efficient
ship operation

n IMO references (R)

R1 Annex VI of MARPOL consolidated edition 2011, Regulations for the Prevention of


Air Pollution from ships and NOx Technical Code 2008, Technical code on control of
emissions of nitrogen oxides from marine diesel engines
R2 IMO Policies and Practices related to the Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions
from Ships, resolution A.963(23), 4 March 2004
R3 Interim Guidelines for Voluntary Ship CO2 Emissions Indexing for use in Trials, MEPC/
Circ.471, 29 July 2005
R4 2012 Guidelines on the method of calculation of the attained Energy Efficiency Design
Index (EEDI) for new ships, resolution MEPC.212(63), 2 March 2012
R5 2012 Guidelines on survey and certification of the Energy Efficiency Design Index
(EEDI), resolution MEPC.214(63), 2 March 2012
R6 2012 Guidelines for the development of a Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan
(SEEMP), resolution MEPC.213(63), 2 March 2012

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ENERGY EFFICIENT OPERATION OF SHIPS

R7 Guidelines for voluntary use of the ship Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator (EEOI),
MEPC/Circ.684, 17 August 2009
R8 Second IMO GHG study 2009, MEPC 59/INF.10, 9 April 2009

n Textbooks (T)

No specific textbooks are recommended for participants’ use.

n Bibliography (B)

B1 Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change,


United Nations, 1998
B2 Donald Wulfinghoff: Energy Efficiency Manual. Energy Institute Press (March 2000)
B3 Bellefontaine, N. and Linden, O. (2009). Impacts of Climate Change on the Maritime
Industry. Proceedings of the Conference on Impacts of Climate Change on the Maritime
Industry. Malmö: WMU Publication (ISBN 978-91-977254-1-5)
B4 Faber, J. et al: Technical support for European action to reducing Greenhouse Gas
Emissions from international maritime transport. CE Delft Dec. 2009
B5 Burnay, S., McStay, P.: Driving Efficiency within Shipping. MARINE LOG Issue 09/2010
B6 INTERTANKO’s Guide for a Tanker Energy Efficiency Management Plan (2009)

n Internet website references (W)

W1 A Guide to MARPOL Annex VI


http://www.martek-arine.com/ProductsSystems/
AGuidetotheAmendedMARPOLAnnexVI.aspx
W2 A Guide to Ship CO2 Indexing
http://www.martek-marine.com/ProductsSystems/AGuidetoShipCO2Indexing.aspx

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Part B: Course Outline

Part B: Course Outline


n Course outline

Providing that the knowledge, understanding and proficiency contained in Part C of this
course are fully achieved, the course hours and timetable may be adjusted accordingly based
on different standards of prior knowledge in fuel efficient operation of ships or seagoing
experience.

Course Practical
Subject area Lecture
hours activity
1. Background 4.0
1.1 Climate change 2.0 -
1.2 IMO related work 2.0 -
2. Guidance on best practices for fuel efficient 18.0 2.0 2.0
operation of ships
Section I: Fuel efficient operations
2.1 Improved voyage planning
2.2 Weather routing
2.3 Just-in-time
2.4 Speed optimization
2.5 Optimized shaft power
Section II: Optimized ship handling 2.0 2.0
2.6 Optimum trim
2.7 Optimum ballast
2.8 Optimum propeller and propeller inflow
considerations
2.9 Optimum use of rudder and heading
control system (autopilots)
Section III: Hull and propulsion system 2.0 2.0
2.10 Hull maintenance
2.11 Propulsion system
2.12 Propulsion system maintenance
2.13 Waste heat recovery
Section IV: Management 2.0 2.0
2.14 Improved fleet management
2.15 Improved cargo handling
2.16 Energy management
2.17 Fuel type
2.18 Other measures
Section V: Other issues 1.0 1.0
2.19 Compatibility of measures
2.20 Age and operational service life of a ship
2.21 Trade and sailing area

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ENERGY EFFICIENT OPERATION OF SHIPS

Course Practical
Subject area Lecture
hours activity
3. Framework and structure of the SEEMP 6.0 4.0 2.0
3.1 Planning and goal setting
3.2 Ship-specific measures
3.3 Company-specific measures
3.4 Human resource development
3.5 Self-evaluation and improvement
4. Implementation and monitoring 2.0 1.0 1.0
4.1 Implementation
4.2 Monitoring
Total 30.0 18.0 12.0

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Part B: Course Outline

n Course timetable
Period/Day Day-1 Day-2 Day-3 Day-4 Day-5
1st Period Introduction to Section I Section III Section IV 3.4 H
 uman
(2 hours) the course (2.1 – 2.5) (2.10 – 2.13) (2.14 – 2.18) resource
1.1 Climate Fuel efficient Hull and Management development
change operations propulsion Practical activity 3.5 S
 elf-
Lecture Practical system (2 hours) evaluation and
(2 hours) activity Lecture improvement
(2 hours) (2 hours) (2 hours)
Break
2nd Period 1.2 IMO Section II Section III Section V Practical activity
(2 hours) related (2.6 – 2.9) (2.10 – 2.13) (2.19 – 2.21) (2 hours)
work Optimized ship Hull and Other issues
Lecture handling propulsion Lecture (1 hour)
(2  hours) Lecture system
Practical activity
(2 hours) Practical (1 hour)
activity
(2 hours)
Meal Break
3rd Period Section I Section II Section IV 3.1 Planning 4.1 Implementation
(2 hours) (2.1 – 2.5) (2.6 – 2.9) (2.14 – 2.18) 3.2 Ship-specific 4.2 Monitoring
Fuel efficient Optimized ship Management measures Lecture (1 hour)
operations handling Lecture 3.3 Company- Practical activity
Lecture Practical (2 hours) specific (1 hour)
(2 hours) activity measures
Conclusion of the
(2 hours) Lecture (2 hours) course

Teaching staff should note that timetables are suggestions only as regards sequence and
length of time allocated to each objective. These factors may be adapted by lecturers to suit
individual groups of participants depending on their experience, ability, equipment and staff
available for training.

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ENERGY EFFICIENT OPERATION OF SHIPS

Part C: Detailed Teaching Syllabus


n Introduction

The detailed teaching syllabus has been written in a learning objective format in which
the objective describes what the participant must do to demonstrate that knowledge,
understanding and proficiency have been transferred.

A learning objective is a statement in specific and measurable terms that describes what
the participant will be able to do as an outcome of participating in a series of lectures and
practical activities. In this context, all objectives under the subject items shown in the column
“Knowledge, understanding and proficiency” of the following table are understood to be
prefixed by the words, “The expected learning outcome is that the participant is able to…”.

In order to assist the instructors in charge of this course, IMO references, textbooks and
bibliography related to each of the subject items are shown in the second and third columns
of the table. Suggested teaching aids that assist instructors to implement effective teaching
and training are also shown in the fourth column. The following notation and abbreviations
are used in the table.
R IMO reference
T Textbook
B Bibliography
A Teaching aids

The following abbreviations are also used for identifying where particular references are
documented.
Ap. Appendix
An. Annex
Ch. Chapter
p. Page
Para. Paragraph
Sc. Section

The following are examples of the use of references:


R.4 – An. p.151 Ch. 8 Para.8.3 refers to the paragraph 8.3 in Chapter 8 on page 151 of
the annex to document MEPC 59/INF.10, 9 April 2009.

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Knowledge, understanding and proficiency
Reference Bibliography aids

1. Background (4 hours)
1.1 Climate change B.1, B.3, B.4 A.1, A.4
.1 apply basic concepts and evaluate the
processes influencing the climate
.2 express why climate change occurs
.3 demonstrate how climate change affects
the ocean environment and impacts
human and maritime activities
.4 analyse how maritime activities influence
the climate
1.2 IMO related work R.1-R.8 B.4, W.1, W.2 A.1, A.4
.1 write an overview of work relevant to
climate change carried out at IMO
.2 compile the current discussions under
MARPOL and Polar Code and how they
relate to the problems of climate change
.3 identify and explain a set of IMO’s
measures to assist the shipping industry
to reduce GHG emissions, which are EEDI,
EEOI and SEEMP
.4 demonstrate actual calculation of EEDI
and EEOI value using existing vessel data

2. Guidance on best practices for fuel efficient


operation of ships (18 hours)
Section I Fuel efficient operations
(Lecture: 2 hours, Practical activity: 2 hours)
2.1 Improved voyage planning R.6 Para B.2, B.4, B.5, A.1-A.4
.1 analyse the determination of optimum 5.2‑5.3 W.2
route and energy efficiency according
to the requirements of IMO resolution
A.893(21)
.2 demonstrate how comprehensive voyage
planning and monitoring contribute to
energy efficiency
.3 apply passage planning methods
specifically addressing and considering the
aspects of energy efficiency
.4 demonstrate how to develop a berth-to-
berth passage plan keeping the energy
efficiency requirements by using related
software and other planning tools

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ENERGY EFFICIENT OPERATION OF SHIPS

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2.2 Weather routing R.6 Para 5.4 A.1-A.4
.1 apply the different methods of weather
routing as one essential part of voyage
planning and analyse their advantages
and disadvantages regarding the energy
efficiency indexes and the selection of an
energy efficient and most emission-friendly
route
.2 get an overview on commercial systems
available on the market and state of the art
research and technological development
.3 demonstrate how to operate on board
systems and how to work with related
shore-based service providers
2.3 Just-in-time R.6 Para A.1-A.4
.1 identify the principles of “just-in-time” 5.5‑5.6
transportation chains and their impact
factors
.2 analyse the overall interaction and
information flows between the different
parties involved in the transport chain
.3 organize how early communication with
port authorities and companies could
avoid delays and maximize energy
efficiency
2.4 Speed optimization R.6 Para A.1-A.4
.1 identify the fundamental difference 5.7‑5.10
between ton-mile and minimum speed and
how to interpret the power/consumption
curves and ship’s propeller curves
.2 evaluate the relations, commons and
differences between ship’s individual
optimum speed and speed optimization of
a company’s fleet
.3 get an overview on time scheduling
methods and the wide range of available
methods for speed optimization
considering different propulsion systems in
terms of different types of fuel, gas or wind
and propeller, azimuth and other systems
.4 get a broad overview on concurring target
functions for speed optimization and how
to work with them
2.5 Optimized shaft power R.6 Para 5.11 A.1-A.4
.1 identify the use of automated engine
management systems to control the
revolution and power delivery to the main
propeller shaft
.2 discuss the effect of the main engine
energy saving governor and its advantage
compared with a traditional governor

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Reference Bibliography aids
Section II Optimized ship handling
(Lecture: 2 hours, Practical activity: 2 hours)
2.6 Optimum trim R.6 Para 5.12 A.1, A2, A.4
.1 analyse the connection between specified
trim conditions of a designed ship and
resistance
.2 apply methods to determine the optimum
trim with minimum resistance for any given
draft
.3 demonstrate how to monitor and assess
optimum trim throughout a voyage
.4 analyse and handle safety factors limiting
trim optimization
2.7 Optimum ballast R.6 Para A.1, A.2, A.4
.1 demonstrate how to adjust ballast keeping 513‑5.15
optimum trim, steering condition and
ballast conditions simultaneously
.2 get an overview about the Ballast Water
Management Plan and how to consider
constraints caused by this plan regarding
an optimum ballast
.3 explain the connection between ballast
conditions, steering conditions, autopilot
settings
2.8 Optimum propeller and propeller inflow R.6 Para A.1, A.4
considerations 5.16‑5.17
.1 understand that improvements to the
water inflow to the propeller using
arrangements such as fins and/or nozzles
could increase propulsive efficiency power
and hence reduce fuel consumption
.2 check the design and operation of the
propeller system taking into account:
– a delicate balance of efficiency
– cavitation performance and pressure
pulses
– hull excitation and noise
– hydrodynamic design of propellers
.3 set the simulator system and compare
the propeller with and without using
arrangements such as fins and/or nozzles
to find out how improvements could be
made in terms of total thrust

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ENERGY EFFICIENT OPERATION OF SHIPS

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2.9 Optimum use of rudder and heading control R.6 Para A.1, A.2, A.4
system (autopilots) 5.18‑5.20
.1 understand that optimum use of rudder
and heading control systems (autopilots)
could achieve significant fuel savings by
simply reducing the distance sailed “off
track”
.2 check the better course control systems
that have less frequent and smaller
corrections taking into account:
– retrofitting of a more efficient
autopilot to existing ships
– retrofitting of improved rudder blade
design
.3 consider the proper use of heading control
systems with special focus on proper
settings in adverse weather conditions and
on ballast voyages
.4 set the simulator system and carry out the
operation, minimizing losses due to rudder
resistance
Section III Hull and propulsion system
(Lecture: 2 hours, Practical activity: 2 hours)
2.10 Hull maintenance R.6 Para A.1, A.3, A.4
.1 state the relationship between effective 5.21‑5.24
propulsive power needed for operating
a ship and frictional resistance, which
is greatly influenced by the surface
roughness of the hull under the waterline
.2 identify the effect of the surface roughness
of the propeller on reduction of propulsive
efficiency
.3 discuss the effect of hull and propeller
cleaning on reduction of the fuel
consumption
.4 explain types of hull coating paint and
discuss the effects on fuel saving
2.11 Propulsion system R.6 Para 5.25 A.1, A.3, A.4
.1 identify theoretical background of thermal
efficiency of heat engines and discuss
the actual parameters to improve thermal
efficiency of marine diesel engines
.2 identify heat and mechanical losses
generated in the propulsion system on
board and explain how to reduce them
.3 evaluate the effect of energy efficient
operation of ships based on the fuel
consumption of the propulsion system

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Reference Bibliography aids
2.12 Propulsion system maintenance R.6 Para A.1, A.4
.1 explains the types of damage to the 5.26‑5.27
propeller blades and the effect of such
damaged surface roughness on propulsion
efficiency
.2 states the maintenance requirements
based on the SOLAS Convention and the
Classification Society requirements
.3 explains that the tail end shaft support
system can be equipped with a condition
monitoring system to prolong periodic
survey/inspection
2.13 Waste heat recovery R.6 Para A.1, A.3, A.4
.1 explain theoretical background of the 5.28‑5.29
waste heat recovery system on board
based on thermodynamics
.2 identify the mechanism of converting
waste heat from exhaust gas of the
main diesel engine to both electrical and
mechanical power
.3 identify critical issues on the effective
operation of the waste heat recovery
system and evaluate the effect of the
recovery system
Section IV Management
(Lecture: 2 hours, Practical activity: 2 hours)
2.14 Improved fleet management R.6 Para B.6, W.1, W.2 A.1, A.4
.1 explain fleet planning principles and 5.30‑5.31
methods how to minimize ballast voyages
and promote efficiency also for charters
.2 get a broad overview about company-
related data-sharing principles with
respect to efficiency, reliability and
maintenance and how to stimulate better
communication between the parties
involved
2.15 Improved cargo handling R.6 Para 5.32 A.1, A.4
.1 demonstrate how to adjust ballast keeping
optimum trim, steering condition and
ballast conditions simultaneously
.2 get an overview about the Ballast Water
Management Plan and how to consider
constraints caused by this plan regarding
an optimum ballast
.3 explain the connection between ballast
conditions, steering conditions, autopilot
settings

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2.16 Energy management R.6 Para A.1, A.4
.1 implement an effective regime to review 5.33‑5.34
electrical services and identify efficiency
gains
.2 explain application of thermal insulation to
save energy
.3 plan optimization of reefer container
stowage taking into account combination
with cargo heating and ventilation
measures and use of water-cooled reefer
plants
2.17 Fuel type R.6 Para 5.35 A.1, A.4
.1 identify types of fuel used for maritime
transport and their heating values
.2 state that natural gas has low carbon to
hydrogen ratio and high power density and
produces least CO2 per unit of power
.3 state that the fuel cells convert chemical
energy of fuel by oxidation directly into
electrical energy and have no emissions
and may become future technologies to
power ships
2.18 Other measures R.6 Para A.1, A.4
.1 implement and apply appropriate systems 5.36‑5.40
to calculate fuel consumption, establish an
emissions “footprint”, optimize operations,
and establish goals for improvement and
monitor progress accordingly
.2 evaluate the application of renewable
energy sources for on board use and
analyse the use of onshore power when in
ports
.3 analyse the relation of using fuel of higher
quality in regard to minimizing the amount
of fuel necessary for the required output
Section V: Other issues
(Lecture: 1 hour, Practical activity: 1 hour)
2.19 Compatibility of measures R.6 Para 5.41 B.5 A.1, A.4
.1 analyse the SEEMP regarding
dependencies, for example on areas and
trade
.2 identify stakeholders of SEEMP measures
and plan and implement agreements
between them to provide conditions for
most effective utilization of the measures

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Part C: Detailed Teaching Syllabus

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Reference Bibliography aids
2.20 Age and operational service life of a ship R.6 Para 5.42 A.1, A.4
.1 apply cost-benefit analysis methods to
analyse cost effectiveness and feasibility of
measures under the aspects of fuel costs
and remaining service time of a vessel or
fleet
2.21 Trade and sailing area R.6 Para A.1, A.4
.1 evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility 5.43‑5.44
of measures for particular ship types with
respect to the characteristics of the sailing
area
.2 evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility
of measures for particular ship types with
respect to the characteristics of the trade
the ship is engaged in and the length of
the ship’s specific voyage
.3 produce individual SEEMP according to
the analysed conditions

3. Framework and structure of the SEEMP


3.1 Planning and goal setting R.6 Para 4.1.1 B.4 - B.6 A.1, A.4
.1 identify, apply and implement suitable and 4.1.7
planning methods and tools for SEEMP
.2 compile ship- and company-specific
elements of SEEMP
.3 create and write ship- and company-
specific elements of SEEMP
3.2 Ship-specific measures R.6 Para A.1, A.4
.1 demonstrate suitable procedures to 4.1.2‑4.1.4
analyse and identify suitable ship-specific
measures for energy efficient ship
operation
.2 explain elements of the ship’s status of
energy production and usage and how to
determine this status
.3 demonstrate suitable application methods
for integration of best practice into a ship-
specific SEEMP
3.3 Company-specific measures R.6 Para 4.1.5 A.1, A.4
.1 demonstrate suitable procedures to
analyse and identify suitable ship-specific
measures for energy efficient ship
operation
.2 explain elements of the fleet’s status of
energy production and usage and how to
determine this status

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.3 demonstrate the application of suitable
methods for integration of best practice
into a fleet’s company-specific SEEMP
.4 demonstrate the development of a
communication network between involved
stakeholders to coordinate SEEMP
measures
3.4 Human resource development R.6 Para 4.1.6 A.1, A.4
.1 organize the establishment of a sustainable
training scheme for on board and onshore
personnel
.2 develop and implement procedures
for continuous updating of the training
scheme
3.5 Self-evaluation and improvement R.6 Para A.1, A.4
.1 organize an efficient system to gather 4.4.1‑4.4.3
meaningful feedback
.2 identify and apply effective methods for
self-evaluation
.3 demonstrate the evaluation of ship energy
management measures
.4 create efficient procedures and apply
suitable tools for improvement of ship
energy management

4. Implementation and Monitoring


4.1 Implementation R.6 Para B.4 - B.6 A.1, A.4
.1 demonstrate the development and 4.2.1‑4.2.2
maintenance of an SEEMP implementation
system
.2 create a sufficient record-keeping system
4.2 Monitoring R.6 Para A.1, A.4
.1 compile methods and tools relevant for 4.3.1‑4.3.6
quantitative monitoring of energy efficiency
.2 demonstrate the calculation of EEOI and
other beneficial tools
.3 compile a comprehensive monitoring
system including its administrative and
technical framework

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Part D: Instructor Manual

Part D: Instructor Manual


n Introduction

This manual reflects the views of the course designer on methodology and organization, and
what is considered relevant and important in the light of his/her experience as an instructor.
Although the manual given should be of value initially, the course instructor should work out
his/her own methods and ideas, refine and develop what is successful, and discard ideas
and methods which are not effective.

The main objectives of this course are to establish and maintain a Ship Energy Efficiency
Management Plan, which is one of the mandatory measures to reduce GHG from the
international shipping that IMO has developed as energy efficient tools for the shipping
industry. In order to achieve the objectives surely and effectively, the course consists of a
series of lectures and practical activities for participants to be able to put theory into practice.
This manual provides the following items:
l Introduction

l Guidance notes for lectures and practical activities


l Sample exercises for practical activities
l Conclusion

n Guidance notes for lectures and practical activities

1. Background (Lecture 4 hours)

1.1 Climate change

The sea plays an important part of the climate system on the earth as around 70 per cent
of the earth’s surface is ocean. The issues on climate change have been discussed in the
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) since early 1990.

The mechanism and measures of the climate change caused by GHG emissions have also
been discussed in several conferences and research activities. The International Panel on
Climate Change (IPCC) developed a long-term emission scenario in 2007.

1.2 IMO related work

IMO has been carrying out substantial work on the reduction and limitation of GHG emissions
from international shipping since 1997, following the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol and the
1997 MARPOL Conference.

A package of technical provisions aimed at assisting the shipping industry to achieve a


reduction in GHG emissions has been developed through MEPC, which includes an energy
efficiency design index (EEDI), an energy efficiency operational indicator (EEOI) and a ship
energy management plan (SEEMP). Details of the EEDI and the EEOI including background
and objectives should be thoroughly discussed. Actual calculation of EEDI and EEOI values
using existing vessel data should be demonstrated.

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2. Guidance on best practices for


fuel efficient operation of ships  (Lecture 9 hours, Practical activities 9 hours)

Section I Fuel efficient operations  (Lecture 2 hours, Practical activities 2 hours)

2.1 Improved voyage planning

The optimum route and improved efficiency can be achieved through the careful planning
and execution of voyages. Thorough voyage planning needs time, but a number of different
software tools are available for planning purposes.

IMO resolution A.893(21) (25 November 1999) on voyage planning provides essential guidance
for the ship’s crew and voyage planners.

2.2 Weather routing

Weather routing has a high potential for efficiency savings on specific routes. It is commercially
available for all types of ship and for many trade areas. Significant savings can be achieved,
but conversely weather routing may also increase fuel consumption for a given voyage.

2.3 Just-in-time

Good early communication with the next port should be an aim in order to give maximum
notice of berth availability and facilitate the use of optimum speed where port operational
procedures support this approach.

Optimized port operation could involve a change in procedures involving different handling
arrangements in ports. Port authorities should be encouraged to maximize efficiency and
minimize delay.

2.4 Speed optimization

Speed optimization can produce significant savings. However, optimum speed means the
speed at which the fuel used per ton-mile is at a minimum level for that voyage. It does not
mean minimum speed; in fact sailing at less than optimum speed will consume more fuel rather
than less. Reference should be made to the engine manufacturer’s power/consumption curve
and the ship’s propeller curve. Possible adverse consequences of slow speed operation may
include increased vibration and problems with soot deposits in combustion chambers and
exhaust systems. These possible consequences should be taken into account.

As part of the speed optimization process, due account may need to be taken of the need to
coordinate arrival times with the availability of loading/discharge berths, etc. The number of
ships engaged in a particular trade route may need to be taken into account when considering
speed optimization.

A gradual increase in speed when leaving a port or estuary whilst keeping the engine load
within certain limits may help to reduce fuel consumption.

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It is recognized that under many charter parties the speed of the vessel is determined by the
charterer and not the operator. Efforts should be made when agreeing charter party terms
to encourage the ship to operate at optimum speed in order to maximize energy efficiency.

2.5 Optimized shaft power

Operation at constant shaft RPM can be more efficient than continuously adjusting speed
through engine power. The use of automated engine management systems to control speed
rather than relying on human intervention may be beneficial.

Section II: Optimized ship handling  (Lecture 2 hours, Practical activities 2 hours)

2.6 Optimum trim

Most ships are designed to carry a designated amount of cargo at a certain speed for a
certain fuel consumption. This implies the specification of set trim conditions. Loaded or
unloaded, trim has a significant influence on the resistance of the ship through the water
and optimizing trim can deliver significant fuel savings. For any given draft there is a trim
condition that gives minimum resistance. In some ships it is possible to assess optimum trim
conditions for fuel efficiency continuously throughout the voyage. Design or safety factors
may preclude full use of trim optimization.

2.7 Optimum ballast

Ballast should be adjusted taking into consideration the requirements to meet optimum
trim and steering conditions and optimum ballast conditions achieved through good cargo
planning.

When determining the optimum ballast conditions, the limits, conditions and ballast
management arrangements set out in the ship’s Ballast Water Management Plan are to be
observed for that ship.

Ballast conditions have a significant impact on steering conditions and autopilot settings and
it needs to be noted that less ballast water does not necessarily mean the highest efficiency.

2.8 Optimum propeller and propeller inflow considerations

Selection of the propeller is normally determined at the design and construction stage of a
ship’s life but new developments in propeller design have made it possible for retrofitting
of later designs to deliver greater fuel economy. Whilst it is certainly for consideration, the
propeller is but one part of the propulsion train and a change of propeller in isolation may
have no effect on efficiency and may even increase fuel consumption.

Improvements to the water inflow to the propeller using arrangements such as fins and/or
nozzles could increase propulsive efficiency power and hence reduce fuel consumption.

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2.9 Optimum use of rudder and heading control system (autopilots)

There have been large improvements in automated heading and steering control systems
technology. Whilst originally developed to make the bridge team more effective, modern
autopilots can achieve much more. An integrated Navigation and Command System can
achieve significant fuel savings by simply reducing the distance sailed “off track”. The
principle is simple; better course control through less frequent and smaller corrections will
minimize losses due to rudder resistance. Retrofitting of a more efficient autopilot to existing
ships could be considered.

During approaches to ports and pilot stations the autopilot cannot always be used efficiently
as the rudder has to respond quickly to given commands. Furthermore at certain stages of
the voyage it may have to be deactivated or very carefully adjusted, i.e. heavy weather and
approaches to ports.

Consideration may be given to the retrofitting of improved rudder blade design (e.g. “twist-
flow” rudder).

Section III: Hull and propulsion system  (Lecture 2 hours, Practical activities 2 hours)

2.10 Hull maintenance

Docking intervals should be integrated with ship operator’s ongoing assessment of ship
performance. Hull resistance can be optimized by new-technology coating systems, possibly
in combination with cleaning intervals. Regular in-water inspection of the condition of the hull
is recommended.

Propeller cleaning and polishing or even appropriate coating may significantly increase fuel
efficiency. The need for ships to maintain efficiency through in-water hull cleaning should be
recognized and facilitated by port States.

Consideration may be given to the possibility of timely full removal and replacement of
underwater paint systems to avoid the increased hull roughness caused by repeated spot
blasting and repairs over multiple dockings.

Generally, the smoother the hull, the better the fuel efficiency.

2.11 Propulsion system

Marine diesel engines have a very high thermal efficiency (~50%). This excellent performance
is only exceeded by fuel cell technology with an average thermal efficiency of 60 per cent.
This is due to the systematic minimization of heat and mechanical loss. In particular, the
new breed of electronic controlled engines can provide efficiency gains. However, specific
training for relevant staff may need to be considered to maximize the benefits.

2.12 Propulsion system maintenance

Maintenance in accordance with manufacturers’ instructions in the company’s planned


maintenance schedule will also maintain efficiency. The use of engine condition monitoring
can be a useful tool to maintain high efficiency.

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Additional means to improve engine efficiency might include:


l Use of fuel additives;
l Adjustment of cylinder lubrication oil consumption;
l Valve improvements;
l Torque analysis; and
l Automated engine monitoring systems.

2.13 Waste heat recovery

Waste heat recovery is now a commercially available technology for some ships. Waste
heat recovery systems use thermal heat losses from the exhaust gas for either electricity
generation or additional propulsion with a shaft motor.

It may not be possible to retrofit such systems into existing ships. However, they may be
a beneficial option for new ships. Shipbuilders should be encouraged to incorporate new
technology into their designs.

Section IV: Management  (Lecture 2 hours, Practical activities 2 hours)

2.14 Improved fleet management

Better utilization of fleet capacity can often be achieved by improvements in fleet planning.
For example, it may be possible to avoid or reduce long ballast voyages through improved
fleet planning. There is opportunity here for charterers to promote efficiency. This can be
closely related to the concept of “just-in-time” arrivals.

Efficiency, reliability and maintenance-oriented data-sharing within a company can be used


to promote best practice among ships within a company and should be actively encouraged.

2.15 Improved cargo handling

Cargo handling is in most cases under the control of the port and optimum solutions matched
to ship and port requirements should be explored.

2.16 Energy management

A review of electrical services on board can reveal the potential for unexpected efficiency
gains. However, care should be taken to avoid the creation of new safety hazards when
turning off electrical services (e.g. lighting). Thermal insulation is an obvious means of saving
energy. Also see comment below on shore power.

Optimization of reefer container stowage locations may be beneficial in reducing the effect of
heat transfer from compressor units. This might be combined as appropriate with cargo tank
heating, ventilation, etc. The use of water-cooled reefer plant with lower energy consumption
might also be considered.

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2.17 Fuel type

Use of emerging alternative fuels may be considered as a CO2 reduction method but
availability will often determine the applicability.

2.18 Other measures

Development of computer software for the calculation of fuel consumption, for the
establishment of an emissions “footprint”, to optimize operations, and the establishment of
goals for improvement and tracking of progress may be considered.

Renewable energy sources, such as wind, solar (or photovoltaic) cell technology, have
improved enormously in recent years and should be considered for on board application.

In some ports shore power may be available for some ships but this is generally aimed at
improving air quality in the port area. If the shore-based power source is carbon efficient,
there may be a net efficiency benefit. Ships may consider using onshore power if available.

Even wind-assisted propulsion may be worthy of consideration.

Efforts could be made to source fuel of improved quality in order to minimize the amount of
fuel required to provide a given power output.

Section V: Other issues  (Lecture 1 hour, Practical activities 1 hour)

2.19 Compatibility of measures

This document indicates a wide variety of possibilities for energy efficiency improvements for
the existing fleet. While there are many options available, they are not cumulative, are often
area and trade dependent and likely to require the agreement and support of a number of
different stakeholders if they are to be utilized most effectively.

2.20 Age and operational service life of a ship

All measures identified in this document are potentially cost-effective as a result of high oil
prices. Measures previously considered unaffordable or commercially unattractive may now
be feasible and worthy of fresh consideration. Clearly, this equation is heavily influenced by
the remaining service life of a ship and the cost of fuel.

2.21 Trade and sailing area

The feasibility of many of the measures described in this guidance will be dependent on the
trade and sailing area of the vessel. Sometimes ships will change their trade areas as a result
of a change in chartering requirements but this cannot be taken as a general assumption.
For example wind enhanced power sources might not be feasible for short sea shipping
as these ships generally sail in areas with high traffic densities or in restricted waterways.
Another aspect is that the world’s oceans and seas each have characteristic conditions
and so ships designed for specific routes and trades may not obtain the same benefit by
adopting the same measures or combination of measures as other ships. It is also likely that
some measures will have a greater or lesser effect in different sailing areas.

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The trade a ship is engaged in may determine the feasibility of the efficiency measures under
consideration. For example, ships that perform services at sea (pipe laying, seismic survey,
OSVs, dredgers, etc.) may choose different methods of improving energy efficiency when
compared to conventional cargo carriers. The length of voyage may also be an important
parameter as may trade specific safety considerations. The pathway to the most efficient
combination of measures will be unique to each vessel within each shipping company.

3. Framework and structure


of the SEEMP (Lecture 4 hours, Practical activities 2 hours)

3.1 Planning and goal setting

Planning is the most crucial stage of the SEEMP, in that it primarily determines both the
current status of ship energy usage and the expected improvement of ship energy efficiency.
Therefore, it is encouraged to devote sufficient time to planning so that the most appropriate,
effective and implementable plan can be developed.

The last part of planning is goal setting. It should be emphasized that goal setting is voluntary,
that there is no need to announce the goal or the result to the public, and that neither a
company nor a ship is subject to external inspection. The purpose of goal setting is to serve
as a signal which people involved should be conscious of, to create a good incentive for
proper implementation, and then to increase commitment to the improvement of energy
efficiency. The goal can take any form, such as the annual fuel consumption or a specific
target of Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator (EEOI). Whatever the goal is, the goal should
be measurable and easy to understand.

3.2 Ship-specific measures

Recognizing that there are a variety of options to improve efficiency – speed optimization,
weather routing and hull maintenance, for example – and that the best package of measures
for a ship to improve efficiency differs to a great extent depending upon ship type, cargoes,
routes and other factors, the specific measures for the ship to improve energy efficiency
should be identified in the first place. These measures should be listed as a package of
measures to be implemented, thus providing the overview of the actions to be taken for that
ship.

During this process, therefore, it is important to determine and understand the ship’s current
status of energy usage. The SEEMP then identifies energy saving measures that have been
undertaken, and determines how effective these measures are in terms of improving energy
efficiency. The SEEMP also identifies what measures can be adopted to further improve
the energy efficiency of the ship. It should be noted, however, that not all measures can be
applied to all ships, or even to the same ship under different operating conditions and that
some of them are mutually exclusive. Ideally, initial measures could yield energy (and cost)
saving results that then can be reinvested into more difficult or expensive efficiency upgrades
identified by the SEEMP.

Guidance on Best Practices for Fuel Efficient Operation of Ships set out in Chapter 5 can
be used to facilitate this part of the planning phase. Also, in the planning process, particular
consideration should be given to minimize any on board administrative burden.

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3.3 Company-specific measures

The improvement of energy efficiency of ship operation does not necessarily depend on
single ship management only. Rather, it may depend on many stakeholders including
ship repair yards, shipowners, operators, charterers, cargo owners, ports and traffic
management services. For example, “Just-in-time” – as explained in 5.5 – requires good
early communication  among operators, ports and traffic management service. The better
the coordination among such stakeholders, the more improvement can be expected. In
most cases, such coordination or total management is better made by a company rather
than by a ship. In this sense, it is recommended that a company also establish an energy
management plan to manage its fleet (should it not have one in place already) and make
necessary coordination among stakeholders.

3.4 Human resource development

For effective and steady implementation of the adopted measures, raising awareness of and
providing necessary training for personnel both on shore and on board are an important
element. Such human resource development is encouraged and should be considered as an
important component of planning as well as a critical element of implementation.

3.5 Self-evaluation and improvement

Self-evaluation and improvement is the final phase of the management cycle. This phase
should produce meaningful feedback for the coming first stage, i.e. planning stage, of the
next improvement cycle.

The purpose of self-evaluation is to evaluate the effectiveness of the planned measures


and of their implementation, to deepen the understanding on the overall characteristics of
the ship’s operation such as what types of measures can/cannot function effectively, and
how and/or why, to comprehend the trend of the efficiency improvement of that ship and to
develop the improved SEEMP for the next cycle.

For this process, procedures for self-evaluation of ship energy management should be
developed. Furthermore, self-evaluation should be implemented periodically by using data
collected through monitoring. In addition, it is recommended to invest time in identifying
the cause-and-effect of the performance during the evaluated period for improving the next
stage of the management plan.

4. Implementation and monitoring (Lecture 1 hour, Practical activities 1 hour)

4.1 Implementation

After a ship and a company identify the measures to be implemented, it is essential to


establish a system for implementation of the identified and selected measures by developing
the procedures for energy management, by defining tasks and by assigning them to qualified
personnel. Thus, the SEEMP should describe how each measure should be implemented
and who is responsible. The implementation period (start and end dates) of each selected
measure should be indicated. The development of such a system can be considered as a
part of planning, and therefore may be completed at the planning stage.

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Part D: Instructor Manual

The planned measures should be carried out in accordance with the predetermined
implementation system. Record-keeping for the implementation of each measure is beneficial
for self-evaluation at a later stage and should be encouraged. If any identified measure cannot
be implemented for any reason(s), the reason(s) should be recorded for internal use.

4.2 Monitoring

The energy efficiency of a ship should be monitored quantitatively. This should be done
by an established method, preferably by an international standard. The EEOI developed
by the Organization is one of the internationally established tools to obtain a quantitative
indicator of energy efficiency of a ship and/or fleet in operation, and can be used for this
purpose. Therefore, EEOI could be considered as the primary monitoring tool, although other
quantitative measures also may be appropriate.

If used, it is recommended that the EEOI is calculated in accordance with the Guidelines
developed by the Organization (MEPC.1/Circ.684), adjusted, as necessary, to a specific ship
and trade.

In addition to the EEOI, if convenient and/or beneficial for a ship or a company, other
measurement tools can be utilized. In the case where other monitoring tools are used, the
concept of the tool and the method of monitoring may be determined at the planning stage.

It should be noted that whatever measurement tools are used, continuous and consistent data
collection is the foundation of monitoring. To allow for meaningful and consistent monitoring,
the monitoring system, including the procedures for collecting data and the assignment of
responsible personnel, should be developed. The development of such a system can be
considered as a part of planning, and therefore should be completed at the planning stage.

It should be noted that, in order to avoid unnecessary administrative burdens on ships’ staff,
monitoring should be carried out as far as possible by shore staff, utilizing data obtained
from existing required records such as the official and engineering log-books and oil record
books, etc. Additional data could be obtained as appropriate.

When a ship diverts from its scheduled passage to engage in search and rescue operations,
it is recommended that the data obtained during such operations is not used in ship energy
efficiency monitoring, and that such data may be recorded separately.

n Framework for practical activities

In order to put theory into practice, this course has substantial time for practical activities,
which is allocated for each subject area except the first subject area “1. Background” as this
area solely contains theoretical knowledge. However, as fuel efficient operation of a ship has
to cover almost all areas given above, practical activities in the course can be integrated into
a complex exercise.

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Guidance on best practices for


fuel efficient operation of ships (Practical activities 9 hours in total)

This subject area contains fundamental knowledge of how to achieve fuel efficient operation
of ships, which widely covers technical and managerial areas of study. Sections under this
subject are listed again as follows.

Section I: Fuel efficient operations  (Practical activities 2 hours)

Section II: Optimized ship handling  (Practical activities 2 hours)

Section III: Hull and propulsion system  (Practical activities 2 hours)

Section IV: Management  (Practical activities 2 hours)

Section V: Other issues  (Practical activities 1 hour)

Sample Exercises I and II

Modern comprehensive improved voyage planning nowadays can be performed by using


a dedicated software system providing processed information regarding, for example,
currents, tidal streams, and impact of shallow water as well as weather and sea state.
However, systems depend on reasonable and intelligent use of the functions provided taking
into account the actual and forecasted prevailing circumstances.

On the other hand experienced navigators are also using manuals containing graphs indicating
the performance parameter information, for example about pitch handling, power, speed and
fuel consumption under different loading conditions and for the two main types of fairways
(deep and shallow water).

A practical exercise on fuel efficient operation integrated into an SEEMP course should make
use of simulators or otherwise suitably equipped laboratories providing specific assistance
systems as a standalone version or integrated into a complex ship handling simulator even
connected to a ship engine simulator.

In addition, there are also game-based simulators available enabling demonstration of


relationships between power, speed, fuel consumption and CO2 emissions and furthermore
allows savings to be made when the power is adjusted to ETA, instead of sailing 100 per
cent to the destination and anchoring to avoid arriving too early. The principle framework of
a practical simulation-based exercise could be structured as suggested in the table below.

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Sample Exercise I
Identifier Fuel efficient ship operation I
Improved voyage planning
Training objective i.a./e.g.
• Perform comprehensive voyage planning according to IMO
res. A.893(21) and weather routing according to IMO res. A.528(13)
• Speed optimization
• Use different methods for determination of optimal route (including
weather routing) taking into account efficiency indexes and optimal fuel
consumption
• Draft a berth-to-berth voyage plan
Simulator tool Master office/shore-based company office
Standard of competence Master, chief mate (management level) and navigating officers,
environmental officer, chief engineers and shore-based operators
Configuration e.g. Container feeder vessel (Loa = 188 m; draught = 8,24 m; service speed
= 22 kn)
Traffic situation Varying
Time of day Daylight
Current n/a
Environment Wind: moderate, < 2 Bf
Sea state: low, average height of wave ~ 0,5 m
Duration Long, > 45 min
Visibility More than 8 nm
Area n/a
Event-description • Charter party requirements delivered to ship management, crew to
gather all relevant information for planning
• Heavy weather conditions forecasted with corresponding wind/wave
conditions
• Team determines optimal route from two/three alternative suggestions
• Detailed berth-to-berth voyage planning including also the pilotage areas
• Definition of monitoring parameter and criteria
• Shore office to be contacted in order to coordinate decisions

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Sample Exercise II
Identifier Fuel efficient ship operation II
Response actions to changing environmental conditions
Training objective i.a./e.g.
• Speed optimization for just-in-time arrival and manoeuvring in shallow
water
• Use of publications on tides and currents
• Ballast/trim operations
• Use of a weather routing system
Simulator tool Full mission ship handling simulator
Standard of competence Master, chief mate (management level) and navigating officers
Configuration e.g. VLCC (Loa = 340 m; draught = 22,03 m; service speed = 22 kn)
Traffic situation Moderate (about 4 ships per 10 min)
Time of day Daylight
Current Realistic (regarding area)
Environment Wind: moderate, < 6 BF
Sea state: low to moderate, average height of wave ~ 2,5 m
Duration Long, > 45 min
Visibility More than 8 nm
Area Open sea
Event-description • The own ship is navigating in open sea and approaching shallow water
area
• Effect of “squat” on under keel clearance power, speed and fuel
consumption in shallow water, tides and currents has to be calculated in
preparing the passage and presented by a nautical officer
• At xx:yy hours – updated weather forecast informs about increasing wind
(e.g. also intensifying tidal streams)
• Situation assessment including trim operation and speed adaptation
• Own ship sailing plan has to be adapted according to ETA
• Falling tide
• During incoming (high) tide further actions to be taken

Sample Exercise III

It is suggested to integrate practical activities to support optimized ship handling to


demonstrate effects of such actions regarding fuel saving, reduction of GHG emissions, etc.,
and on the other hand to perform actions/tasks in simulation environment.

Practical activities on this subject can range from performing manual or desktop calculation
exercises of specific case studies up to full-mission simulation exercises.

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Part D: Instructor Manual

As a sample exercise the ship operation when approaching a berth in a harbour is suggested.
A potential frame for the sequence of events and tasks of such an exercise is given in the
following table.

The emphasis of the simulation exercise is laid on planning of energy efficient manoeuvring
taking into account optimized use of engine, propeller, thrusters, etc., and by using available
sources of information and taking into account different trim and ballast conditions.

Sample Exercise III


Identifier Optimized ship handling I
Manoeuvre planning for harbour basin and berthing operation
Training objective i.a./e.g.
• Manoeuvring in shallow water areas of harbour basin
• Optimum use of steering and control systems
• Use of tools for planning and monitoring ship operation considering
different trim/ballast conditions
Simulator tool Full mission ship handling simulator
Standard of competence Master, chief mate (management level) and navigating officers
Configuration e.g. RoRo Ferry (Loa = 200 m; draught = 6,0 m; service speed = 24 kn)
Traffic situation Moderate (about 3 ships per 10 min)
Time of day Daylight
Current Realistic (regarding area)
Environment Wind: moderate, < 4 BF
Sea state: low to moderate, average height of wave ~ 2,5 m
Duration Long, > 45 min
Visibility More than 8 nm
Area Harbour area
Event-description • Ferry/Passenger vessel (i.a. equipped with two propellers, bow thruster)
is approaching a harbour area for berthing operation
• Communication with shore-based VTS station
• Passage to berth includes several rudder/engine manoeuvres, also use
of thruster is necessary
• Passage planning to berth including pre-planning of manoeuvring up to
berthing
• Combined rudder/engine manoeuvres possible to save time while
simultaneously keeping safety limits
• Effects of “squat” on under keel clearance power, speed and fuel
consumption in shallow water
• Situation assessment (including trim operation and speed adaptation)

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Sample Exercise IV

Practical activities integrated into an SEEMP training course should cover routine actions in
order to increase awareness of their effects and impact on energy efficiency, fuel saving, etc.

Suggested activities for this exercise may address, for example, continuous monitoring
of power generation and its adaptation to present status as well as monitoring of intake
temperatures and related actions with the aim to raise awareness on energy efficiency in
engine rooms accordingly.

In order to understand the impact of speed on fuel consumption, it is suggested that EEOI
values using actual fuel consumption from existing vessel data at various speeds should be
calculated by the participants.

Sample Exercise IV
Identifier Optimized ship handling II (including management issues)
Energy efficient operation in engine room
Training objective i.a./e.g.
• Impact of service speed on fuel consumption
• Use of automated engine management systems to optimally control
shaft revolution and power
• Power management of shaft and turbo generators and effective use of
waste heat recovery systems
• Effect of slow steaming and its impact on the main engine and
propulsion plant
• Proper management of fuel oil
• Use of condition-based maintenance systems
Simulator tool Full mission ship engine simulator and laboratory works
Standard of competence Chief and 2nd Engineers (management level) and ship’s environmental
officer
Configuration e.g. typical engine room configuration of a 5,000 TEU container vessel
Traffic situation Moderate (about 3 ships per 10 min)
Time of day Night
Current n/a
Environment (Wind: moderate, < 5 BF
Sea state: moderate, average height of wave ~ 3 m)
Duration Long, > 45 min
Visibility (more than 8 nm)
Area Open sea area
Event-description • Vessel on voyage at open sea
• Routine checks of operation to collect information
• Analysis of results and conclusion for energy saving measures
(adaptation of diesel generators load)
• Assessment of options (e.g. switching off transformers and actions to
optimize number of generators, etc.)

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Part D: Instructor Manual

In contrast to the subject area mentioned above, the following areas “3. Application” and
“4. Implementation and monitoring” contain both theoretical and practical knowledge to
establish and develop a Ship Energy Efficient Management Plan (SEEMP) structured with
four steps: planning, implementation, monitoring, and self-evaluation and improvement.
Practical activities for these areas can be integrated into a comprehensive package aiming
to develop an effective management plan.

Framework and structure of SEEMP,


Implementation and monitoring (Practical activities 3 hours in total)

The purpose of an SEEMP is to establish a mechanism for a company and/or a ship to improve
the energy efficiency of a ship’s operation. The SEEMP is intended to be a management tool
to assist a shipping company in managing the environmental performance of its ships, which
seeks to improve a ship’s energy efficiency through the following four steps:
1. Planning
– Ship-specific measures
– Company-specific measures
– Human resource development
– Goal setting
2. Implementation
– Establishment of implementation system
– Implementation and record-keeping
3. Monitoring
– Monitoring tools
– Establishment of monitoring system
– Search and Rescue
4. Self-evaluation and improvement

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Sample Exercise V

The concept of the four steps is obviously based on the PDCA cycle that provides a system
or mechanism with the continuous improvement in order to achieve the final goal made by
the shipping company. The principal framework of practical activities in terms of the subject
areas could be structured as suggested in the table below.

Sample Exercise V
Identifier Development of a Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan
Exercise objectives i.a./e.g.
• Identify the concepts of the four steps included in the SEEMP
• Develop the SEEMP based on Appendix to resolution MEPC.213(63)
• Evaluate the SEEMP for further improvement
Standard of competence Shipowner, operator and any other party concerned (management level)
Type of ships e.g.
Container ship, crude oil tanker, etc., engaged in an international trade
Navigation data • Voyage route
• Voyage distance
• Average speed
• Ballast quantity
• Fuel oil consumption, etc.

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Part D: Instructor Manual

Sample form of a Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan


(Appendix to resolution MEPC.213(63))

Name of Vessel: GT:

Vessel Type: Capacity:

Date of
Developed by:
Development:
Implementation From:
Implemented by:
Period: Until:
Planned Date of
Next Evaluation:

1. MEASURES

Energy Efficiency Implementation Responsible Personnel


Measures (including the starting date)
Weather Routing <Example> <Example>
Contracted with [Service The master is responsible for
providers] to use their weather selecting the optimum route
routing system and start using based on the information
on trial basis as of 1 July 2012. provided by [Service
providers].
Speed Optimization While the design speed The master is responsible
(80% MCR) is 19.0 kt, the for keeping the ship speed.
maximum speed is set at The logbook entry should be
17.0 kt as of 1 July 2012. checked every day.

2. MONITORING
– Description of monitoring tools

3. GOAL
– Measurable goals

4. EVALUATION
– Procedures of evaluation

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Part E: Evaluation
n Introduction

The effectiveness of any evaluation depends upon the accuracy of the description of what is
to be measured.

The learning objectives used in the detailed syllabus will provide a sound base for the
construction of suitable tests for evaluating participant progress. Even though this course
is not aimed at developing measurable skills the principles of a more formal evaluation are
included, as is standard for most IMO model courses.

n Method of evaluation

The methods chosen to carry out an evaluation will depend upon what the participant is
expected to achieve in terms of knowing, comprehending and applying the course content.

The methods used can range from a simple question-and-answer discussion with the
participants (either individually or as a group), to prepared tests requiring the selection of
correct or best responses from given alternatives, the correct matching of given items, the
supply of short answers or the supply of more extensive written responses to prepared
questions.

Where the course content is aimed at the acquisition of practical skills, the test would involve
a practical demonstration by the participant making use of appropriate equipment, tools, etc.

The responses demanded may therefore consist of:


l the recall of facts or information, by viva-voce or objective tests;
l the practical demonstration of an attained skill;
l the oral or written description of procedures or activities;
l the identification and use of data from sketches, drawings, maps, charts, etc.;
l carrying out calculations to solve numerical problems;
l the writing of an essay or report.

n Validity

The evaluation must be based on clearly defined objectives, and it must truly represent what
is to be measured. There must be a reasonable balance between the subject topics involved
and also in the testing of participants’ KNOWLEDGE, COMPREHENSION, and APPLICATION
of concepts.

The time allocated for the participant to provide a response is very important. Each question
or task must be properly tested and validated before it is used to ensure that the test will
provide a fair and valid evaluation.

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Part E: Evaluation

n Reliability

To be reliable, an evaluation procedure should produce reasonably consistent results no


matter which set of papers or version of the test involved is used.

n Subjective testing

Traditional methods of evaluation require the participant to demonstrate what has been
learned by stating or writing formal answers to questions.

Such evaluation is subjective in that it invariably depends upon the judgement of the evaluator.
Different evaluators can produce quite different scores when marking the same paper or
evaluating oral answers.

n Objective testing

A variety of objective tests have been developed over the years. Their common feature is that
the evaluation does not require a judgement by the evaluator. The response is either right or
wrong.

One type of objective test involves supplying an answer, generally a single word, to complete
the missing portion of a sentence. Another involves supplying a short answer of two or three
words to a question. Such tests are known as ‘completion tests’ and ‘short answer tests’.

Another form of objective testing consists of ‘selective-response tests’ in which the correct or
best response must be selected from given alternatives. Such tests may consist of ‘matching
tests’, in which items contained in two separate lists must be matched; or they may be of the
true/false type or of the multiple-choice type.

The most flexible form of objective test is the multiple-choice test, which presents the
participant with a problem and a list of alternative solutions, from which he must select the
most appropriate.

n Distracters

The incorrect alternatives in multiple-choice questions are called ‘distracters’, because their
purpose is to distract the uninformed participant from the correct response. The distracter
must be realistic and should be based on misconceptions commonly held, or on mistakes
commonly made.

The options ‘none of the above’ or ‘all of the above’ are used in some tests. These can be
helpful, but should be used sparingly.

Distracters should distract the uninformed, but they should not take the form of ‘trick’
questions that could mislead the knowledgeable participant (for example, do not insert ‘not’
into a correct response to make it a distracter).

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n Guess factor

The ‘guess factor’ with four alternative responses in a multiple-choice test would be 25%.
The pass mark chosen for all selective-response questions should take this into account.

n Scoring

In simple scoring of objective tests one mark may be allotted to each correct response and
zero for a wrong or nil response.

A more sophisticated scoring technique entails awarding one mark for a correct response,
zero for a nil response and minus one for an incorrect response. Where a multiple-choice test
involves four alternatives, this means that a totally uninformed guess involves a 25% chance
of gaining one mark and a 75% chance of losing one mark.

Scores can be weighted to reflect the relative importance of questions, or of sections of an


evaluation.

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Guidance on the Implementation of
IMO Model Courses

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Guidance on the Implementation of IMO Model Courses

Contents
Page
Part 1: Preparation 121
43
Part 2: Notes on teaching technique 126
48
Part 3: Curriculum development 128
50
Annex A1 Preparation checklist 131
53
Annex A2 Example of a model course syllabus in a subject area 133
55
Annex A3 Example of a lesson plan for annex A2 138
60

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Guidance on the Implementation of IMO Model Courses

Part 1: Preparation
1. Introduction

1.1 The success of any enterprise depends heavily on sound and effective preparations.

1.2 Although the IMO model course “package” has been made as comprehensive as
possible, it is nonetheless vital that sufficient time and resources are devoted to
preparation. Preparation not only involves matters concerning administration or
organization, but also includes the preparation of any course notes, drawings,
sketches, overhead transparencies, etc., which may be necessary.

2. General considerations

2.1 The course “package” should be studied carefully; in particular, the course syllabus
and associated material must be attentively and thoroughly studied. This is vital if a
clear understanding is to be obtained of what is required, in terms of resources
necessary to successfully implement the course.

2.2 A “checklist”, such as that set out in annex A1, should be used throughout all stages
of preparation to ensure that all necessary actions and activities are being carried
out in good time and in an effective manner. The checklist allows the status of the
preparation procedures to be monitored, and helps in identifying the remedial
actions necessary to meet deadlines. It will be necessary to hold meetings of all
those concerned in presenting the course from time to time in order to assess the
status of the preparation and “troubleshoot” any difficulties.

2.3 The course syllabus should be discussed with the teaching staff who are to present
the course, and their views received on the particular parts they are to present. A
study of the syllabus will determine whether the incoming trainees need preparatory
work to meet the entry standard. The detailed teaching syllabus is constructed in
“training outcome” format. Each specific outcome states precisely what the trainee
must do to show that the outcome has been achieved. An example of a model
course syllabus is given in annex A2. Part 3 deals with curriculum development and
explains how a syllabus is constructed and used.

2.4 The teaching staff who are to present the course should construct notes or lesson
plans to achieve these outcomes. A sample lesson plan for one of the areas of the
sample syllabus is provided in annex A3.

2.5 It is important that the staff who present the course convey, to the person in charge
of the course, their assessment of the course as it progresses.

3. Specific considerations
3.1 Scope of course
In reviewing the scope of the course, the instructor should determine whether it
needs any adjustment in order to meet additional local or national requirements (see
Part 3).

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ENERGY
FLAG EFFICIENT
STATE OPERATION OF SHIPS
IMPLEMENTATION

3.2 Course objective


.1 The course objective, as stated in the course material, should be very carefully
considered so that its meaning is fully understood. Does the course objective require
expansion to encompass any additional task that national or local requirements will
impose upon those who successfully complete the course? Conversely, are there
elements included which are not validated by national industry requirements?

.2 It is important that any subsequent assessment made of the course should


include a review of the course objectives.

3.3 Entry standards


.1 If the entry standard will not be met by your intended trainee intake, those
entering the course should rst be required to complete an upgrading course to raise
them to the stated entry level. Alternatively, those parts of the course affected
could be augmented by inserting course material which will cover the knowledge
required.

.2 If the entry standard will be exceeded by your planned trainee intake, you may
wish to abridge or omit those parts of the course the teaching of which would be
unnecessary, or which could be dealt with as revision.

.3 Study the course material with the above questions in mind and with a view to
assessing whether or not it will be necessary for the trainees to carry out preparatory
work prior to joining the course. Preparatory material for the trainees can range from
refresher notes, selected topics from textbooks and reading of selected technical
papers, through to formal courses of instruction. It may be necessary to use a
combination of preparatory work and the model course material in modified form. It
must be emphasized that where the model course material involves an international
requirement, such as a regulation of the International Convention on Standards of
Training, Certification and Watchkeeping (STCW) 1978, as amended, the standard
must not be relaxed; in many instances, the intention of the Convention is to require
review, revision or increased depth of knowledge by candidates undergoing training
for higher certificates.

3.4 Course certificate, diploma or document


Where a certificate, diploma or document is to be issued to trainees who successfully
complete the course, ensure that this is available and properly worded and that the
industry and all authorities concerned are fully aware of its purpose and intent.

3.5 Course intake limitations


.1 The course designers have recommended limitations regarding the numbers of
trainees who may participate in the course. As far as possible, these limitations
should not be exceeded; otherwise, the quality of the course will be diluted.

.2 It may be necessary to make arrangements for accommodating the trainees


and providing facilities for food and transportation. These aspects must be considered
at an early stage of the preparations.

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3.6 Staff requirements


.1 It is important that an experienced person, preferably someone with experience
in course and curriculum development, is given the responsibility of implementing the
course.

.2 Such a person is often termed a “course coordinator” or “course director”.


Other staff, such as lecturers, instructors, laboratory technicians, workshop instructors,
etc., will be needed to implement the course effectively. Staff involved in presenting
the course will need to be properly briefed about the course work they will be dealing
with, and a system must be set up for checking the material they may be required to
prepare. To do this, it will be essential to make a thorough study of the syllabus and
apportion the parts of the course work according to the abilities of the staff called
upon to present the work.

.3 The person responsible for implementing the course should consider monitoring
the quality of teaching in such areas as variety and form of approach, relationship with
trainees, and communicative and interactive skills; where necessary, this person
should also provide appropriate counselling and support.

3.7 Teaching facilities and equipment


.1 Rooms and other services
It is important to make reservations as soon as is practicable for the use of lecture
rooms, laboratories, workshops and other spaces.

.2 Equipment
Arrangements must be made at an early stage for the use of equipment needed in the
spaces mentioned in 3.7.1 to support and carry through the work of the course. For
example:
● blackboards and writing materials
● apparatus in laboratories for any associated demonstrations and experiments
● machinery and related equipment in workshops
● equipment and materials in other spaces (e.g. for demonstrating firefighting,
personal survival, etc.)

3.8 Teaching aids


Any training aids specified as being essential to the course should be constructed, or
checked for availability and working order.

3.9 Audiovisual aids


Audiovisual aids (AVA) may be recommended in order to reinforce the learning
process in some parts of the course. Such recommendations will be identified in Part
A of the model course. The following points should be borne in mind:

.1 Overhead projectors
Check through any illustrations provided in the course for producing overhead
projector (OHP) transparencies, and arrange them in order of presentation. To produce
transparencies, a supply of transparency sheets is required; the illustrations can be

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transferred to these via photocopying. Alternatively, transparencies can be produced


by writing or drawing on the sheet. Coloured pens are useful for emphasizing salient
points. Ensure that spare projector lamps (bulbs) are available.

.2 Slide projectors
If you order slides indicated in the course framework, check through them and
arrange them in order of presentation. Slides are usually produced from photographic
negatives. If further slides are considered necessary and cannot be produced locally,
OHP transparencies should be resorted to.

.3 Cine projector
If films are to be used, check their compatibility with the projector (i.e. 16 mm, 35 mm,
sound, etc.). The films must be test-run to ensure there are no breakages.

.4 Video equipment
It is essential to check the type of video tape to be used. The two types commonly
used are VHS and Betamax. Although special machines exist which can play either
format, the majority of machines play only one or the other type. Note that VHS and
Betamax are not compatible; the correct machine type is required to match the tape.
Check also that the TV raster format used in the tapes (i.e. number of lines, frames/
second, scanning order, etc.) is appropriate to the TV equipment available. (Specialist
advice may have to be sought on this aspect.) All video tapes should be test-run prior
to their use on the course.

.5 Computer equipment
If computer-based aids are used, check their compatibility with the projector and the
available software.

.6 General note
The electricity supply must be checked for correct voltage, and every precaution must
be taken to ensure that the equipment operates properly and safely. It is important to
use a proper screen which is correctly positioned; it may be necessary to exclude
daylight in some cases. A check must be made to ensure that appropriate screens or
blinds are available. All material to be presented should be test-run to eliminate any
possible troubles, arranged in the correct sequence in which it is to be shown, and
properly identified and cross-referenced in the course timetable and lesson plans.

3.10 IMO references


The content of the course, and therefore its standard, reflects the requirements of all
the relevant IMO international conventions and the provisions of other instruments as
indicated in the model course. The relevant publications can be obtained from the
Publication Service of IMO, and should be available, at least to those involved in
presenting the course, if the indicated extracts are not included in a compendium
supplied with the course.

3.11 Textbooks
The detailed syllabus may refer to a particular textbook or textbooks. It is essential
that these books are available to each student taking the course. If supplies of

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textbooks are limited, a copy should be loaned to each student, who will return it at
the end of the course. Again, some courses are provided with a compendium which
includes all or part of the training material required to support the course.

3.12 Bibliography
Any useful supplementary source material is identified by the course designers and
listed in the model course. This list should be supplied to the participants so that they
are aware where additional information can be obtained, and at least two copies of
each book or publication should be available for reference in the training institute
library.

3.13 Timetable
If a timetable is provided in a model course, it is for guidance only. It may only take
one or two presentations of the course to achieve an optimal timetable. However,
even then it must be borne in mind that any timetable is subject to variation, depending
on the general needs of the trainees in any one class and the availability of instructors
and equipment.

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Part 2: Notes on teaching technique


1. Preparation

1.1 Identify the section of the syllabus which is to be dealt with.

1.2 Read and study thoroughly all the syllabus elements.

1.3 Obtain the necessary textbooks or reference papers which cover the training area to
be presented.

1.4 Identify the equipment which will be needed, together with support staff necessary
for its operation.

1.5 It is essential to use a “lesson plan”, which can provide a simplified format for
coordinating lecture notes and supporting activities. The lesson plan breaks the
material down into identifiable steps, making use of brief statements, possibly with
keywords added, and indicating suitable allocations of time for each step. The use
of audiovisual material should be indexed at the correct point in the lecture with an
appropriate allowance of time. The audiovisual material should be test-run prior to
its being used in the lecture. An example of a lesson plan is shown in annex A3.

1.6 The syllabus is structured in training outcome format and it is thereby relatively
straight forward to assess each trainee’s grasp of the subject matter presented
during the lecture. Such assessment may take the form of further discussion, oral
questions, written tests or selection-type tests, such as multiple-choice questions,
based on the objectives used in the syllabus. Selection-type tests and short-answer
tests can provide an objective assessment independent of any bias on the part of
the assessor. For certification purposes, assessors should be appropriately qualified
for the particular type of training or assessment.

REMEMBER – POOR PREPARATION IS A SURE WAY TO LOSE THE INTEREST OF


A GROUP

1.7 Check the rooms to be used before the lecture is delivered. Make sure that all the
equipment and apparatus are ready for use and that any support staff are also
prepared and ready. In particular, check that all blackboards are clean and that a
supply of writing and cleaning materials is readily available.

2. Delivery

2.1 Always face the people you are talking to; never talk with your back to the group.

2.2 Talk clearly and sufficiently loudly to reach everyone.

2.3 Maintain eye contact with the whole group as a way of securing their interest and
maintaining it (i.e. do not look continuously at one particular person, nor at a point
in space).

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2.4 People are all different, and they behave and react in different ways. An important
function of an instructor is to maintain interest and interaction between members
of a group.

2.5 Some points or statements are more important than others and should therefore be
emphasized. To ensure that such points or statements are remembered, they must
be restated a number of times, preferably in different words.

2.6 If a blackboard is to be used, any writing on it must be clear and large enough for
everyone to see. Use colour to emphasize important points, particularly in sketches.

2.7 It is only possible to maintain a high level of interest for a relatively short period of
time; therefore, break the lecture up into different periods of activity to keep interest
at its highest level. Speaking, writing, sketching, use of audiovisual material,
questions, and discussions can all be used to accomplish this. When a group is
writing or sketching, walk amongst the group, looking at their work, and provide
comment or advice to individual members of the group when necessary.

2.8 When holding a discussion, do not allow individual members of the group to
monopolize the activity, but ensure that all members have a chance to express
opinions or ideas.

2.9 If addressing questions to a group, do not ask them collectively; otherwise, the
same person may reply each time. Instead, address the questions to individuals in
turn, so that everyone is invited to participate.

2.10 It is important to be guided by the syllabus content and not to be tempted to


introduce material which may be too advanced, or may contribute little to the course
objective. There is often competition between instructors to achieve a level which is
too advanced. Also, instructors often strongly resist attempts to reduce the level to
that required by a syllabus.

2.11 Finally, effective preparation makes a major contribution to the success of a lecture.
Things often go wrong; preparedness and good planning will contribute to putting
things right. Poor teaching cannot be improved by good accommodation or
advanced equipment, but good teaching can overcome any disadvantages that
poor accommodation and lack of equipment can present.

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Part 3: Curriculum development


1. Curriculum
The dictionary defines curriculum as a “regular course of study”, while syllabus is
defined as “a concise statement of the subjects forming a course of study”. Thus,
in general terms, a curriculum is simply a course, while a syllabus can be thought of
as a list (traditionally, a “list of things to be taught”).

2. Course content
The subjects which are needed to form a training course, and the precise skills and
depth of knowledge required in the various subjects, can only be determined through
an in-depth assessment of the job functions which the course participants are to be
trained to perform (job analysis). This analysis determines the training needs, hence
the purpose of the course (course objective). After ascertaining this, it is possible to
define the scope of the course.

(Note: Determination of whether or not the course objective has been achieved may
quite possibly entail assessment, over a period of time, of the “on-the-job
performance” of those completing the course. However, the detailed learning
objectives are quite specific and immediately assessable.)

3. Job analysis
A job analysis can only be properly carried out by a group whose members are
representative of the organizations and bodies involved in the area of work to be
covered by the course. The validation of results, via review with persons currently
employed in the job concerned, is essential if undertraining and overtraining are to
be avoided.

4. Course plan
Following definition of the course objective and scope, a course plan or outline can
be drawn up. The potential students for the course (the trainee target group) must
then be identified, the entry standard to the course decided and the prerequisites
defined.

5. Syllabus
The final step in the process is the preparation of the detailed syllabus with
associated timescales; the identification of those parts of textbooks and technical
papers which cover the training areas to a sufficient degree to meet, but not exceed,
each learning objective; and the drawing up of a bibliography of additional material
for supplementary reading.

6. Syllabus content
The material contained in a syllabus is not static; technology is continuously
undergoing change and there must therefore be a means for reviewing course
material in order to eliminate what is redundant and introduce new material reflecting
current practice. As defined above, a syllabus can be thought of as a list and,
traditionally, there have always been an “examination syllabus” and a “teaching

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syllabus”; these indicate, respectively, the subject matter contained in an examination


paper, and the subject matter a teacher is to use in preparing lessons or lectures.

7. Training outcomes

7.1 The prime communication difficulty presented by any syllabus is how to convey the
“depth” of knowledge required. A syllabus is usually constructed as a series of
“training outcomes” to help resolve this difficulty.

7.2 Thus, curriculum development makes use of training outcomes to ensure that a
common minimum level and breadth of attainment is achieved by all the trainees
following the same course, irrespective of the training institution (i.e. teaching/
lecturing staff).

7.3 Training outcomes are trainee-oriented, in that they describe an end result which is
to be achieved by the trainee as a result of a learning process.

7.4 In many cases, the learning process is linked to a skill or work activity and, to
demonstrate properly the attainment of the objective, the trainee response may have
to be based on practical application or use, or on work experience.

7.5 The training outcome, although aimed principally at the trainee to ensure achievement
of a specific learning step, also provides a framework for the teacher or instructor
upon which lessons or lectures can be constructed.

7.6 A training outcome is specific and describes precisely what a trainee must do to
demonstrate his knowledge, understanding or skill as an end product of a learning
process.

7.7 The learning process is the “knowledge acquisition” or “skill development” that
takes place during a course. The outcome of the process is an acquired “knowledge”,
“understanding”, “skill”; but these terms alone are not sufficiently precise for
describing a training outcome.

7.8 Verbs, such as “calculates”, “defines”, “explains”, “lists”, “solves” and “states”,
must be used when constructing a specific training outcome, so as to define
precisely what the trainee will be enabled to do.

7.9 In the IMO model course project, the aim is to provide a series of model courses to
assist instructors in developing countries to enhance or update the maritime training
they provide, and to allow a common minimum standard to be achieved throughout
the world. The use of training outcomes is a tangible way of achieving this desired
aim.

7.10 As an example, a syllabus in training-outcome format for the subject of ship


construction appears in annex A2. This is a standard way of structuring this kind of
syllabus. Although, in this case, an outcome for each area has been identified – and
could be used in an assessment procedure – this stage is often dropped to obtain
a more compact syllabus structure.

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8. Assessment
Training outcomes describe an outcome which is to be achieved by the trainee. Of
equal importance is the fact that such an achievement can be measured OBJECTIVELY
through an evaluation which will not be influenced by the personal opinions and
judgements of the examiner. Objective testing or evaluation provides a sound base
on which to make reliable judgements concerning the levels of understanding and
knowledge achieved, thus allowing an effective evaluation to be made of the progress
of trainees in a course.

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Ref Component Identified Reserved Electricity Purchases Tested Accepted Started Finished Status OK
supply

1 Course plan

2 Timetable

3 Syllabus

4 Scope

5 Objective

6 Entry
standard
Guidance
GUIDANCE

7 Preparatory
on the

course
ON THE

8 Course

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certificate

9 Participant
numbers
Implementation

10 Staffing
IMPLEMENTATION
of IMO

Coordinator __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Lecturers __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
OF MODEL

Instructors __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Technicians __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Other __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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COURSES

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11 Facilities
EFFICIENT

a) Rooms

Lab __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
IMPLEMENTATION

Workshop __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Other __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
OPERATION OF SHIPS

Class __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

b) Equipment

Lab __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Workshop __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Other __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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12 AVA
Equipment
and Materials
OHP __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Slide __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Cine __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Video __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

13 IMO Reference
14 Textbooks
15 Bibliography

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Annex A2 – Example of a model course syllabus in a subject area

Subject area : Ship construction

Prerequisite : Have a broad understanding of shipyard practice

General aims : Have knowledge of materials used in shipbuilding, specification of


shipbuilding steel and process of approval

Textbooks : No specific textbook has been used to construct the syllabus, but the
instructor would be assisted in preparation of lecture notes by referring
to suitable books on ship construction, such as Ship Construction by
Eyres (T12) and Merchant Ship Construction by Taylor (T58)

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Course outline
Total hours for
Total hours for each subject area
Knowledge, understanding and proficiency
each topic of Required
performance

Competence :

3.1 CONTROL TRIM, STABILITY and STRESS

3.1.1 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF SHIP


CONSTRUCTION, TRIM AND STABILITY

.1 Shipbuilding materials 3
.2 Welding 3
.3 Bulkheads 4
.4 Watertight and weathertight doors 3
.5 Corrosion and its prevention 4
.6 Surveys and dry-docking 2
.7 Stability 83 102

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Part C3: Detailed Teaching Syllabus


Introduction
The detailed teaching syllabus is presented as a series of learning objectives. The objective,
therefore, describes what the trainee must do to demonstrate that the specified knowledge
or skill has been transferred.

Thus each training outcome is supported by a number of related performance elements in


which the trainee is required to be proficient. The teaching syllabus shows the Required
performance expected of the trainee in the tables that follow.

In order to assist the instructor, references are shown to indicate IMO references and
publications, textbooks and teaching aids that instructors may wish to use in preparing and
presenting their lessons.

The material listed in the course framework has been used to structure the detailed training
syllabus; in particular:
● Teaching aids (indicated by A)
● IMO references (indicated by R), and
● Textbooks (indicated by T)

will provide valuable information to instructors.

Explanation of information contained in the syllabus tables


The information on each table is systematically organized in the following way. The line at
the head of the table describes the FUNCTION with which the training is concerned. A
function means a group of tasks, duties and responsibilities as specified in the STCW Code.
It describes related activities which make up a professional discipline or traditional
departmental responsibility on board.

The header of the first column denotes the COMPETENCE concerned. Each function
comprises a number of COMPETENCES. Each competence is uniquely and consistently
numbered on this model course.

In this function the competence is Control Trim, Stability and Stress. It is numbered 3.1,
that is the first competence in Function 3. The term “competence” should be understood as
the application of knowledge, understanding, proficiency, skills, experience for an individual
to perform a task, duty or responsibility on board in a safe, efficient and timely manner.

Shown next is the required TRAINING OUTCOME. The training outcomes are the areas of
knowledge, understanding and proficiency in which the trainee must be able to demonstrate
knowledge and understanding. Each COMPETENCE comprises a number of training
outcomes. For example, the above competence comprises three training outcomes. The
first is concerned with FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF SHIP CONSTRUCTION, TRIM AND
STABILITY. Each training outcome is uniquely and consistently numbered in this model
course. That concerned with fundamental principles of ship construction, trim and stability
is uniquely numbered 3.1.1. For clarity, training outcomes are printed in black type on grey,
for example TRAINING OUTCOME.

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Finally, each training outcome embodies a variable number of Required performances – as


evidence of competence. The instruction, training and learning should lead to the trainee
meeting the specified Required performance. For the training outcome concerned with the
fundamental principles of ship construction, trim and stability there are three areas of
performance. These are:

3.1.1.1 Shipbuilding materials


3.1.1.2 Welding
3.1.1.3 Bulkheads

Following each numbered area of Required performance there is a list of activities that the
trainee should complete and which collectively specify the standard of competence that the
trainee must meet. These are for the guidance of teachers and instructors in designing
lessons, lectures, tests and exercises for use in the teaching process. For example, under
the topic 3.1.1.1, to meet the Required performance, the trainee should be able to:

● state that steels are alloys of iron, with properties dependent upon the type and
amount of alloying materials used

● state that the specication of shipbuilding steels are laid down by classication
societies

● state that shipbuilding steel is tested and graded by classication society surveyors
who stamp it with approved marks

and so on.

IMO references (Rx) are listed in the column to the right-hand side. Teaching aids (Ax), videos
(Vx) and textbooks (Tx) relevant to the training outcome and Required performances are
placed immediately following the TRAINING OUTCOME title.

It is not intended that lessons are organized to follow the sequence of Required performances
listed in the Tables. The Syllabus Tables are organized to match with the competence in the
STCW Code, table A-II/2. Lessons and teaching should follow college practices. It is not
necessary, for example, for shipbuilding materials to be studied before stability. What is
necessary is that all of the material is covered and that teaching is effective to allow trainees
to meet the standard of the Required performance.

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FUNCTION 3: CONTROLLING THE OPERATION OF THE SHIP AND CARE FOR


PERSONS ON BOARD AT THE MANAGEMENT LEVEL

COMPETENCE 3.1 Control trim, stability and stress IMO reference

3.1.1 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF SHIP


CONSTRUCTION, TRIM AND STABILITY
Textbooks: T11, T12, T35, T58, T69

Teaching aids: A1, A4, V5, V6, V7

Required performance:

1.1 Shipbuilding materials (3 hours) R1


– states that steels are alloys of iron, with properties dependent upon the type and
amounts of alloying materials used
– states that the specifications of shipbuilding steels are laid down by
classification societies
– states that shipbuilding steel is tested and graded by classification surveyors,
who stamp it with approved marks
– explains that mild steel, graded A – E, is used for most parts of the ship
– states why higher tensile steel may be used in areas of high stress, such as
the sheer strake
– explains that the use of higher tensile steel in place of mild steel results in
saving of weight for the same strength
– explains what is meant by:
• tensile strength
• ductility
• hardness
• toughness
– defines strain as extension divided by original length
– sketches a stress-strain curve for mild steel
– explains
• yield point
• ultimate tensile stress
• modulus of elasticity
– explains that toughness is related to the tendency to brittle fracture
– explains that stress fracture may be initiated by a small crack or notch in a plate
– states that cold conditions increase the chances of brittle fracture
– states why mild steel is unsuitable for the very low temperatures involved in the containment of
liquefied gases
– lists examples where castings or forgings are used in ship construction
– explains the advantages of the use of aluminium alloys in the construction of superstructures
– states that aluminium alloys are tested and graded by classification society surveyors
– explains how strength is preserved in aluminium superstructures in the event of fire
– describes the special precautions against corrosion that are needed where aluminium alloy is
connected to steelwork

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Annex A3 – Example of a lesson plan for annex A2

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Subject area : 3.1 Control trim, stability and stress Lesson Number: 1 Duration : 3 hours
EFFICIENT

Training Area : 3.1.1 Fundamental principles of ship construction, trim and stability

Main element Teaching Textbook IMO A/V aid Instructor Lecture Time
Specific training outcome in teaching sequence, with method reference guidelines notes (minutes)
IMPLEMENTATION

memory keys

1.1 Shipbuilding materials (3 hours)


OPERATION OF SHIPS

States that steels are alloys of iron, with properties Lecture T12, T58 STCW II/2, V5 to V7 A1 Compiled 10
dependent upon the type and amounts of alloying A-II/2 by the
materials used lecturer

States that the specifications of shipbuilding steels are Lecture T12, T58 STCW II/2, V5 to V7 A1 Compiled 20
laid down by classification societies A-II/2 by the
lecturer

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Explains that mild steel, graded A to E, is used for most Lecture T12, T58 STCW II/2, V5 to V7 A1 Compiled 15
parts of the ship A-II/2 by the
lecturer

States why higher tensile steel may be used in areas of Lecture T12, T58 STCW II/2, V5 to V7 A1 Compiled 10
high stress, such as the sheer strake A-II/2 by the
lecturer

Explains that use of higher tensile steel in place of mild Lecture T12, T58 STCW II/2, V5 to V7 A1 Compiled 15
steel results in a saving of weight for the same strength A-II/2 by the
lecturer

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