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The Navigation Act of 1660 forbade importing into or the exporting from the British colonies of any goods except in English or Colonial
ships. It also forbade articles such as tobacco, sugar, cotton and indigo to be shipped to any country except to England or some English
plantation. These goods had to pay heavy tariffs when shipped to England. Articles such as grain and fish were not taxed because they were
produced in England, and if the colonial production had been sent to that country, the English producer would be bankrupt.

The northern colonies produced many of the same kinds of goods that England produced and continued to do so well into the 19th century. As
a result manufacturing there suffered from the trade laws. The southern colonies which raised things such as tobacco and rice, which could
not be grown in England, suffered far less. In spite of all efforts, the Navigation Acts could scarcely be enforced at all. Colonists became
lawbreakers. Smuggling was universal and it went on regardless of the courts that were established to try and prosecute smugglers. Courts
were established in most of the colonies for this reason. The Navigation Acts were an economic and political blunder in the long run but for a
time they provided England with the wealth and power it used to create a great empire. The trade acts not only made people lawbreakers, it
made colonists hold Parliament in contempt, not able to enforce its own laws. The most significant result of the Navigation Acts upon
American history was the stifling of colonial manufacturing and increased resentment against (and ultimate break from) the mother country,
and one of the reasons leading to the American Revolution.

Conclusions: Based upon the reading or your prior knowledge:

1. According to the reading, what was one of the lasting effects of the Navigation Acts?
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2. Why do you think the British government made the Colonial citizens follow the Acts?
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3. What does it mean to smuggle?
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4. Did the Acts make England rich?
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Observations: Make a list of what you see in this artifact.
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Conclusions: Based upon the picture or the or your prior knowledge:

1. What do you think these European Colonial women are gathered doing in this
picture?
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2. What types of things do you think European Colonial Women did on a daily basis?
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3. How do you think the roles of women in America are different today?
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4. How do you think that Colonial women helped to shape the 13 colonies?
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Observations: Make a list of what you see in this artifact.
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Conclusions: Based upon the picture or prior knowledge:
1. What group does the man on the left belong to??

2. What do you predict that these two people are discussing together?

3. What Colonies did puritans help to found?

4. What did the Puritans believe?
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The Middle Colonies were the most ethnically and religiously diverse of the thirteen original
colonies because of the influence of their Polish, English, Dutch, French and German origins. This
influence included tolerance and cosmopolitanism, and resulted in New Netherland's success as the
commercial center of the eastern North American colonies. This was evidence by the fact that they
had more agriculture than the New England colonies. The Middle Colonies were also known as the
"bread" colonies because of their large grain export. It was also the mid-Atlantic colonies that
expanded into other areas of commerce before the others.

There were many brick buildings in the Middle Colony due to the amount of clay along the
riverbanks. The Dutch built houses that were usually two-and-a-half to three stories high with steep
roofs. The Germans were the last in the colonies to use stoves rather than fireplaces to heat their
homes. Many streets were paved, and many people had their shops and homes in the same building.
The wealthy would have their portraits painted. Homes in the country could be made of logs and
chinked with moss or mud.

Vegetables and meat were used to make soups and stews. Pies were made from gathered raspberries,
strawberries, and cherries. Since water was sometimes impure, all members of the family drank milk
and whiskey, which was made out of corn, rye, wheat, and barley. The whiskey was often mixed
with spices, milk, and sugar which many people thought improved the taste. Agriculture was not the
only profitable way to make a living. The Middle Colonies were full of fish, oysters and lobsters. In
the woods, boar was the game of choice. Wild turkeys roamed everywhere and were ripe for the
picking.

Originally, clothing in the Middle Colonies for the most part resembled the Dutch form of dress.
Quakers wore neat and simple clothing as their religion taught them. Many clothes were homemade
on the frontier. Flax produced linen and deerskin was used to make breeches, shirts, jackets, and
moccasins. Forest products were used to make a dye. Yellow came from butternut tree bark; red
came from the roots of the madder herb; blue was extracted from the flowers of indigo plants;
brown came from the hulls of black walnuts.

Observations: Make a list of what you see in the map.
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1. If wheat was the most profitable of products for the middle colonies, how many middle colonies were
there?

2. What was the most profitable crop for the southern colonies?

3. In what way were the New England (north eastern) colonies different than the Middle Colonies?

4. Corn was grown the most in which of the colonial regions?

5. According to the reading, and in your own words, how did people from the Middle colonies originally
dress?
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Observations: Make a list of what you see in this artifact.
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Conclusions: Based upon the picture or the or your prior knowledge:

1. What is this a picture of?
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2. What kinds of emotions does this seeing this picture give you?
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3. What sites/smells/feelings do you think someone on this ship might feel?
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4. Why was there such a low survival rate by enslaved Africans during the middle
passage?
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The Enlightenment was a philosophical movement of the 18th century that
emphasized the use of reason to question previously accepted beliefs and
traditions and that brought about many changes in the world. The
intellectual leaders of this movement regarded themselves as courageous
and elite, and regarded their purpose as leading the world toward progress
and out of a long period of doubtful tradition, full of irrationality,
superstition, and tyranny (which they believed began during a historical
period they called the "Dark Ages"). One key conflict in Enlightenment
philosophy is on the role of theology - during the previous period, there
had been the splintering of the Catholic Church, not, as with previous
schisms, largely along political control of the papacy, but along doctrinal
lines between Roman Catholic and Protestant theologies. Because of this,
theology became something many people argued about, attempting to
create rationales for their viewpoints, which then, in turn, became
generally used. People had different philosophies to back up their own
views on the world. The Enlightenment movement also provided a
framework for the American and French Revolutions, the Latin American
independence movement, and also led to the rise of capitalism and the
birth of socialism, liberalism and fascism. When one examines the
founding documents of the Constitution and Declaration of Independence,
one can see many Enlightenment ideas within.

Observations: Please list a few things you see in this picture
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Conclusions: Based upon the reading or your prior knowledge:

1. According to the reading, what was the Enlightenment?
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2. Why is the enlightenment important to us as Americans?
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3. How does the picture represent an idea of the enlightenment?
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4. Where is one place we can look today to find evidence of the Enlightenment’s
influence on America?
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....Enlightenment ideas found fertile ground in the British
colonies of America where influential leaders such as
Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, and George
Washington were Enlightenment thinkers and Deists.
Americans felt Britain had violated the social contract by
passing unfair laws, so Americans were justified in throwing
off British rule. Leaders in the American Colonies were
influenced by the concepts of freedom of religion (Voltaire),
the right to property (John Locke), the right to a jury trial
(Beccaria) & The Separation of Powers (Montesquieu). The
American Revolution in 1776 made a big impression on
many people in Europe who saw it as a turning point in
history; Americans had enforced the social contract, ended
rule by the king, and established the first national democracy
since ancient times. The Declaration of Independence,
written largely by Jefferson, began with a restatement of the
Enlightenment ideas of philosopher John Locke: "We hold
these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal,
that they are endowed by their Creator with certain
unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and
the pursuit of Happiness." By demonstrating that
Enlightenment ideas could be used to govern a nation, the
young democracy in America became the model for a better
world.

Observations: Please list a few things you see in this picture
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Conclusions: Based upon the reading or your prior knowledge:

1. What is happening in this picture?
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2. According to the reading, how does this picture relate to the Enlightenment?

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3. What country ruled over the 13 original Colonies?
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4. What is one set of Laws that we discussed in class that upset the Colonists?

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5. What is one way that the philosopher John Locke influenced the American
Revolution?
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Many people debate back and forth the “Christian
Beginnings” of our country. Many a preacher has said that
we need to “return” to our spiritual roots as a “Christian”
Nation. Many such people believe that our country was a
Christian nation founded on Christian values by Christians
and we have lost our way. Others, however, contend that the
values we were founded on had more to do with the
Enlightenment, than being founded on the bible or
Christianity. No one disputes the faith of our Founding
Fathers. To speak of unalienable Rights being endowed by a
Creator certainly shows sensitivity to our spiritual selves.
What is surprising is when fundamentalist Christians think
the Founding Father's faith had anything to do with the Bible.
Without exception, the faith of our Funding Fathers was
deist, not theist. It was best expressed earlier in the
Declaration of Independence, when they spoke of "the Laws
of Nature" and of "Nature's God."

The Bible? Here is what a couple of our Founding Fathers
wrote about Bible-based Christianity
Thomas Jefferson
"I have examined all the known superstitions of the world and I do not find in our particular superstition of Christianity one redeeming feature. They
are all alike founded on fables and mythology. Millions of innocent men, women, and children, since the introduction of Christianity, have been burnt,
tortured, fined, and imprisoned. What has been the effect of this coercion? To make one half the world fools and the other half hypocrites; to support
roguery and error all over the earth."

John Adams
Observations: Please list a few things you see in this picture
"Where do we find a precept in the Bible for Creeds, Confessions, Doctrines and Oaths, and whole cartloads of other trumpery that we find religion
encumbered with in these days?"
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Also Adams
"The doctrine of the divinity of Jesus is made a convenient cover for absurdity."

Conclusions: Based upon the reading or your prior knowledge:

1. What is happening in this picture?
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2. What is one piece of evidence that the founding fathers were not Christian?

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3. What do some people think we need to return this country to?
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4. Do you think this country is founded on Christian values?

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5. What is one Enlightenment idea that influenced the creation of our Country?
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