Murari P. Singh John J. Vargo Donald M. Schiffer James D. Dello Dresser-Rand, Wellsville, NY, USA

ABSTRACT The complex field of turbine blade vibration has long been in need of improved tools to help predict the reliability of blading. The SAFE interference diagram is presented as such a tool. It presents much more information than the widely used Campbell diagram. In evaluating interferences, the SAFE diagram compares not only the frequencies of exciting harmonies with natural frequencies of blades, but also the shape of these harmonics with the normal mode shapes of a completely bladed disc including packeted blading. Examples are given of cases where the Campbell diagram predicts a dangerous resonance while the SAFE diagram shows that no resonances exist which are supported by experience. Examples are also provided to show when the SAFE diagram can pinpoint what interference is likely to cause the largest blade vibration. Finally, it is shown how a simple change in packeting can be used to change the blade interference and to avoid dangerous operation. INTRODUCTION To meet the objective of designing reliable and trouble free blading in turbomachinery, the blade natural frequency analysis is of utmost importance. This is due to the fact that almost all blade failures can be attributed to metal fatigue, which is caused by variable aerodynamic loads acting on the blading. Resulting dynamic stresses depend on the natural frequency and the mode shape of the blade, the frequency and shape of the exciting force, and the energy dissipating mechanism present in the system included as damping. In the early days of blade design, the natural frequency analysis was based on the assumption of a single beam cantilevered at the blade root. Prohl and Weaver [1] showed that in the case of a packeted assembly where a group of blades are connected by shrouding, many more natural frequencies and modes exist which could not be predicted by a single blade analysis. This is due to the fact that the group of blades behave as a system and are coupled through the shrouding. The magnitude of frequencies and the number of modes depends on the number of blades in the group and the stiffness of the shrouding. This type of analysis has explained many blade failures and helped designers to build more reliable blades. The next important step in blade analysis was due to the realization that blades are mounted on a disk which can influence the dynamic behavior of blades. Calculations including the disk showed that frequencies can be affected and a new large number of modes exist which cannot be predicted by using a single packet analysis. In reality all blades and the disk constitute one system which may or may not respond to an exciting force. Singh and Schiffer [2] presented a finite element analysis for a packeted bladed disk assembly. They showed and discussed the features of dynamic behavior which is different than when the shrouding is 360 degrees. Traditionally, a blade design is evaluated by using the Campbell Diagram. This


Advanced Micro Steam Turbine Power plant GENERAL DESCRIPTION The Turbine Technologies' RankineCyclerTm is a complete and functional micro steam turbine power plant. It is delivered and supported directly by the factory and can be readied to operate within minutes of uncrating. This micro steam plant allows students to readily view all components and eliminates lengthy operational preparations. Special site preparations are also eliminated. RankineCyclerTm is not a simple demonstration piece, but a fully interactive multiple experiment teaching device. Turbine load can be varied, power input can be varied and 8 data points offer many cycle analysis options. RankineCyclerTm can be set up and operated virtually anywhere. All components are mounted on a 48" by 28" tabletop stand. The entire "power plant" weighs less than 100 pounds (dry weight). Major components include a multiple pass flame-through boiler, an impulse steam turbine and generator set, boiler feedwater pump, automatically controlled gas burner with combustion blower and a condenser tower. All sensors are routed to a dedicated PC data acquisition station for

data collection and analysis. POWER PLANT COMPONENT DESCRIPTIONS: Boiler RankineCyclerTm multiple pass flame through boiler accurately models full scale units. Its burner operates on natural or LP gas. Gas ignition and safety valves comply with U.L. and CSA safety standards. The forced air blower, ignitor, and gas valve are all automatically controlled for start, operation and shut down. Operating pressure is maintained at a constant level via this automatic regulation capability.

Rear boiler door open during firing depicts flame tubes and flame holder

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Turbine/Generator set The micro steam turbine consists of a flanged two piece housing and an axial flow impulse turbine wheel. Steam condition (temperature and pressure ports) are located on the turbine inlet and outlet. Load and measurement terminals are provided and routed to transducers for data acquisition purposes. The DC generator's output varies with turbine steam inlet conditions and the generator winding is constructed for a safe low voltage output.

Axial steam turbine housing image depicts steam inlet and outlet flanges

Axial flow impulse steam turbine wheel

Condenser Tower Turbine outlet steam is piped to the condenser tower and is admitted tangentially. The tower is constructed of stainless steel. Condensate is

returned to the boiler from the condesor tower sump via a custom manufactured steam driven feedwater pump.


The feedwater pump is a fully functioning, dual-piston reciprocating pump. It is independent of electric or other external power requirements and is driven by boiler steam. An intensifier principle (large area steam piston/ small area feedwater piston) comprises the basic design. Water is drawn from the condenser tower sump and then routed through the suction port and inlet valve of the feedwater cylinder assembly. The double acting steam cylinder and feedwater pistons are mounted on a single connecting rod. The reciprocating piston motion is controlled by a four way steam valve. INSTRUMENTATION/DATA ACQUISITION DESCRIPTION Eight installed sensors allow for full Rankine Cycle analysis and study. On screen data includes: Boiler Temperature Boiler Pressure Turbine Inlet temperature Turbine Exit temperature Turbine Inlet pressure Turbine Exit pressure Generator amperage Generator voltage The computer is capable of logging all data points and replaying them

at a later time. Data can be viewed as collected in a strip chart type presentation on the computer screen.

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John Elmore Randy Palmer Dresser-Rand, Wellsville, N.Y., USA

Steam turbines are well-suited for pump drive service for a number of reasons. First is their ability to operate across a wide speed range. This enables them to do two things: operate at the pump's most efficient speed and match the system head curve at varying pump flows, thus reducing throttling losses. This can make the turbine a good choice for marginal NPSH applications as it can avoid drastic speed reductions. When operating at low speed, turbines reduce radial reaction in centrifugal pumps operating at low flows. Turbines also work well as pump drives because they can be used safely in an explosive atmosphere, do not fail when overloaded, have high starting torque (useful for positive displacement pumps), and are rugged and reliable. This discussion mainly addresses single-stage turbines 3,500 hp and smaller, but most comments apply to larger single- and multi-stage turbines as well. Below is a review of steam cycle and turbine performance terms. You should be familiar with these before trying to make performance comparisons and analyze selection data.
Hp/Rpm 300/3600 300/1800 300/1200 50/3600 50/1800 50/1200 14 inches Steam Rate-lbs/hp-hr 39.8 High Exh. Velocity High Exh. Velocity 43.1 77.3 111.2 Wheel Pitch Diameter 20 inches Steam Rate-lbs/hp-hr 31.4 53.4 77.6 35.3 59.4 87.1 28 inches Steam Rate-lbs/hp-hr 26.7 41.2 57.9 36.5 42.8 69.6

Inlet: 600 psig @750°F; exhaust: 40 psig.

Please keep in mind that the table reflects actual steam rates based on turbine efficiency only. Turbine performance is only a component of the customer's steam cycle performance (for the entire plant steam loop). Table 1. Performance comparisons: wheel pitch diameter vs. speed (single-stage).

STEAM CYCLES Non-Condensing Cycle The non-condensing cycle (back pressure operation) involves taking medium-tohigh-pressure steam into the turbine and exhausting it to a process header where the pressure is higher than atmospheric Cycle efficiency is high because the turbine and process absorb most of the heat before the condensate returns to the boiler. Turbine arrangement is usually straight non-condensing (no turbine extraction), and it is the most commonly used cycle for pump drive service. For pump ratings of 3,500 hp or less, steam turbines are usually single-stage. Condensing Cycle This cycle takes the turbine's exhaust steam to a condenser at below atmospheric pressure. Because the condenser's cooling water absorbs most of the heat, cycle efficiency is low. Condensing cycles are sometimes used when taking low-pressure process exhaust steam (as low as 5 psig) to the turbine inlet through a multi-stage turbine, or when waste fuel is burned in the boiler.

Condensing cycles are not often used for pump drive service. The cycle is not very efficient, and the cost of a multi-stage turbine, condenser, condenser pump and cooling water can be prohibitive. Condenser cooling water availability is also a concern for many processes. STEAM RATES Theoretical Steam Rate (TSR) This is the quantity of steam per unit of power required by an ideal Rankine cycle heat engine, which assumes a no-loss (isentropic) expansion between turbine inlet and exhaus. TSR is expressed as pounds of steam per horsepower hour (or kg/kw-hr) and is universally recognized and used as a benchmark for measuring steam turbine performance. You can look up TSRs in the latest ASME Steam Tables (the easiest method) or derive them from a Mollier chart for steam (which requires time and good eyesight). Actual Steam Rate The actual steam rate reflects turbine efficiency and is expressed in the same units as the TSR. Manufacturers determine its value using pump and steam conditions. The product of actual steam rate and pump horsepower is the steam flow required to develop a given pump power. FACTORS AFFECTING TURBINE PERFORMANCE Steam Conditions • • • Greater pressure drop across the turbine makes more heat energy (BTUs) available. Less than 50 Btu/lb enthalpy drop through the turbine is not generally workable due to low turbine efficiency resulting in high steam flows. (This is a rule of thumb figure, not an exact one.) Imposing a wide range of steam conditions usually causes the turbine manufacturer to provide excess inlet nozzle area than required for normal operating point.

Handvalves • • • • These are used to reduce throttling across the governor valve when the system is operated for long periods at above or below normal pump power. Part-load performance can be improved by closing handvalve(s) to decrease nozzle area. Maximum load/overload capability performance is improved by opening handvalve(s) to increase nozzle area. Handvalves are set either full open or full closed. (They are not used for throttling.)

Power and Speed • • Generally, higher powers and speeds result in greater turbine efficiencies. Speeds slower than 1,800 rpm usually require attention to whether there is sufficient steam flow availability, the high exhaust temperature and the type of lubrication.

Wheel Pitch Diameter • • Larger pitch diameters perform well at higher power ratings and lower operating speeds than smaller wheels.

Small pitch diameters are best at low power ratings (under 100 hp) and high exhaust pressures. They also produce less exhaust loss. Inlet and Exhaust Nozzle Size • • Keeping steam velocities below limits specified by NEMA Standards can minimize friction losses. NEMA Standard SM-23 velocity limits are 175 ft/sec at turbine inlet and 250 ft/sec non-condensing exhaust (450 condensing).

TURBINE BASIC SELECTION DATA REQUIRED • Minimum requirements: o inlet steam pressure and temperature o exhaust steam pressure o pump power (rated max.-min.) o pump speed (rated max.-min.) and maximum allowable overspeed for trip o speed control (manual or type of process signal) o site conditions: indoor/outdoor and ambient conditions o cooling water data (pressure, temp and cleanliness) Any off-normal steam or pump operating conditions: o affects turbine steam path areas and ability to make power o low power conditions create high exhaust temperature (affects lubrication method) Type of pump and service: o centrifugal or positive displacement o normal or quick start o continuous or standby duty o site electrical rating (if electrical accessories are involved) Specifications: o customer required scope and turbine shop tests o API-611/612-3rd or 4th editions (API data sheets required) o steam cost evaluation o sound level requirements Reprinted from Pumps and Systems Magazine. Refer questions to: Contact D-R

Jim Dello Dresser-Rand, Wellsville, NY, USA

Unplanned and untimely shutdowns of critical turbomachinery is costly-for both the user and original equipment manufacturer. Therefore, it is very important that the turbomachinery be designed and operated to assure trouble-free operation. This is not always easily accomplished. Because turbomachinery components, specifically airfoils, are subjected to high variable loads that can cause failure, designing reliable components requires in-depth vibration and stress analysis. Identification of when the frequency of variable force match component's natural frequencies is the traditional method to design around potential blade failures. The identification of matching frequencies-the force with the structure-is commonly shown on a Campbell diagram. However, the Campbell diagram lacks some information when used to analyze the possibility of blade failure. To further help bladed disk designers, Dresser-Rand has initiated the use of the SAFESM (Singh's Advanced Frequency Evaluation) diagram. Natural Frequency and Mode Shape Natural frequency is the frequency at which an object vibrates when excited by a force, such as a sharp blow from a hammer. At this frequency, the structure offers the least resistance to a force and if left uncontrolled, failure can occur. Mode shape is the way in which the object deflects at this frequency. An example of natural frequency and mode shape is given in the case of a guitar string. When struck, the string vibrates at a certain frequency and attains a deflected shape. The frequency can be noted by the pitch coming from the string. Different string geometries (length and diameter) lead to different natural frequencies or notes. By nature of its structure, a turbine bladed disk, shown in figure 1, usually has many natural frequencies and associated mode shapes. These frequencies and mode shapes are somewhat further complicated by the use of a shroud to connect groups of blades together. Shrouding groups of blades together serves two purposes-one is for aerodynamical reasons to reduce losses and the other is for blade strength required to sustain steam forces. Blades are banded in brackets with varying numbers in one packet. At Dresser Rand, a 6-blade packet is most commonly employed. The knowledge of packeting arrangements of blades into groups is very important when analyzing packeted-bladed disk vibration.

Figure 1

Vibrational behavior or typical deflection mode shapes of a packet containing six blades is shown in figure 2. Natural frequency values will change depending on blade geometry; a tall and narrow (i.e., less stiff or more flexible) blade will have

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