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November 2015 • Volume 94 • Number 11 CONTENTS
*46 Six Things to Consider before Purchasing Ambient
Fume Collection Equipment 46 48
Take a look at some common misconceptions
before making your buying decision — K. Wear

48 Keeping Inspection Technology in Pace with

Weld­Industry Advancements
The evolution of inspection technology must keep
in line with advances in welding technology
W. Habermann 52
52 Safety Tips for Weld Prep in Pipe Fabrication
Proper surface preparation is critical in pipeline
welding, but so are the safety factors in obtaining
that proper surface — D. Jescovitch


56 Reliability Analysis of Pin­in­Hole Solder Joints
Through-hole solder joints on a printed wiring 62 68
assembly were evaluated for reliability
P. T. Vianco and M. K. Neilsen

62 Silver­Free Filler Metals Meet Strength Requirements

in Brazed Joints
Silver-free filler metals were analyzed on spreading
area, joint strength, and microstructure
J. T. Marchal et al.

68 Aim for Small, Concave Braze Fillets

This discussion explains what a braze fillet should
look like and what to look for in inspecting it
D. Kay


343­s Disaggregated Metal and Carbide Catchment 358­s Effect of FCAW Current on the Hardfacing Layer
Efficiencies in Laser Cladding of Nickel­Tungsten — Microstructure and Wear Resistance
Carbide Different welding currents were used to deposit
Cladding with a CO2 laser system was tested for the hardfacing layers to determine which gave the
effects of power, powder feed rate, and travel speed optimum increase in hardness and wear resistance
G. Wood and P. F. Mendez J. Yang et al.

351­s Properties of Silicon­Added, Iron­Based, Slag­Free,

Self­Shielded Flux­Cored Wire
Silicon addition to the composition proved beneficial in
improving wear resistance — D. S. Liu and P. Wei


6 Editorial 80 Welding Workbook
10 Press Time News 83 Society News
12 International Update 85 Tech Topics
14 News of the Industry 89 Section News
22 Business Briefs 101 Guide to AWS Services
24 Letters to the Editor 102 Personnel
28 Stainless Q&A 112 Classifieds
32 RWMA Q&A 113 Advertiser Index
36 Product & Print Spotlight
Brazing & Soldering Today
70 Technology News
On the cover: Frank Detsch gas metal
74 Coming Events arc welds a cooling ring fabrication for
78 Certification Schedule a rotary hearth furnace. (Courtesy of
Abbott Furnace, St. Marys, Pa.)

M. Sebergandio (Dist. 3), CNH America D. Levin, Airgas

K. E. Shatell (Dist. 22), Pacific Gas & Electric Co. R. Madden, Hypertherm
M. Skiles (Dist. 9), Consultant D. Marquard, IBEDA Superflash
J. Stoll (Dist. 18), The Bohler Welding Group U.S. J. F. Saenger Jr., Consultant
H. W. Thompson (Dist. 2), UL, Inc. S. Smith, Weld­Aid Products
OFFICERS R. P. Wilcox (Dist. 11), Consultant D. Wilson, Welldean Enterprises
President David Landon J. A. Willard (Dist. 13), Kankakee Community College J. N. DuPont, Ex Off., Lehigh University
Vermeer Mfg. Co. D. R. Wilson (Past President), Welldean Enterprises L. G. Kvidahl, Ex Off., Northrop Grumman
Ship Systems
Vice President David L. McQuaid WELDING JOURNAL D. J. Landon, Ex Off., Vermeer Mfg.
D. L. McQuaid and Associates, Inc. S. P. Moran, Ex Off., Weir American Hydro
Publisher — Andrew Cullison E. Norman, Ex Off., Southwest Area Career Center
Vice President John R. Bray Editorial R. G. Pali, Ex Off., J. P. Nissen Co.
Affiliated Machinery, Inc. Editorial Director Andrew Cullison N. Scotchmer, Ex Off., Huys Industries
Editor Mary Ruth Johnsen R. W. Shook, Ex Off., American Welding Society
Vice President Dale Flood
Tri Tool, Inc. Associate Editor Kristin Campbell
Assistant Editor Melissa Gomez American Welding Society
Treasurer Robert G. Pali Assistant Editor Annik Babinski 8669 NW 36 St., # 130, Miami, FL 33166­6672
J. P. Nissen Co. Peer Review Coord. Sonia Aleman (305) 443­9353 or (800) 443­9353
Publisher Emeritus Jeff Weber
Executive Director Ray W. Shook
American Welding Society Design and Production
Welding Journal (ISSN 0043­2296) is published monthly by
Production Manager Zaida Chavez the American Welding Society for $120.00 per year in the United
DIRECTORS Sr. Production Coordinator Brenda Flores States and possessions, $160 per year in foreign countries: $7.50
Manager of International Periodicals and per single issue for domestic AWS members and $10.00 per single
T. Anderson (At Large), ITW Welding North America issue for nonmembers and $14.00 single issue for international.
Electronic Media Carlos Guzman American Welding Society is located at 8669 NW 36th St., # 130,
U. Aschemeier (Dist. 7), Subsea Global Solutions Miami, FL 33166­6672; telephone (305) 443­9353. Periodicals
R. E. Brenner (Dist. 10), CnD Industries, Inc. Advertising postage paid in Miami, Fla., and additional mailing offices. POST­
MASTER: Send address changes to Welding Journal, 8669 NW
D. J. Burgess (Dist. 8), Alstom Power Sr. Advertising Sales Exec. Sandra Jorgensen 36th St., # 130, Miami, FL 33166­6672. Canada Post: Publications
N. C. Cole (Past President), NCC Engineering Sr. Advertising Sales Exec. Annette Delagrange Mail Agreement #40612608 Canada Returns to be sent to
D. L. Doench (At Large), Hobart Bros. Co. Bleuchip International, P.O. Box 25542, London, ON N6C 6B2,
Manager of Sales Operations Lea Paneca Canada.
T. A. Ferri (Dist. 1), Thermal Dynamics Automation Sr. Advertising Production Manager Frank Wilson Readers of Welding Journal may make copies of articles for
K. Fogleman (Dist. 16), Consultant personal, archival, educational or research purposes, and which
are not for sale or resale. Permission is granted to quote from arti­
P. H. Gorman (Dist. 20), Sandia National Laboratories Subscriptions cles, provided customary acknowledgment of authors and sources
S. A. Harris (Dist. 4), Altec Industries Subscriptions Representative Evelyn Andino is made. Starred (*) items excluded from copyright. Copyright © 2015 by American Welding Society in both
K. L. Johnson (Dist. 19), Vigor Shipyards printed and electronic formats. The Society is not responsible for
J. Knapp (Dist. 17), Gas and Supply any statement made or opinion expressed herein. Data and infor­
mation developed by the authors of specific articles are for infor­
M. Krupnicki (Dist. 6), Mahany Welding Supply PUBLICATIONS, EXPOSITIONS, mational purposes only and are not intended for use without inde­
T. J. Lienert (At Large), Los Alamos National Laboratory pendent, substantiating investigation on the part of potential users.
S. Lindsey (Dist. 21), City of San Diego
D. E. Lynnes (Dist. 15), Lynnes Welding Training D. L. Doench, Chair, Hobart Brothers Co.
C. Matricardi (Dist. 5), Welding Solutions, Inc. S. Bartholomew, Vice Chair, ESAB Welding
S. P. Moran (At Large), Weir American Hydro & Cutting Prod.
W. R. Polanin (At Large), Illinois Central College Lorena Cora, Secretary, American Welding Society
R. L. Richwine (Dist. 14), Ivy Tech State College D. Brown, Weiler Brush
D. J. Roland (Dist. 12), Airgas USA, LLC, C. Coffey, Lincoln Electric
North­Central Region D. DeCorte, RoMan Manufacturing
R. W. Roth (At Large), RoMan Manufacturing S. Fyffe, Astaras, Inc.


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Replacing the Welder Workforce

As we close the year celebrating the AWS We also have identified some endow-
Foundation’s 25th anniversary, we have ments in the Foundation, and on a selective
much to be proud of, but there is still much basis we will be talking to some of those
to be done. In 2014, the Foundation award- donors about a repurpose of the scholar-
ed $549,531 to 580 individuals. The major ships to have more influence on welder skill
portion of these awards went to students training. A few have already indicated they
who are seeking either a two-year degree at would be open to discussion.
a community college or a four-year welding This will not have an impact on the cur-
engineer-related degree. rent level of support for both two-year and
A major mission of the AWS Foundation four-year degree postsecondary programs.
is to recruit welders into the workforce. We currently have $4.6 million in National
Based on the work of the National Skills Named Endowments that support these
William Rice Panel, which uses U.S. government data sta- programs exclusively. The recipients of
Chairman, tistics, we continue to estimate that by 2020 these scholarship awards are selected by the
AWS Foundation we will need 250,000 new welders in our AWS National Education Scholarship Com-
workforce. These welders will be needed to mittee. Also, annually, the Foundation pro-
replace current welders in the U.S. work- vides funding for four $25,000 fellowships
force due to retire. ($100,000) to support research at universi-
We are renewing our efforts at the Foun- ties. These fellowships are selected by the
dation to focus on scholarships directed to- AWS Welding Research and Development
ward this segment of welding professionals Committee. We will continue to attract
to increase the number of welders in the funding from donors who prefer their dol-
United States. The welder training-related lars to go toward these efforts.
scholarships we currently award through As I have indicated, the AWS Board of Di-
the Foundation are usually less than $500, rectors has been very supportive of our ef-
which provides a small part of the total dol- forts to increase scholarship funding by
lars needed for training. transferring dollars to support our match-
We currently have a program approved ing programs. Because of this, we have been
“A major mission by the AWS Board of Directors to match en- successful in attracting new dollars both for
of the AWS Founda­ dowments by AWS Districts and Sections at new endowments as well as existing ac-
tion is to recruit a 150% level. Also, 150% matching is avail- counts. This has been at a 100% match.
welders into the able for additions to current District/Sec- And, as mentioned, we have the 150%
tion endowments. We will ask our AWS Dis- match for funds to support new
workforce...we con­ trict and Section leadership to work with us District/Section scholarships.
tinue to estimate to establish guidelines so the major focus of If you are in a position to help us fund
that by 2020 we will their scholarship programs will be to fund the next generation of skilled welding pro-
need 250,000 new scholarship dollars at a minimum $1000 fessionals, contact us to discuss the money replace level for welder training scholarships. Cur- matching opportunity we currently have.
rently, our 22 AWS Districts have $10,000 We would welcome the opportunity to
current welders in available to them annually for local awards. speak with you. Please e-mail Foundation
the U.S. workforce Our renewed efforts will have these funds Executive Director Sam Gentry at
due to retire.” used for welder scholarships.
We will also engage local companies who We have great expectations during the
depend on welders employed in the market next 25 years for the AWS Foundation. We
area they serve to support this effort. These are in a very strong position to support
companies employ welders, or they sell sup- welder education at all levels.
plies to support welding processes and oth- Our immediate need is to support schol-
ers who depend on welders to manufacture arship opportunities to provide additional
items for them. We will ask for a $15,000 trained welders for the U.S. workforce.
pledge payable over three years, and we will There is currently a critical need in particu-
match that amount to create a $30,000 lar industries and geographic areas for
scholarship endowment for welder training. welders. Many opportunities will open in
The endowment, when funded, will provide the future due to retirements. Our mission
an annual award amount of $1500 to help is to help fill this gap. WJ
local welders receive training.


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Airbus Opens U.S. Manufacturing Facility assembly, and grinding.

Currently, the Associate in Occupational Studies program
During a serves a maximum of 40 students through day and evening
recent cere- coursework along with hands-on training.
mony in Mo- The Advanced Manufacturing Technology program pre-
bile, Ala., Air- pares graduates for immediate employment with many local
bus inaugurat- and regional high-tech manufacturing companies. In addi-
ed operations tion, several manufacturing companies in the region provide
at its first U.S. scholarships and hire students for part-time jobs that lead
manufactur- to full-time employment upon graduation. The program has
ing facility. a 100% job placement rate for graduates.
The plant is
officially open ESAB Launches 2015 Student Cutting, Welding,
Major components of the first two aircraft to for business and Essay Contest
be assembled at the Airbus U.S. manufactur­ with a team of
ing facility are shown in the main final assem­ more than ESAB, Florence,
bly hangar at this American A320 family 250 manufac- S.C., has launched
production site. turing em- its 2015 “A Cut
ployees now Above” student
at work on the contest that’s open
first U.S.-made Airbus aircraft. to students in
“Our commercial aircraft production in Mobile signifies welding, cutting,
two things: that Airbus has become the first truly global air- and related pro-
craft manufacturer, and that Airbus is now also a truly grams at second-
American manufacturer,” said President and CEO Fabrice ary and postsec-
Brégier. ondary schools
The company announced plans for the $600 million facil- These high school students each won who are residents
ity in 2012. Construction began at the Mobile Aeroplex at $500 in ESAB’s 2014 contest for their “Fish of the United
Brookley the following year. Tank” project. They also provided tips on States or Canada
The first U.S.-made Airbus commercial aircraft, an A321, how to win the 2015 contest in a video on (excluding Que-
is scheduled for delivery next spring. By 2018, the facility the company’s YouTube channel. bec). The company
will produce between 40 and 50 single-aisle aircraft per year. will award more
The following individuals were also present at the cere- than $30,000 in
mony: Airbus Group CEO Tom Enders, Alabama Governor equipment and cash prizes.
Robert Bentley, Senator Jeff Sessions, Congressman Bradley Visit for rules, entry forms, and
Byrne, plus other dignitaries, executives, and local leaders. winning tips. Entries will be accepted until December 31
The industry- and community-wide event convened un- with winners announced on February 1, 2016.
der the theme, “Let’s Get to Work – Together!” and culmi- The contest has two categories — individual essay and
nated in the placement of a placard on a component of the team fabrication project — and ESAB judges will select three
first aircraft to be produced in Mobile. winners in each category. Individuals will win $250 by sub-
mitting a 500-word essay that best supports the contest
Hudson Valley Community College Manufacturing theme. Each member of a winning team receives $500;
Program Receives $1 Million Challenge Gift teams will submit a metal fabrication project that incorpo-
rates both welding and cutting. Additionally, each of the
Hudson Valley Community College, Troy, N.Y., recently schools associated with the winners at their time of entry
received a leadership challenge gift of $1 million from the will receive a prize package valued at more than $4000.
Gene Haas Foundation for expanding its Advanced Manu-
facturing Technology program as well as Lang Hall, the Bernzomatic Launches Public Safety Campaign
building that houses the program’s labs and classrooms.
The expansion to the Lang building will be named the Bernzomatic, Columbus, Ohio, a provider of handheld
Gene Haas Technology Center. Funding will also enable the torches, has launched a public awareness and education pro-
college to double the number of advanced manufacturing gram on the proper use and disposal of handheld nonrefill-
technology students. able fuel cylinders, called CylinderSafeTM.
“Hudson Valley Community College is extraordinarily A newly created website at, we take a huge step forward in our efforts safe provides a resource for information on how to properly
to bridge the skills gap between the existing workforce and use, store, and dispose of their nonrefillable cylinders.
21st-century jobs,” said Drew Matonak, its president. As disposal procedures vary by municipality, the site also
Plans call for a two-story addition to the college’s existing features a built-in search function for visitors to research
training facility, Lang Hall, including up-to-date machine their local solid waste authority’s contact information. It of-
tools, equipment, and software in labs for metrology, fers an instructional cylinder safety video and safety check-
CAD/CAM, metallurgy, electronic controls, machining, list as well. WJ


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Hitachi Brings Rail Manufacturing Back to the UK

Hitachi Rail unveiled its class 800/801, seen here, at the Newton Mario Portillo (second from left) and Richard Apodaca (third
Aycliffe facility opening. (Photo courtesy of Paul Bigland.) from left) from Uniweld pose with the booth’s first visitors at
the HVAC/R tradeshow in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic.
Hitachi Rail recently celebrated the return of rail manu-
facturing to its British home in the North East, joining with
products used in the industry, watched live demonstrations,
key delivery partners at the official opening of a $225 mil-
and received insight they could implement into their daily
lion rail vehicle manufacturing facility in Newton Aycliffe,
England. The facility is where the government’s new InterCi-
ty Express (IEP) trains for the East Coast Main Line and
Great Western Main Line, and AT200 commuter trains for Electronic Soldering Materials Manufacturer
Scotland, will be manufactured. Honored for Technical Paper
Hiroaki Nakanishi, chairman and CEO, Hitachi, Ltd., wel-
comed Patrick McLoughlin MP, secretary of state for Trans- Alpha, a manu-
port, and Claire Perry MP, rail minister, along with more than facturer of electron-
500 guests, to the opening ceremony and guided tours of the ic soldering materi-
manufacturing facility. Those in attendance also witnessed the als, was recently
unveiling of the first fully fitted-out IEP train to arrive in the honored at the Chi-
United Kingdom. na International
“Today we see a major boost for the UK with Hitachi invest- Solder Technology
ing millions in returning train manufacturing to the North Forum and Exhibi-
East. This state-of-the-art facility will grow and secure jobs for tion, held in
decades to come and will help us to build the Northern Power- Suzhou, China.
house, while at the same time revitalizing one of our oldest in- The Best Con-
dustries in the region within which this tradition is synony- ference Paper Award
Alpha’s technical paper, “Thermal and
mous,” said Chancellor of the Exchequer George Osborne. Mechanical Reliability of Low­ went to Alpha’s pa-
“Newton Aycliffe will be the engine room driving Hitachi Temperature Solder Alloys for Hand­ per titled “Thermal
Rail’s future growth across the UK and into Europe, and I’m held Devices,” recently won The Best and Mechanical Re-
incredibly proud to lead a company committed to making Conference Paper Award. liability of Low-
the North East a rail manufacturing center of excellence Temperature Solder
once again,” added Karen Boswell, managing director of Hi- Alloys for Handheld
tachi Rail Europe. Devices,” presented by Andy Yuen, technical services direc-
tor, Alpha Southern China, which discusses the use of mi-
croadditives in eutectic Sn-Bi alloys to improve thermal fa-
Second Annual Dominican Republic HVAC/R tigue and mechanical shock properties for handheld devices.
Tradeshow Held in Santo Domingo “We developed a new, low-temp, Pb-free, no-silver alloy
with enhanced mechanical properties, particularly higher
Articco, Inc., a distributor of air conditioning and refrig- tensile strength and impact energy, which resulted in im-
eration parts, recently held its second annual Dominican Re- proved drop shock performance over standard Sn-Bi alloy
public HVAC/R tradeshow. Held at Club Los Prados in Santo systems,” said Yuen. “The alloy is capable of delivering high
Domingo, more than two hundred technicians, contractors, reliability performance at lower soldering temperatures,
and distributors were in attendance. leading to increased throughput and production value in
Uniweld, a manufacturer of welding, HVAC/R, plumbing, your assembly process.”
and alloy products, participated in the tradeshow, showcas- The paper was chosen from more than ten technical pa-
ing its oxyacetylene equipment and holding live demonstra- pers presented at the conference, which is held jointly by the
tions of safety practices. The company was represented by ITRI-IPC China Solder Technology Group, International Tin
Mario Portillo, international sales executive, and Richard Research Institute, and IPC Association Connecting Elec-
Apodaca, director of international, at the two-day show. tronics Industries (China), and was attended by about 250
Those in attendance received information on common industry affiliates. WJ


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Welding Lesson ‘Strikes’ Guinness World Record It took nearly two

weeks to gather the evi-
dence in an uploadable
format to submit to the
Guinness site. This in-
cluded verifications from
the steward, witness,
timekeeper, photogra-
pher, and videographer;
photos; a video; and press
Upon hearing the
largest welding lesson had
One hundred and twenty­two been accomplished,
Boy Scouts earned the Welding Berkowicz said he felt two
merit badge (shown above) after
Excitement built as participants checked in for the Guinness emotions: joy and
the experience.
World Record attempt to establish the largest welding lesson. relief.
This event, held on April 11 at the ETI School of Skilled Trades, “Joy because we not
ultimately captured the title. (Photo courtesy of Three Fires only accomplished something that was significant, but we
Council Program Director Buzz Wheeler.) were the first to do it,” he said. “From a relief perspective,
there were many details, many moving parts, and many ‘sin-
gle points of failure.’ If even one of them was not successful,
the entire enterprise would fail. To mitigate the risks, I re-
quired backups not only for people serving in various capaci-
ties, but also for supplies. Then, where possible, I needed
‘backups to the backups’ in case someone couldn’t make it or
a part broke. There were hundreds of people depending on
the flawless execution of this event in order to get a Guin-
ness World Record.”
In addition, after the lesson, 122 scouts earned the Welding
merit badge, which is part of the BSA’s science, technology, en-
gineering, and math curriculum. They performed gas metal
arc, flux cored arc, or shielded metal arc welding depending on
the equipment available and merit badge counselor.
In attendance were 275 Boy Scouts along with the welding les­ A gratifying aspect of the day was how the scouts stayed
son’s organizer, Walter Berkowicz (shown speaking to the audi­ attentive, respectful, and nondisruptive. Maybe most signif-
ence in the center of the front line). (Photo courtesy of Three icant, many told Berkowicz the most interesting thing
Fires Council Program Director Buzz Wheeler.) learned was the career opportunities available to welders.
“All the boys prized their welded creations. There was not
one left behind that we found during the cleanup,” he added.
Once more, welding has secured a place in history by He further mentioned that thanks to Charlie Cross of
setting the Guinness World Record for the largest welding The Lincoln Electric Co., enormous progress within the re-
lesson. gion, which includes several BSA councils, had been made.
Walter Berkowicz, an adult volunteer and welding cham- “I knew nothing about welding other than how to spell it
pion for the Boy Scouts of America (BSA) Three Fires Coun- when I made a promise to the troop of boys at the 2013 Na-
cil, St. Charles, Ill., recently received an e-mail from the or- tional Jamboree,” Berkowicz said. While there, he encour-
ganization’s records management team informing him about aged his troop to visit the company’s welding area.
this title holder position. “I committed to all the boys in the troop that I would do
On April 11, he organized the gathering of 275 Boy whatever it took so they would have the opportunity to
Scouts at the ETI School of Skilled Trades, Willowbrook, Ill. complete the badge when we returned home,” he said.
Planning for this record, however, started even before the Berkowicz held true to that promise by taking training
official application was submitted in November 2014. offered by Lincoln Electric and enrolling in a welding course
“The intent was to conduct a fun event that would gener- at the College of DuPage along with volunteer counselors
ate interest on the part of youth and adults to achieve some- Paul Chemler and Joe Harrington. He now considers weld-
thing that would be distinctive. The motto was ‘Go big or go ing a hobby.
home,’” said Berkowicz. Moving ahead, Berkowicz’s aspiration is to realize an ulti-
This lesson consisted of three distinct, individual instruc- mate objective of implementing a sustainable program for
tion components. Tony Mattson and Ron Feldman, BSA scouts to earn the Welding merit badge long into the future.
merit badge counselors, managed safety and welding/cut- “The sustainability of this beyond any one person has
ting processes, respectively, while Kevin Pflanz, director of been a goal from day one,” he concluded. — Kristin Campbell
education at ETI, covered welding careers. (, associate editor


Community College of Denver Opens Advanced
Manufacturing Center; Welder Training Offered

Jessica Schechter, a student in the advanced GTAW class, poses

for a picture in one of the Advanced Manufacturing Center’s
welding booths. (Photo courtesy of the Community College of

The Community College of Denver’s Advanced Manufac-

turing Center, located about four miles from the main Au-
raria campus, welcomed its first students on August 24.
This 33,280-sq-ft facility provides three times the space
for machining and welding programs formerly within the
Center for Career & Technical Education, which outgrew its
10,000-sq-ft building on Downing St.
— continued on page 18 For info, go to­index

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— continued from page 15

Renovations and upgrades took place with a Colorado

Helps Advanced Manufacturing Program (CHAMP) Grant,
funded through the U.S. Department of Labor. The college
was awarded more than $3 million, allowing for the pur-
chase of new equipment, curriculum development in tech-
nologies (advanced milling, 3D technology, CNC machining,
fabrication welding), and more. To raise additional funds, a
capital campaign has been established as well.
The welding program offers two 7.5-week sessions that,
at maximum capacity, accommodate 186 students. Current- Logan Lewis (left) and Brad Sorensen, students in classes for cut­
ly, there are 78 students in the first part-of-term for the se- ting and welding processes, practice their skills using hand tools.
mester and that will increase to 140 total students for the (Photo courtesy of the Community College of Denver.)
first semester in the new facility.
Kevin A. Dowell, an American Welding Society (AWS) gauge sheet metals. They will be prepared to test for AWS
Certified Welding Inspector, and John Wenner serve as full- qualifications in SMAW and GMAW/GTAW.
time welding faculty. There are also three part-time adjunct Certificates are available in these four areas: fabrication
faculty members, one of whom is a woman, Chris Niksar. welder, arc welder, intermediate welding, and basic welding.
The center is set up three ways, with 62 work stations, The arc welder and basic welding certificates can be complet-
consisting of welding booths, work stations, and cutting ta- ed in one semester.
bles. Extra features include three welding simulators and Women welders have played a part in the program, too.
carbon air arc room that’s used to cut thick metals. Earlier this year, a broadcast on 9NEWS in Denver, Colo., de-
The Associate of Applied Science in welding fabrication tailed the industry’s need for skilled trades workers and pro-
gets graduates ready as entry-level specialists to work with filed a welder-mom at the college. As shown in this story’s first
most operations in oxyacetylene welding, shielded metal arc image, Jessica Schechter and others are continuing the trend.
welding (SMAW), gas metal arc welding (GMAW), and gas In 2016, the college is starting industry-specific noncred-
tungsten arc welding (GTAW) on heavy plate/pipe to thin- it classes by offering a series of two-week classes.

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In addition, U.S. Vice President Joe Biden visited the Ad-
vanced Manufacturing Center on July 21. He toured the new
building with Manufacturing Director Tony Rubino and
spoke one-on-one with welding student Wilma Harp and
machining student Luke Irick. A round-table discussion,
with prominent panelists in attendance, focused on the im-
portance of building a Colorado workforce with the right
skills for jobs that pay well.
For more information, visit

General Dynamics NASSCO Launches

Natural­Gas­Powered Containership
General Dynamics NASSCO
recently launched the second
ship in a series of what’s
claimed to be the world’s first
natural-gas-powered contain-
erships. Perla del Caribe has
been built for TOTE, a trans-
portation and logistics compa-
ny. Its christening, as well as
the launch ceremony, took
place at the company’s ship-
yard in San Diego, Calif.
The new Marlin Class ships,
constructed by NASSCO ship-
builders and measuring the
same length as two-and-a-half
football fields, will carry cargo For info, go to­index
exports between U.S.-owned
Perla del Caribe, pictured ports. They will also reduce
above, has been built for particulate matter by 98% and
TOTE, a transportation and carbon dioxide emissions by
logistics company. 72%, the equivalent of remov-
ing more than 15,700 cars
from the road.
Sponsor Emma Engle, a third-generation shareholder of
Saltchuk, TOTE’s parent company, christened the ship with
a traditional champagne bottle break over its hull.
In addition, Alcinda Buirds, a 32-year NASSCO employ-
ee, pulled the trigger to release the ship into San Diego Bay.

Amthor Expands Production, Adds New Jobs

Amthor International, a fourth-generation family-
owned company that manufactures truck-mounted tanks,
is adding 30 new jobs to its 100-person workforce at its
86,000-sq-ft plant in Gretna, Va.
Welders, mechanics, electricians, and tank cleaners will
be hired. Applications are at
and the plant (237 Industrial Dr., Gretna, Va.).
In addition, the company is introducing a customized
training program, Amthor University, with Virginia Techni-
cal Institute. Graduates will be guaranteed employment
with Amthor upon training completion. It will last four to
five weeks. In partnership with the West Piedmont Work-
force Investment Board and Dan River Region Collabora-
tive, costs will be covered for qualified applicants.

— continued on page 21
For info, go to­index
For Info, go to­index
NEWS OF THE INDUSTRY bulkhead must handle extreme loads during re-entry; that’s
where parachutes are connected when they deploy.
— continued from page 19 “After going through the manufacturing process for the
Exploration Flight Test-1 vehicle, we determined we could
reduce the vehicle’s weight if we lessened the number of
Welding Process for Next Orion Spacecraft Begins pieces being welded together since those welded areas
weigh more,” explained Mike Hawes, Lockheed Martin Ori-
on vice president and program manager. “So for this next
spacecraft, seven bigger pieces are coming together, instead
of the eighteen for EFT-1, which makes the welding process
a little more challenging than before.”
Additionally, the team at Michoud Assembly Facility
welded a pathfinder vehicle to verify the design and weld-
ing changes would perform as expected.
In early 2016, once the pieces that make up the crew
module’s pressure vessel are welded together, it will be
shipped to the Operations and Checkout Facility at NASA’s
Kennedy Space Center. There, it will undergo final assem-
bly, integration, and testing to prepare for Exploration Mis-
sion-1 when Orion is launched atop NASA’s Space Launch
System for the first time.

Friction stir welding connects Orion spacecraft’s tunnel and for­ National Science Foundation Invests in Science
ward bulkhead. (Photo credit: NASA) and Engineering Infrastructure Across the Nation
Lockheed Martin and NASA engineers have welded the The National Science Foundation has recently awarded
Orion spacecraft’s tunnel and forward bulkhead together. four jurisdictions with grants ranging from $6 to $20 mil-
The tunnel is the passageway astronauts crawl in and out
of when Orion is docked with another vehicle. The forward — continued on page 108



316L Stainless w/ Argon Purge @ 250ppm Oxygen Level

NOTE: 1% Oxygen in Atmosphere is 2,094.6 ppm!


316L Stainless w/ Argon Purge @ 12ppm Oxygen Level




For info, go to­index


EB Industries Achieves 50th Anniversary da, an owner and operator of pipelines, gas storage facilities,
and power plants, announced its net income attributable to
common shares for second quarter 2015 of $429 million/
$0.60 per share vs. $416 million/$0.59 per share for the
same period in 2014. Comparable earnings for second quar-
ter 2015 were $397 million/$0.56 per share vs. $332 mil-
lion/$0.47 per share for the same period last year.

Confidence Levels Among Manufacturing and

Logistics Workers Continue to Rise
The Randstad Manufacturing & Logistics Employee Con-
fidence Index rose from 55.9 at year-end 2014 to 60.8
points in mid-year 2015. This online survey is conducted by
EB Industries has been in operation for 50 years. Pictured above Harris Poll among manufacturing and logistics workers on
are stainless steel commercial aircraft gears as they are electron behalf of Randstad US.
beam welded. The mid-year report also found that 38% of manufactur-
ing workers believe the economy is getting stronger, and
37% stated they believe there are more jobs available.
EB Industries, LLC, Farmingdale, N.Y., a provider of elec- As confidence in the economy’s overall state and avail-
tron beam/laser welding and hermetic laser sealing services, ability of jobs continues to rise, findings indicate workers’
recently celebrated its 50th anniversary. Founded in 1965 by personal confidence levels are rising as well. However, de-
George DeLalio, the company is now headed by his son Steve spite growth drivers, hiring activity within the manufactur-
DeLalio. It started with a single electron beam welding ma- ing sector has been fairly slow so far in 2015.
chine operated around-the-clock in a 5000-sq-ft facility. Traci Fiatte, group president, Randstad US, added that
“There was a boom in aerospace and electronics, and my PricewaterhouseCoopers estimates high shale gas recovery
dad was here 18 hours a day, always committed to delivering and low prices could add 1 million U.S. manufacturing jobs
customers’ parts on time,” DeLalio said. The company sup- and reduce natural gas costs by up to $11.6 billion annually
ported Apollo missions, engaged in relay manufacturing, and through 2025.
precision welded millions of military aircraft components.
EB Industries eventually moved to a 16,000-sq-ft facility
built for precision welding in Farmingdale. Additional staff Lockheed Martin Named to the 2015
met the capacity of four electron beam welding machines. Dow Jones Sustainability World Index
Other accomplishments over the years include adding
laser welding services and hermetic laser sealing; adapting a Lockheed Martin, Bethesda, Md., a global security and
lean manufacturing methodology; incorporating a quality aerospace company, has recently been named to the Dow
management system that enables the company to meet Jones Sustainability World Index for 2015.
NADCAP and ISO certifications, plus standards; and launch- This distinction represents the top 10% of the largest
ing an initiative aimed at expanding capabilities, including a 2500 companies in the S&P Global Broad Market Index
larger shop floor, more welding equipment, and a bigger based on long-term environmental, social, and economic
workforce. criteria.
The underlying research methodology evaluates corpo-
Ford Motor, Huntington Ingalls, and TransCanada rations based on specific standards, including the follow-
ing: climate strategy, operational eco-efficiency, human
Report Strong Second Quarters capital development, risk/crisis management, stakeholder
engagement, and corporate governance.
Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, Mich., recently reported its
2015 second quarter financial results. Highlights include the
following: a pretax profit of $2.9 billion, up $269 million or Senvol Database Adds More Than 100 New
10% from a year ago (excluding last year’s special item Additive Manufacturing Machines, Materials
charges); net income of $1.9 billion, up $574 million or 44%
from a year ago; after-tax earnings per share of 47 cents, up The Senvol Database, New York, N.Y., a 3D printing list
7 cents from a year ago (excluding last year’s special item of industrial additive manufacturing machines and materi-
charges); and global market share growth to 7.6%, up one- als, has added more than 100 new machines and materials.
tenth of a percentage point from a year ago. Available online at and free to access,
Huntington Ingalls Industries, Newport News, Va., a participants are able to search by more than 30 fields, such
large military shipbuilding company, also revealed second as machine build size, price, material type, or material ten-
quarter 2015 statistics. Revenues were $1.75 billion, up sile strength.
1.5% vs. the same period last year. Diluted earnings per With these latest additions, the database has now sur-
share was $3.20 vs. $2.04 in the same period of 2014. New passed 1000 machine and material entries overall.
contract awards were approximately $4.5 billion. Global users come from companies such as GE, Caterpil-
In addition, TransCanada Corp., Calgary, Alberta, Cana- lar, Northrop Grumman, and General Motors. WJ




For Info, go to­index

Reader Comments on Use would allow that procedure to cover The statement, “Employing AWS
the welding of all of the base metals in B2.1 would allow that procedure to
of AWS B2.1 the same M-number group.” cover the welding of all of the base
This could be read to mean that metals in the same M-number group”
With regard to the article “Keys to AWS D1.1:2010, Structural Welding is misleading and incorrect for D1.1
Success for a New Welding Engineer,” Code — Steel, accepts the use of all ma- code provisions.
by Richard Holdren, that starts on terials listed under an M-number in “Additionally, welding position is a
page 67 of the June 2015 Welding AWS B2.1 as approved for use in pre- nonessential variable for AWS B2.1;
Journal, the cited article contains qualified connections. That is not cor- however, D1.1 requires procedure
statements that are potentially mis- rect. While the D1.1 Code contains qualification testing in all positions to
leading. some of the materials listed in AWS be used in production when prequali-
For instance, the article states: B2.1, the AWS D1 Committee consid- fied procedures are not applicable.”
“AWS B2.1 (Specification for Welding ered and rejected a proposal that The above is a true statement, but
Procedure and Performance Qualifica- would permit the use of all the materi- the implied notion is that B2.1 is right
tion) groups materials with similar als listed in B2.1 as approved materials and D1.1 is wrong. Many members of
weldability so that when a base mate- in prequalified connections. D1 believe changes in position affect
rial from a given M-number group is The article further states that Weld- bead shape, penetration, and other
used for the qualification test, the pro- ing Procedure Specifications (WPSs) physical characteristics of the weld,
cedure is qualified for use with any of using materials not listed in D1.1, and therefore, WPSs should be quali-
the other materials from that same Table 3.1, need to be qualified. That is fied with position as an essential
M-number group. This can be a partly correct. In D1.1, Table 4.9 has variable.
tremendous help when working with additional approved materials that re- The article discusses the concept of
AWS D1.1 and using nonapproved quire qualification. Table 4.8 lists com- reentrant angles in weld surfaces as an
base metal. Per AWS D1.1 require- binations of materials that can be used acceptance criterion. This concept was
ments, this requires that a procedure in qualified procedures, and once quali- presented to the D1Q Committee and
be qualified by testing, and that proce- fied the procedures can be extended to rejected. The concept was based on a
dure is only applicable for that single weld to other D1.1 listed materials in
base metal. Employing AWS B2.1 the same or lower groups. — continued on page 26

For info, go to­index

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— continued from page 24

purported performance improvement

and a purported ease of visual inspec-
tion. It was rejected because members
did not concur with the ease of inspec-
tion; there was no technical evidence
presented showing an improvement in
performance in statically loaded welds;
and there were no fatigue tests show-
ing unsatisfactory performance of
welds using current criteria. There
were no tests showing an improve-
ment in fatigue category for welds
meeting the newly proposed criteria.
AWS D1.1 does include provisions for
toe grinding and remelting in Clause 8
on Strengthening and Repair and
for improved profiles in the tubular

D. C. Phillips, AWS D1 Member

Past Chair, D1M, Materials

Following is the author’s response:

Mr. Phillips does provide some valid
points, and I appreciate his extensive ex-
perience with AWS D1.1 and its require-
ments. It must be understood that the
For info, go to­index
purpose of this article was to provide a
welding engineer with some recommen-
dations on how to effectively utilize weld-
ing engineering principles when dealing
with applicable standards. To effectively
perform the job, the welding engineer
must employ sound engineering judg-
ment, while complying with the standard.
To do this, the welding engineer must
know both what is allowed and prohibit-
ed. I am not indicating that D1.1 is
wrong. Rather, I’m providing rationale for
a welding engineer to utilize the Code to
dramatically reduce the amount of test-
ing required without jeopardizing the in-
tegrity of the resulting welding procedure
Mr. Phillips’s first two comments refer
to my recommendation to employ the re-
quirements of AWS B2.1, Specification
for Welding Procedure and Perform-
ance Qualification. My position here was
not to apply the requirements of AWS
B2.1 to modify those of AWS D1.1. My
stance is based upon D1.1, clause,
which allows the Engineer to permit the
use of procedures qualified in accordance
with other standards. In that clause, it
states “AWS B2.1-X-XXX Series on Stan-
dard Welding Procedure Specifications
may, in this manner, be accepted for use in
this code.” It must also be realized that
AWS D1.1 is being employed extensively
For info, go to­index
for weldments that do not fit into the dure qualification, even though prequali- has to do with my proposed use of reen-
classic “steel structures” for which the fied procedures are considered qualified trant angle as a means of determining
Code was originally intended. For these in all positions, with minor exceptions. the acceptability of weld profile. This has
nonclassic applications, we encounter Mr. Phillips states that “Many members been proposed from the standpoint of
many base metals that are not contained of D1 believe changes in position affect ease of measurement by the inspector in
in Table 3.1, which lists “approved mate- bead shape, penetration, and other physi- the field. There has been no implication
rials.” Just because they are not included cal characteristics of the weld, and there- that this will improve fatigue perform-
in Table 3.1 does not mean they have re- fore that WPSs should be qualified with ance. If that’s what was presented to the
duced weldability. Hence, my recommen- position as an essential variable.” While Committee, then it was misrepresented
dation to employ AWS B2.1 for qualifica- that may be the case, position has no ef- or misinterpreted. This approach is set
tion is for those situations where a nonap- fect on mechanical properties, which is forth in ISO 5817 and has been adopted
proved base metal is being qualified. what we are trying to determine. I agree by AWS D14.4. Users agree that the sim-
For these situations, use of AWS B2.1 that position is critical for performance ple direct measurement of reentrant an-
can result in huge savings without any qualification, but not procedure. Both gle is much more efficient than the cur-
detrimental effects. Per AWS D1.1, quali- B2.1 and ASME Section IX are consistent rent approach of limiting fillet weld con-
fication of a welding procedure using a in this approach that flat position quali- vexity. This measurement is burdensome,
nonapproved steel only allows that proce- fies all positions. and as pointed out in the article, it can
dure to be used for the welding of that The bottom line is that to become ef- lead to acceptance of undesirable weld
specific steel. In comparison, if permitted fective as a welding engineer, one must profiles. Most in the business of visual
to qualify the welding procedure per AWS understand how to achieve the desired re- weld inspection agree with this approach,
B2.1, that procedure can then be applied sults by complying with Code require- and it is helpful to the welding engineer
for welding any other steel in that same ments while being cognizant of the asso- to understand the most effective ways to
M-number group. ciated costs. If given the option of quali- evaluate and control weld quality.
A further cost-saving offered when fying a procedure using a single steel in
B2.1 is used as the qualification standard the flat position vs. multiple steels in
is that the welding procedure only needs multiple positions, it quickly becomes evi- Richard Holdren
to be qualified in the flat position and it dent that significant cost savings can be Senior Welding Engineer
is considered qualified for welding in all realized with absolutely no reduction in Arc Specialties Technical Services
positions. D1.1 considers welding posi- the effectiveness of the procedure. Houston, Tex., and president Welding
tion to be an essential variable for proce- The final comment Mr. Phillips makes Consultants, LLC, Columbus, Ohio

For info, go to­index


Q: We have been having on­going

discussions in our shop about
when it is advisable to use an
open root joint preparation vs. a
closed root for gas tungsten arc
welding (GTAW) stainless steel.
Can you offer any practical

A: In the vast majority of root pass

welding situations, it makes no differ-
ence. Of course, autogenous welding
would virtually always be done with a
closed root. If matching filler metal is
recommended, open root or closed
root makes no difference unless nitro-
gen backing gas is to be used (see the
January 2015 and July 2000 Stainless
Q&A columns). In short, an open root
with nitrogen backing can raise the ni-
trogen content of the root pass and
convert weld metal expected to solidi-
fy as primary ferrite into weld metal
that solidifies as primary austenite
and, as a result, is sensitive to solidifi- Fig. 1 — Open root joint preparations that have been successfully used to avoid
cation cracking. high dilution in root pass GTA welding. (®Weir Materials & Foundries)

The Ideal Flange Fit-up Too

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That reservation aside, if the filler ance is important. These stainless The other stainless steels in this
metal matches the base metal (e.g., steel base metals contain more than group contain more than 6% Mo and
ER308L for 304L base metal, ER316L 4% Mo. During solidification of the are termed “superaustenitic” stainless
for 316L base metal, ER347 for 347 weld metal, molybdenum segregates steels. Examples are 254SMO (UNS
base metal, etc.), open root and closed on a microscopic scale so that the so- S31254), AL6XN (UNS N08367), and
root are equally applicable. Further, if lidifying dendrite cores are low in Mo 654SMO (UNS S32654). Note that the
the two sides of the joint are not the and the interdendritic spaces are high UNS Numbers are somewhat inconsis-
same, but are stainless steels, which in Mo. The base metal becomes ho- tent for these steels. All are a bit high-
are expected to solidify as primary fer- mogenized by hot working and anneal- er in iron content than in nickel con-
rite (e.g., 304, 304L, 304H, 316, 316L, ing, but that luxury is almost always tent, so they are commonly referred to
309, 309L, 347, etc.), open root and unavailable for the weld metal. The re- as stainless steels, but the N in some
closed root are equally applicable with sult is that the dendrite cores in the UNS Numbers implies a nickel-based
a filler metal that matches one side or weld metal can be prone to pitting at- alloy. In reality, 654SMO (with an S in
the other. If the two sides of the joint tack if the filler metal matches the its UNS Number) contains less iron
are stainless steels, which solidify as base metal nominal composition. To than 904L or AL6XN (with N in each
primary austenite or fully austenite combat this, nickel-based alloy filler UNS Number). For all of these base
(e.g., 310, 330, 320), and matching metals containing 9% or more Mo are metals, including 904L, the recom-
filler metal is recommended, open root generally recommended. The lowest mended filler metals include AWS
and closed root are equally applicable, Mo content in this group of stainless A5.14M/A5.14 Classes ERNiCrMo-3
although the procedure should be de- steels is 4%, found in 904L (UNS (about 9% Mo), ERNiCrMo-10 (about
signed in either case to produce a con- N08904), and there is a matching filler 13% Mo), and ERNiCrMo-4 (about
vex bead and fill craters. metal, ER385, available and recom- 16% Mo). Failure to use an open root
Now let’s turn to those situations mended for less-than-severe pitting joint preparation will generally result
where an open root is virtually essen- situations. But the manufacturers of in a root pass that is low in Mo and
tial for success. There are several. 904L invariably state that optimum susceptible to pitting corrosion. Fur-
These generally involve a recommend- pitting resistance is obtained with the ther, specifically with ERNiCrMo-3
ed filler metal that is, at least to some high-Mo, nickel-based alloy filler filler metal, failure to use an open root
extent, different from one or both metals. often results in solidification cracking
base metals. This does not mean
ER308L with 304L base metal — these
are essentially the same.
One situation involves welding of
duplex or superduplex stainless steels.
In general, these steels are welded
with a filler metal that matches the
base metal in all respects except one
— the nickel content is significantly
higher. The higher nickel is designed
to improve austenite formation under
weld cooling conditions so that the
weld metal will have appropriate me-
chanical properties and corrosion re-
sistance. For example, 2205 base met-
al (UNS S32205 or UNS S31803) con-
taining about 5% Ni is normally weld-
ed with ER2209 (9% Ni) filler metal.
Likewise, 2507 (UNS S32750) and Ze-
ron 100, both containing about 7% Ni,
are normally welded with ER2594 (9%
Ni) filler metal. In these cases, failure
to use an open root is likely to result in
excessive ferrite in the root pass,
chromium nitride precipitation in the
ferrite, poor ductility and toughness in
the root pass, and markedly inferior
corrosion resistance in the root pass.
A second situation where an open
root is essential for optimum results
involves the welding of austenitic
stainless steels that are high in molyb-
denum content, where pitting resist-
For info, go to­index
in the root pass due to dilution of the cracking can also be expected. from each edge of the joint prepara-
niobium in the filler metal to low and The same thing can happen if 304L tion, and then to measure the spacing
crack-sensitive levels. or 316L is welded to a fully austenitic between these marks after the root
A third situation where an open stainless steel like 310, 330, or 320 pass is completed. One can then easily
root is essential for optimum results with ER309L. Again, an open root is determine from the measurement of
involves the use of stainless steel filler beneficial and preferred. the spacing if the root was allowed to
metals chosen to produce primary fer- A variant of this third situation close.
rite solidification under normal dilu- arises when both sides of the joint are Another way to be certain that ex-
tion conditions with one or more non- carbon steel or low-alloy steel and a cessive base metal dilution into the
stainless steel base metals involved in higher ferrite stainless steel filler met- root pass does not take place is to use
the joint. If high dilution is obtained al like ER312 is used. ER312 might be a consumable insert that matches the
in these cases, as in a closed root joint chosen when one side of the joint (or appropriate filler metal in the root,
preparation, the solidification mode is both) is a high-carbon steel such as and takes the place of the open root,
likely to change to primary austenite 4140 or 1080 steel. In these cases, mainly in pipe welding. AWS A5.30/
and the joint becomes susceptible to even with ER312 filler metal, dilution A5.30M classifies consumable inserts,
solidification cracking. This situation from use of a closed root can result in but consumable insert rings matching
may arise when carbon steel or low al- primary austenite solidification, with the filler metals mentioned above are,
loy steel is welded to an austenitic likelihood of solidification cracking. in many cases, not classified. IN309L
stainless steel such as 304L or 316L Or even worse, with high enough dilu- and IN312 consumable inserts are
using filler metal like ER309L. With tion of the root pass weld metal can classified in AWS A5.30/A5.30M, and
normally expected dilution on the or- transform to martensite, be very brit- these are useful in joining carbon steel
der of 30% or less (half from the car- tle, and defeat the whole purpose of or low-alloy steel pipe to stainless steel
bon steel or low-alloy steel), primary using ER312 filler metal. Then hydro- pipe to obtain primary ferrite solidifi-
ferrite solidification is expected and gen-induced cracking becomes a cation in the root pass. Insert rings in
solidification cracking is normally possibility. alloys matching ER2209, ER2594, ER-
avoided. But with a closed root, much In all of these situations, the func- NiCrMo-3, ERNiCrMo-4, and ERNiCr-
more than 30% dilution can be expect- tion of the open root is to force the Mo-10, which are not classified in
ed, and primary austenite solidifica- welder to add a large amount of filler AWS A5.30/A5.30M, can be found
tion with a tendency for solidification metal to the root pass so that base online — just Google “consumable
metal dilution into the root pass is inserts.” WJ
limited to about 30% maximum. In
GTA welding, there is, in general, no
DAMIAN J. KOTECKI is president,
connection between welding speed or Damian Kotecki Welding Consultants,
welding current and filler metal depo- Inc. He is treasurer of the IIW and a
sition, so that dilution can vary from member of the A5D Subcommittee on
nearly 100% to levels less than 30%. Stainless Steel Filler Metals, D1K Sub­
With no root opening, the welder committee on Stainless Steel Structural
tends to fuse the two base metals ex- Welding; and WRC Subcommittee on
Welding Stainless Steels and Nickel­
tensively and only add a bit of filler Base Alloys. He is a past chair of the A5
metal intermittently, resulting in near- Committee on Filler Metals and Allied
ly 100% dilution. A typical recom- Materials, and served as AWS president
mended root opening to provide about (2005–2006). Questions may be sent to
30% dilution is 2 to 3 mm (5⁄64 to 1⁄8 in.). Damian J. Kotecki c/o Welding Journal,
Root openings up to 4 mm have been 8669 NW 36 St., # 130, Miami, FL
successfully used. See Fig. 1 for exam- 33166, or via e­mail at
ples of open-root joint preparations
that have been found suitable for
these situations.
Such a root opening is not easy to
maintain. The root opening has a ten-
dency to close as welding progresses
along a joint. One way to overcome
this is to place regularly spaced tacks An Important Event
that are fairly heavy and are made on Its Way?
with the recommended filler metal. In
general, welders do not like welding Send information on upcoming
events to the Welding Journal
with an open root, so there is a ten-
Dept., 8669 NW 36 St., #130,
dency for the open root to disappear
Miami, FL 33166. Items can also
when supervision is lacking. A tech- be sent via FAX to (305) 443-7404
nique to overcome this tendency is to or by e-mail to
place “witness marks” a fixed distance
For info, go to­index


For Info, go to­index

Q: How do I select a portable spot

welding workstation?

The fundamental difference be-

tween a remote transformer cable gun
(Fig. 1) and an integral self-contained
portable spot welding machine (Fig. 2)
is the location, size, and kVA ratings of
the transformer needed to weld simi-
lar gauges of metal. These differences
can have a significant impact on the
installation and operating costs of the
selected equipment.
The welding transformer converts
the high voltage and low current of the
primary electrical service to the low
voltage and high current required at
the electrodes for welding. This sec-
ondary voltage and current is affected Fig. 1 — Illustration of a remote transformer cable gun.
by the impedance of the secondary cir-
cuit, which consists of all items joining increases the impedance, a larger welding gun and eliminates the heavy
the secondary terminal pad of the transformer is required to deliver kickless or single conductor cable. This
welding transformer to the welding the needed welding current at the in turn reduces the impedance of the
head or gun. Since the length of the electrodes. welding machine. This low impedance
kickless or single conductor cable used The transgun-type incorporates a factor allows a lower-kVA-rated trans-
with a remote transformer cable gun compact welding transformer into the former to be used. The lower KVA re-

For info, go to­index

capacity, whether fully utilized or not,
the transgun offers lower operational
costs than the cable gun.
Transguns are much more efficient
than cable-type guns. As an example, a
typical 18-kVA transgun can weld two
pieces of 0.050-in. (1.26-mm) low-
carbon mild steel requiring 10,300 sec-
ondary amperes welding current. In
order to weld the same material using
a typical cable gun, a 50-kVA or possi-
bly larger transformer is required due
to the high impedance created by the
long kickless cable. If both the trans-
gun and cable gun are designed for a
220-V primary supply, the comparison
shown in Fig. 3 of electrical efficiency
can be made.
The lower primary current demand
of the transgun means lower installa-
tion costs resulting from a lower buss
Fig. 2 — Illustration of an integral self­contained spot welding machine. duct, switchgear and fuse require-
ments, as well as lower operational
quirement offers several advantages. trical power system. The second ad- costs.
The first advantage is a reduced de- vantage is the cost factor. The lower Although cable guns are available in
mand on the plant electrical system, kVA rating allows the user to have a a greater number of configurations,
which permits a transgun to be uti- less-expensive electrical installation. this advantage is frequently offset by
lized where the old-style cable gun Since many electric-generating utilities the better maneuverability of the
might overload an already loaded elec- may charge rates based on plant kVA transgun. The stiff kickless secondary

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Table 1 — Advantages and Disadvantages of the Two Types of Portable Spot Welding Machines

Remote Transformer Cable Gun Transgun

Welding Head Available in a variety of configurations. Many Fixed geometric design. Major components
components may be specified to meet welding cannot be relocated. Usually choice of scissor
requirements. Choice of pinch, scissor, “C,” and push or “C” types.

Transformer Available in various kVA ratings. Requires secondary Compact, lighter weight. Built into welding head.
cable to connect to any style welding head. Usually Normally single kVA rating per model. Higher
remote­mounted overhead. May require balance beam kVA requires selection of a larger model. Usually
and a heavy­duty support structure. does not require heavy­duty support structure.

Secondary Cable Connects welding head to transformer. Stiff, Eliminated. Small­diameter, primary cable, direct­
cumbersome. May require water cooling. Restricts to­integral transformer.
movement. High impedance.

Gyrobail Rotation usually restricted to 90–140 deg due to stiff Normally 360­deg rotation in two or three planes.
secondary cable. Restricted movement may require Greater maneuverability.
additional welding machines.

Primary Electrical Service Requires large primary cable, buss duct, switch gear, and Smaller primary cable, buss duct, and so on. May
fuses. Greater installation costs. be installed in shop areas having limited electrical

Support Structures Requires larger overhead support structures to No special heavy construction needed.
accommodate greater weight of large transformer.
May increase costs.

Balance Beam Usually required for hanging transformer, varying Eliminated.

controller and spring balancer. Additional cost item.

Spring Balancer Permits up and down motion of welding head with Permits up and down motion of welding head with
reduced effort. reduced effort.

tures with advantages and disadvan-

tages that may help fabricators
compare the merits and costs of
both types of portable spot welding
As we can see from the comparison,
both types of equipment can be used
for large, difficult-to-handle work-
pieces not suited for conventional sta-
tionary spot welding machines. While
the traditional cable gun may be best
Fig. 3 — Comparison of electrical efficiency. suited for those applications where the
welding head is used in a single plane
cable of the remote transformer cable costs, as well as a lower cost per weld. and in a confined area, the need for
gun can severely restrict its maneuver- The new generation of self- maneuverability, rotation of the weld-
ability. It limits the rotation from only contained suspended transguns offer ing head, and/or welding in more than
90 to 140 deg. This may require two or additional economies. Self-contained one plane may warrant the use of a
more cable-type guns to weld an as- transguns feature built-in micro- transgun. WJ
sembly. Each additional gun would processor welding controls and encap-
mean greater equipment, installation, sulated solid-state contactors that
and probably labor costs as well. eliminate the old-style remote-
Since the transgun eliminates the mounted controller cabinet, further
stiff kickless cable, it can usually be ro- reducing the installation and servicing
tated a full 360 deg in three planes. cost. Combination earth leakage detec- GREGORY W. LABELLE is president and CEO
Due to this greater maneuverability, a tors and circuit breakers replace the of LORS Machinery, a Resistance Welding
single transgun may now replace two electromagnetic isolation contactor Solutions, Inc., company, Union, N.J. Send
or more cable guns with a resultant re- common to the older generation your comments and questions to Greg La­
belle c/o Welding Journal, 8669 NW 36 St.,
duction in capital equipment expendi- transguns. # 130, Miami, FL 33166, or via e­mail at
tures, lower installation and labor Table 1 offers a summary of fea-


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Soldering System Optimizes

The Mt. Vernon work boot, avail- Laser Exposure Diameters Revised Welding Curriculum
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Emphasizes Safety
and features a KEEN.DRY waterproof,
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drophobic/Hydrophilic 2-zone comfort ing Level 1 and Level 2 curriculum has
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keeping feet dry. An oil- and slip-resis- most current industry standards. The
tant nonmarking rubber outsole fea- curriculum aligns with the American
tures channels that divert water, im- The company’s Multi-Phi laser sol- Welding Society’s Schools Excelling
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Soldering Machine Fits Into Cell

Production Environments Education That Workks
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The Smartflow 2020 selective

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Soldering Device Useful for

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The word is out. We asked real-world “Using the HPPX-PR

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see what your colleagues have to say
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e Level 2 mize production output and is useful
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— continued on page 40
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PRODUCT & PRINT SPOTLIGHT record management, inspections and
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— continued from page 38
management and trackers for employ-
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The unit features active integrated fit testing.
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Hot Work Pad Meets NFPA
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PPE Management Safety
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The company has added Fire Quilt™

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— continued on page 110
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Six Things to Consider before
Purchasing Ambient Fume
Collection Equipment

Weld fume rising through a worker’s breathing zone.

Here are some

re you considering the installation of an ambient weld fume
collection system in your facility? Ambient systems provide
some benefits ducted systems don’t, so they’re worth a review.
things to think Following are some common misconceptions to consider before you
make a final decision.

about before you

Misconception 1: Airflow
make a buying Patterns Can Easily Be Predicted
Reality: The truth is we can’t be certain air will flow in a direction
decision just because we want it to. Sophisticated modeling software can


predict airflow patterns, but air can physical barriers are used to isolate the Collection strategies that employ high
only be forced in a direction when it is contaminant-producing sections of air inlets and floor-level filtered air re-
channeled in a container (such as a the plant. turns tend to leverage the fume’s natu-
duct). Airflow modeling software has Directional nozzles can help direct ral rise and can disrupt the stagnant
its limitations, as air patterns are af- air in a certain direction, but the air layer effect, creating a general air pat-
fected by fans, make-up air systems, will diffuse into the overall room as it tern that carries fume to the filtration
open windows and doors, large sta- leaves the exhaust opening. The reality system’s inlets.
tionary machines, moving machines, is that the only way to prevent fume By contrast, when air inlets are too
beams/poles, curtains, and even the from dispersing into the general sur- low (below the stagnant air layer ele-
people moving in the plant. Computer rounding plant environment is to col- vation), or filtered air is returned too
models give us a general idea of air lect it at the source and prevent the high (above the stagnant air layer ele-
patterns, but measuring patterns in contaminant from being diluted by vation), air patterns created in the
the real world is the only way to see plant air. plant can actually work against con-
how the air actually flows. trolling the fume, leading to poor over-
all system performance.
Misconception 4: Ambient
Misconception 2: Air Can Be Systems Have a Smaller
Forced in a Push/Pull Pattern Footprint than Multiple Misconception 6: Ambient
Source Collection Systems Collection Protects Plant
Reality: Systems designed to cre- Workers
ate a circular or racetrack air pattern Reality: In general, ambient collec-
are often not as effective as shown on tors need to be larger than source col- Reality: Ambient collection strate-
paper. Depending on the size of the fa- lectors because they filter the entire gies seem like a great way to ensure
cility and the disturbing influences, air volume of air in the plant several concentrations of fume are kept low to
may simply not have enough energy to times an hour. Ambient collection is avoid overexposure, but ambient fume
push across a large expanse and com- generally considered as dilution venti- collection is a dilution ventilation
plete the designed circuit. Air exhaust lation to control average concentra- strategy. In ambient collection strate-
can be thrown long distances, but it is tions of contaminants in the plant at gies, contaminants pass through the
practically impossible to pull air across or below the acceptable threshold for worker’s breathing zone as they are be-
even a very short distance. Air exiting the contaminant. ing diluted by plant air. The collector
a duct retains roughly 10% of the ex- Efficient filters can remove the con- system works to remove contaminants
haust velocity at a length 30 times the taminants, but ambient collection re- at a rate to avoid increasing contami-
diameter of the duct, but air entering a moves the contaminant only after nant concentrations on average in the
duct is moving at 10% of the inlet ve- those contaminants have passed plant, but fumes pass through the
locity only when it gets within about a through the breathing zone of the worker’s breathing zone before they
length of the duct diameter. To over- worker. By comparison, source capture are fully diluted, creating an opportu-
come this condition of physics, a larger strategies use smaller air volumes to nity for overexposure. To avoid this
volume of air has to be forced to move control contaminants at their points risk, you may need other strategies,
in order to create the capture of fume of generation so contaminants are di- such as personal protection equipment
at the intake of a system. Therefore, it rected to collectors before they reach (PPE). Source collection strategies
takes a much larger fan (at a much the worker’s breathing zone. The net avoid the overexposure risk by control-
higher energy cost) to produce this result is often a smaller total footprint ling the contaminants at their point of
type of airflow pattern for large-vol- for source control of contaminants. generation, thereby preventing con-
ume spaces, and there may still be a taminants from crossing the worker’s
gap where the pushed air just can’t breathing zone.
reach the next collector in the circuit.
Misconception 5: Inlet
Location Does Not Matter Summary
Misconception 3: Ambient Reality: There are no formal indus- Ambient collection strategies can
Collection Can Be Focused trial ventilation guidelines for ambient provide benefits, but you must under-
on One Area fume collection, but here is a general stand their limitations and implement
observation. Weld fume tends to rise, them only when they fit your plant’s
Reality: Ambient control strategies due to heat during generation, until it needs. To ensure you address worker
function by allowing contaminants to reaches the elevation of any stagnant overexposure and facility housekeep-
be diluted as they enter the plant air air layer in the plant. This creates a ing, consider a combination of source
space. The plant air is then filtered to blanket of fume that lingers and con- and ambient collection, and PPE to
avoid an increase in contaminant con- centrates. The actual elevation of this cover your entire weld fume collection
centrations above an acceptable stagnant layer is influenced by many needs. WJ
threshold. Contaminants are diluted variables, including the shape and
by the general air in the plant, not just temperature of the plant ceiling and KAREN WEAR is a product manager for
the air from the welding operations or the presence and influence of all the Donaldson Torit, Minneapolis, Minn.,
specific areas of the facility, unless disturbing air currents in the plant.


Keeping Inspection Technology in Pace
with Weld-Industry Advancements
As the welding industry expands,
inspection technology tools must BY WILL HABERMANN

be improved

he 19th century marked the be- tury that the modern-day electric arc
ginning of the modern welding was discovered. Electric arc welding
age, and up to the present day techniques and technologies remained
there have been continuous advance- rudimentary up until World War I and
ments in the science and technology of II — Fig. 2. During this time period,
the global welding industry. Naturally, especially in the United States, the
this evolution created a demand for manufacturing industry saw a massive
more advanced welding quality stan- increase in demand for military equip-
dards, and therefore a coinciding evo- ment, and therefore quality standardi-
lution in welding inspection technolo- zation became a necessity.
gy. Today we use more inspection Scientific standards needed to be
techniques, testing methods, and non- objectively documented and published
Fig. 1 — Live weld inspection using the
destructive examination (NDE) equip- as the welding industry rapidly accel- Visible Welding WeldWatch V 2015-Z
ment than ever before to achieve weld erated. The AWS began continually camera aides a welder by providing real-
quality assurance. publishing the Welding Journal in time, light-filtered video while recording
Certified Welding Inspectors 1922, and from there has published work performed.
(CWIs) and Certified Welding Educa- more than 100 codes, procedures, and
tors (CWEs) uphold the standards of safety regulations that provide weld-
weld quality and safety published by ing quality assurance across the global
the American Welding Society (AWS). industry. In order to uphold these
In order to adhere to these crucial standards and keep pace with this rap-
standards, CWIs and CWEs must use id, scientific evolution of the industry,
the most advanced inspection equip- demand grew for weld inspection tech-
ment and visual inspection methods nology that could satisfy the complex
available. Looking for visual clues in quality standards and regulations.
prior-to-weld examination, using spe-
cialized cameras during the weld The Reliable Eye
process, and utilizing NDE equipment
must be done in parallel in order to Despite all of the modern inspec-
achieve complete weld quality assur- tion technologies in today’s welding in- Fig. 2 — Women workers weld handles
ance — Fig. 1. This also presents the dustry, unaided visual examination during World War II.
need for using this inspection equip- continues to be the primary method to
ment in the welding classroom to en- control satisfactory welding. An experi-
sure the latest weld testing techniques enced set of eyes remains the key per-
are passed down to future CWIs and formance indicator for ensuring weld
CWEs. quality before, during, and after the
weld process. Visual examination is
History of Welding Industry fundamental to ensure joint fitup, set-
Quality Standards ting and marking hold/check points,
and checking for base metal disconti-
The history of joining metals can be nuities and cleanliness. This sets the
Fig. 3 — Live weld viewing images of the
dated back several millennia to the groundwork for a proper weld and usu- gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW)
Bronze and Iron Ages in Europe and ally requires no visual aid equipment process. The electrode and feed rod are
the Middle East. It was not until the unless the target area of the weld is clearly visible to ensure alignment during
Industrial Revolution in the 19th cen- blind. It is not until the actual weld filler passes.



Fig. 5 — A cross section of slag inclusion from flux cored arc welding using Flux-Core
Dual-Shield 710X-U feed wire. This defect is not visible unless radiographic or ultrasonic
nondestructive methods are used or destructive methods are used in postweld inspection.

the bright and harmful UV light pro- Live Weld Viewing in the
C duced by the arc. It is possible to view Classroom
a live weld with welding glass shields
or helmets, but this still may remain Viewing a live weld arc by welders
difficult. Specialized wide-dynamic- in training proves to be very valuable
range cameras provide valuable infor- in a classroom. Visual examination
mation during the welding process to techniques are easily taught with AWS
give CWIs added advantages to control Standards (AWS B1.11, Guide for the
welding quality, and therefore save Visual Examination of Welds) for pre-
valuable time and material. and postweld inspection. Teaching
New digital camera technology what to look for during the welding
along with software is able to take dif- process proves more difficult. Using
ferent exposure values of the bright weld viewing camera images on large
arc and compile them into one homog- monitor display gives students vital
enous, viewable image — Fig. 3. Certi- examples as to why welding defects
Fig. 4 — Live weld viewing in the class- fied Welding Inspectors are able to use may occur — Fig. 4. With live weld
room proves to be a useful learning tool. these images to analyze live welds in
Using the Visible Welding WeldWatch V viewing cameras, the CWE can show
order to keep its quality up to industry multiple students at once on a display
2015-Z camera, the three images are standards. For example, in automated
from the same GMA weld pass. A — A monitor what improper arc shapes and
tube fabrication, an inspector/opera- colors look like, bad alignment of the
well-formed conical arc shape and pool;
B — a point where an exhaust fan comes
tor is able to notice when alignment is electrode/torch in relation to the weld-
too close to the weld and pulls the off or the arc shape is malformed, and ing joint, and the pool formation and
shielding gas away from the arc; C —the is able to adjust or shut down the au- size.
arc shape becomes blob-like and incon- tomated process to save valuable time
sistent, therefore causing porosity in the and material.
finished weld. With cameras that have recording Postweld Inspection
capabilities, CWIs can analyze the
process begins that technology plays a footage of the root pass and filler pass- To effectively complete a thorough
heavy role in quality assurance. es to verify electrode alignment with welding inspection, it is sometimes
the weld joint. There are opportunities imperative to use appropriate NDE
to view arc shape and the molten met- equipment, and at times, use destruc-
Live Weld Viewing al pool size. This visual evidence rein- tive examination techniques to achieve
forces what caused an unsatisfactory total weld quality assurance. Defects
Most commonly, visual examina- weld joint during the postweld inspec- such as incorrect weld geometry,
tion of welding occurs before and after tion. These images also are very im- porosity, and cracks are easily identi-
the actual welding takes place, but live portant educational tools that a CWE fied by the eye, but not all weld defects
viewing remains very limited due to can use in the classroom. are discoverable from a surface visual


examination. The use of ultrasonic quality standards with the latest in- that disqualify a poor weld. These test-
and radiographic testing methods are spection technology and effective ing methods used comprehensively
important to reveal any defects that training with the use of this technolo- during the various stages of welding
occur below the welding surface, such gy. Appropriate inspection methods will decrease chances of missing a
as slag inclusion — Fig. 5. and testing equipment must not only weld defect.
Using NDE methods in conjunction be used during every phase of the weld As we move forward in the 21st
with recorded visual images from the process, but also be used in tandem to century, more welding techniques and
live weld cameras make postweld as- ensure complete weld quality assur- methods will be invented, innovated
sessments easier when gauging ance during production. Visual exami- upon, and implemented in manufac-
whether or not the performed work nation and documentation before, turing and construction weld process-
meets industry standards. Additional- during, and after the basic and ad- es. The quality of parts, assemblies,
ly, the CWE can instruct students how vanced weld processes remain the and structures will continue to become
to use NDE equipment to find welding backbone for inspection. In the pres- more complex. It is only natural that
defects, and then reinforce how those ent day, where time and materials are the highest quality welding methods
defects occur by review of the recorded more costly, there is a higher demand and industry standards must keep
visuals. for utilizing more innovative weld in- pace with our evolving, globally indus-
The final postwelding testing tech- spection trial world. In order to meet or exceed
nique is destructive testing. Bend and technology for maximum production these standards, inspection-technolo-
pull tests and macrographs of weld efficiency. gy tools must be innovated upon and
cross sections prove the weld to be Weld inspection technology is not utilized to help the manufacturing and
sound and are useful educational ex- only an aid, but a critical component construction industries continue to
amples. Figure 5 shows a clear exam- to ensure applicable quality and safety flourish. WJ
ple of a postweld slag inclusion that standards are met. It is critical for
would not be visible without using CWIs and CWEs to use camera tech-
X-ray or ultrasonic imaging and then nology while the weld is taking place
cutting a cross section of the joint. in order to illustrate and analyze im-
portant aspects of why and how de-
Conclusion fects, such as porosity, cracks, and slag WILL HABERMANN
inclusion may occur. Additionally, the (
is technical product coordinator,
Certified Welding Inspectors and use of ultrasonic and X-ray NDE equip- Intertest, Inc., Columbia, N.J.
Educators uphold the AWS welding ment helps identify subsurface defects

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Safety Tips for
Weld Prep in Pipe
Fig. 1 — Any good weld starts with proper surface
preparation. Following common safety tips when using
the various tools for weld preparation in pipe fabrica-
tion can provide a safer environment for the operator
and workers who may be working in close proximity.

These guidelines will help you

safely obtain a clean surface in BY DAVID JESCOVITCH

preparation for welding

ny good weld starts with proper Surface preparation and interpass While surface conditioning plays an
surface preparation — Fig. 1. In and postweld cleaning can help pre- important role in pipe fabrication in
pipe welding, there are stringent vent issues such as porosity and in- the shop and in the field, many weld-
quality and code requirements, mak- complete fusion that can cause a weld ing operators receive little training in
ing good weld preparation and starting to fail, which results in time and mon- the key safety issues involved in prop-
with a clean surface especially critical. ey spent on rework. er surface conditioning.


Following some common safety tips typically ground with a thin grinding crease the “dwell time” at that spot by
for weld preparation can help keep op- wheel to prepare the surface for the allowing the brush to sit and spin in
erators safe and improve the quality of next pass in the welding application — that area without moving the grinder.
welds produced. the hot pass. After the hot pass is laid This lets the wire points hit that sur-
down, a wire brush is typically used for face for a longer amount of time to
The Pipe Fabrication cleaning between each of the remain- clear up any small pockets that can
ing passes to remove any impurities or happen inside the button.
Process slag.
Typically when joining two pieces of
Many of the same safety tips apply Appropriate Tool
to the various stages of pipe fabrica-
pipe, a bevel is cut on each pipe end. tion, no matter the surface prepara- Selection
Even when a pipe is beveled on the tion tool being used or the size of the
ends, it still must be properly prepared tool. For weld preparation in pipe fabri-
for the welding process. This elimi- A general safety tip to be aware of cation — just as with any surface con-
nates any rust, pitting, or corrosion during weld preparation and interpass ditioning work — it’s important to
that can take place on the bevel itself. cleaning of pipe is to watch any pinch match the speed and size of the tool to
In addition, there is a flat portion near points where a wheel can snag and get the speed and size of the accessory.
the bevel called the “land,” which also tied up in a tight area, which can result This applies whether the tool being
must be properly cleaned. in kickback of the tool. used is a wire brush, a grinding wheel,
Once the bevels and lands are pre- Also, when there are two welding or a flap disc.
pared and ready to be welded, the two operators welding on the same piece of No matter what type of accessory is
joints of pipe are lined up with an ap- pipe — which often happens with used to prepare the weld, the speed of
propriate root opening for welding. In large-diameter pipe — the area where the accessory must meet or exceed the
most cases, they are tack welded to- their two separate welds meet is called rated speed of the tool for safe usage.
gether. Those tack welds may be the button. This is typically a difficult If the rpm rating on the tool or acces-
ground or touched up with a grinding area to clean with a wire brush. Take sory cannot be read, it should not be
or cutting wheel before the root pass care to avoid applying too much pres- used.
is laid. sure when cleaning the button, which Always using tool guards is another
After the root pass is complete, it is can lead to wire breakage. Instead, in- important safety step in weld prepara-
tion. Any accessory used with a tool
should fit inside the guard for safe
Some manufacturers make tool
guards that are easily moved or adjust-
ed, which can offer benefits for pipe
welding since the welding operator
may be continually changing positions
around the diameter of the pipe.
The tool guard should be posi-
tioned between the welding operator
and the working end of the tool or ac-
cessory to provide the appropriate lev-
el of protection.

Use the Right Amount

of Pressure
Whether preparing a weld in the
shop or in the field — and no matter
the tool — using the appropriate
amount of pressure is a safety tip that
always applies.
The pressure being applied should
basically be the weight of the tool be-
ing used. Applying too much pressure
when using a wire brush can cause the
wires to break. Applying too much
pressure when using a flap disc or
Fig. 2 — For the safest operation, it’s important for the operator to position his entire grinding wheel can cause the operator
body square with the work surface, rather than just moving his arms. This allows the to slip and possibly be injured.
operator to get the proper work angle and have the most control over the tool. Using The important thing to remember
both hands and having one hand on the tool handle helps ensure a secure hold on about pressure is operators should ap-
the tool, to resist kickback and slippage. ply only the weight of the tool, with-


out leaning on the tool or pushing Additionally, as a grinding wheel or
hard, for the best and safest results. If cutoff wheel wears and becomes small-
the welding operator has to apply er, it should never be used with a tool
pressure to get the job done, it’s likely of a different size for which it was not
he or she is using the wrong accessory designed. For example, a 9-in. grinding
or using the tool at the wrong speed. wheel that reduces in diameter with
use should not be used on a 6-in.
Proper Positioning grinder just because it fits. Remember,
the rpm rating of the accessory must
Using the proper positioning — meet or exceed the rpm rating of the
both of the tool and of the operator’s tool.
body in relation to the workpiece — is Not only is the product worn down
another important safety considera- so much that control becomes harder,
tion in weld preparation. This can be but it’s also an issue of the depth of
more difficult when pipe welding in cut or reach of the accessory once it
the field, where often larger pipes can- becomes smaller with use. It may not
not be moved and the operator must reach the areas necessary on a very
change positions around the pipe. thick pipe, for example, which impacts
For the safest operation, it’s impor- easy access and maneuverability for
tant for the operator to position his or the operator.
her entire body square with the work
surface, rather than just moving his or Be Safe in Weld
her arms — Fig. 2. This allows the op- Preparation
erator to get the proper work angle
and have the most control over the Following these common safety tips
tool. Using both hands and having one when using the various tools for weld
hand on the tool handle helps ensure a preparation in pipe fabrication can
secure hold on the tool, to resist kick- provide a safer environment for the
back and slippage. operator and workers who may be
The orientation of the tool on the working in close proximity.
work surface is also important for op- Using the proper procedures not
erator safety. Some tools should be only improves the safety for operators,
held perpendicular to the surface, it also can have an impact on the fin-
while others should be held flat ished weld quality and result in re-
against the surface. This helps ensure duced rework, saving time and money.
the right pressure is being used on the A quality weld starts with a clean,
tool, to reduce the chances of an oper- prepared surface. Keep safety guide-
ator slipping. lines in mind when performing these
common tasks for welding. WJ
Watch for Wear
Another factor to keep in mind for (
the safest usage of tools and acces- is market development manager,
sories in weld preparation is to watch Weiler Corp., Cresco, Pa.
for wear of the products.
Often, as a product becomes small-
er in diameter with use over time, it
can become harder to control. This can
pose safety issues for operators. Over
time, the wires in wire brushes can
also begin to break down and have the
potential to come off during use,
which is a sign that it’s time to replace
the brush.
When a wheel stops cutting at the
rate that it was designed for, an opera-
Change of Address?
tor has a tendency to apply more pres- Moving?
sure, which increases the chances of
slipping and injury. The need to apply Make sure delivery of your Welding Jour-
more pressure to get the same per- nal is not interrupted. Contact Maria
formance from the product is another Trujillo in the Membership Department
with your new address information —
sign that the accessory should be
(800) 443-9353, ext. 204;
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Reliability Analysis of
Pin-in-Hole Solder Joints
Model predictions addressed a sequence of
multiple environments that encompassed BY P. T. VIANCO AND
handling, transportation, and use segments
within the assembly lifetime

reliability assessment was made the reliability of the PWA (Refs. 1, 2).
of the thermal mechanical fa- The computational modeling analy-
tigue (TMF) resistance of defec- sis began with the development of ap-
tive through-hole solder joints on an propriate finite element meshes of the
encapsulated printed wiring assembly various PWA constructions. Then, the
(PWA). model was exercised to predict TMF of
the solder joints, taking into account
Printed Wiring Assembly the multiple temperature cycling con-
ditions that occur during handling,
A schematic diagram is shown in transportation, and use. Two failure
Fig. 1 of a “nontypical” PWA that has criteria were established that were Fig. 1 — Schematic of the PWA. The com-
components — resistors, capacitors, based on the number of temperature ponents are attached to one PWB (blue
etc. — “sandwiched” between two cycles required to initiate a TMF crack resistor) or to both PWBs (green resistor).
through-hole printed wiring boards or cause 100% cracking that causes an The interior volumes and areas above
(PWBs). Some components had the electrical open. and below the PWBs were filled with an
leads soldered to one PWB with 63Sn- encapsulant.
37Pb (wt-%) alloy; others had one lead Setup of the Model
soldered to each of the two PWBs us- PWB affected the fatigue of the solder
ing the same solder. The internal vol- Finite Element Model. The blue re- joints. This case, which is shown in
ume and external regions around the sistor in Fig. 1 was selected because its Fig. 2C, addresses the worst-case sce-
PWBs were encapsulated with a glass configuration was more prone to TMF nario of a void having developed in the
microballoon-filled epoxy to enhance in its solder joints. The development encapsulant.
the assembly’s resistance to mechani- of the finite element model is illustrat- The two solder joints of the resistor
cal shock. ed in Fig. 2 for the blue resistor in Fig. are labeled “1” and “2.” Preliminary
Solder joints exposed to tempera- 1. Figure 2A shows the resistor body, modeling predictions indicated solder
ture cycling environments can experi- the solder joints, and the bottom PWB joint 1, directly under the component,
ence thermal mechanical fatigue to which the solder joints were made. experienced a greater degree of TMF
(TMF) degradation that eventually The introduction of the second, top due in large part to the interaction be-
leads to cracked joints and an electri- PWB and the encapsulant are shown tween the resistor body and the encap-
cally open circuit. Partially filled solder in Fig. 2B. The encapsulant is located sulant. Therefore, the finite element
joints pose an unknown reliability risk between the PWBs as well as under- model considered only joint 1.
especially in the presence of an encap- neath them; it was left out from above The need to address only a single
sulant and the complex configuration the top PWB because it had minimal solder joint allowed for the finite ele-
in Fig. 1. This circumstance warranted effect on the TMF of the blue resistor’s ment model, which at this point had
the use of the solder fatigue computa- solder joints. cylindrical symmetry, to be reduced
tional model to predict the risk posed The presence or absence of encap- further to a 10-deg “pie slice” geome-
by the defective interconnections to sulant from underneath the bottom try as shown in Fig. 3. The predictions



Fig. 3 — The 3-D finite element model (left) is reduced to the 10-deg slice model (right) by
considering only joint 1.

Fig. 4 — The 3-D solid model of the 1 joint is shown at left. The finite element mesh of the
10-deg slice is shown to the right.

tively. Figure 5D shows the case of en- • Use segment: 16°C/33°C; 1 cycle/
capsulant being absent from under the year; sinusoidal between limits; 60
PWB and the 50% hole fill. The miss- cycles (years).
Fig. 2 — Solid models show the single
ing solder was replaced by encapsulant The following methodology was
symmetry plane of the assembly: A — Re-
sistor, its solder joints (labeled 1 and 2), in the holes (magenta arrows). used to predict the total percentage of
and the PWB; B — both PWBs and the en- Temperature Cycle Conditions. TMF used up by the combination of
capsulant located between them and un- The temperature cycling condition ex- serial environments. The analysis be-
derneath the bottom PWB; C — the same perienced in service had three seg- gan with the transportation and han-
as B except the encapsulant was ments. There are two transportation dling segment #1 (–29°C/49°C; 24-h
eliminated from underneath the bottom and handling segments, #1 and #2, as period). Crack initiation is the failure
PWB. well as the final use segment. The de- criterion, which is designated with the
tails of the three segments are listed subscript, i. The computational model
retained adequate fidelity. below, including the minimum and calculated the number of cycles re-
The finite element construct shown maximum temperature limits, which quired to reach crack initiation under
in Fig. 4 represents the baseline case define temperature range, ΔT; hold the transportation and handling seg-
having full fillets on both sides of the times at temperature limits; the ramp ment #1, Ni, #1, to be 3600 cycles. How-
joint. The initial 3-D solid model is rates between the limits; and number ever, the solder joints will experience
shown at left and the 10-deg-slice fi- of cycles: only 15 cycles under segment #1.
nite element mesh is presented at • Transportation and handling Therefore, the fraction of TMF life
right. segment #1: –29°C/49°C; 10-h holds; used up by the 15 cycles is 15/3600 =
The computational model analyzed 2 h/ramp; 15 cycles; 0.0042. The same computation is
four variations of hole fill. The finite • Transportation and handling made for transportation and handling
element meshes illustrated in Fig. 5 segment #2: –18°C/49°C; 10-h holds; segment #2 as well as for the use
are 100, 75, and 50% hole fill, respec- 2 h/ramp; 15 cycles; segment.



The total percentage of TMF life

consumed by the service environment
is the sum of the percent lifetimes
used up by the three segments. This
methodology is referred to as Miner’s
Rule. Mathematically, that summation
is expressed by Equation 1:

Total % Life Used (service) =

[(15/Ni; #1) + (15/Ni; #2)
+ [60/Ni; use]] × 100 (1)

A similar equation was developed

for the failure criterion of a 100% A B
crack that would lead to an electrical
failure. These two equations were ap-
plied to each of the five solder joint
configurations represented in Fig. 4D
(baseline) and Fig. 5 (variants of hole

Results – Model
The results are presented in Table 1
for the service environment that in-
cluded the two transportation and
handling segments, #1 and #2, as well C D
as the use segment. The first row is
the baseline condition. The model pre- Fig. 5 — The 10-deg-slice finite element models are shown for the cases examined by the
dicts that 0.66% of the solder joint’s computational model: A — 100%; B — 75%; and C — 50% hole fill. D — The fourth variant
TMF life is used up by the time the in- has encapsulant absent from under the PWB and 50% hole fill. The magenta arrow signifies
terconnection reaches the end of serv- missing solder was replaced with encapsulant.
ice, based upon the crack initiation cri-
terion. When the failure criterion is
100% cracking, then 0.18% of the fa- rations are very small. All of the solder hole-fill (single fillet on one side) had a
tigue life is consumed at the end of joint configurations have ample mar- TMF lifetime similar to the baseline
service. (Note: The percentage of fa- gin to resist TMF failure under the case with two fillets. Thus, the loss of
tigue life used to reach 100% crack for- service environment. This conclusion, the bottom side fillet was relatively in-
mation is because for the same num- which is valid even when a 2 or 3× consequential to the TMF lifetime.
ber of cycles in the service environ- safety factor is added to the computa- The TMF remained very small when
ment (numerator), more cycles are re- tions, illustrates the inherent robust- the hole fill was reduced to 75% and
quired to reach 100% crack failure (de- ness of through-hole solder intercon- 50%. The observation was made that
nominator) than crack initiation.) nections. the fractional change in TMF life cal-
Clearly, these percentages, as well Referring to the other configura- culated between the 100% and 50%
as those of the other hole fill configu- tions in Table 1, the case of 100% hole fill conditions differed between
the crack initiation and 100% cracking
criteria. This trend indicates the TMF
Table 1 — Percent of Life Used Up in the Service Environment Based Upon the Two deformation, which leads to crack ini-
Failure Criteria of Crack Initiation and a Complete Crack through the Joint tiation, does not scale the same as the
TMF deformation-plus-cracking
Through-Hole Percent of Life Percent of Life process that leads to a fully cracked
Configuration Used to Crack Used to a Complete
Initiation (%) Crack (%)
The absence of encapsulant from
Full fillet, both sides 0.66 0.18 underneath the bottom PWB (Fig. 5D)
100% hole fill 0.65 0.20 caused nearly an order of magnitude
75% hole fill 0.73 0.28 increase of TMF damage to the joints.
50% hole fill 0.94 0.33 Although the 3.9% and 1.7% loss of fa-
50% hole fill; 3.9 1.7 tigue life for the two respective failure
No bottom encapsulant
criteria appear to be small, they be-




Fig. 6 — A–C — Computational-model predictions are shown of TMF strain contours for the baseline configuration (full fillet, both sides) re-
sulting from a single temperature cycle of transportation and handling segments #1 and #2 as well as the use segment as noted below each
picture. The magenta arrow indicates the location of greatest fatigue strain; the latter’s magnitude is noted in parentheses. D — The contour
diagram shows the case of the 100% crack (electrical open) resulting from the TMF that initiated per the use segment in C. The white
elements, which are indicated by the red arrows, represent the cracked material.


Fig. 7 — Computational-model-generated strain contours of the single use segment cycle (16°C/33°C; 1 cycle/year) for the following hole fill
conditions: A — 100%; B — 75%; and C — 50%. D — The strain contours are shown for the case of 50% hole fill, but in the absence of encap-
sulant under the PWB. The magenta arrows indicate the location of greatest strain (value in parentheses). The cyan arrows point out the bot-
tom terminus of the hole fill.

come significant when multiplied by cation of greatest strain was near the ment #1 in Fig. 6A because of the
the aforementioned safety factors. top of the joint, not at the mid-plane smaller ΔT in the #2 condition. This
The computational model also pre- location. This behavior was caused by trend continues with Fig. 6C where a
dicted the TMF strain distribution the interaction between the resistor smaller ΔT of the use segment caused
within the solder joint geometry. body and the encapsulant, which re- a nearly order of magnitude smaller
Shown in Fig. 6A are strain contours sulted in this asymmetry to strain dis- strain maximum when compared to ei-
for the baseline solder joint (full fil- tribution within the joint structure. ther transportation and handling seg-
lets, both sides) caused by a single cy- Similar diagrams are shown in Fig. ment. Therefore, ΔT has a larger effect
cle of the transportation and handling 6B, C representing transportation and than a considerably longer cycle dura-
segment #1. The magenta arrow indi- handling segment #2 as well as the use tion of one year vs. 10 h for the former
cates the location of the highest such segment, respectively. In Fig. 6B, a re- segments.
strain (0.021) and, as such, is the loca- duced, maximum TMF strain value of The diagram in Fig. 6D shows 100%
tion of TMF crack initiation. That lo- 0.017 is observed vs. 0.021 for seg- cracking due to the use segment. The




Fig. 8 — Computational models generated the 100% crack situation for these hole fill conditions: A — 100%; B — 75%; C — 50%. D — The
100% crack morphology is shown for the case of 50% hole fill and the absence of encapsulant under the PWB. The computations were based
on the use segment (16°C/33°C; 1 cycle/year). The magenta arrow is the site of maximum strain. The cyan arrow in A signifies the bottom
terminus of the joint. The black arrow in B –D indicates the location where the primary crack and the second crack, which originated from the
bottom, joined together.

crack is represented by the white seg- mained less than that at the crack ini- morphology as that presented in Fig.
ment alongside the red arrows. The tiation point (magenta arrows), in- 8C. The secondary crack joined the
initiation point was at the magenta ar- cluding Fig. 7D. However, those cyclic primary crack closer to the terminus.
row. The crack grew in two directions, strains would also be imparted on the Therefore, the absence of encapsulant
toward the top of the fillet as well as to Cu barrel of the PWB through hole and affected propagation of the primary
the bottom terminus. The crack path potentially cause an electrical open by crack along the solder/pin interface
was entirely along the pin/solder fatigue of the Cu before a 100% crack more so than it impacted the second
interface. has propagated through the solder crack that originated from the bottom
The fatigue strain contour diagrams (Ref. 3). terminus.
shown in Fig. 7 represent the hole-fill The finite element models are
variants exposed to, in this case, a sin- shown in Fig. 8 that represent the Conclusions
gle use segment (16°C/33°C; 1 100% crack path in each of the four
cycle/year). Similar trends were ob- configurations. Figure 8A shows the 1. A computational model was used
served as were noted for the two 100% crack had propagated in oppos- to predict the thermal mechanical fa-
transportation and handling seg- ing directions from the location of tigue (TMF) of through-hole solder
ments. The TMF strain values in- maximum strain (magenta arrow). The joints that are partially filled with
creased approximately 10% between cracks followed the solder/pin inter- 63Sn-37Pb solder.
hole fill conditions from 100% (Fig. face to the top of the fillet and to the 2. The model predictions addressed
7A) to 50% (Fig. 7C), but then in- bottom terminus (cyan arrow). A a sequence of multiple environments
creased by 57% from the case shown small, localized strain at the latter lo- that encompassed handling, trans-
in Fig. 7C to the configuration where- cation was insufficient to deviate the portation, and use segments within
by encapsulant was removed from un- crack from that path. the assembly lifetime.
derneath the bottom PWB (Fig. 7D). The 100% crack path is shown in 3. There were two failure criteria: a)
Yet the location of highest strain (ma- Fig. 8B, C for the cases of 75% and cycles to reach TMF crack initiation,
genta arrows) remained unchanged 50% hole fill, respectively. The pre- and b) cycles to cause a 100% cracking
between all four cases. In fact, the lo- dominant crack path remained at the of the joint that leads to an electrical
cation and magnitude of strain in solder/pin interface. However, the lo- failure.
Fig. 7A were identical to those parame- calized strain at the bottom terminus 4. The TMF lifetime used up in the
ters in Fig. 6C (baseline), which rein- increased in magnitude to the extent service environment (two transporta-
forces the earlier observation that the that it generated a second crack at the tion segments and the use segment)
presence of the bottom fillet had limit- solder/Cu barrel interface. The crack was less than 1% for the more conser-
ed impact on the fatigue life of the then joined up with the primary crack vative crack initiation criterion. An ab-
solder joint in the presence of the at the locations denoted by the black sence of encapsulant from under the
encapsulant. arrow. The number of cycles to 100% PWB caused a 3.9% loss of fatigue life.
Decreasing hole fill caused a cracking reflects the combined contri- 5. Although the fatigue strains in-
marked increase in TMF strain at the butions of the two cracks. creased at the bottom terminus with
bottom terminus of the joints (cyan Lastly, the 100% crack diagram in decreasing hole fill, they did not sig-
arrows). This enhanced strain re- Fig. 8D shows nearly the same crack nificantly affect the TMF failure of the



solder joint. However, those cyclic the manuscript. Sandia is a multipro- and Vianco, P. 2008. Accelerated aging
strains were capable of causing fatigue gram laboratory operated by Sandia and thermal mechanical fatigue mod-
damage to the Cu barrel of the PWB Corp., a Lockheed Martin Co., for the eling of Cu-plated through-holes with
hole. U.S. Department of Energy’s National partial solder filling. Int. J. of Materials
6. Three high-level findings were Nuclear Security Administration un- and Structural Integrity Vol. 2, pp.
obtained: a) TMF deformation, which der contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. 138–163.
leads to crack initiation, does not scale
the same as the cracking process; b) in-
complete encapsulation accelerates the References
TMF of through-hole interconnec-
tions; and c) transportation and han- 1. Neilsen, M., and Vianco, P. 2014.
dling procedures can generate a UCPD model for Pb-free solder. J.
greater degree of TMF damage than Elect. Pack. DOI:10.1115/1.4026851. P. T. VIANCO ( and M. K.
does actual the use segment. WJ 2. Neilsen, M., and Vianco, P. 2013. NEILSEN are with Sandia National Laborato-
Simulating solder fatigue crack initia- ries, Albuquerque, N.Mex.
tion and growth in a surface mount This manuscript won the Best Soldering Paper
Acknowledgments package. IPC Conference on Soldering award at the 2015 International Brazing and
and Reliability, Costa Mesa, Calif., Nov. Soldering Conference (IBSC) held April 19–22
The authors wish to thank Brian 2013, on CD-ROM. in Long Beach, Calif.
Wroblewski for his careful review of 3. Susan, D., Kilgo, A., Neilsen, M.,

For info, go to­index



Silver-Free Filler Metals Meet

Strength Requirements in
Brazed Joints
The results of wetting and shear strength testing along BY JACOB T. MARCHAL,
with metallurgical characterization of Cu-4Sn-6P and MATTHEW R. LONEY,
Cu-40Zn-1Sn-0.3Si silver-free filler metals designated BOIAN T. ALEXANDROV, AND
for brazing copper and brass are detailed

wo silver-free filler metals, with TiBraze®P14 is higher by 21–24% Two new silver-free filler metals,
TiBraze®P14 (Cu-6P-4Sn wt-%) than that of low-silver standard BCuP- TiBraze®P14 in the form of a brazing
and TiBraze®LOK59-03 (Cu- 5 filler metal. paste using a rubber-based binder and
40Zn-1Sn-0.3Si wt-%), were experi- Although the shear strength of sil- TiBraze®LOK59-03 rods Ø2.4 mm,
mentally evaluated to determine if ver-free filler metals is between 72 and were evaluated to determine charac-
these alloys are suitable to replace sil- 85% of the shear strength in silver- teristics such as spreading area, joint
ver-based filler metals for brazing cop- based Alloy BAg-1, the high cost of sil- strength, and microstructure.
per and brass. ver-based joints can be significantly Table 1 contains chemical composi-
Characteristics of the filler metals, reduced by using silver-free filler met- tions of each filler metal. Test results
such as spreading area, joint strength, als. By increasing the overlap and us- of the same silver-free filler metals in
and microstructure, were analyzed. ing silver-free fillers, joint costs can be combination with low-carbon steel
These characteristics were compared reduced while meeting strength re- and stainless steel are reported else-
to filler metals that are currently used quirements. where (Ref. 1).
in the industry, such as standard sil- Two standard silver-containing
ver-based BAg-1, BCuP-5, and a silver- Materials and Procedure filler metals — BAg-1, BCuP-5 — and
free BCuP-9. a silver-free BCuP-9 alloy were tested
Metallurgically compatible silver- The base materials used in this for comparison with new silver-free
free braze alloys used to join copper study were copper C110 and brass filler metals.
and brass-based materials were found C260 alloy containing 70 wt-% of cop- Brazing was performed in air by
to yield ultimate joint strengths rival- per and 30 wt-% of zinc. These materi- heating with a propane torch. The flux
ing those of silver-based filler materi- als are machinable and widely used for used during brazing was the boron-
als. Data collected based upon compu- manufacturing hydraulic and pneu- modified, black fluoroborate flux
tational models (Thermo-CalcTM), opti- matic pipes, cartridges, ammunition 601B/3411 (Superior Flux & Mfg. Co.,
cal microscopy, and shear tests provid- casing, radiators, hardware, and so on. Solon, Ohio).
ed substantiation of compatibility. The They do not require heat treatment af- Methods, materials, and sample de-
shear strength of brazed joints made ter welding, brazing, or soldering. signs applied for testing wetting and

Table 1 — Brazing Filler Metals, Their Compositions, and Melting Ranges

Brazing Filler Metal Chemical Composition, wt-% Melting Range,

°C °F

TiBraze®LOK59-03 Cu-39.7Zn-(0.9-1.1)Sn-(0.2-0.4)Si 880–905 1616–1662

TiBraze®P14 Cu-(5.3-6)P-(3.5-4)Sn 635–680 1175–1256
BCuP-9 Cu-(6-7)Sn-(6-7)P-(0.01-0.4)Si 637–674 1178–1274
BCuP-5 Cu-(14.5-15.5)Ag-(4.8-5.2)P 643–802 1190–1475
BAg-1 Ag-(14-16)Cu-(14-18)Zn-24Cd 607–618 1125–1145



Fig. 1 — Average spreading areas of tested filler metals on copper Fig. 2 — Average shear strength of tested filler metals on copper
and brass. and brass.

by P14 in such applications as the

Table 2 — Average Shear Strengths of Brazed Joints, for Each Filler Metal, ksi (MPa) manufacture of copper tubing and
brass faucet brazed joints.
Braze Filler Metal Copper Brass As expected, LOK59-03 exhibited
modest values of shear strength in
TiBraze®LOK59-03 18.0 (124.2) – copper brazed joints that can be ex-
TiBraze®P14 22.2 (153.2) 29.1 (200.8) plained by higher yield strength of the
BAg-1 25.0 (172.5) 34.5 (238.1) brazed joint metal than that of the
BCuP-5 17.8 (122.8) 26.0 (179.4) base metal, which results in limited
BCuP-9 21.2 (146.3) 22.2 (153.2) deformability of the joint metal.
The load-displacement diagram
(Fig. 3A) shows low ductility of the
spreading, shear strength, and mi- standard silver-based Alloy BAg-1, and LOK59-03 brazed joint, while the cop-
crostructure characterization are de- silver-free filler metal P14 had almost per brazed joint made with P14 has
scribed elsewhere (Ref. 1). the same wetting characteristics on mechanical behavior with some ductil-
brass as BAg-1. At the same time, P14 ity of the joint metal (Fig. 3B).
exhibited the worst spreading on cop- Brass brazed joints made with the
Results and Discussion per among all tested brazing alloys. silver-free P14 alloy exhibited certain
ductility and a yield point about 15.5
Wetting Characteristics ksi (107 MPa). The load-displacement
Shear Strength diagram (Fig. 3C) shows formation of
The spreading area provides an in- several microcracks that, however, do
dication of how the filler metal will The results of the average shear not propagate through the joint metal
spread and flow into the joint during strength testing for all filler metals are but only release stresses, while the
brazing. Figure 1 shows the resulting presented in Table 2 and Fig. 2. joint continues to resist higher shear
average spreading area of each filler Brazing with P14 resulted in suffi- loading. Shear strength of copper or
metal on different base metals. cient shear strength with copper and, brass brazed joints made with the sil-
The filler metals with low spreading especially, brass — the second highest ver-free P14 filler metal is greater than
area have difficulty spreading through value after the standard silver-based that of both phosphorus-containing
the joint and creating fillets, thus de- Alloy BAg-1 that makes the silver-free standard braze Alloys BCuP-5 and
creasing the overall strength of the P14 alloy a prospective substitute for BCuP-9. The strength of P14 joints is
joint. Silver-free LOK59-03 exhibited silver. At least 15%-silver containing second only to the silver-based BAg-1
better spreading on copper than a BCuP-5 can be completely substituted brazing filler metal.



1200 1400



LOAD (lb)
LOAD (lb)

600 600




0 -200
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

2000 Figure 4A, B No intermetallic layers were found

are images of a at the interface with the base metal.
copper joint made The Cu-Sn alloy phase was solidifying
with the P14 filler first along the base metal interface,
metal. The quali- while the relatively low-melting eutec-
ty of this joint is tic system was ousted into the middle
characterized by of the joint, where it crystallized at a
LOAD (lb)

1000 dense joint metal lower temperature.

and smooth, de- Apparently, the liquid reached a low
fect-free fillets. enough temperature to begin to form
Phase composi- the eutectic phase prior to the com-
500 tion of the joint plete transformation of the FCC
metal and the phase. Formation of the FCC phase
amount of each predominantly occurs at the interface
phase as predict- in the uniform eutectic microstructure
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 ed by Thermo- of the joint metal.
C POSITION (in) CalcTM are repre- Figure 5A and B are images of a
sented elsewhere joint made with brass (base metal) and
Fig. 3 — Load-displacement relationships of brazed joints. A — (Ref. 1). P14 powder (filler metal). The phase
Low-ductile behavior of copper joints brazed with LOK59-03; B — Based on the composition of the joint metal is pre-
moderate ductile behavior of copper joints brazed with P14; C — calculations from sented by an FCC phase of a ternary
ductile behavior of brass joints brazed with P14 despite several mi- this software, solid solution Cu-(8.5-11)Zn-2Sn wt-%
crocracks, which appeared in the joint metal.
three phases are and an eutectic system containing
present in the Cu3P and Cu3Sn components. The mi-
Macro- and Microstructures P14 joint metal: the eutectic phase crostructure displays that the FCC
of Brazed Joints composed of Cu 3
P and Cu 3
Sn, and an phase grows along the joint interface
FCC phase, which is copper-tin alloy with the base metal, similar to the
Brazed joints were examined via with an insignificant amount of phos- copper-based metal joint. The eutectic
optical and scanning electron mi- phorus. The eutectic phase dominates phase dominates the middle of the
croscopy to characterize the phase in the joint metal that provides mod- joint.
composition and solidification mi- erate ductility and high shear strength Figure 5A portrays a smooth fillet
crostructure of each filler metal. of brazed joints 22.2 ksi (153.2 MPa). and uniform microstructure of the

Table 3 — ThermoCalcTM Predicted Phases and Constituents in the LOK59-03 Joint Metal

Filler Metal Phase Percentage of Each Composition (wt-%)

Phase at 25°C Cu Zn Sn Si

BCC 5.1 50.4 40.4 8.6 0

LOK59-03 Cu3Sn 1.2 61.6 0 38.4 0
FCC 93.7 60.2 39.8 0 0




Fig. 4 — A — Macrostructure of copper + P14 brazed joint, ×12.5; B — microstructure of copper + P14 brazed joint, ×200.


Fig. 5 — A — Macrostructure of brass + P14 brazed joint, ×12.5;

B — microstructure of brass + P14 brazed joint, ×500.

joint metal. Some fillets contain few the solidus temperature. As the joint of the brazing temperature range.
defects, particularly pores. It is likely metal cools, the BCC phase begins to Low-temperature phases, such as
that the pores appeared due to insuffi- transform into the FCC phase at Cu3Sn, are ousted to the central zone
cient heating upon formation of the 689°C. by said growing FCC grains.
joint. Considering the relatively high Upon cooling to room temperature, Our point of view is supported by
strength of the brazed joints, as well most (93%) of the microstructure will the multiple epitaxial crystal growth
as joint and fillet formation, this base have transformed into the FCC phase. of the FCC phase on copper grains that
metal and filler metal combination is There should be very little Cu3Sn is clearly seen in Fig. 6, because the
good for brazing brass parts. phase because its transformation be- copper (base metal) and the yellow
Figure 6 is an image of a joint made gins at a lower temperature, ~450°C. brass component of the joint metal
with copper (base metal) and LOK59- There is insufficient time for a signifi- have the same FCC lattice. Rapid solid-
03 (filler metal). According to thermo- cant amount of Cu3Sn to form ification of the FCC phase is evidenced
dynamic modeling with Thermo- upon cooling from 450°C to room by the appearance of shrinkage pores
CalcTM, three phases should occur in temperature. in the central zone of the joint. Such
the LOK59-03 joint metal (Table 3): However, after studying the mi- pores are typical for rapidly solidified
FCC phase, BCC phase, and Cu3Sn in- crostructure of the joint metal (Fig. 6), cast structures. The same pores were
termetallic compound. The BCC phase we suggest that the FCC phase (which also found between dendrites in the
is the high-temperature phase that so- is simply yellow brass) is crystallized fillet area. Supposedly, these pores lo-
lidifies around 890°C. This means that first on the solid copper and the FCC cated along the central line cause a rel-
the BCC phase will begin to form first. grains grow rapidly to the middle of atively low-strength copper joint
The entire liquid will transform into the joint because the solidus of this brazed with LOK59 filler metal.
the BCC phase around 884°C, which is brass phase concurs with the low limit Hence, LOK59-03 is recommended



6 7

Fig. 6 — Microstructure of copper + LOK59-03 brazed joint,


Fig. 7 — Copper-to-copper and copper-to-steel tubing brazed

joints made with silver-free P14 and LOK59-03 filler metals.

Fig. 8 — Brass tube brazed joints made with silver-free P14 filler

for brazing steels or copper to steel, highest value after the standard silver- Brazing, Inc. The authors express
while the P14 alloy is more suitable for based Alloy BAg-1. This makes the sil- thanks to Greg DuBois and Bruce
brazing copper and brass structures. ver-free P14 alloy a very likely substi- Turner of CTL Engineering, Inc.,
Silver-free brazing filler metals P14 tute for silver-based filler metals. At Columbus, Ohio, for their valuable
and LOK59-03 are suitable to substi- least 15%-silver containing BCuP-5 help in the mechanical testing of
tute silver-based alloys in joining hy- can be completely substituted by P14 brazed joints.
draulic, pneumatic, and lubrication in such applications as the manufac-
pipelines and can be widely used in the ture of copper tubing and brass faucet
manufacture of automobiles, refrigera- brazed joints. Reference
tors, house water pipes, machinery 2. When used for joining copper or
equipment, electronics, and so on. brass tubes with connectors, adapters, 1. Duffey, M. J., Marchal, J. T.,
Typical examples of brazed joints of and faucets, both tested silver-free Loney, M. R., Alexandrov, B. T., and
copper, steel, and brass tubes made filler metals provided formation of Shapiro, A. E. 2015. Evaluation of new
with these silver-free filler metals are quality, dense brazed joints with silver-free brazing filler metals. Weld-
presented in Figs. 7 and 8. smooth fillets. Significant cost savings ing Journal 94(3): 40–46.
can be realized with silver-free brazing
Conclusions filler metals, warranted even in the
case that sometimes joint overlap JACOB T. MARCHAL (marchal.16@buck-
1. Silver-free brazing filler metals lengthening is required. WJ, MATTHEW J. DUFFEY,
are capable of meeting strength MATTHEW R. LONEY, and BOIAN T.
requirements in copper and brass Acknowledgment ALEXANDROV are with the Welding Engi-
brazed joints. Brazing with the low- neering Program at The Ohio State Uni-
versity, Columbus, Ohio. ALEXANDER E.
temperature silver-free filler metal This work has been performed as a SHAPIRO (ashapiro@titanium-
TiBraze®P14 (Cu-4Sn-6P) resulted in Capstone Project at the Welding Engi- is with Titanium Brazing,
sufficient shear strengths with copper neering Program of the Ohio State Inc., Columbus, Ohio.
and, especially, brass — the second University supported by Titanium


For Info, go to­index

Aim for Small, Concave

Braze Fillets
Correcting common misconceptions about BY DAN KAY
creating and inspecting braze fillets

illets on brazed assemblies can base-metal bonding. As an example,
often look quite different from pure copper can only diffuse into steel
one another. Some fillets might up to a maximum of approximately
be rounded, and others might look 5%, but this is sufficient to alloy good
small and appear concave in shape. Ex- copper-BFM flow into a steel joint.
ternal brazing fillets are often greatly In contrast to this, if the shape of
misunderstood. Some people insist the fillet is convex instead of concave
that big fillets are needed in brazing, (as shown in Fig. 2), that would tend
whereas others say they are not. In re- to indicate there may be poor metal-
ality, large fillets are a part of the Fig. 1 — A nice concave fillet (meniscus) lurgical compatibility between the
welding world, but are not desirable in at the edge of a brazed joint (image from BFM and the base metal, the base met-
brazing. This article details how your AWS Brazing Handbook, fifth edition). al faying surfaces are not clean enough
braze fillet should look, and what to (faying surfaces contaminated with
watch for when you inspect your braze surface oxides or oils, etc.) to allow
fillets. Desirable Braze Fillet proper BFM flow, the brazing atmos-
Characteristics phere is poor, or any combination of
What Does a Braze these three factors.
Fillets Should Be Concave
Fillet (Meniscus) Do? Fillets Should Be Small
The shape of a fillet is very impor-
A braze fillet, first of all, is actually tant, and concave is the desired shape. This is where people often get
a casting along the outside of a braze When the fillet is concave, the edges of themselves in trouble. Some people er-
joint. It is a natural outcome of the the fillets tend to feather out at each roneously believe that the larger the
brazing process, and merely gives evi- edge and blend in nicely with the base fillet, the better the braze joint. In ac-
dence that the brazing filler metal metal, as shown in Fig. 1. tuality, just the opposite is true. A
(BFM) has melted and flowed along A concave meniscus (fillet) indi- braze fillet (meniscus) should be as
the edge of a braze joint. However, it cates three things: (a) there is good small as possible, as shown in Fig. 3.
does not tell you if the BFM has ade- metallurgical compatibility between Since a fillet is an external casting,
quately penetrated the joint. Caution the BFM and the base metal, (b) the more casting imperfections will be
is therefore strongly advised to anyone base metal surfaces are clean, and (c) present on a large fillet. These imper-
attempting to use the size of a braze the brazing “atmosphere” is good. This fections include voids, porosity,
fillet as the only inspection criteria for is very important. shrinkage cracks, open dendritic “fir-
judging the overall quality of a braze Due to surface-tension characteris- tree” structures, and so on. Typical
joint. tics, the molten BFM wants to spread causes of porosity and voids in joints
Because of its size and shape, a out over the metal surface, and can are outgassing from the filler and base
braze fillet is also commonly called a only do so if the BFM is metallurgical- metals, and surface contamination.
“braze meniscus.” Both terms are per- ly compatible with the base metal, i.e., Cracks and dendritic structures gener-
fectly acceptable to use. A braze fillet they are able to alloy with each other. ally become more pronounced as fillets
can show you whether or not there is When this happens, the molten get larger. When the liquid BFM in the
good compatibility between the BFM BFM will diffuse into the base metal fillet begins to cool and solidify, den-
and the base metal, and can tell you surface, and the base metal con- drites can form, and as the remaining
about the base metal cleanliness in the stituents will diffuse into the BFM. It liquid continues to cool, it can pull
joint region, as well as about the fur- doesn’t require a lot of diffusion, but away from the dendrites, leaving a
nace atmosphere quality. some must occur to allow BFM-to- porous area. These fillet imperfections



even using a 10X magnifier. Is the fil- really useful for brazed joints for two
let concave in shape? Does it go com- primary reasons: (a) FPI merely shows
pletely around the joint? Is it clean that there may be surface imperfec-
and smooth, or is it filled with porosi- tions on the outside of the fillet, but it
ty or cracks? tells absolutely nothing about the in-
Be very careful about specifying the side of the brazed joint itself, and (b)
number of voids per linear inch (cm), FPI chemical removal requirements
or specifying the size of each void, etc. are very different in welding than in
This practice can be a trap and could brazing. If FPI reveals cracks in a weld
result in the rejection of parts that fillet, the entire fillet needs to be cut
might otherwise be perfectly fine. The out or ground away (thereby complete-
fact that a fillet might have three bub- ly removing all the FPI chemicals), and
bles at its surface in a 1-in. length (in- a new weld bead is then laid down in
stead of the two allowed bubbles) has place.
nothing to do with the quality of the However, in brazing, the BFM in
Fig. 2 — Why didn’t this fillet flow? Be-
cause of its convex meniscus (fillet). BFM that flowed inside the brazed the joint is not going to be cut away
joint. It also calls, once again, for a lot and replaced, and therefore any en-
of extra inspection time to do these trapped FPI chemicals have to be com-
might act as stress-risers at the joint external fillet measurements, when pletely removed from the fillet itself
edge that could actually hurt the per- what’s happening inside the brazed either by ultrasonic cleaning or by
formance of a part in service. There- joint is actually more important. fluoride-ion cleaning (FIC) before a re-
fore, aim for a smaller fillet because it braze can be attempted. Do not think
is less likely to have imperfections that FPI contamination in surface
than a larger fillet. Fluorescent Penetration voids, cracks, or dendritic porosity will
Inspection be effectively removed by soaking in a
Inspecting Fillets Fluorescent penetration inspection
solvent or by either hydrogen or
vacuum-furnace cleaning.
(FPI) is not recommended. Many peo- The American Welding Society’s
Visual Inspection ple still use FPI on braze fillets to ac- Standard, Specification for Furnace
cept or reject parts. This can be a big Brazing (Ref.1) specifically discourages
The best way to check the quality of mistake. Fluorescent penetration in- anyone from using FPI in brazing in-
a fillet is simply to look at it, perhaps spection is fine for welds, but it is not spection procedures. It clearly states
that penetrant inspection techniques
“are not suitable for the inspection of
braze fillets because they routinely
give false results.”

A braze fillet (meniscus) is a natural
outcome of a brazing process. Visual
inspection is easy and highly reliable
when brazing is done properly. Simply
look to see that BFM is indeed present
all around the joint, that any filleting
is concave in shape, and the fillet is as
small as possible. WJ


1. AWS C3.6/C3.6:2008, Specification for

Furnace Brazing. Miami, Fla.: American
Welding Society.

DAN KAY ( is an advisor

to the C3 Committee on Brazing and Soldering
and has contributed to the 5th edition of the
AWS Brazing Handbook. He operates his own
Fig. 3 — The braze fillet (meniscus) should be very small, like the one shown here. brazing training and consulting business.



New Low­Silver Filler Metal for contribute to the solidification tem- vehicle weight reduction.
Brazing Cemented Carbides perature range and formation of the A digitally controlled short arc
isothermally solidified region. process suitable for the low-energy
A new brazing filler metal contain- In general, a thermodynamic simu- brazing of these materials using zinc-
ing 28 wt-% of silver (instead of the lation allows for the prediction of mi- based filler metals was developed by
49–50% content in standard BAg-22 croconstituents in nickel-alloy brazed the Welding and Joining Institute of
and BAg-24 alloys) was designed and joints. It can be a useful tool when the RWTH, Aachen, Germany.
tested by Umicore AG, Hanau-Wolf- modeling and designing these joints or The following filler metals were
gang, Germany, for joining cemented brazing processes. tested for brazing (in wt-%): ZnAl4,
carbide tips to a steel shank. ZnAl5Cu3.5, and ZnAl5Cu3.5 + Mg.
The filler metal has a composition Nonionic Soldering Flux and Arc brazing was carried out without a
of Cu-28Ag-20Zn-10Mn-1Ni-2In wt-% Controlled Heating for flux.
in the melting range of 680°–760°C The design simulation allowed
Soldering Water­Cooling Tubes learning the geometry of brazed joints
and with a lower limit brazing temper-
ature 710°C (Ref. 1). A lower content for both base materials steel-to-steel
The National Spherical Torus Ex-
of silver may significantly reduce the and steel-to-aluminum Alloy AA6016-
periment program is being enhanced
production cost of brazed parts. T4 with the required mechanical and
to significantly expand plasma condi-
The new alloy has a density of 8.5 technological properties, and the suit-
tions with upgrades, including friction
g/cm3. This is beneficial, for example, in able length of the liquid filler metal
stir welding CuCrZr copper connecting
manufacturing circular saw blades. The flow (Ref. 4). Real manufacturing tol-
flags and soldering ETP copper tubing
average shear strength of brazed joints erances also have been considered.
to silver bearing oxygen-free copper
of steel to cemented carbide WC-6Co The molten zinc fills the adjusted
toroidal field (TF) conductors (Ref. 3).
manufactured by induction brazing is opening completely to guarantee reli-
Solder paste 96Sn/4Ag with non-
~280 MPa (40.6 ksi), which is compara- able joining. Thanks to the low energy
ionic flux was developed in the Prince-
ble with BAg-22. It is higher than the input in this process, there is a way to
ton Plasma Physical Laboratory, N.J.,
strength of joints made with BAg-24. diminish the negative influence of the
to eliminate possible insulation degra-
Brazing at 720°C allows the user not to brittle intermetallic phases that un-
dation. Such degradation could lead to
exceed the temperature AC1 of ferrite- avoidably appear at the steel and alu-
potential carbon tracking between the
austenite transformation in steel joined minum interfaces. These brittle phas-
TF conductors.
to cemented carbide tips. es are embedded in the ductile zinc-
The solder flux contains glycerol
based matrix.
monostearate as an emulsifier, and
Method of Identifying Phase TergitolTM as a nonionic surfactant,
Composition in Brazed Joints plus succinic acid as an active compo- Wide Amorphous Foils for
nent. The flux residues allow efficient Brazing Titanium, Ceramics,
Thermodynamic simulation was water cleansing after soldering. The and Graphite
used by The Ohio State University and tensile strength of soldered joints
Rolls-Royce Corp., Indianapolis, Ind., manufactured with this solder-flux New brazing filler metals in the
to predict the formation of microcon- paste reached 110 MPa (~16 ksi). It form of amorphous foils 50 microns
stituents in brazed joints. was reported that no sign of solder thick and 75 mm wide were evaluated
The joints considered were CNSX-4 voids were evident. for use in vacuum brazing titanium al-
superalloy made by two nickel-based To produce a homogeneous solder loys, graphite, and ceramics by NASA
filler metals, BNi-2 and BNi-9. Metal- and fully wetted joint area, a reducing and Titanium Brazing, Inc., Columbus,
lurgical characterization by optical mi- flame was required. This was done to Ohio.
croscopy and electron probe micro- dissociate the remaining oxides. The The following amorphous foils were
analysis (EPMA) was performed to original soldering temperature, 270°C, tested:
confirm quantitative results of the was increased to 300°C. This was done a) Ti-20Zr-20Cu-20Ni wt-%, which
simulation made using Thermo-CalcTM to ensure the boiling of the glycerol. has the higher melting range 845°–
software. The thermodynamic simula- The temperatures across the TF con- 863°C (1553°–1585°F)
tion predicted the same phase compo- ductor during soldering were typically b) Zr-17Ti-20Ni-1Hf wt-%, which
sition as was experimentally identified between 300° and 350°C. Hardness has the lower melting range 796°–
for these brazed joints (Ref. 2). measurements before and after solder- 813°C (1465°–1495°F)
Phases that are stable before the ing indicated no softening of the cop- c) Zr-14.7Ti-12.6Ni-7Cu-1Hf
end of solidification are more likely to per TF conductors occurred. wt-%, which has the lowest melting
form large precipitates, such as nickel range 772°–786°C (1422°–1447°F).
and chromium borides in the BNi-2 Load­Capable Design of Arc New amorphous foils provide reli-
joints. Diffusion of melting point de- Brazing Joints for Automotive able vacuum brazing in a wide range of
pressants and some components of Applications temperatures below α → β transus,
the base metal, during the brazing not only of α- and (α + β)-titanium-
process, was not captured in the equi- High-strength steels and steel-
librium calculation. This diffusion can aluminum structures are applied for — continued on page 72


For Info, go to­index

— continued from page 70 brazed to copper using the TLP to the formation of a continuous reac-
process at a low temperature, 280°C. tion layer at the interface between
Small pores and slight increase of the LTCC and Kovar, which is shown later
based alloys, but also near-β and β- bonding temperature do not increase in detail. In contrast to Al2O3, brazing
titanium-based alloys. residual stresses significantly. Molyb- of LTCC at 850°C was not tried as the
Where used, they resulted in satis- denum, nickel, or copper foils 50–200 LTCC is sintered at this temperature
factory strength brazed joints of vari- microns thick placed between YSZ ce- and the stability of the ceramic materi-
ous combinations of base materials. ramic and nickel superalloy signifi- al is limited. WJ
They were found to have good compat- cantly decrease residual thermal
ibility with base materials CP titanium stresses in the joint. An interlayer of
or Ti-6Al-4V alloy, and in joints of dis- copper foil 200 microns thick provides References
similar base materials titanium to cop- effective distribution of residual
per, titanium to stainless steel, or to stresses in the joint. Both strategies — Refs. 1–7 are Proceedings of the 6th In­
nickel-plated carbon steel, ceramics the use of a low expansion metal inter- ternational Brazing and Soldering Confer­
(alumina, silicon carbide, and boron layer like molybdenum or a ductile in- ence, April 19–22, 2015, Long Beach, Calif.
nitride), and graphite. terlayer like copper — are beneficial to
Joints made with the amorphous increase the lifetime of metal-ceramic 1. Schimpfermann, M., Wiel, G.,
foils had low erosion of the base metal brazed joints. Schnee, D., and Rädecker, P. New silver-
and high brazed joint quality in titani- based brazing filler metals for brazing ce-
um heat exchangers and honeycomb Joining of Kovar to Alumina mented carbides with a highly decreased
panels (Ref. 5). level of silver and low brazing temperature.
Brazing temperatures of titanium
and LTCC Ceramics Using Paper #39.
joints with amorphous foils are signifi- Active Filler Metals 2. Riggs, B., Alexandrov, B., Benatar, A.,
cantly lower than that of standard and Xu, R. Thermodynamic simulation of
filler metal AWS BTi-1 (Ticuni®). Braz- Kovar (Fe-29Ni-17Co) was used in- single crystal superalloy CMSX-4 brazed
ing of titanium to ceramics and stead of stainless steel to compensate joints with BNi-2 and BNi-9 filler metals.
graphite with new foils should be done the mismatching thermal expansion Paper #50.
at temperatures greater by 50°–60°C behavior when brazing with alumina 3. Jurczynsky, S. Z., and Schneider, H.
than that of brazing titanium to titani- and low-temperature cofired ceramic Solder development and fabrication tech-
um. If compared to traditional active (LTCC) sensors. Brazing experiments niques for coolant tube bonding in lengthy
brazing filler metals that do not were performed by Fraunhofer IKTS, high current conductors. Paper #76.
spread on ceramic surfaces, the tested Dresden, Germany, for combinations 4. Reisgen, U., Anderhausen, M., Gef-
Ti- and Zr-based amorphous foils re- of Kovar/Al2O3 and Kovar/LTCC with fers, C., and Pipinikas, A. Load-capable de-
vealed excellent wetting, and some- commercial active filler metals, Cusil®- sign of arc brazing joints for different ap-
times spreading, along ceramic sur- ABA and Incusil®-ABA, respectively. plications in automotive engineering. Pa-
faces of alumina and boron nitride as For both active brazing filler metals, per #92.
well as graphite. optimized processing parameters were 5. Shapiro, A. E., and Flom, Y. Evalua-
investigated to realize hermetic Kovar/ tion of low-temperature amorphous foils
Al2O3 and Kovar/LTCC joints (Ref. 7). for brazing titanium and ceramics. Paper
Assessing and Reducing
Active metal brazing of Al2O3 and #22.
Residual Thermal Stresses in LTCC to Kovar with Cusil-ABA was 6. Ivas, T., Lis, A., and Leinenbach, C.
Metal­Ceramic Brazed Joints performed at three different brazing Assessing and reducing thermal residual
temperatures — 810°, 830°, and 850°C stresses in metal-ceramic joints by com-
Mismatch of thermal expansion co- — and 755°C for Incusil-ABA. Her- bined experimental and numerical investi-
efficients between metals and ceram- metic joining of Al2O3 to Kovar was gations. Paper #90.
ics results in significant residual possible with Incusil-ABA and Cusil- 7. Pönicke, A., Schilm, J., Goldberg, A.,
stresses in brazed joints. These can ABA for all investigated temperatures. Partsch, U., and Michaelis, A. Joining of
lead to cracks in the interfacial region Only after brazing LTCC/Kovar joints Kovar to alumina and to low-temperature
or to a failure of the joint during serv- at a temperature of 810°C, a few of the co-fired ceramics (LTCC). Paper #86.
ice. This problem was investigated by assemblies were hermetic. A mi-
EMPA, Dübendorf, Switzerland, with crostructural study showed that the
numeric modeling and experimental interface between LTCC and the joint
methods to assess and minimize criti- metal is weakly bonded because only a
cal residual stresses in metal-ceramic noncontinuous and very thin reaction
joints manufactured by transient liq- layer was formed. Thus, no reliable
uid phase (TLP) bonding and active joining is possible at this brazing
brazing (Ref. 6). temperature.
A buffer metallization layer of silver If the brazing temperature is in- Information provided by ALEXANDER E.
decreases local stresses at the interface creased to 830°C, all brazed LTCC/ SHAPIRO (ashapiro@titanium­
area of silicon or aluminum nitride and LEO A. SHAPIRO, Titanium Brazing, Inc.,
Kovar joints showed gas tightness due Columbus, Ohio.


For Info, go to­index

9th International Seminar & Conference on Advances in Re­

AWS-SPONSORED EVENTS sistance Welding. April 12–15, 2016. Miami, Fla. AWS,
RWMA, and Swantec join forces to bring together industry
experts from leading institutes and companies to report on
For more information on AWS events: the latest in materials, welding equipment, innovation, and industrial applications of resistance welding.
(800/305) 443­9353, ext. 234,

FABTECH 2015. Nov. 9–12. McCormick Place, Chicago, Ill. U.S., CANADA, MEXICO EVENTS
This exhibition is the largest event in North America dedi-
cated to showcasing welding, metal forming, fabricating,
tube and pipe equipment and services, plus myriad manu- Advanced Laser Applications Conference (ALAC). Nov. 4, 5.
facturing and related technologies. Attend the American Ford Conference and Event Center, Dearborn, Mich.,
Welding Society’s business meetings, awards presentations,
educational programs, and welding contests. (800/305) 443-
9353, ext. 264; Thermal Spray of Suspensions and Solutions Symposium
(TS4). Dec. 2, 3. Montreal, Canada. (440) 338–5151 ext.
FABTECH Canada. March 22–24, 2016. Toronto Congress 5625;–2015/home.
Centre, Toronto, Canada. Co-sponsored by SME, Fabricators
& Manufacturers Association, American Welding Society, Surface Technologies in the Oil and Gas Industries. Feb. 2, 3,
Precision Metal Association, and Chemical Coaters Associa- 2016. Houston, Tex. This two-day event will explore the lat-
tion International. Companies specializing in fabricating, est technologies and applications for thermal spraying in the
metal forming, welding, and finishing will have the opportu- oil and gas exploration, production, refining, and distribu-
nity to network, improve productivity, increase profits, and tion industries.
discover innovative ways to expand in today’s competitive
environment. For more information, visit http://fabtech- Lasers for Manufacturing Event®. April 26, 27, 2016. Cobb Galleria Centre, Atlanta, Ga. Hosted by the Laser Institute

Eight-Month Program
P • Financial Aid Available • Veteranns Affairs Benefits

© 2015 National Un
niversity NUPI15_2184

NUPOLYTECH.ORG I (800) 432-3483

National University Polytechnic Institute is accredited by the Association of Commerrcial Diving Educators
and members of the Association of Diving Contractors Internationnal.

For info, go to­index For info, go to­index


of America, this event will showcase advanced manufactur-
ing with lasers including marking, cutting, welding, and
quality control. Visit or call (407) 380-
1553 for more information.


productronica. Electronics development and production

trade fair. Nov. 10–13. Munich Trade Fair Center, Munich,

International Conference on Civil, Mechanical, and Environ­

mental Engineering Technologies — 2016. Feb. 26, 27,
2016. SVS College of Engineering, Coimbatore, India. Call
for papers in ASME format. For more details, visit www.ic- or call +91 98945 70073.

International Laser Technology Congress AKL’16. April

27–29, 2016. Aachen, Germany. +49 241 8906-288;


Certified Welding Inspector Courses. Allentown, Pa. CWI

Training: Nov. 2–6; D1.1 Endorsement: Nov. 6. Welder
Training and Testing Institute; (800) 223-9884;
For info, go to­index

Weldingg torches,
consumaables and
related equipment
Warehouse for fast
parts deelivery

New location to serve the A

David DiBiase, Director of Sales – The

e Americas
9844 W
ndisch Road,
Road West e Chester,
Chester Ohio
O 45069
513.644.9743 • info@tokinam
For info, go to­index For info, go to­index


Certified Welding Inspector/Educator Courses. Troy, Ohio.
Classes begin Nov. 2, Dec. 7, 2015. Exams given Nov. 13,
Dec. 18, 2015. Classes begin Jan. 18, Feb. 15, March 14,
April 11, May 9, June 20, July 18, Aug. 15, Sept. 19, Oct. 17,
Nov. 7, Dec. 5, 2016. Exams given Jan. 29, Feb. 26, March
25, April 22, May 20, July 1, July 29, Aug. 26, Sept. 30, Oct.
28, Nov. 18, Dec. 16, 2016. Hobart Institute of Welding
Technology; (800) 332-9448;

AWS Certified Welding Supervisor Exam. Troy, Ohio. Class-

es begin April 25, Oct. 10, 2016. Exams given April 29, Oct.
14, 2016. Hobart Institute of Welding Technology.

E­Courses in Destructive and Nondestructive Testing of

Welds and Other Welding­Related Topics. Online video
courses taken at one’s own pace offer certificates of comple-
tion and continuing education units. For information, con-
tact Hobart Institute of Welding Technology.

GE Industrial Computed Tomography (CT) Operator Course.

Learn to operate the 3D technology that is becoming more
prominent in industrial quality control and metrology.
Lewistown, Pa., (315) 554-2039; www.geinspection

Hypertherm Cutting Institute Online. Includes video tutori-

als, interactive e-learning courses, discussion forums, webi-
nars, and blogs. Visit, www.hyper-
For info, go to­index — continued on page 111


CERTIFICATION SCHEDULE Certification Seminars, Code Clinics, and Examinations

Note: The 2015 and 2016 schedules for all certifications are posted 9­Year Recertification Seminar for CWI/SCWI
online at For current CWIs and SCWIs needing to meet education re-
quirements without taking the exam. The exam can be tak-
en at any site listed under Certified Welding Inspector.
Certified Welding Inspector (CWI)
Location Seminar Dates
Location Seminar Dates Exam Date
Miami, FL Dec. 6–11, 2015
Chicago, IL Exam only Nov. 12
New Orleans, LA Jan. 10–15, 2016
St. Louis, MO Exam only Dec. 12 Denver, CO Feb. 21–26, 2016
Los Angeles, CA Dec. 6–11, 2015 Dec. 12 Dallas, TX Mar. 6–11, 2016
Orlando, FL Dec. 6–11 Dec. 12 Miami, FL Mar. 13–18, 2016
Reno, NV Dec. 6–11 Dec. 12
Houston, TX Dec. 6–11 Dec. 12
Miami, FL Exam only Dec. 17 Certified Welding Educator (CWE)
Corpus Christi, TX Exam only Dec. 19 Seminar and exam are given at all sites listed under Certified
Charlotte, NC Jan. 10–15, 2016 Jan. 16 Welding Inspector. Seminar attendees will not attend the Code
Beaumont, TX Jan. 10–15 Jan. 16 Clinic portion of the seminar (usually the first two days).
San Antonio, TX Jan. 10–15 Jan. 16
Denver, CO Jan. 17–22 Jan. 23
Miami, FL Jan. 17–22 Jan. 23
Lexington, KY Jan. 17–22 Jan. 23
Pittsburgh, PA Jan. 17–22 Jan. 23
Certified Welding Sales Representative (CWSR)
CWSR exams will be given at CWI exam sites.
Long Beach, CA Jan. 24–29 Jan. 30
Portland, TX Exam only Jan. 30
Mobile, AL Jan. 31–Feb. 5 Feb. 6
Atlanta, GA Feb. 7–12 Feb. 13
Waco, TX Feb. 7–12 Feb. 13 Certified Welding Supervisor (CWS)
Seattle, WA Feb. 7–12 Feb. 13 CWS exams are also given at all CWI exam sites.
Miami, FL Exam only Feb. 18
New Orleans, LA Feb. 21–26 Feb. 27 Location Seminar Dates Exam Date
Milwaukee, WI Feb. 21–26 Feb. 27 New Orleans, LA Apr. 4–8, 2016 Apr. 9
Portland, TX Exam only Feb. 27 Cleveland, OH Sept. 19–23, 2016 Sept. 24
San Diego, CA Feb. 28–Mar. 4 Mar. 5
Kansas City, MO Feb. 28–Mar. 4 Mar. 5
Houston, TX Feb. 28–Mar. 4 Mar. 5
Norfolk, VA Feb. 28–Mar. 4 Mar. 5 Certified Radiographic Interpreter (CRI)
Scottsdale, AZ Mar. 6–11 Mar. 12 The CRI certification can be a stand-alone credential or can
Indianapolis, IN Mar. 6–11 Mar. 12 exempt you from your next 9-Year Recertification.
Boston, MA Mar. 6–11 Mar. 12
Miami, FL Mar. 13–18 Mar. 19 Location Seminar Dates Exam Date
Birmingham, AL Mar. 13–18 Mar. 19 Miami, FL Exam only Nov. 14, 2015
Chicago, IL Mar. 13–18 Mar. 19 Seattle, WA Feb. 22–26, 2016 Feb. 27
Springfield, MO Mar. 13–18 Mar. 19 Houston, TX Mar. 14–18, 2016 Mar. 19
Dallas, TX Mar. 13–18 Mar. 19
Portland, TX Exam only Mar. 26
Miami, FL Exam only Apr. 7
Minneapolis, MN Apr. 3–8 Apr. 9 Certified Robotic Arc Welding (CRAW)
Las Vegas, NV Apr. 3–8 Apr. 9 ABB, Inc., Auburn Hills, MI; (248) 391–8421
Portland, OR Apr. 3–8 Apr. 9 OTC Daihen, Inc., Tipp City, OH; (937) 667-0800, ext. 218
San Francisco, CA Apr. 10–15 Apr. 16 Lincoln Electric Co., Cleveland, OH; (216) 383-8542
Annapolis, MD Apr. 10–15 Apr. 16 Genesis-Systems Group, Davenport, IA; (563) 445-5688
Nashville, TN Apr. 10–15 Apr. 16 Wolf Robotics, Fort Collins, CO; (970) 225-7736
On request at MATC, Milwaukee, WI; (414) 456-5454

IMPORTANT: This schedule is subject to change. Please verify your event dates with the Certification Dept. to confirm your course status
before making travel plans. Applications are to be received at least six weeks prior to the seminar/exam or exam. Applications received after
that time will be assessed a $250 Fast Track fee. Please verify application deadline dates by visiting our website For information on AWS seminars and certification programs, or to register online, visit or call (800/305) 443­9353, ext. 273, for Certification; or ext. 455 for Seminars.



Burn Protection
The AWS Safety and Health Committee produces the automation.
Safety and Health Fact Sheets. Following is Fact Sheet No. 7 • Do not attempt to repair or disconnect electrical equip-
dated October 2014. ment under load. Disconnecting under load produces
arcing of the contacts and may cause burns or shocks.
Nature of the Hazard
How to Protect Others from Burns
Sparks and spatter fly off from the welding arc. Hot met-
al and sparks blow out from the cutting flame. The work- • Use noncombustible screens or barriers to protect near-
piece and equipment get hot. The flying sparks and hot met- by persons or watchers.
al, slag, spatter, hot workpiece, and hot equipment can • Mark hot workpieces to alert others of the burn and fire
cause burns. Additionally, arc rays can cause radiation burns hazards.
(see Fact Sheet No. 2). • If the job requires several persons, have all wear proper
protective gear and follow all required procedures.
How to Prevent Burns
Information Sources
• Use approved helmets or hand shields that provide
protection for the face, neck, and ears, and wear a head American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Safety in Welding,
covering. Cutting, and Allied Processes (ANSI Z49.1), published by the
American Welding Society, 8669 NW 36th St., #130, Miami, FL
• Wear approved safety goggles or safety glasses with side 33166; telephone: 800-443-9353; website:
shields, even under your helmet.
• Wear dry, hole-free insulating gloves.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Code of
• Wear flame-resistant ear plugs or ear muffs to keep Federal Regulations, Title 29 Labor, Parts 1910.1 to 1910.1450,
sparks out of ears when welding or cutting overhead or in available from the U.S. Government Printing Office, 732 N. Capitol
confined spaces. Street NW, Washington, DC 20401; telephone: 800-321-6742;
• Wear oil-free protective garments such as leather website:
gloves, heavy shirt, cuffless pants, high shoes, and a cap.
• Wear leather leggings and fire-resistant boots, as American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Practice for Occupa-
needed. tional and Educational Eye and Face Protection (ANSI Z87.1), avail-
• In cold climates, heavy clothing may prevent awareness able from ANSI, 25 W. 43rd St., New York, NY 10036; telephone:
of clothing fires. 212-642-4900; website:
• Use dry, hole-free aprons, cape-sleeves, leggings,
shoulder covers, and bibs approved for welding and cutting ASTM International Standards, F2412, Test Methods for Foot Pro-
service. tection, and F2413, Specification for Performance Requirements for
Protective Footwear, available from ASTM International, 100 Bar
• Remove any combustibles, such as a butane lighter or Harbor Drive, P.O. Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2559;
matches, from your person before doing any welding or telephone: 610-832-9585; website:
• Touching hot equipment such as electrode holders, gun Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA). Code of Federal
tips, and nozzles can cause burns. Always wear dry, insulat- Regulations, Title 30 Mineral Resources, Parts 1 to 199, available
ing gloves. Allow a cooling period before touching these and from the U.S. Government Printing Office, 732 N. Capitol St. NW,
other parts of equipment that are near the actual welding or Washington, DC 20401; telephone: 202-693-9400; website:
cutting operation.
• Do not wear pants with cuffs, shirts with open pockets,
or any clothing that can trap molten metal or sparks. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). Standard for Fire Pre-
• Keep clothing free of grease, oil, solvents, or any flam- vention during Welding, Cutting, and Other Hot Work (NFPA 51B),
available from National Fire Protection Association, 1 Battery-
mable substances. march Park, P.O. Box 9101, Quincy, MA 02269–9101; telephone:
• If combustible substances spill on protective clothing, 800-344-3555; website:
change to clean clothing before doing any welding or
cutting. American Welding Society (AWS). Safety and Health Fact Sheets,
• Use sheet metal screens for extra protection when un- published by the American Welding Society, 8669 NW 36th St.,
usually heavy welding or cutting is involved. #130, Miami, FL 33166; telephone: 800-443-9353; website:
• For highly hazardous processes or jobs, consider WJ

AWS disclaims liability for any injury to persons or to property, or other damages of any nature whatsoever, whether special, indirect, con­
sequential or compensatory, directly or indirectly resulting from the publication, use of, or reliance on this information. AWS also makes no
guaranty or warranty as to the accuracy or completeness of any information published herein.

American Welding Society, 8669 NW 36th St., #130, Miami, FL 33166, e­mail:,


AWS Employees Expand Their Welding

Three AWS employees recently attended Hobart’s four­day Welding for the Non Welder course in Troy, Ohio. From left: Jennifer Rosario,
AWS program manager; Fred Henman, Hobart instructor; Russ Shurtz, Hobart instructor; Lorena Cora, AWS director of marketing; and
Melissa Gomez, AWS assistant editor.

Three AWS employees — Lorena Cora, director,

Marketing, Jennifer Rosario, program manager, Tech-
nical Services, and Melissa Gomez, assistant editor,
Welding Journal — recently attended the Hobart Insti-
tute of Welding Technology’s Welding for the Non
Welder course. In total, there were 19 individuals in
The Hobart instructors included Russ Shurtz, Fred
A. Henman, and Elmer Swank Jr. The course was held
for four days, from 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. The first
half of every day students received classroom instruc-
tion, and the second half was spent in the welding lab
putting into practice what had been learned. Topics
covered included shielded metal arc, flux cored arc,
gas tungsten arc, and gas metal arc welding, along
with oxyacetylene welding, brazing, and cutting.
“It was very rewarding. The hands-on
experience and course instruction provided valuable
knowledge that I can employ at work. I can relate the
technical information in AWS Standards to industry
applications and better assist our volunteers, mem-
bers, and industry professionals,” said Rosario. “
Hobart’s class was eye opening for me. It gave me a
AWS Program Manager Jennifer Rosario practices shielded metal
better understandting of the different kinds of weld-
arc welding her first day in the lab.
ing procedures plus practice them in the lab,” added


Notice of Annual Meeting of the American Welding Society
The Annual Meeting of the members of the American The regular business of the Society will be conducted, in-
Welding Society will be held on Monday, November 9, 2015, cluding election of officers and nine members of the Board
beginning at 9:00 a.m. at the McCormick Place, Chicago, Ill. of Directors. Any business properly brought before the
Membership will be considered.

Call for Questions and Answers for Use in CWI Certification Exam

The Certification Department is To submit your questions and for Welding Processes
asking students as well as experienced guidelines to writing good items, Heat Control and Metallurgy (carbon
CWIs and SCWIs to submit questions please visit and low-alloy steel)
they think would be valuable additions tion.html. Weld Examination
to our current CWI Fundamentals Questions must be developed uti- Welding Performance
exam, which is a closed book exam. lizing one of the following references: Definitions and Terminology
Submissions should include the fol- AWS A1.1, Metric Practice Guide for the Symbols — Welding and NDE
lowing: Question text, five answer Welding Industry; AWS B2.1, Specifica- Test Methods — NDE
choices, indication of the correct an- tion for Welding Procedure and Perform- Reports and Records
swer, and the corresponding specific ance Qualification; or AWS B4.0, Stan- Duties and Responsibilities
reference information. dard Methods for Mechanical Testing of Safety
We will also ask for your contact in- Welds. Destructive Tests
formation and you will have the op- Additionally, questions should Cutting
portunity to win a $100 AWS come from the following subject Brazing
voucher. areas: Soldering.

President Landon Attends DVS EXPO 2015

AWS President Dave Landon recently attended DVS (German Welding Society) EXPO 2015 in Nuremberg, Germany, where joining, cutting,
and coating products and services were presented. From left: DVS General Manager Roland Boecking, DVS President Heinrich Flegel, AWS
President Dave Landon, and AWS Germany Section Chairman Peter Mayr. While in Germany, Landon was also able to attend a meeting
held by the AWS Germany International Section, where he gave a short address. (Photo courtesy of DVS.)


Standards in Public Review ergy Beam Welding and Cutting. Nov. 10. D17K Subcommittee on
Chicago, Ill. P. Portela, ext. 311, Fusion Welding. Chicago, Ill. A. Nau-
The AWS was approved as an ac- mann, ext. 313,
credited standards-preparing organi- Nov. 8. C7B Subcommittee on De- Nov. 11. D14B Subcommittee on
zation by the American National Stan- sign and Fabrication. Chicago, Ill. P. General Design and Practices. Chicago,
dards Institute (ANSI) in 1979. The Portela, ext. 311, Ill. J. Douglass, ext. 306, jdouglass@
AWS rules, as approved by ANSI, re- Nov. 8. C7C Subcommittee on Laser
quire that all standards be open to Beam Welding and Cutting. Chicago, Nov. 11. D14E Subcommittee on
public review for comment during the Ill. P. Portela, ext. 311, pportela@ Welding of Presses and Industrial and
approval process. This column also ad- Mill Cranes. Chicago, Ill. J. Douglass,
vises of ANSI approval of documents. Nov. 8. C7D Subcommittee on Hy- ext. 306,
The following standards are submitted brid Welding. Chicago, Ill. P. Portela, Nov. 11. D16 Committee on Robot-
for public review. A draft copy may be ext. 311, ic and Automatic Welding. Chicago, Ill.
obtained by contacting the staff secre- Nov. 9. B1 Committee on Methods P. Portela, ext. 311,
tary of the committee as listed below of Inspection. Chicago, Ill. J. Douglass, Nov. 11. D17K Subcommittee on
at AWS, Technical Services, 8669 NW ext. 306, Fusion Welding. Chicago, Ill. A. Nau-
36 St., #130, Miami, FL 33166-6672; Nov. 9. B1A Subcommittee on Non- mann, ext. 313,
(800/305) 443-9353. destructive Examination of Welds. Nov. 12. D14 Committee on Ma-
B2.1-1-302:201X, Standard Welding Chicago, Ill. J. Douglass, ext. 306, chinery and Equipment. Chicago, Ill. J.
Procedure Specification for Naval Appli- Douglass, ext. 306,
cations (SWPS-N) for Shielded Metal Arc Nov. 9. B1B Subcommittee on Visu- Nov. 12. D14C Subcommittee on
Welding of Carbon Steel (S-1), 1⁄8 inch [3 al Examination of Welds. Chicago, Ill. Earthmoving and Construction Equip-
mm] through 11⁄2 inch [38 mm] Thick, J. Douglass, ext. 306, jdouglass@- ment. Chicago, Ill. J. Douglass, ext.
MIL-7018-M, in the As-Welded or 306,
PWHT Condition, Primarily Plate and Nov. 9. B1C Standing Task Group Nov. 12. D17 Committee on Weld-
Structural Naval Applications. New on Welding Inspection Handbook. ing in the Aircraft and Aerospace In-
Standard. $124.00. ANSI public review Chicago, Ill. J. Douglass, ext. 306, dustries. Chicago, Ill. A. Naumann,
expired 10/19/15. J. Rosario, ext. 308, ext. 313, Nov. 9. C2 Committee and
B2.1-1-312:201X, Standard Welding Subcommittees on Thermal Spraying. Revised Standards Approved by ANSI
Procedure Specification for Naval Appli- Chicago, Ill. J. Rosario, ext. 308,
cations (SWPS-N) for Shielded Metal Arc D1.9/D1.9M:2015, Structural Weld-
Welding of Carbon Steel (S-1), 1⁄8 inch [3 Nov. 9. C6D Subcommittee on Fric- ing Code — Titanium. Approval Date:
mm] through 11⁄2 inch [38 mm] Thick, tion Stir Welding. Chicago, Ill. A. Nau- 8/27/2015.
MIL-7018-M, in the As-Welded or mann, ext. 313, D18.3/D18.3M:2015, Specification
PWHT Condition, Primarily Pipe for Nov. 9. D17D Subcommittee on Re- for Welding of Tanks, Vessels, and Other
Naval Applications. New Standard. sistance Welding. Chicago, Ill. A. Nau- Equipment in Sanitary (Hygienic) Appli-
$124.00. ANSI public review expired mann, ext. 313, cations. Approval Date: 8/20/2015.
10/19/15. J. Rosario, ext. 308, Nov. 9. D17J Subcommittee on Friction Stir Welding for Aerospace.
C2.21M/C2.21:201X, Specification Chicago, Ill. A. Naumann, ext. 313, New Standards Projects
for Thermal Spray Equipment Perform-
ance Verification. Revised Standard. Nov. 9. D20 Committee on Additive Development work has begun on
$26.00. ANSI public review expired Manufacturing. Chicago, Ill. P. Portela, the following new or revised stan-
10/19/15. J. Rosario, ext. 308, ext. 311, dards. Affected individuals are invited Nov. 10. D14G Subcommittee on to contribute to their development.
D1.5M/D1.5:201X, Bridge Welding Welding of Rotating Equipment. Participation in all AWS Technical
Code. Revised Standard. $176.00. Chicago, Ill. J. Douglass, ext. 306, committees is open to all persons.
ANSI public review expired 10/19/15. C4.7/C4.7M:20XX, Recommended
S. Borrero, ext. 334, Nov. 10. D14I Subcommittee on Practices for the Safe Oxyacetylene Weld-
Hydraulic Cylinders. Chicago, Ill. J. ing Of Steel. These recommended prac-
Technical Committee Meetings Douglass, ext. 306, tices for oxyacetylene welding include
Nov. 10. D9 Committee on Sheet the latest procedures to be used in
All AWS technical committee meet- Metal. Chicago, Ill. J. Molin, ext. 304, conjunction with oxyacetylene equip-
ings are open to the public. Contact ment and the latest safety recommen-
the staff member listed at (800/305) Nov. 10. D15C Subcommittee on dations. Complete lists of equipment
443-9353 for information. Track Welding. Chicago, Ill. J. Rosario, are available from individual manufac-
Nov. 8. C7 Committee on High En- ext. 308, turers. Stakeholders: Welders, welding


instructors, manufacturers, education- D1.5M/D1.5:2008 code is silent on G, U). Resistance welding, C1 Com-
al institutions. New Standard. Contact this issue. However, the AWS mittee (C, E, G, U). Resistance weld-
A. Naumann, ext. 313, anaumann@ D1.5M/D1.5:2010 code has addressed ing equipment, J1 Committee (E, G, this issue. See subclause 5.12 (2010). U).
C7.6/C7.6M:20XX, Process Specifica-
tion and Operator Qualification for J. Douglass, ext. 306,
Laser Hybrid Welding. This document Subject: Interpretation of the accept- Methods of weld inspection, B1
will provide a list of normative refer- ance criteria for plate that has Type W Committee (E, U).
ences, a short glossary of specialized and Z discontinuities discovered in
terms related to the use of hybrid base metal edges prior to fabrication A. Naumann, , ext. 313,
laser/arc welding, and a short descrip- or welding. Oxyfuel gas welding and cutting, C4
tion of special hazards associated with Code Edition: D1.5M/D1.5:2010 Committee (C, E, G, U). Friction weld­
the processes. Once these areas have Code Provision: Subclause 3.2.3 (Visu- ing, C6 Committee. Welding practices
been addressed, requirements for de- al Inspection and Repair of Base Metal and procedures for austenitic steels,
velopment of procedures and use of Cut Edges) D10C Subcommittee. Aluminum pip­
the process for fabrication will be list- AWS Log: D1.5-10-I08 ing, D10H Subcommittee. Chromium
ed along with the appropriate meth- Inquiry: Is the following inquiry cor- molybdenum steel piping, D10I Sub-
ods for documenting how the require- rect? Per subclause that committee. Welding of titanium pip­
ments are met. This will be followed when a Type W discontinuity is discov- ing, D10K Subcommittee. Purging and
by sections on appropriate weld quali- ered longer than one inch in length root pass welding, D10S Subcommit-
ty examinations, quality assurance, the extent of the discontinuity is ex- tee. Low­carbon steel pipe, D10T Sub-
and work approval. A short section on plored using the criteria of loss of back committee. Orbital pipe welding,
requirements for equipment calibra- reflection in conformance with ASTM D10U Subcommittee. Duplex pipe
tion will also be included. Stakehold- A435/A435M and that: 1. Only the welding, D10Y Subcommittee. Reac­
ers: Fabricators and procurement or- discovered discontinuity needs to be tive alloys, G2D Subcommittee (G). Ti­
ganizations within the laser welding explored and not the entire plate in tanium and zirconium filler metals,
community. New Standard. Contact: P. nine-inch grids. 2. The acceptance cri- A5K Subcommittee.
Portela, ext. 311, teria for a plate with a Type Z disconti-
D10.10/D10.10M:20XX, Recom- nuity are per subclause and P. Portela, ext. 311,
mended Practices for Local Heating of not per ASTM A435/A435M, which re- High­energy beam welding and cut­
Welds in Piping and Tubing. This stan- jects any plate with a loss of back re- ting, C7 Committee. Robotic and auto­
dard provides information on recom- flection in any three-inch circle. matic welding, D16 Committee (C, E,
mended practices, equipment, temper- Response: 1. In accordance with AWS G). Hybrid welding, C7D Subcommit-
ature control, insulation, and advan- D1.5M/D1.5:2010, subclause tee (G).
tages and disadvantages for the meth- 3.2.37(1), does only the extent of the
ods presently available for local heat- discovered discontinuity need to be ex- J. Rosario, ext. 308,
ing of welding joints in pipe and tub- plored? Yes. Procedure and performance qualifi­
ing. Stakeholders: Pipe and tube sys- 2. In accordance with AWS cation, B2 Committee (E). Thermal
tem manufacturers, fabricators, in- D1.5M/D1.5:2010, are the acceptance spraying, C2 Committee (C, E, G, U).
stallers, and those involved in repair criteria for a plate with a Type Z dis- Welding iron castings, D11 Committee
activities. Revised Standard. Contact: continuity per subclause (C, E, G, P, U). Railroad welding, D15
A. Naumann, ext. 313, anaumann@ and Yes. Committee (E, G).
J. Molin, ext. 304,
Opportunities to Contribute to Welding sheet metal, D9 Commit-
Interpretations AWS Technical Committees tee (G, P).
Bridge Welding Code S. Hedrick, ext. 305,
The following committees welcome
Joining of plastics and composites,
new members. Some committees are
Subject: Heat Input Qualifications G1 Committee. Safety and Health
recruiting members with specific in-
Code Edition: D1.5M/D1.5:2008 Committee (E, U, G, C). Mechanical
terests in regard to the committee’s
Code Provision: Subclause 5.12 testing of welds, B4 Committee.
scope, as marked below: Producers (P);
AWS Log: D1.5-08-I08 General Interest (G); Educators (E);
Inquiry: To obtain the amperage and R. Gupta, ext. 301,
Consultants (C); and Users (U). For
voltage value for the heat input calcu- Magnesium alloy filler metals, A5L
more information, contact the staff
lation from the list of weld pass values Subcommittee.
member listed or visit
on the PQR do you: w/a/technical/comm_stand.html.
1. Use the one highest amperage and
voltage pass value OR M. E. Rodriguez, ext. 310, mro-
2. Average all passes and use the aver-
age amperage and voltage? Automotive, D8 Committee (C, E,
Response: The AWS
New AWS Supporters Forza Engineering Services Pvt., Ltd. Sohar International Institution, LLC
No. 16, Ezhil Nagar Main Rd., P.B. No. 699
2nd Floor, Ag Complex, Selaiyur Sohar, Batinah
Sustaining Members Chennai Tamil Nadu 600073 Oman 311
Jones Metal, Inc. India
3201 3rd Ave.
Mankato, MN 56001 Gestamp Solar Steel 11040 N. Solar Canyon Way Welding Distributor Company
Surprise, AZ 85379 Members
111 Cosmo Dr. JDH Contracting, Inc. Vibco Vibrators
Bowling Green, KY 42101 8109 Network Dr. 75 Stilson Rd. Plainfield, IN 46168 Wyoming, RI 02898

Paradox Intellectual Properties, Inc. K­Tig

8031 NW Camp Azalea Rd. Bldg. 5, 9 William St. Mile End SA 5031
Australia Supporting Company Members
SB Enterprises Pvt., Ltd.
238-A, Block II, Shahrah-E-Qaideen Oak Creek Consolidated
Cashco, Inc.
P.E.C.H.S 326-I Old York Hampton Hwy.
607 W. 15 St.
Karachi, Sindh Yorktown, VA 23692
Ellsworth, KS 67439
Pakistan, 75400 Steel Fab Enterprises, LLC
623 Baumgardner Rd. Mountain Man Welding and
Lancaster, PA 17603 Fabrication
2115 W. 14 Ave.
Affiliate Companies Denver, CO 80204
Aerokool Aviation Corp. Educational Institutions Turbine Pros
1495 SE 10th Ave 14510 Northdale Blvd.
Hialeah, FL 33010 Federal Correctional Complex — Rogers, MN 55374
Custom Equipment Engineering, LLC 3901 Klein Blvd.
4300 Arrow Tree Dr., Unit H Lompoc, CA 93436
St. Louis, MO 63128
Rusyal Industrial, LLC
Delta Machine & Ironworks, LLC P.B. No. 16 Rd. 4 C
5185 Adams Ave Rusyal, Muscat
Baton Rouge, LA 70817 Oman 124

AWS Life Members Offered Free Registration for

Professional Program
AWS Life Members are offered free 9353, ext. 260, to have the form AWS Member Counts
admission to the upcoming FABTECH mailed to you. October 1, 2015
Show scheduled for Nov. 9–12, 2015, To obtain your free registration, Sustaining.................................601
at McCormick Place in Chicago, Ill., mark “AWS Life Member — Free Reg- Supporting ...............................350
plus free registration for the Profes- istration” at the top of your registra- Educational...............................710
sional Program — a $325 value. tion form. Fax both sides of the form Affiliate.....................................622
Registration for the Professional to (305) 443-5647, Attn: Rhenda Ken- Welding Distributor ...................55
Program entitles AWS Life Members ny, membership director; e-mail to Total Corporate .......................2338
entrance to any of the technical ses-; or mail the form to Individual ...........................60,328
sions occurring during the four-day Rhenda Kenny, AWS Membership Student + Transitional ...........11,266
event. Registration forms are available Dept., 8669 NW 36th St., Ste. 130, Total Members ..................71,594
in the Welding Journal and in the Ad- Miami, FL 33166.
vance Program, or call (800/305) 443-


Member­Get­A­Member M. G. Poss, Detroit — 115 J. P. Theberge, Boston — 21
M. Krupnicki, Rochester — 58 N. Baughman, Stark Central — 20
Campaign D. Sorensen, Northwest — 58 R. A. Washenesky, Arrowhead — 20
G. G. Schroeter, Nebraska — 50 R. Riggs, Tulsa — 19
Listed here are the members partici- R. D. Zabel, Southeast Nebraska — 40 R. J. Ferguson, Indiana — 18
pating in the Member-Get-A-Member H. H. Hughes, Mahoning Valley — 37 R. H. Randall, Detroit — 16
Campaign that runs from Jan. 1 to Dec. T. Geisler, Pittsburgh — 36 M. A. Stevenson, J.A.K. — 16
31, 2015. Members receive 5 points for D. E. Newman, Ozark — 36 M. Cyphert, NW Pa. — 15
each individual Member and 1 point P. Stigall, Chicago — 35 S. D. Lord, Rochester — 15
for every Student Member they recruit. A. D. Stute, Madison-Beloit— 35 G. S. Mulee, South Carolina — 15
For campaign rules and a prize list, D. A. Saunders, Lakeshore — 34 B. Scott, Dayton — 15
see page 97 of this Welding Journal. J. J. Russell, Fox Valley — 27 J. N. Burke, Louisville — 14
Standings as of September 19 are listed. R. L. Gilmer, Houston — 26 W. D. Elliott, Houston — 14
If you have any questions regarding M. Ball, Canada — 25 J. Foley, Pittsburgh — 14
your member proposer points, please B. R. Hackbarth, Milwaukee — 25 S. H. Slagle, Cleveland — 14
call the AWS Membership Department J. King, South Carolina — 25 J. K. Pruitt, Kansas City — 13
at (800) 443-9353, ext. 480. R. F. Purvis, Sacramento — 25 G. L. Gammill, NE Mississippi — 12
M. J. Spodar, Dayton — 25 A. I. Duron, New Orleans — 11
J. W. Morris, Mobile — 223 R. L. Thompson, Kansas — 25 D. L. Galiher, Detroit — 11
G. Bieniecki, Cleveland — 137 S. Thornhill, St. Louis — 25 C. A. Renfro, Chattanooga — 11
M. A. Pelegrino, Chicago — 127

Nominate Your Candidates for These Welding­Related Awards

The deadline for nominating candidates for the following awards is December 31 prior to the year of the awards’ presenta-
tions. E-mail Chelsea Lewis at or call (800/305) 443-9353, ext. 293.

William Irrgang Memorial Award National Meritorious Award George E. Willis Award
This award includes a $2500 hono- The award includes a $2500 hono- The award is presented to an indi-
rarium to recognize the individual who rarium to recognize the recipient’s loy- vidual who has promoted the advance-
has done the most over the past five alty, good counsel, dedication to AWS ment of welding internationally by
years to advance the science and tech- affairs, and promotion of cordial rela- fostering cooperative participation in
nology of welding. tions with industry and other technical technology transfer, standards ration-
organizations. alization, and promotion of industrial
goodwill for the Society.
International Meritorious
Certificate Award Honorary Membership Award
The award recognizes, in the broad- This award cites an individual who
est terms, the honoree’s significant has eminence in the welding profes-
contributions and service to the inter- sion or has made outstanding develop-
national welding community. ments in the field of welding arts.

Candidates Sought to Receive the MIT Masubuchi Award

The Prof. Koichi Masubuchi award, through research and development. Palmer, This award is
with a $5000 honorarium, is presented Send a list of your candidate’s experi- sponsored annually by the Massachu-
to one person, 40 or younger, who has ence, publications, honors, awards, and setts Institute of Technology, Dept. of
made significant contributions to the at least three letters of recommendation Ocean Engineering.
advancement of materials joining from fellow researchers to Prof. Todd


NEW YORK tion and the Lancaster named scholar-
District 1 August 10 ships. Barlow was given the awards for
Thomas Ferri, director his outstanding work and participa-
Location: Lynbrook Diner, Long Is-
(508) 527-1884 tion in the York Student Chapter and
land, NY the York Section.
Event: Executive Board Members held
a meeting to discuss criteria for the
national scholarship fund as presented
District 2 by District 2 Director Harland Thomp- District 4
Harland W. Thompson, director son. Future general meeting dates and Stewart A. Harris, director
(631) 546-2903 guest speakers were also arranged. (919) 824-0520
September 10
District 3 TIDEWATER
September 10
Michael Sebergandio, director
Location: The Nook Restaurant, Wan- Location: Thomas Nelson Community
(717) 471-2065
tagh, N.Y. College, Hampton, Va.
Event: Section members discussed the Speaker: Doug Zoller, director of capi-
establishment of a Named Scholarship tal goods North America sales support
by the Section. In attendance were:
July 20 at ESAB Welding and Cutting
Jesse Provler, Ron Pandolf, Ray Topic: ICE submerged arc welding
Location: Hoss’s Steak House, York,
O’Leary, Dist. 2 Director Harland Event: Doug Zoller of ESAB gave the
Thompson, Alex Duschere, Chair Bri- Event: During a dinner meeting, Alex Section an informative presentation
an Cassidy, Barry McQuillen, and Deb- on ICE, which is a unique variation of
Barlow, a York Section student mem-
orah McInnis. the submerged arc welding process.
ber, received the Student Chapter
Member Award as well as the York Sec-

TIDEWATER — Doug Zoller of ESAB is

LONG ISLAND — Seen (from left to right) after the Section’s meeting at The Nook Restau­ shown during his September 10 presen­
rant are Jesse Provler, Ron Pandolf, Ray O’Leary, Dist. 2 Director Harland Thompson, Alex tation to the Tidewater Virginia Section.
Duschere, Chair Brian Cassidy, Barry McQuillen, and Deborah McInnis.


LANCASTER AND YORK — Alex Barlow (middle), York Section student member, receives (right), York Section student member, re­
the Lancaster Section scholarship and the York Section Scholarship. Seen from left are ceives the Student Chapter member
Sean Moran, director at large; Mike Sebergandio, Dist. 3 director; Alex Barlow; Ed Cala­ award from Dist. 3 Director Mike Seber­
man, Section chairman; and Dean Whitmer, Section treasurer. gandio (left).


boys participated in the welding por-
District 5 District 8 tion of the day. NWFSC instructors
Carl Matricardi, director D. Joshua Burgess, director Scottie Smith and Mark Gonzales, as
(770) 356-2107 (931) 260-7039 well as former student Lindsey Irvine ran the workshop with help from Sec-
tion members Tim DeVargas and Jerry
ATLANTA NORTHEAST TENNESSEE Betts. The Section also sponsored part
August 22 September 17–20 of the event by providing protective
Location: IHOP, Suwanee, Ga. Location: Tennessee Valley Fair, equipment during the workshop. Boy
Event: Members held an executive Knoxville, Tenn. Scouts who participated were William
committee meeting to discuss upcom- Event: The AWS Careers in Welding Barrett, Ian Blankenbeker, Ryan
ing meeting dates and different tools trailer visited the Tennessee Valley Blankenbeker, Robert Burgess, Aaryn
for meetings Rene Engeron learned at Fair in Knoxville, Tenn., and was well
the AWS Leadership Symposium. Ja- supported by local Section members
son Ayers was officially elected to the who volunteered their time.
executive committee as second vice
chairman and webmaster.
District 9
Michael Skiles, director
(337) 501-0304
District 6
Michael Krupnicki, director
(585) 705-1764 MOBILE August 8
Location: Northwest Florida State Col-
lege (NWFSC), Niceville, Fla.
District 7 Event: The college hosted more than
200 local area Boy Scouts from 11 dif-
MOBILE — Byron Dunn (left), president
of the Gulf States Shipbuilders Consor­
Uwe Aschemeier, director
(786) 473-9540 ferent troops as they trained to earn tium, is seen after his speech with Sec­ merit badges in different areas. Fifteen tion Chairman Clay Byron (right).

MOBILE — Instructors from Northwest Florida State College, Section members, and Boy Scouts after a day of welding toward their weld­
ing merit badge.

NORTHEAST TENNESSEE — A group photo of Section members and visitors in the Careers NORTHEAST TENNESSEE — The AWS Ca­
in Welding trailer: (from left) Bryson Elliot, Andrew Simcox, Daniel Stopnick, Maneel reers in Welding trailer visited the Ten­
Bharadwaj, Jonaaron Jones, Gilbert Cruz, Will Hoskins, and Danny Galicki. nessee Valley Fair in Knoxville, Tenn.


Cooper, Alan Cutler, Joshua Daniels,
Mike Davis, Tyler Duley, Jared Gasi, District 10
Ryan Karle, Gavin LeBrun, Ethan Lin- Robert E. Brenner, director
day, Wes Stephens, and Joshua (330) 575-0198

September 10 CLEVELAND
Location: Original Oyster House, September 8
Spanish Fort, Ala. Location: Toscana Party Center, Cuya-
Speaker: Byron Dunn, president Gulf hoga Heights, Ohio
States Shipbuilders Consortium Speaker: Frank Armao, director, alu-
(GSSC) minum technology, Lincoln Electric
Topic: History and purpose of the Topic: Basics of Aluminum Welding
GSSC, and an update on its current Event: Frank Armao spoke about the
activities. aluminum alloy designation system,
Event: The Section celebrated its alloy families, and the effects of weld-
scholarship recognition night with a ing on mechanical properties. Mem-
buffet dinner, a split-the-pot drawing, bers discussed the differences between
door prizes, and a speech from Byron welding steel and aluminum. New
Dunn of the GSSC. Clay Byron, Section Chairman Mike Barrett presented a
chairman, hosted the event, which certificate of appreciation to Past
NEW ORLEANS — Mike Skiles, Dist. 9 di­ drew 49 participants. Chair Paul Revolinsky.
rector (left), receives a guest speaker
award from Travis Moore, treasurer. NEW ORLEANS NORTHWESTERN 
Location: South Central Louisiana August 7
Technical College, Reserve, La. Location: Whispering Pines Golf
Speaker: Mike Skiles, AWS Dist. 9 di- Course, Meadville, Pa.
rector Event: The Section hosted a joint golf
Topic: Where Have All the Welders outing with Drake Well’s Section. The
Gone? profits were split between the two Sec-
Event: The Section held its first gener- tions and later given as scholarships to
al meeting of the 2015–2016 schedule, students.
which was sponsored by Oxford Al-
loys, Inc. The meeting was hosted at September 9
South Central Louisiana Technical Col- Location: Erie Institute of Technology,
lege in Reserve, La., by Penelope Free- Erie, Pa.
man, campus dean. Chris Polanski, Speaker: Tim Phillips, regional sales rep-
sales engineer at Oxford Alloys, pro- resentative for ESAB
vided food and door prizes. A 50/50 Topic: CNC Plasma Cutting Technology
NEW ORLEANS — Travis Moore (left), raffle was held with proceeds going to Event: Section members held a meet-
Section treasurer, and Aldo Duron Section student scholarships and ac- ing at the Erie Institute of Technology,
(right), Section secretary, present Earl tivities. Guest speaker Mike Skiles, where they were toured through the
Dominique, SCLTC Welding Instructor, Dist. 9 director, gave an interactive facility and given a demonstration of
with his 50/50 award. presentation on the future of welding. the ESAB CNC portable plasma cutting

NEW ORLEANS — Student Member Os­

car Duran (Delgado Community Col­ CLEVELAND — Frank Armao (left) re­ CLEVELAND — Past Chair Paul Revolin­
lege), shows off the Oxford Alloys, Inc., ceives a hearty thanks from Mike Bar­ sky (left) receives a certificate of appre­
door prizes he won at the meeting. rett for his presentation to the Section. ciation from Chair Mike Barrett.


system from Tim Phillips, who dis- ent schools. The candidates all submit- Highlights: Twenty-five Student Chap-
cussed the history and evolution of ted an application, transcripts, and a ter members participated in the Wis-
plasma, the pros and cons of different letter for consideration. Recipients of consin Department of Transporta-
machines, and which types of machines the 2015–2016 scholarships are stu- tion’s Adopt-a-Highway program. This
work with different applications. dents at Schoolcraft C.C., Monroe is a volunteer event to help keep the
C.C., Ferris State University, Baker highways clean of trash and debris.
College (Flint), Wayne C.C., Macomb The student chapter will participate in
District 11 C.C., Washtenaw C.C., and Lansing
C.C. AWS President David Landon
the cleanup twice a year.
Robert P. Wilcox, director
gave a speech about technology, he-
(734) 721-8272
roes, and mentoring in today’s work-
September 10
Location: Schoolcraft College — Vis- District 12
TaTech Building, Livonia, Mich. Daniel J. Roland, director
Speaker: David Landon, AWS presi- (920) 241-1542
dent, Vermeer Mfg. Co.
Topic: Triple Pass of the Torch —
Technology, Heroism, and Mentorship Northeast Wisconsin Technical
Event: The Section’s annual student College Student Chapter NORTHWESTERN PENNSYLVANIA —
night was held at Schoolcraft College’s May 14 Jason Neff (left) is seen with Tim Phillips
VisTaTech Building in Livonia, Mich. Location: Highway 55, Green Bay, Wis. (right), regional sales representative for
This year the Section was able to Event: Wisconsin Adopt-A-Highway ESAB, after touring Section Members
award 32 scholarships, totalling cleanup through the Erie Institute of Technology.
$45,500 to students from eight differ-

DETROIT — Seen at the Section’s student

awards night is Michael Bilbrey II (left), NORTHWESTERN PENNSYLVANIA — Members from both the Drake Well and Northwest
winner of the 2015–16 Amos and Pa. Sections are seen (left to right) after a day of fundraising golf: Eric Spear, Jason Neff,
Marilyn Winsand Scholarship. Tom Kostreba, Donna Bastian, Marty Siddall, Ward Kiser, Travis Crate, and Mike Owens.

DETROIT — The winners of the AWS­Detroit Section scholarships are seen with AWS President David Landon (third from right).


guest speakers to speak to Section cations, discontinuities, and successful
District 13 members about cross-country pipeline welds. Dan Morang provided a live
John Willard, director welding. David Viar discussed con- welding demonstration for members
(815) 954-4838 struction management and welding and college and high school students qualifications in the visual examina- with 12 in., 6 in., and 2 in. pipe welding
tion of welds. Amanda Young dis- coupons for 6G pipe welding and testing
CHICAGO cussed nondestructive testing of on uphill and downhill progression.
August 30 pipeline welds, inspections and certifi-
Location: Brookfield Zoo, Ill.
Event: Section members met at the
Brookfield Zoo to participate in the
Summer Safari Adventure as part of
the District 13 meeting. Fifty mem-
bers were in attendance.

September 9
Location: Moraine Valley Community
College, Palos Hills, Ill.
Speakers: David Viar, Moraine Valley
C.C., Amanda Young, McNDT, and
Dan Morang, Embridge, Indiana.
Event: The Section brought three
CHICAGO — (From left to right) Aman­
CHICAGO — Members and college and da Young, Dan Morang, and David Viar
high school students attend David pose for a photo after their presenta­
Viar’s pipe welding demonstration. tions to Members and students.

Northeast Wisconsin Technical College

Student Chapter — Pictured is one of
the highway signs recognizing the Stu­
dent Chapter’s cleanup commitment.
The sign is posted along a dedicated sec­
tion of Highway 55, just south of High­ CHICAGO — Members, along with area college and high school students listen as David
way 54, west of Green Bay, Wis. Viar and Amanda Young speak about cross­country pipeline welding.

Northeast Wisconsin Technical College Student Chapter — Pictured are Student Chapter advisor Jon Russell (far left) and Club President
Dan Wicker (center front) with Student Chapter members after their highway cleanup.


PEORIA prizes. Samuel Chance received four
September 22 awards and will attend Purdue Univer- District 15
sity in the spring. More than 50 people David Lynnes, director
Event: Mark Kerley of Caterpillar, Inc.,
were in attendance. (701) 893-2295
spoke about robot welding of heavy
structures to Section members in
Washington, Ill. ST. LOUIS
September 10
Location: Trinity Products, St. Charles, District 16
District 14 Event: Charlie Lamb, Trinity Products,
Karl Fogleman, director
(402) 677-2490
Robert L. Richwine, director gave Section members a tour of the
(765) 606-7970 pipe mill, and was presented with an appreciation award from Chairman
Michael Kamp.
District 17
September 10 TRI­RIVER Jerry Knapp, director
Location: Pipe Trades Local Union September 17 (918) 224-6455
440, Indianapolis, Ind. Location: Electronics Research, Inc.,
Event: The Section’s Annual Student Chandler, Ind.
Night was held at the Pipe Trades Lo- Event: Former Chairman Phillip Young EAST TEXAS
cal Union 440 in Indianapolis. High- toured Section members through Elec- September 17
lights of the evening included a pres- tronics Research, Inc. Members later Location: Airgas plant, Tyler, Tex.
entation of the District, Section, and enjoyed a presentation on nondestruc- Speaker: Jerry Barbee, fill plant opera-
Named Scholarship awards, a tour of tive testing from Chairman Mike Bum- tor, Airgas Southwest.
the Pipe Trades Training Center, and a garner of Bumgarner Welding and Topic: History of oxygen and the filling
student drawing for door prizes. Every Inspection. of cyrogenic and high-pressure con-
student received a minimum of three tainers.

PEORIA — Past chairs of the Section are

seen together (from left) BACK ROW:
Phil England, Mark Kerley (speaker),
Kerwin Brown, and Rick Polanin; FRONT
INDIANA — Sam Chance (right) receiving his Brant Family Named Scholarship award ROW: Jess Hunter, Chris Laban, and
from (from left) Gary Halter, Dave Jackson, and Bennie Flynn. Curt Rippey.

TRI­RIVER — Quality Inspector John Hel­

INDIANA — Sam Chance (right) receiv­
ing his Indiana Section/Bob Richwine frich of Electronics Research explains the TRI­RIVER — Former Section Chairman
Named Scholarship from Dist. 14 Direc­ quality requirements for welding a Phillip Young conducts a plant tour at
tor Bob Richwine (left). broadcast tower section. Electronics Research.



EAST TEXAS — Section members (seen EAST TEXAS — Airgas Southwest Fill NORTH TEXAS — Paul Stanglin (left),
from left) Bryan Baker, treasurer, Jerry Plant Operator Jerry Barbee speaks to Section chairman, is seen with Floyd
Barbee, speaker, and J. Jones, chairman, Section members during a tour of the Kiel, applications engineer from Bohler
together after the Airgas plant tour. company’s plant. Welding, after Kiel’s presentation.

ST. LOUIS — Michael Kamp (center left) presents Charlie Lamb (center right) with a plaque of appreciation for touring Section members
through the Trinity Products pipe mill.

OKLAHOMA CITY — Section members, students from Caddo­Kiowa Technology Center, and Mark Dunn and students from his shop class at
Luther, Oklahoma, are seen at the Section meeting.


Event: Section members enjoyed a AWS Chapter. Local educator Mark cating and retrofitting firefighting ve-
presentation that covered the history Dunn brought some of his students to hicles and other emergency response
of oxygen and high-pressure contain- the meeting, and the Section was im- equipment. Members enjoyed a tour of
ers from 1850, when oxygen was first pressed with their creativity and moti- the facility work areas and a discussion
extracted from air, to today’s air sepa- vation. about the company’s extensive in-
ration facilities and how oxygen is held house fabrication capabilities.
and transported. Members walked
through the oxygen-filling area where
District 18 NEW MEXICO
John Stoll, director
cryogenic and high-pressure contain- October 9, 2014
(713) 724-2350
ers are filled. Location: Eclipse Aerospace, Inc.,
Albuquerque, N. Mex.
NORTH TEXAS HOUSTON Event: Intersociety meeting with
September 15 September 16 SAMPE, ASME, and ASM. Society
Location: Humperdinks, Arlington, Location: Brady’s Landing Restaurant members toured Eclipse Aerospace
Tex. Speakers: Uwe Aschemeier, Dist. 7 Di- and enjoyed educational talks, a raffle,
Speaker: Floyd Kiel, applications engi- rector, and Jarrad Schmerl, project and awards presentations.
neer at Bohler Welding manager with Subsea Global Solu- Speakers: Past AWS President Dean
Topic: Seamless Cored Wires tions. Wilson spoke about the society;
Event: Floyd Kiel presented on the dif- Topic: Underwater-Wet and Underwa- Eclipse Aerospace Director of Engi-
ference between typical seamed cored ter-Dry Welding around the World neering Brent Christener discussed
wires and seamless cored wires. He Event: More than 100 people attended friction stir welding for the aerospace
discussed the advantages of seamless this talk at Brady’s Landing Restau- industry; and Debi and Dean Wilson
cored wires, which include their lower rant. ran a raffle and presented awards.
hydrogen values, reduced contamina-
tion from rust particles and typical
wire lubricants, and the lower heat in- District 19 October 30, 2014
Location: Caterpillar Emissions Solu-
put of seamless cored wires because of Ken Johnson, director tion, Inc.
their better tip-to-surface contact. (425) 957-3553 Speaker: John Fields of Caterpillar Emissions Solutions
District 20
Topic: Designs and manufactures cus-
September 17 tomized stationary after treatment so-
Location: Alliance Steel, Inc., Oklaho- Pierrette H. Gorman, director lutions for internal combustion en-
ma City, Okla. (505) 284-9644 gines.
Speaker: John Trotter, QA manager at Event: Membership milestones recog-
Alliance Steel nized by Section 75 for the following:
Event: The Section held its meeting at COLORADO Edward J. Kachenko Jr., Life Award,
Alliance Steel, where members were September 10 35 years; Dr. Tom Lienert, Silver
treated to a plant tour and enjoyed Location: SVI Trucks, Fort Collins, Award, 25 years; and Patrick Bauman,
dinner together. Members watched a Colo. Silver Award, 25 years. Section mem-
video, Building it Better: Earthquake Speaker: Ron Weinmeister, owner SVI bers discussed how Caterpillar Emis-
Testing Metal Buildings, published by Trucks sions Solutions uses laser cutting
the University of California Television Topic: Fabrication and welding of cus- equipment and welding to produce in-
and other industry partners. Scholar- tom emergency equipment ternal combustion California Air Re-
ships were announced, and National Event: SVI Trucks Owner Ron Wein- sources Board (ARB)-verified particu-
Excellence in Welding Educator nomi- meister and Area Managers Mark late filters, oxidation catylsts, and si-
nee Keith Theesen was given a token Thielman and Jerry Bartsch spoke lencers as well as hybrid selective cata-
of appreciation for his commitment to about the company’s history and the lysts reduction/particulate filer/si-
involving his students in their local available processes for custom fabri- lencer system. These products are used

HOUSTON — Dist. 7 Director

and Speaker Uwe As­
chemeier (from left) seen
with Jarrad Schmerl, project
manager with Subsea Global
Solutions, who also spoke,
OKLAHOMA CITY — Keith Theesen (left) Section Chair Grant Peltier,
accepts the Section appreciation award and First Vice Chair Justin
from John Trotter, Section chair. Kirby.


Join or Renew: Mail: Form with your payment, to AWS Call: Membership Department at (800) 443-9353, ext. 480
Fax: Completed form to (305) 443-5647 Online: 8669 NW 36 St, # 130
Miami, FL 33166-6672
CONTACT INFORMATION Telephone (800) 443-9353
FAX (305) 443-5647
q New Member q Renewal Visit our website:

q Mr. q Ms. q Mrs. q Dr. Please print • Duplicate this page as needed Type of Business (Check ONE only)
A q Contract construction
Last Name:_______________________________________________________________________________
B q Chemicals & allied products
C q Petroleum & coal industries
First Name:___________________________________________________________________ M.I:_______
D q Primary metal industries
E q Fabricated metal products
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F q Machinery except elect. (incl. gas welding)
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N q Misc. repair services (incl. welding shops)
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P q Engineering & architectural services (incl. assns.)
City:_____________________________________State/Province:__________________________________ Q q Misc. business services (incl. commercial labs)
R q Government (federal, state, local)
Zip/PostalCode:_____________________Country:______________________________________________ S q Other
Œ Who pays your dues?: q Company q Self-paid  Sex: q Male q Female
Ž Education level: q High school diploma q Associate’s q Bachelor’s q Master’s q Doctoral 01 q
02 q Manager, director, superintendent (or assistant)
q Check here if you learned of the Society through an AWS Member? Member’s name:_______________________Member’s # (if known):________ 03 q Sales
q 04 q Purchasing
05 q Engineer — welding
INDIVIDUAL MEMBERSHIP 20 q Engineer — design
21 q Engineer — manufacturing
è Please check each box that applies to the Membership or service you’d like, and then add the cost together to get your Total Payment. 06 q Engineer — other
10 q Architect designer
q AWS INDIVIDUAL MEMBERSHIP (One Year)......................................................................................................$86 12 q Metallurgist
A wo Years SAVE $25 New Members Only....................................$147 13 q Research & development
22 q Quality control
q New Member Initiation Fee ...........................................................................................................................................$12 07 q Inspector, tester
08 q Supervisor, foreman
14 q Technician
A.) OPTIONAL Book Selection (Choose from 25 titles; up to a $192 value; includes shipping & handling) 09 q Welder, welding or cutting operator
q Individual Members in the U.S..................................................................................................................................$35 11 q Consultant
15 q Educator
q Individual Members outside the U.S (includes International shipping)...........................................................................$85 17 q Librarian
16 q Student
ONLY ONE SELECTION PLEASE. For more book choices visit
18 q Customer Service
q (CD-ROM only) q q Welding Metallurgy 19 q Other
Welding Handbook Selections: q WH (9th Ed., Vol. 4) q WH (9th Ed., Vol. 3) q WH (9th Ed., Vol. 2) q WH (9th Ed., Vol. 1)
Technical Interests (Check all that apply)
Pocket Handbook Selections: q PHB-1 (Arc Welding Steel) q PHB-2 (Visual Inspection) q PHB-4 (GMAW / FCAW) A q Ferrous metals
B.) OPTIONAL Welding Journal Hard Copy (for Members outside North America) B q Aluminum
C q Nonferrous metals except aluminum
q Individual Members outside North America (note: digital delivery of WJ is standard)..............................................$50
D q Advanced materials/Intermetallics
INDIVIDUAL MEMBERSHIP TOTAL PAYMENT..................................................................................$_____________ E q Ceramics
NOTE: Dues include $16.80 for Welding Journal subscription and $4.00 for the AWS Foundation. F q High energy beam processes
G q Arc welding
STUDENT MEMBERSHIP H q Brazing and soldering
è Please choose your Student Membership option below. I q Resistance welding
J q Thermal spray
q AWS STUDENT MEMBERSHIP (One Year)...................................................................................................................$15 K q Cutting
Digital delivery of Welding Journal magazine is standard for all Student Members.
q AWS STUDENT MEMBERSHIP (One Year)...................................................................................................................$35 M q Safety and health
Includes one-year Welding Journal hard copy subscription. Option available only to students in U.S., Canada & Mexico. N q Bending and shearing
STUDENT MEMBERSHIP TOTAL PAYMENT......................................................................................$_____________ O q Roll forming
P q Stamping and punching
R q Automotive
Payment can be made (in U.S. dollars) by check or money order (international or foreign), payable to the American Welding Society, or by charge card. S q Machinery
q Check q Money Order q AMEX q Diners Club q MasterCard q Visa q Discover q Other T q Marine
U q Piping and tubing
CC#:____________ / ____________ / ____________ / ____________ Expiration Date (mm/yy) ________ / ________ V q Pressure vessels and tanks
W q Sheet metal
X q Structures
Signature of Applicant:_________________________________________ Application Date:_______________________
Y q Other
Z q Automation
OFFICE USE ONLY Check #:_______________________________ Account #____________________________________ 1 q Robotics
Source Code: IT Date:_________________________________ Amount:_____________________________________ 2 q Computerization of Welding
REV. 11/14

NEW MEXICO— (Left) Section Chairman Pat Bauman (left) presents Jeremy Feidler (right) with the Section Educator Award in January.
(Middle) Matheson representatives Richard Moku and Laurel Flowers are given the Section Corporate Recognition Award. (Right) Herb
Smith is presented with the Section Meritorious Award.

COLORADO — Section Members pose with SVI Trucks Owner Ron Weinmeister, and Managers Mark Thielman and Jerry Bartsch.

If you would like to submit a calen-
dar, send along the following infor-
mation: Section name; activity name,
date, time, and location; and speaker
name, title, affiliation, and subject. If NEW MEXICO — AWS Past President
some of your meeting plans are Dean Wilson (left) presents an AWS Cor­ SAN FRANCISCO — Chairman Mike
pending, include the name and e- porate Recognition award to Brent Zinser (left) and Speaker Jennifer
Christener, the Section’s host at Eclipse Bernard at Spenger’s Restaurant in
mail or phone number of a contact Berkeley, Calif.
Aerospace in Albuquerque, N.Mex.
person for the event.

Please keep in mind that the Journal

publication cut-off is usually the
20th of the month, for two months
ahead. For example, if you want to
have your February meeting on the
January Journal calendar, the dead-
line is November 20.

Send your calendar event listing to

Annik Babinski, assistant editor, by
e-mail,, or fax, COLORADO — Section Members pose with Jerry Bartsch in the middle of their tour of SVI
(305) 443-7404. Trucks in Fort Collins, Colo.



NEW MEXICO — (Left) Joe Sanchez is presented with the Section Educator Award. (Middle) Jesse Holden is presented with the Section Ed­
ucator Award. (Right) Richard Bingham is presented with the Dalton E. Hamilton Memorial CWI of the Year Section Award.

in retrofitting engine-powered genera- Event: Forty-four members and

tors. District 21 guests, including four new members
Sam Lindsey, director who joined at the meeting, attended
January 22 (858) 740-1917 the banquet presentation. Mike Zinser
Location: CNM Community College, and Jerry Azzaro received Section
Albuquerque, N. Mex. Chairman pins in honor of past serv-
Event: 2015 Section and District District 22 ice. Jennifer Bernard, quality manager,
Awards Presentation Kerry E. Shatell, director Mare Island Dry Dock LLC, spoke
Speaker: Patrick Bauman, chairman (925) 866-5434 about welding and inspection chal-
Highlights: After lunch a raffle was lenges in ship repair.
held, and then awards and plaques
were handed out. The Executive Com- SAN FRANCISCO
mittee announced that funds were de- September 2
posited for two new scholarships. Location: Spenger’s Restaurant,
Berkeley, Calif.

May 12, 2016 Kingsport, Tenn.

SECTION EVENTS Student Award Night Trade show of welding and cutting ma-
CALENDAR chines, tools, and clothing.
Contact Bob Teuscher for more informa-
Colorado tion about Colorado events at (303) 893- May 10, 2016, 6 pm
3602 or by e-mail at Regional Center for Advanced Manu-
November 12 facturing, 305 West Main Street,
Emily Griffith Opportunity School, Kingsport, Tenn.
1860 Lincoln St., Denver, Colo. Holston Valley Section Awards meeting.
Tour the school’s new welding lab.
November 10, 6 pm Contact Jon J. Cookson for more
December 8 229 Nolichuckey Ave. Erwin, Tenn. information about Holston Valley events
Visit from AWS President Dave Tour of the CSX rail car repair facility. at (757) 897-3748, or by e-mail at
January 12, 2016, 6 pm
January 14, 2016 500 Borla Drive, Johnson City, Tenn. New Orleans
Presentation on coiled tubing usage Tour of the Borla Performance Indus-
and manufacturing. tries, Inc., facility. Meetings are held on the third Tues-
day of each month. No meetings in De-
February 12, 2016 February 9, 2016, 6 pm cember, June, July, or August.
Ladies Night Regional Center for Advanced Manu-
facturing, 305 West Main Street, Contact D.J. Berger for more information
March 11, 2016 Kingsport, Tenn. about New Orleans events at (504) 415-
7th Annual Welding the Rockies Presentation of AWS Scholarships and 9165, or by e-mail at
Symposium. information on the Chatanooga State
CC welding program. Please note that events are subject to change.
April 14, 2016 Reach out to the listed contact to confirm.
AWS joint meeting with ASNT at April 12, 2016, All Day
Intermountain Testing. Regional Center for Advanced Manu-
facturing, 305 West Main Street,


Guide to AWS Services
American Welding Society® Director — International Activities
8669 NW 36th St., #130 INTERNATIONAL SALES Andrew Davis.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(466)
Miami, FL 33166-6672 Managing Director of North American Sales International Standards Activities, American Coun-
(800/305) 443-9353; Fax: (305) 443-7559 Joe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(297) cil of the International Institute of Welding
Phone extensions are in parentheses.
Learning Sales Representative Manager, Safety and Health
AWS PRESIDENT Efram Abrams.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(307) Stephen Hedrick.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(305)
David Landon . . . . . . . Metric Practice, Safety and Health, Joining of Plas-
Vermeer Mfg. Co. Corporate Director, Global Sales tics and Composites, Personnel and Facilities Qualifica-
2010 Vermeer Rd. E., Pella, IA 50219 Jeff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(233) tion, Mechanical Testing of Welds
Oversees international business activities; certifi-
ADMINISTRATION cation, publications, and membership. Program Managers II
Executive Director Stephen Borrero... . . . . . . . . . . . . .(334)
Ray Shook.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(210) PUBLICATION SERVICES Definitions and Symbols, Structural Subcommittees
Dept. information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(275) on Reinforcing Steel, Bridge Welding, Stainless Steel,
Senior Associate Executive Directors Managing Director Brazing and Soldering Manufacturers Committee
Cassie Burrell.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(253) Andrew Cullison.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(249)
Rakesh Gupta.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(301)
John Gayler.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(472) Welding Journal Filler Metals and Allied Materials, International
Publisher Filler Metals, UNS Numbers Assignment, Arc Welding
Chief Financial Officer Andrew Cullison.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(249) and Cutting Processes, Computerization of Welding In-
Gesana Villegas.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(252) formation
Chief Information Officer Mary Ruth Johnsen.. . . . . . . . . . .(238) Jennifer Molin.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(304)
Emilio Del . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(247) Structural Welding, Sheet Metal Welding
Society and Section News Editors
Board and Executive Director Services Melissa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(275) Program Managers
Associate Director Annik . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(256) John . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(306)
Alex Diaz.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(294) Brazing and Soldering, Brazing Filler Metals and
Welding Handbook Editor Fluxes, Brazing Handbook, Soldering Handbook, Ma-
AWS Awards, Fellows, Counselors Kathy Sinnes.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(303) chinery and Equipment, Methods of Inspection, Welding
Board and Executive Director Services in Marine Construction
Chelsea Lewis.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(293) Director Andre Naumann.. . . . . . . . . . . . .(313)
Coordinates AWS awards and Fellow and Coun- Lorena Cora.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(417) Welding and Brazing in Aerospace, Joining of Metals
selor nominations. and Alloys, Piping and Tubing, Ti and Zr Filler Metals,
Public Relations Manager Friction Welding, Oxyfuel Gas Welding and Cutting
Administrative Services Cindy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(416)
Corporate Director Peter Portela.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(311)
Hidail Nuñ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(287) Webmaster High-Energy Beam Welding, Robotics Welding,
Jose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(456) Welding in Sanitary Applications, Additive Manufactur-
HUMAN RESOURCES ing, Structural Welding Subcommittee on Titanium
Director Section Web Editor
Gricelda Manalich.. . . . . . . . . . . . . .(208) Henry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(452) Maria Elena . . . . .. . (310)
Automotive, Resistance Welding, Resistance
Associate Director MEMBER SERVICES Equipment
Patrick . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .( 211) Dept. information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(480)
Jennifer Rosario.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(308)
INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF WELDING Senior Associate Executive Director Railroad Welding, Thermal Spraying, Welding Iron
Senior Coordinator Cassie Burrell.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(253) Castings, Welding Qualification
Sissibeth Lopez . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(319)
Liaison services with other national and international Director CUSTOMER OPERATIONS
societies and standards organizations. Rhenda Kenny... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(260) Program Specialists
Serves as a liaison between members and AWS head- Vivian Pupo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(362)
GOVERNMENT LIAISON SERVICES quarters. Danielle Garcia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(361)
Hugh Webster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answer customer questions about AWS.
Webster, Chamberlain & Bean, Washington, D.C. (202) CERTIFICATION SERVICES
785-9500; F: (202) 835-0243. Dept. information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(273) AWS FOUNDATION, INC.
Monitors federal issues of importance to the Director, Certification Operations
industry. Terry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(470) General Information
Application processing, renewals, and exams. (800/305) 443-9353, ext. 212,
Director, Convention and Meeting Services Director, Accreditation Operations Chairman, Board of Trustees
Matthew . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(239) Judy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(281) William A. Rice..
ATFs, CWFs, and Audits.
ITSA — INTERNATIONAL THERMAL Executive Director, Foundation
SPRAY ASSOCIATION EDUCATION SERVICES Sam Gentry.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (331)
Senior Manager and Editor Director, Operations
Kathy . . . . . . . .(232) Martica Ventura.. . . . . . . . . . . . . .(224) Corporate Director, Workforce Development
Monica Pfarr.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . (461)
RWMA — RESISTANCE WELDING Director, Development and Systems
MANUFACTURING ALLIANCE David Hernandez.. . . . . . . . . . .(219) Associate Director of Scholarships
Committee Specialist Vicki Pinsky.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . (212)
Adrian . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .(295) TECHNICAL SERVICES
Dept. information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(340) The AWS Foundation is a not-for-profit 501(c)(3) charita-
WEMCO — ASSOCIATION OF WELDING Managing Director — Technical Services ble organization established to provide support for the educa-
MANUFACTURERS Annette Alonso.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(299) tional and scientific endeavors of the American Welding Socie-
Management Specialist Technical Committee Activities, Additive Manufacturing, ty. Promote the Foundation’s work with your financial support.
Keila . . . . . . . . . . . .(444) Welding Qualification



Materials Research Society Fills facturing leadership experience, hav- second vice chairman and chairs the
New Executive Roles ing held several senior positions at Re- subcommittee B05.04 on pipe and
caro Group, part of Johnson Controls. tube.
The Materials Research Society He will be located at the company’s
(MRS), Warrendale, Pa., has appointed Tuttlingen, Germany, location.
Susan E. Trolier-McKinstry, The Penn- Cincinnati, Inc., Hires Sales
sylvania State University, as its vice Engineer for Texas
president beginning January 1, 2016. Sellstrom Mfg. Co. Announces
The election also brought five new Western Regional Manager Alex Gorosito
board members to the board of direc- has been appoint-
tors, to each serve three-year terms Sellstrom Mfg. ed regional sales
starting in January 2016. They are Co., Schaumburg, engineer for Texas
Matt Copel, IBM; Paul S. Drzaic, Ap- Ill., a manufactur- by Cincinnati,
ple, Inc.; Yury Gogotsi, Drexel Univer- er of personal pro- Inc., Harrison,
sity; Young-Chang Joo, Seoul National tective equipment Ohio, a laser cut-
University; and Magaly Spector, Uni- (PPE), has hired ting equipment
versity of Texas at Dallas. In addition, Daniel Bradlee as manufacturer.
David J. Parrillo, The Dow Chemical its new western Gorosito has been
Co., a current board member, was ap- regional manager. working in manu-
pointed MRS treasurer and chair of Bradlee brings an Alex Gorosito facturing indus-
the MRS finance committee, begin- extensive knowl- tries for more
ning January 2016 and lasting for one edge of PPE prod- than twelve years.
year. Daniel Bradlee ucts and welding, He earned his bachelor of science in
and a strong back- mechanical engineering from the Uni-
ground in fall-protection products and versity of Miami. In this new role,
Camfil Air Pollution Control systems. Gorosito will take care of direct ma-
Names Global EVP chine sales.

Camfil Air Pol- ASTM International Copper

lution Control, Committee Honors Contributor Fronius USA Brings on
Jonesboro, Ark., a New Talent
manufacturer of The ASTM Committee B05 on Cop-
dust, mist, and per and Copper Alloys presented
fume collection Charles Blanton, corporate director of
equipment, has environmental, health, and safety at
appointed Chris- Mueller Industries, Inc., Memphis,
tian Debus global Tenn., with the ASTM International
executive vice Copper Club Award. Blanton’s years of
president. Debus leadership and his contributions were
Christian Debus
has strong manu- honored. He serves as the committee’s

Jasen Lenaway Gary Holbrook

Fronius USA, Portage, Ind., has

hired Jasen Lenaway as a sales appli-
cation technician, and Gary Holbrook
as area sales manager for Texas.
Lenaway has 23 years of welding expe-
rience, 15 of which was spent robotic
welding. Holbrook has worked in the
industry since 1978 for companies
such as Linde and Oxygen Service, and
owned his own business for ten years
before selling it.

— continued on page 104

For info, go to­index


PERSONNEL OMS Shortlisted for National
— continued from page 102
Engineering Award
Publish Your
New Regional Sales Manager
Optical Metrology Services, Ltd., a
pipe measurement product and serv- Research in the
for Solar Atmospheres ice supplier based in Stansted, UK, has

JouN G
been announced as a finalist for the
Solar Atmos- British Engineering Excellence Awards
pheres Southeast, in the Design Team of the Year catego-
ry. The nod was in part due to the de-
Greenville, S.C.,
has announced sign and development of its new weld and You’ll Get
that Mike Harper inspection tool, the AugaTM, which can
analyze the internal girth features of
has accepted the  Yoour research sent to mor
m e
position of region- oil and gas pipeline welds in less than
two minutes. than 71,000 American
al sales manager
for the southeast- We elding Society mem mbers
ern United States.
Harper has more PFERD Appoints Customer  Yo
our published paper
than 23 years of Service Manager posted on the AWS We eb
Mike Harper experience in met- site for FREE access
al processing in- PFERD, Inc., Milwaukee, Wis., has worldwide
dustries, business hired Janet A. Schweitzer as customer (
g a//
development, and sales. service manager. Schweitzer joins the
researc ch/indeex ml))
company from Wm. K. Walthers Co.
She has more than nine years of expe-  The most recent Impact
Tri Tool Appoints VP of Global rience in customer sales and service,
and nine years of training and devel- Factor of 1.378
Sales and Field Services
opment experience in business-to-
Tri Tool, Inc., Rancho Cordova, business and consumer environments.  No page charges
Calif., has hired Troy Todd as vice
president of global sales and field
 Yoour paper printed in
services. Todd previously worked for full color
Tri Tool’s safety program and headed OBITUARY
up human resources for corporate,  Electronic submission a and
manufacturing, and contract service Douglas H. Juhl tracking through Editorial
personnel. He has also held executive
Douglas H. Juhl passed away Manager
positions at Cascade Drilling and
Waste Management. March 18, 2015, in Minneapolis, (wwww..ediitto
Minn., at the age of 64. Juhl studied wjj))
welding at the Dunwoody Industrial
The International Society of Institute from 1969 to 1970, and at-  Everyy research paper
Automation Names Winning
tended the University of Minnesota – published in the We eldin
Twin Cities from 1980 to 1983. In Journal since 1970
Authors 1990, Juhl patented a paint color-
change system with David Walker and available FREE on the
The International Society of Au- Thomas D. Schmidt, and in 2001 he AWWS We eb site
tomation’s (ISA) publications depart- patented a light seal for use with ro- (ww
ment, Research Triangle Park, N.C., botic equipment with Timothy Scher- supple ement//ssupplement--
has announced the winners of its an-
nual author awards. Authors and con-
er. In June 2012, Juhl was hired as a inde
ex ml))
robotic sales engineer with PRI Robot-
tributors to ISA publications are hon- ics, Minneapolis, Minn. Juhl joined
ored for developing, reviewing, and AWS in 1980 and achieved Life Mem-
delivering its content. The Keith Otto ber status in 2015. He was an active
Award was presented to Leif Poulsen; member of the D16 committee on Ro-
The Nels Tyring Award was given to botics and Automation, and served as
Allan Kern; The Raymond D. Molloy vice chairman of the Northwest Sec-
Award was awarded to Terrence L. tion in 2014. WJ
“Terry” Blevins, Deji Chen, PhD, Mark By far, the most people, at
a the
Nixon, and Willy Wojsznis, PhD, and least cost, will be expose
ed to
the ISA Transactions Best Paper Award your research when yo ou
went to Junyong Zhai, PhD, and publish in the world-respected
Wenting Zha. Welding Journal


NEWS OF THE INDUSTRY trying to take education to the student,” said G. L. Tucker,
director of M State’s Custom Training Services.
— continued from page 21 Nearly 300 men and women have been trained in the col-
lege’s welding trailer since it went on the road in May 2013.
This converted refrigerated semitrailer houses 12 train-
ing stations. Instructor Josh Heibel teaches welding skills in
sessions that range from 16 to 160 hours.
The college has partnered with workforce centers, state
agencies, businesses, and high schools to provide training,
which is generally free to students.
M State is also using grant funds to develop three addi-
tional mobile trailers to provide training related for com-
mercial driver’s licenses, industrial/construction workplace
safety, and precision measurement/manufacturing.

Industry Notes
• The Lincoln Electric Co., Cleveland, Ohio, recently do-
nated welding equipment to Warfighter Made, Murrieta,
From left, Everest Ejigiri (Southern University) and Bin Zhang Calif., a nonprofit organization that adapts cars, trucks,
(Louisiana State University) are shown in front of a high­ motorcycles, and off-road vehicles for ill, injured, and com-
temperature, high­vacuum molding system used for replication bat-wounded service members and veterans. In addition,
of metal­based microscale structures. (Credit: Eddy Perez, LSU the company has passed an accreditation process to become
University Relations) an IACET Accredited Provider of continuing educational
programming. It now will be able to offer accredited contin-
lion through its Experimental Program to Stimulate Com- uing education units for educational workshops, seminars,
petitive Research. and welding school courses held at its global headquarters.
The Research Infrastructure Improvement Track-1 coop-
erative agreements will support science and engineering ac- • Vitronics Soltec, the Netherlands, has won the SMTA
ademic research infrastructure on the Island of Guam, and China Best Exhibit Technology Award for its ZEVAv se-
in Arkansas, Louisiana, and West Virginia. lective soldering platform, first introduced in Nov. 2013, at
Each award will support fundamental research, educa- the recent SMTA China South 2015/NEPCON South China
tion in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics 2015 show. The honor recognizes electronics excellence.
fields, plus workforce development in areas relevant to the
jurisdictions’ economic and other vital interests. • Recent graduates of the State University of New York
Arkansas and Louisiana are developing approaches for Delhi’s welding technology program all took the New York
producing technologically relevant materials that can ad- State Department of Transportation field welder exam
vance localized commercialization and manufacturing for the first time and achieved a 100% pass rate. They will
economies. Water resource sustainability is a central theme be included on the department’s list of eligible personnel
for West Virginia and Guam. and able to erect/perform repairs for New York state.

• ACE Production Technologies, Inc., Spokane Valley,

Wash., has recently placed two selective soldering systems.
Welding Trailer Wins Minnesota A KISS-103IL has been installed at BAE Systems, Fort
Innovation Award Wayne, Ind., and a KISS-102IL has been connected at Ac-
celerated Assemblies, Elk Grove Village, Ill.
Minnesota State Community and Technical College’s mo-
bile welding trailer was one of three top winners in Min- • Albany Technical College, Albany, Ga., and Turner Job
nesota’s 2015 State Government Innovation Awards. Corps recently held a prior learning assessment articula-
“The mobile welding trailer redefines education, as we’re tion agreement signing ceremony. In support of the Com-
plete College Georgia agenda, the aim is to assist and
promote this assessment in the transferability of the Turn-
er Job Corps training achievement record to the college’s
associated diploma or associate of applied science degree.
Welding is among the courses; it will transfer to an Albany
Tech welding and joining technology diploma for welding.

• Saki Corp. has announced that Saki America, Fremont,

Calif., added three new distributors — SMT Equipment,
Bench Top Solutions, and Contek Sales & Marketing —
This converted refrigerated semitrailer for Minnesota State that will provide sales support for its 2D and true 3D
Community and Technical College houses 12 training stations
where welding skills are learned.
automated optical, solder paste, and X-ray inspection
systems. WJ


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Disaggregated Metal and Carbide

Catchment Efficiencies in Laser Cladding
of Nickel­Tungsten Carbide
Using a CO2 laser, the effects of power, powder feed rate, and travel speed
were studied to determine their influence on the efficiency of depositing
a nickel tungsten carbide clad coating


in the cladding. The carbide must re-

ABSTRACT main unmelted during the cladding
process, contrary to most other wear
Composite coatings made of nickel matrix reinforced with tungsten carbide particles protection alloys, such as chromium
are one of the dominant wear­protection systems in mining, oil, and gas applications. In carbide where the reinforcing phase
these applications, the balance of powders forming the final coatings is crucial to the forms in-situ during solidification. Al-
final product. This paper presents for the first time an analysis of powder utilization effi­
though the microstructural aspects of
ciency (“catchment efficiency”) where the metallic powders (mostly nickel) and tungsten
carbide are discriminated. Experiments were performed using a CO2 laser system with the Ni-WC are not a focus of this
coaxial powder deposition, and the effects of power, powder feed rate, and travel speed analysis, it is important to note the
were tested. The metal efficiency was higher than the carbide in all tests. Increasing WC symbol in Ni-WC does not directly
laser power resulted in increased efficiency for both metal and carbide. Increasing pow­ refer to the stoichiometric 1:1 form of
der feed rate decreased nickel efficiency and increased carbide efficiency, with the over­ the carbide only and is used inter-
all powder efficiency being approximately constant. Increasing travel speed resulted in changeably with WC, W2C, and the
strong reduction of efficiency for both carbide and nickel. nonstoichiometric WC1-x.
There have been various contribu-
tions to the understanding of catch-
ment efficiency in literature, which
KEYWORDS can be grouped into two categories:
• Cladding • Hardfacing • Composite Coatings • Metal Matrix Composites
models of catchment efficiency, and
experimental exploration of laser pa-
rameters to optimize efficiency.
Among models of efficiency, Picas-
Introduction contributing to the cladding buildup so et al. developed a numerical algo-
(Refs. 1–3). Not all of the powders rithm to compute powder efficiency,
that exit the head end up as part of the accounting for the angular dependence
Powder-based welding processes cladding bead; the fraction of powders of laser power absorption and the melt
such as laser cladding or plasma arc that do is termed the “catchment effi- pool shape based on a Gaussian heat
welding (PAW), also referred to as ciency” by practitioners. distribution (Ref. 4). Lin and Steen
plasma transferred arc welding The focus of this analysis is the effi- presented a model of efficiency based
(PTAW), are the industry standard for ciency in laser deposition of nickel on the geometry of the powder stream
depositing tungsten carbide-based tungsten carbide (Ni-WC) cladding. at the nozzle focus point, molten pool,
wear-resistant coatings (Ref. 1). The The Ni-WC powder blend contains a and the degree of overlap between the
dimensions, performance, and cost of primary Ni powder (referred to here- powder stream and molten pool (Ref.
the final coating or cladding are direct- after as metal powder), which solidi- 5). Frenk et al. proposed a model of ef-
ly dependent on the amount of free- fies to create the matrix, and ceramic ficiency for off-axis laser cladding with
flight powder that adheres to the tungsten carbide particles, which in a theoretical maximum mass efficien-
molten surface of the cladding pool turn serve as the wear-resistant phase cy of 69%, which was experimentally

G. WOOD ( and P. F. MENDEZ are with Canadian Centre for Welding and Joining, Chemical and Materials Engineering,
University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB.



Fig. 1 — Schematic of a cross section of a deposited cladding bead

from the experiments.

Fig. 2 — Laser cladding during the Bead 3 run.

Fig. 3 — Cross section of Bead 3 etched with 3% Nital for 5 s.

validated (Ref. 6). Partes studied the ured and modelled effi-
effects of melt pool geometry and noz- ciency, most have used
zle alignment on catchment efficiency homogeneous single- Fig. 4 — Python script output showing carbide area for Bead 3.
taking into account particle time of component powder
flight and surface melting under the feeds, and for those
beam (Ref. 7). who have directly worked with Ni-WC, a coaxial production nozzle capable of
Researchers that have studied pa- none have discriminated between com- feed rates up to 150 g/min through a
rameter optimization for laser ponents. This work presents for the series of 50 equally spaced ports be-
cladding of homogeneous alloys in- first time a detailed analysis of individ- tween two concentric conical guides.
clude Olivera et al. who analyzed the ual component efficiencies for a mixed Argon shield gas flow rate was 1.27
effect of laser power, powder feed rate, powder feed, linking the mass capture m3/h. The substrate positioning sys-
and substrate travel speed on powder of two types of immiscible powders to tem is a CNC-controlled x-y lathe bed
efficiency and proposed experimental- measurable quantities of the process with a mounted four jaw check head-
ly determined correlations to fit 316L and the cross section of the deposited stock and tailstock spindle support.
stainless steel cladding trials (Ref. 8). clad. In this work, laser power, powder Surface rotation speeds were pro-
Gremaud et al. determined the opti- feed rate, and travel speed are varied to grammed into the CNC system for a
mal efficiency for thin-walled struc- study the effects on carbide and metal given diameter substrate. For the pre-
tures made of single-stacked laser powder catchment efficiency independ- cision equipment used, it was consid-
cladding beads. This work explored the ently. ered that the actual rotation speed
effect of travel speed and powder feed matched its set point.
rate on the efficiency for a variety of
alloys (Ref. 9). A select few researchers
Experimental Setup Powder Feed
have also studied the efficiency of
laser cladding of Ni-WC. Laser Cladding Equipment The powder feed used in this analy-
Powder efficiency in Ni-WC laser sis was a mixture of cast spherical-
cladding is relatively unexplored. Zhou For the experimental trials per- fused tungsten carbide and a Ni-Cr-B-
et al. studied the effect of laser spot di- formed here, the power source was a S blend of metal, which comprise the
mensions with laser induction hybrid 6-kW CO2 laser assembly with water- metal matrix in the deposited
cladding on the efficiency of Ni-WC cooled copper-mirror optics. The focal cladding. The carbide chemistry re-
coatings, but did not directly report val- distance of the final beam-focusing ported by the powder supplier was 3.8
ues for efficiency. Increases in bead mirror was 345 mm (13.959 in.), and wt-% C and the balance W, which cor-
width and height were qualitatively cor- cladding was performed 19 mm (0.75 responds to a stoichiometry of WC0.6.
related to increased capture efficiency in.) out of focus beyond the focal The two component powders were
(Ref. 10). Angelastro et al. optimized point, conforming to typical industri- mixed together in 60–40% weight
the process parameters of power, pow- al practices. The laser spot diameter fractions of carbide to metal powder,
der feed rate, and travel speed for a at this working distance was 6.13 respectively. Size range, reported man-
multilayer clad of Ni-WC with Co and mm. A disk powder feeder was used ufacturer hardness range, weight frac-
Cr additions reporting only an overall to meter powder to the cladding noz- tions, and densities are listed in Table
value for deposition efficiency (Ref. zle with a set Ar carrier gas flow rate 1. The density of the WC1-x carbides is
11). Of the researchers who have meas- of 6.5 L/min. The cladding nozzle was analyzed in Appendix A.



Fig. 5 — Effect of power on catchment efficiency. Fig. 6 — Effect of powder feed rate on catchment efficiency.

Fig. 7 — Effect of travel speed on catchment efficiency. Fig. 8 — Density of WC1­Z as a function of C stoichiometry.

cylindrical bearing substrate. The

Table 1 — Properties of Powders Used in the Experiments loaded sample was rotationally centered
to within 25mm (0.001 in.) using an
Component Size Range Expected Hardness Weight Fraction Density alignment dial indicator. The surface of
Range After Deposition Wf ρ
the bearing was prepared with an initial
(μm) (HV) (%) (kg/m3)
acetone wash to remove any oil or
Carbide Powder 45–106 2700–3500 62.60 16,896 grease, followed by manual grinding be-
Metal Powder 53–150 425 37.40 8100 tween passes to remove any remaining
debris. Conforming to the existing di-
Sample Preparation straight line drawn between the clad rect carbide application procedures, a
toes was used to divide above and be- 533 K preheat was applied to the rotat-
Individual beads were sectioned us- low surface levels. These areas and fea- ing substrate using a propane torch. The
ing a wet saw, mounted, polished to a tures are shown in Fig. 1. temperature was checked before each
0.04-mm finish, and etched for 5 s The area fraction of the carbide was pass using a touch thermocouple at the
with 3% Nital to reveal the HAZ. Pho- measured using an internally developed 0-, 90-, 180-, and 270-deg positions on
tomicrographs of the sample cross sec- Python™ script that identified the car- the cylinder along the rotation direc-
tions were stitched together to create bide based on color contrast with the tion. These temperature measurements
panoramas of the total bead area and matrix. The clad area was isolated from were performed along the centerline of
HAZ using Adobe Photoshop™. The re- the picture and the contrast was adjust- the upcoming bead. Some variation in
inforcement area AbR, dilution area ed using Photoshop to improve the dis- preheat temperatures was observed
AbD, and total area AbT were measured tinction between the two phases. across the four measured points, but
by analyzing pixels of the selected re- values within 25 K of each other and the
gion and converting pixel measure- Cladding Procedure target preheat temperature were taken
ments to an actual area using the im- as acceptable.
age scale bar calibrated to a known The test claddings were performed The laser power, powder feed, and
length. Due to the presence of machin- on a 254-mm-long, 20.3-mm-thick, substrate rotation were programmed
ing marks on the sample surface, a 165-mm outer diameter 4145 MOD to begin simultaneously with the shut-



ter closed to momentarily delay the

start of cladding and allow the param- Table 2 — Experimental Matrix for Cladding of Ni­WC onto a 4145 MOD Substrate for All Beads
eters time to ramp up to test levels.
After a five-second waiting period, the Bead Number Laser Power Powder Feed Rate Target Travel Speed Average Preheat
shutter was opened and the cladding q m. p Vt (°C)
(kW) (g/min)
begun. A 360-deg bead was deposited
Target Measured Target Measured (in./min) (mm/s) Measured
with no pitch followed immediately by
a 2-mm pitch and 180-deg overlapping Bead 1(a,b) 5.0 4.98 50 49.20 60 25.40 257
bead without interruption. The over- Bead 2(a) 3.0 3.09 50 49.20 60 25.40 257
Bead 3(a) 4.0 3.99 50 49.20 60 25.40 261
lapping beads were included to provide Bead 4 4.0 3.99 50 49.20 45 19.05 258
bead-on-bead samples for future Bead 5(b) 4.0 3.99 30 28.80 60 25.40 268
analysis and are not included as part Bead 6(b) 4.0 3.99 50 49.20 75 31.75 264
of this study. Beads were placed 51 Bead 7(a) 4.5 4.54 50 49.20 60 25.40 263
Bead 8(a) 3.5 3.53 50 49.20 60 25.40 264
mm (2 in.) away from the edges of the Bead 9(a) 4.0 3.98 50 49.20 30 12.70 263
coupon to prevent heat accumulation Bead 10(b) 4.0 3.98 60 62.95 60 25.40 264
effects. A 12.7-mm (0.5-in.) gap be- Bead 11(b) 4.0 3.98 40 42.25 60 25.40 264
tween bead centers was left to allow Bead 12 4.0 3.98 50 49.20 90 38.10 267
adequate room for sectioning. Once Bead 13(b) 4.0 3.98 70 68.30 60 25.40 263
the half circumference overlapping
bead was finished, the shutter was (a) Laser power measurement performed immediately before test.
closed, effectively stopping the clad (b) Powder feed rate measurement performed immediately before test.
Target preheat was 260°C (500°F).
process while the laser power and
powder feed rate ramped down. The
travel speed was set to shift rapidly to
Table 3 — Bead Area and Carbide Volume Fraction Measurements for Experimental Test Beads
its maximum (25 deg/s) to complete
the second full rotation and place the Bead Number Total Area Reinforcement Area Carbide Volume Fraction
starting point directly beneath the AbT AbR fvcb
nozzle. Figure 2 shows an example of (mm2) (mm2) (%)
the in-process Ni-WC clad deposit. Bead 1 1.89 1.65 33.64
The laser power and powder feed Bead 2 0.72 0.68 30.05
rates were calibrated at the beginning Bead 3 1.52 1.40 28.48
of the experiment and before trials Bead 4 2.27 2.11 29.30
with a parameter change to confirm Bead 5 1.19 0.85 20.27
Bead 6 1.02 0.95 34.42
levels at the substrate. Laser power Bead 7 1.46 1.38 34.29
was measured using a 10-kW Comet Bead 8 1.19 1.12 38.04
10K-HD power probe, which acts as a Bead 9 3.59 3.42 34.71
copper calorimeter for one second Bead 10 1.90 1.79 36.39
Bead 11 1.37 1.16 36.26
laser exposures. Feed rate was meas- Bead 12 0.67 0.65 37.48
ured by manually capturing the pow- Bead 13 1.96 1.88 38.56
der flow rate for tp = 2 min, measuring
the accumulated mass, and reporting a
per-minute average rate. This calibra- tially. Interaction effects between pa- feed rates and velocities, and area frac-
tion is necessary to link the rotation rameters cannot be assessed with the tions in the solidified cladding bead.
speed of the disk feeder to the actual experimental matrix used, but these
mass flow rate. interactions do not affect the conclu- Carbide Powder Efficiency
sion obtained. The experimental de-
sign test run order was randomized to Carbide efficiency is the ratio of
Experimental Matrix eliminate procedural bias. This was mass of carbide in the bead to mass of
done by assigning each trial a random- carbide in the powder feed:
The parameters tested were laser ly generated number and arbitrarily
power, power feed rate, and travel
speed. These parameters were chosen
sorting low to high. Recorded test
measurements of each parameter are ηmc =
because there is direct control over shown in Table 2. mc′ p
them, and they are known to have a (1)
large influence on the laser cladding
operation. Determination of where hmc is the carbide catchment ef-
The matrix has a center point (Bead Catchment Efficiency ficiency, m’cb is the linear mass density
3) and two higher and two lower of carbide in the clad bead, and m’cp is
points for each parameter, totalling 13 The derivations for carbide, metal the linear mass density of carbide in
experiments. Corners were omitted to powder, and total catchment efficiency the powder feed.
reduce the number of experiments are presented as functions of the pow- The linear mass density of carbide
that would otherwise grow exponen- der densities, compositions, process in the bead is given by



of AbT to account for only the addition

Table 4 — Carbide, Metal Powder, and Overall Catchment Efficiency for the Experimental Cladding Beads
of mass from the process. This distinc-
tion excludes the bead area contribu-
Bead Number Carbide Efficiency Metal Powder Efficiency Overall Efficiency tion from dilution that was existing
ƞmc ƞmm ƞm mass prior to cladding; however, with
(%) (%) (%) AbD on the order of 1–2%, AbR can be
considered the same as AbT for con-
Bead 1 53.23 73.39 60.77
Bead 2 18.15 32.11 23.37
trolled cladding processes.
Bead 3 36.14 67.07 47.71 The mass of metal powder in the
Bead 4 41.83 74.91 54.13 total powder/carbide mix is given by
Bead 5 34.38 77.65 50.56
f m
mm p p
Bead 6 36.87 52.48 42.67
Bead 7 41.73 60.81 48.87
′p =
Bead 8
Bead 9
Vt (7)
Bead 10 45.16 59.65 50.58 where fmmp is the weight fraction of
Bead 11 48.33 57.97 51.94 metal powders in the powder feed,
Bead 12 31.46 40.73 34.93
Bead 13 45.56 55.71 49.36
which is measured directly while
weighing each component during in-
house blending of the carbide and
mc′b = fυc AbT ρ c . metal powders.
carbide and metal powders m p is the to-
b (2) Substituting Equations 6 and 7 into
tal mass transfer rate of the powder
feed, which is determined after a two- Equation 5, the metal powder efficien-
where fvcb is the volume fraction of car- minute particle collection test and cy can be calculated from measured
bide in the bead, AbT is the total cross- weight measurement, and Vt is the sub- quantities as
sectional area of the bead, and rc is the
( )
strate travel speed, which is not directly
density of the carbide. fvcb and AbT are measured and taken as exact from the Vt Abr ρ m 1 − fν cb
measured from the image cross sec- program input into a high-precision η mm =
tion, and rc is calculated from crystal- m p f mm
CNC positioner. p (8)
lographic analysis of the unit cell Substituting Equations 2 and 3 into
shown in Appendix A. Equation 1, the carbide efficiency can be
Equation 2 is valid when the distri- Overall Powder Efficiency
calculated from measured quantities as
bution of carbides is isotropic, and the
volume fraction of carbides is the Vt AbT ρ c fυcb Overall efficiency is the ratio of the
ηmc = carbide and metal powders in the bead
same as the area fraction of any cross m p fmc
section. The total cross-sectional area p (4) to the total amount of powders exiting
of the bead AbT is subdivided into the the cladding head
reinforcement area AbR above the sur- Metal Powder Efficiency
face level as a result of mass addition mc′b + mm
ηm =
from the process, and the dilution area Metal powder efficiency is the ratio m p / Vt
AbD due to the mixing of the steel sub- of mass of metal powder in the bead to (9)
strate and molten metal powders to mass of metal powder in the powder where hm is the overall powder
create a metallurgical bond. These ar- feed efficiency.
eas are shown in Fig. 1. AbT appears in Substituting Equations 4 and 6 into
Equation 2 to account for carbides that mm
′b Equation 9, the overall powder effi-
can settle below the surface during so- η mm = ciency can be calculated from meas-
lidification. In laser cladding process- mm
′p ured quantities as
es, AbD is small compared to AbR, typi- where hmm is the metal powder catch-
ment efficiency, m’mb is the linear mass ⎡ Ab fν ρ c + Abr ⎤
cally less than 5% of the total bead Vt ⎢ T cb ⎥
( )
area and has been reported to be as density of metal powder in the clad ηm =
m p ⎢ 1 − fν ρ m ⎥
low as 1–2% (Ref. 12). bead, and m’mp is the linear mass density ⎢⎣ cb ⎥⎦
The mass of carbide in the powder of metal powder in the powder feed. (10)
is given by The mass of metal powder in the
bead is given by Results
fmc m p
mc′ p =
Vt (3) (
′ b = 1 − fν c
bR ρ m
The calculation of efficiency re-
quires the total area of the bead, the
where fmcp is the weight fraction of car- where rm is the density of the metal reinforcement area, and volume frac-
bide in the powder feed, which is meas- powder reported from the powder tion of carbide in the deposited
ured directly while weighing each com- manufacturer. cladding, which all come from cross
ponent during in-house blending of the In Equation 6, AbR appears instead sections of the experimental beads.



Table 5 — Range of Variations Used for the Error Propagation Analysis

Variable Range of Variation Comments

q ± 5.5% Reported uncertainty from the manufacturer of the power probe
mp ± 0.01% Reported uncertainty from the calibration certificate of the 6000­g scale
tp ± 0.22 s Reported uncertainty in operator reaction time from Kosinski analysis of reaction time (REF. 14)
Vt 0 Assumed to be negligible from high precision CNC positioner
AbT ± 1% Variation in measurements of pixel area between the sum of
AbR, AbD,and AbT directly
lsc ± 0.01 mm Resolution of the microscope calibration scale
lsm ± 5% Variation in repeat measurements of scale bar in PhotoshopTM
ρc ± 82.5 kg/m3 Selected as half the range of Fig. 8
fcb ±5% Variation in measurements from the PythonTM script
fmcp ± 5% Variation in measurements from the PythonTM script
mc ± 0.01% Reported uncertainty from the calibration certificate of the 200­lb scale
mm ± 0.01% Reported uncertainty from the calibration certificate of the 200­lb scale
AbR ± 1% Selected to be consistent with AbT. In most cases AbR ≈ AbT
ρm 0 Assumed to be negligible from the reported manufacturer value

Figure 3 shows a typical cross section lated values of catchment efficiency and performance of the cladding.
of a Ni-WC cladding. was estimated from error propagation Figure 7 shows that increasing travel
Occasionally, small sintered parti- of Equations 4, 8, and 10 using stan- speed decreases the carbide, metal pow-
cles outside of the main bead were ob- dard techniques described in the NIST der, and overall efficiencies. The overall
served, such as the one shown on the handbook on statistical methods (Ref. efficiency shows a decreasing trend of
left side of the bead in Fig. 3. These 13). For this error propagation analy- 1%/mm/s with a total ~25% decrease in
sintered powders do not contribute to sis, Table 5 summarizes the range of efficiency for the conditions tested.
the buildup of the main bead and are variation of each variable involved (±a).
not considered as part of this analysis For all variables, a uniform probability Discussion
of efficiency for single beads. Voids in distribution in the range of variation
the cladding were also occasionally ob- was assumed as a conservative estimate Increasing laser power demonstrat-
served and were typically accounted (Ref. 13). The standard deviation is ed a rise in carbide, metal powder, and
for as matrix material in the calcula- therefore 1/√3a. The t-statistic for a total efficiency, which is most likely
tions. This is a reasonable approxima- two-tailed test with infinite degrees of due to increased molten pool size with
tion for beads with low porosity such freedom for the 95% confidence level is higher power density. There is also
as those in these experiments. Figure 1.960. likely an increase in particle preheat,
3 shows a void on the left side of the Figure 5 shows increasing laser pow- which contributes to increased effi-
bead likely caused by a carbide being er increases both the carbide and metal ciency as observed by Kumar and Roy
pulled out during the sample prepara- efficiency. The linear trend lines in the (Ref. 15). In practice, there is a limit to
tion process based on its size. Figure 4 graph aim to capture the overall behav- the effectiveness of the carbide effi-
shows the output of the Python™ ior of catchment; these lines are not ciency increase at high power levels, as
script highlighting the carbide area. models or an attempt to represent a the heat-sensitive carbides dissolve
The colors are randomly generated by particular physical phenomenon. The and reprecipitate brittle phases on
the program. trend lines indicate that the overall their surfaces, which degrades wear
Table 3 summarizes the area and catchment efficiency increases approxi- performance (Ref. 1).
carbide fraction measurements from mately 17%/kW for the conditions test- For the powder feed rate test block,
all experimental clads. Using the data ed. the decreased trend in metal powder
from Tables 2 and 3 and Equations 4, Figure 6 shows that metal powder ef- efficiency and increased trend in car-
8, and 10, the carbide, metal powder, ficiency decreases with powder feed rate bide efficiency with increased feed rate
and overall efficiency were determined (~0.45%/g/min), while carbide efficien- can be exploited to manipulate the car-
for all experiments. These efficiencies cy increases (~0.22%/g/min). The small- bide fraction in the deposited
are summarized in Table 4. er effect on carbide efficiency was on cladding. Despite the negligible change
The trends in efficiency for carbide, the order of the confidence interval and in overall efficiency on a percentage
metal powder, and overall were ana- further work is needed to confirm this basis, this behavior would be limited
lyzed by separating the calculated effi- trend. For the values measured, the in practice by the likelihood of dis-
ciencies from the cladding experi- overall catchment efficiency was nearly bonding the cladding from the
ments into the three test blocks for insensitive to powder feed rate. It is im- substrate.
power, powder feed rate, and substrate portant to highlight that while overall The observed decrease in carbide,
travel speed. Figures 5, 6, and 7 show efficiency was approximately constant, metal powder, and overall efficiency
the effects of power, powder feed rate, carbide fraction varied in a measurable with increased travel speed was consis-
and travel speed on catchment effi- way (carbide fraction increased with tent with the linearly decreasing ap-
ciency of the experimental cladding powder feed rate). This carbide fraction proximation by Colaço et al. (Ref. 16).
beads. The uncertainty for the calcu- is of high importance for the quality This trend is likely due to the de-



creased interaction time between the the same distinct components in the phy of WC1–x is the cubic “rock salt” B1-
laser beam and the substrate, which powder feed and deposited bead. The type (Ref. 19). For this type of carbide
decreases the molten pool size. This same equations would also be valid us- (MC1–x where M stands for metal), the
explanation is supported by the de- ing off-axis powder feeding, as typically variation in stoichiometry arises from
crease in width and height of beads done for ID applications, and so they structural vacancies in the nonmetallic
with increasing travel speed shown by are not exclusive to coaxial cladding. sites (Ref. 20), namely C for WC1–x.
several sources (Refs. 8, 16, and 17). The mass of the unit cell is then
For all experiments, the metal pow- Conclusions
der efficiency was higher than the car-
NW M W + N C M C (1 − X )
bide, which is consistent with favor- This work has evaluated for the mc =
able wetting of the primarily nickel first time the individual efficiencies Na (11)
powder to the molten nickel pool. This for a dual-component powder feed
explanation is supported by the find- made of tungsten carbide and metal where mc is the mass of the WC1–x unit
ings of Guest et al., who observed car- powders. Preliminary experimental cell, NW = 4 is the number of W atoms
bide ricocheting off the surface of a data for single beads of the Ni-WC in the unit cell, MW is the molar mass
molten nickel weld pool during gas powder mixture deposited using a 6- of W, NC = 4 is the number of C atoms
metal arc welding of Ni-WC (Ref. 18). kW CO2 laser indicated the following: in the unit cell, MC is the molar mass
Some important assumptions were 1) Increasing laser power increased of C, (1–X) is the stoichiometry of C in
made in this work that are addressed carbide, metal powder, and overall the WC1–x phase, and NA is Avegadro’s
here. It was assumed that the area efficiency. number.
fraction of a single cross section was 2) Power feed rate had a minimal The volume of the unit cell is given
representative of the bead volume. effect on overall efficiency, but by Vc = aB13 where Vc is the volume of
This assumption is typically made be- demonstrated a simultaneous decrease the WC1–x unit cell, and aB1 is the lat-
cause of the long preparation time re- in metal powder efficiency with an in- tice parameter of the same unit cell.
quired for each individual sample. crease in carbide efficiency. This be- Kurlov and Gusev have investigated
In measuring the carbide efficiency, havior is relevant to controlling the the unit cell lattice parameters report-
pores or voids were occasionally ob- carbide fraction in the deposited ed in literature and developed a best-
served in the cross section, which were cladding. fit quadratic to represent the change
included in the calculations as matrix 3) Increasing travel speed showed in lattice parameter as a function of
area. These voids were not regularly strong decreases in carbide, metal carbon content in the WC1–x structure
observed and can be reasonably as- powder, and overall efficiency. (Ref. 21).
sumed to have a negligible effect on 4) In all cases the metal powder ef-
the reported trends in this work. ficiency was observed to be higher aB1 = 0.4015 + 0.0481(1–X)
The PythonTM program occasionally than the carbide. – 0.0236 (1 – X)2 (12)
missed tracking carbides, and the car-
bide fractions measured are a lower The final form of the theoretical densi-
bound. Because very few carbides are Acknowledgments ty of WC1–x is then
omitted, the measurements are taken
as representative of the actual carbide NW M W + N c M c (1 − X )
ρc = 3
fraction. The authors wish to acknowledge the ⎡ 0.4015 + 0.0481(1 − X ) ⎤
Finally, the dilution of carbides in helpful comments and suggestions from NA ⎢ ⎥
the matrix was neglected; this is reason- Doug Hamre, head of research and de- ⎢⎣ −0.0236 (1 − X )2 ⎥⎦
able because reprecipitated carbides velopment at Apollo Clad Laser
were not observed in any sample. Cladding, a division of Apollo Machine WC1–x has a homogeneity region be-
The accuracy of the Python measure- and Welding, Ltd. Apollo was instru- tween (1–X) = 0.59 and (1–X) = 1.00
ments could possibly be improved by mental in sharing its knowledge, equip- (Ref. 22). Using Equation 13, the den-
discriminating porosity due to shrink- ment, and powder blends. The authors sity of WC1–X was determined for the
age from that of pulled-out carbides also acknowledge NSERC for providing entire homogeneity region shown in
during sample preparation. Shrinkage project funding for this research. Stu- Fig. 8. For the carbides involved in this
porosity has a rough and irregular dent scholarships from the American work, (1–X) = 0.604 corresponding to
shape, while gas porosity and pulled-out Welding Society and Canadian Welding a density of 16,896 kg/m3.
carbides have round shapes. Gas porosi- Association were gratefully received.
ty and pulled-out carbide can be further
discriminated due to the presence of a Appendix A
smooth diffuse reflection in voids relat-
ed to gas porosity. 1. Mendez, P. F., Barnes, N., Bell, K.,
While the developed equations for Tungsten Carbide Density Borle, S. D., Gajapathi, S. S., Guest, S. D.,
component efficiency were demonstrat- Izadi, H., Kamyabi Gol, A., and Wood, G.
ed using the Ni-WC system, this The density of carbide rc was calcu- 2013. Welding processes for wear resistant
method could be extended to any two- lated using the mass and volume of the overlays. Journal of Manufacturing Processes
component powder feed system with unit cell (rc = mc/Vc). The crystallogra- 16: 4–25.



2. Guest, S. D. 2014. Depositing Ni-WC A., and Kurz, W. 1996. Laser Metal Forming: Treatment and Film Deposition, pp. 421–429.
wear resistant overlays with hot-wire assist Process Fundamentals. Surface Engineering Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands.
technology. PhD thesis, University of Al- 12(3): 251–259. 17. Cheikh, H. E., Courant, B., Hascoët,
berta, Canada. 10. Zhou, S., Huang, Y., and Zeng, X. J.-Y., and Guillén, R. 2012. Prediction and
3. Lin, J. 1999. A simple model of pow- 2008. A study of Ni-based WC composite analytical description of the single laser
der catchment in coaxial laser cladding. Op- coatings by laser induction hybrid rapid track geometry in direct laser fabrication
tics & Laser Technology 31: 233–238. cladding with elliptical spot. Applied Surface from process parameters and energy bal-
4. Picasso, M., Marsden, C. F., Wagnière, Sciences 254: 3110–3119. ance reasoning. Journal of Materials Process-
J. D., Frenk, A., and Rappaz, M. 1994. A 11. Angelastro, A., Campanelli, S. L., ing Technology 212: 1832–1839.
simple but realistic model for laser cladding. Casalino, G., and Ludovico, A. D. 2013. Op- 18. Guest, S. D., Chapuis, J., Wood, G.,
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B timization of Ni-based WC/Co/Cr compos- and Mendez, P. F. 2014. Non-wetting behav-
25B: 281–291. ite coatings produced by multilayer laser iour of tungsten carbide powders in nickel
5. Lin, J., and Steen, W. M. 1997. Powder cladding. Advances in Materials Science and weld pool: new loss mechanism in GMAW
flow and catchment during coaxial laser Engineering, pp. 1–7. overlays. Science and Technology of Welding
cladding. Laser in Materials Processing, vol. 12. St-Georges, L. 2007. Development and Joining 19(2): 133–141.
2097, pp. 517–524. The International Soci- and characterization of composite Ni-Cr + 19. Kurlov, A. S., and Gusev, A. I. 2013.
ety for Optical Engineering. WC laser cladding. Wear 263: 562–566. Phases and equilibria in the W-C and W-Co-
6. Frenk, A., Vandyoussefi, M., Wag- 13. NIST/SEMATECH e-Handbook of C systems. Tungsten Carbides: Structure,
nière, J. D., Zryd, A., and Kurz, W. 1997. Statistical Methods. 2013. Properties and Application in Hardmetals, pp.
Analysis of the laser cladding process for 5–56. Springer International Publishing,
stellite on steel. Metallurgical and Materials 14. Kosinksi, R. J. 2013. A literature re- Switzerland.
Transactions B 28B: 50–508. view on reaction time. 20. Rempel, A. A. 1996. Atomic and va-
7. Partes, K. 2009. Analytical model of 15. Kumar, S., and Roy, S. 2006. Devel- cancy ordering in nonstoichiometric car-
the catchment efficiency in high speed laser opment of theoretical process maps to bides. Physics – Uspekhi 39(1): 31–56.
cladding. Surface & Coatings Technology 204: study the role of powder preheating in laser 21. Kurlov, A. S., and Gusev, A. I. 2010.
366–371. cladding. Computational Materials Science 37: Phase equilibria in the W-C system and
8. de Oliveira, U., Ocelίk, V., and De Hos- 425–433. tungsten carbides. Russian Chemical Reviews
son, J. Th. M. 2005. Analysis of coaxial laser 16. Colaço, R., Costa, L., Guerra, R., and 75(7): 617–636.
cladding processing conditions. Surface and Vilar, R. 1996. A simple correlation between 22. Sara, R. V. 1965. Phase equilibria in
Coatings Technology 197: 127–136. the geometry of laser cladding tracks on the the system tungsten-carbon. Journal of The
9. Gremaud, M., Wagnière, J. D., Zyrd, process parameters. Laser Processing: Surface American Cermaic Society 5: 251–257.

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Properties of Silicon­Added, Iron­Based, Slag­Free,

Self­Shielded Flux­Cored Wire
The addition of silicon to the iron­based hardfacing alloy improved the wear resistance
owing to the higher hardness and refinement of the microstructure


deposit in the welding process (Refs.

ABSTRACT 12, 13). Unfortunately, the fluxing
agents, such as marble, rutile, and flu-
In this investigation, a new type of silicon­added, slag­free, self­shielded flux­ orite, occupy more screen space be-
cored wire was developed. Silicon had a high affinity for oxygen and was easily cause of their lesser density compared
oxidized to change the pore formation tendency, and the residual silicon element af­ to the metal powders. The addition of
fected the microstructure during the following solidification process. The results ferroalloys, such as ferrochrome, is re-
showed that silicon up to 12 wt­% reduced the formation of the CO gas, resulting in stricted. The M7C3 carbides are insuffi-
the absence of the weld pool boiling, thus leading to weld porosity. The Si­free hard­
cient in the microstructure of hardfac-
facing alloy displayed a typical hypereutectic microstructure that consisted of primary
hexagonal­shaped M7(C, B)3 and eutectic colonies of M3(C, B) plus austenite. With in­ ing, mainly due to the addition diffi-
creasing the amount of silicon additive, the primary M7(C, B)3 carbides gradually re­ culties of ferroalloys in the core.
fined and became more uniform. The ferrite was formed directly from the liquid in Thus, we have developed a new
the silicon­added hardfacing alloy. Fe3Si was formed when the silicon concentration in slag-free type of iron-based, self-
the residual liquid reached a certain level (the alloy with 12 wt­% silicon additive). shielded flux-cored wires (Refs.
The addition of silicon to the iron­based hardfacing alloy improved the wear 14–16). The slag-free, self-shielded
resistance owing to the higher hardness and refinement of the microstructure. The flux-cored wires have a core composi-
iron­based, slag­free, self­shielded flux­cored wire offered the best combination of tion comprised primarily of metal
the properties when 12 wt­% silicon was added to the core. powders with substantially reduced
amounts of fluxing agents. To reduce
the pore formation tendency, strong
KEYWORDS deoxidizers like silicon were added
into the core to protect the weld met-
• Silicon Additive • Iron Base • Self­Shielded Flux­Cored Wire • Hardfacing al. Here, the effects of silicon on the
• Wear Resistance • Weld Porosity pore sensitivity, microstructure, and
wear resistance of iron-based, slag-
free, self-shielded flux-cored wires
Introduction 7, 8). Among these methods, self- were investigated.
shielded flux-cored arc welding has the
High-chromium, iron-based hard- highest values of deposition rate,
facing alloys have been widely used to which is particularly important for re- Experimental Procedures
achieve longer service life for the wear- generation of heavy working surfaces
resistant parts of steel rolling and (Refs. 9–11). During the manufacture of slag-
mineral pulverizing mills (Refs. 1–3). Self-shielded flux-cored wires are free, self-shielded flux-cored wires, the
Their excellent wear resistance is at- generally composite tubular filler met- core composition was blended and de-
tributed to the presence of a large vol- al electrodes having a metal tube and a posited onto a steel strip (H08A steel:
ume fraction of M7C3 carbides in the core composition of various welding 16 mm in width and 0.3 mm in thick-
microstructure (Refs. 4–6). The alloys fluxes. In the absence of any inert ness), which was formed into a tube,
are usually accomplished by welding shielding gas for protecting the arc about the core composition (contain-
technology, such as shielded metal arc, and the molten pool, the self-shielding ing ferrosilicon, high-carbon fer-
gas metal arc, submerged arc, and self- ability of the wire requires amounts of rochrome, graphite, and electrolytic
shielded flux-cored arc welding (Refs. fluxing agents, which form slag on the manganese, etc.) in a forming mill.

D. S. LIU ( is with School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang, China. P. WEI is
with School of Naval Architecture & Ocean Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang, China.



Fig. 2 — Typical weld appearance of the hardfacing alloy deposited by

Fig. 1 — Schematic illustration of hardfacing. slag­free, self­shielded flux­cored wire.

A B free, self-shielded flux-cored arc weld-

ing without preheat and postheat. The
welding parameters are presented in
Table 3.
Samples with dimensions of 10 ×
10 × 8 mm were cut from the top weld-
ing beads (see Fig. 1). The samples
were cleaned in an ultrasonic cleaning
machine for 5 min before and after the
test. The hardness was taken on the
top surface of the hardfacing alloys by
an HR-150A Rockwell hardness tester.
Fig. 3 — Effect of silicon on porosity of the hard­ The chemical compositions of the
facing alloy. hardfacing alloys were analyzed by a
SPECTRO MAXx LAB optical emission
The steel tube surrounding the core steel sheath (filling rate: 55 wt-%) is spectrograph (OES). The etching agent
composition was then drawn through shown in Table 2. In order to investi- was composed of 15 mL of 38% hy-
reducing dies to a specified wire diam- gate the effects of silicon additive on drochloric acid solution, 50 mL H2O,
eter (2.8 mm). The chemical composi- the properties of iron-based, self- 3 mL of 68% nitric acid solution, and 3
tion of the steel sheath is shown in shielded flux-cored hardfacing alloys, g ferric chloride. The microstructures
Table 1, and the composition of the the mass fraction of Fe-Si (containing were observed by optical microscope
powdery metal-core fill within the 75 wt-% Si) added into the core wire (OM) and scanning electron micro-
was 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24 wt-%. scope (SEM). Twenty randomly select-
Figure 1 shows a schematic illustra- ed regions with areas of 16 × 16 mm
Table 1 — Composition of Steel Sheath tion of hardfacing. Mild steel with the were used for image analysis to deter-
dimensions of 150 × 75 × 50 mm was mine the carbide diameter in mi-
C ≤0.12 crostructures of hardfacing alloys with
Si ≤0.04
selected as the substrate material. In
order to obtain the homogeneous varying Fe-Si content.
Mn ≤0.50
P ≤0.035 specimen, hardfacing alloys with four Abrasion testing was carried out us-
S ≤0.035 layers were prepared by means of slag- ing a UMT-2 pin on disc wear test ma-
chine. The parameters of the wear test
are summarized in Table 4. The corre-
Table 2 — Composition of the Flux Core
sponding friction coefficient was got-
ten from the ratio of the friction force
Alloy Content to the applied load. The wear loss, V,
(wt­%) (wt­%)
was determined using the following
No. 1 No. 2 No. 3 No. 4 No. 5
Ferrosilicon (75 Si) 0 6 12 18 24 equation:
High carbon ferrochrome (65 chrome, 9 C) 58.5 58.5 58.5 58.5 58.5
Electrolytic manganese (pure) 3 3 3 3 3 V = 2rS (1)
Magaluma (50 Mg, 50 Al) 1 1 1 1 1
Ferroboron (20 B) 10 10 10 10 10 where r is the wear track radius, and S
Graphite (pure) 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 is the cross-sectional areas of the wear
Iron power (pure) 24 18 12 6 0
track determined by a data visualiza-



Fig. 5 — XRD of hardfacing alloy with different silicon


A B Figure 4A practically porosity free.

shows the Figure 4B shows the mechanism for
Fig. 4 — The mechanism of porosity of slag­free, self­shielded flux­ mechanism of silicon to increase pore sensitivity.
cored wires: A — Without silicon additive; B — with silicon additive. porosity pre- With increasing Si content, the oxygen
vented with concentration decreases in the weld
slag-free, self- pool, as would be expected from Equa-
tion and analysis tool Gwyddion 2.39.
shielded flux-cored wires. The addition tion 5. It prevents the formation of
Three testing specimens were made
of deoxidizers such as graphite (C), large amounts of CO gas (Equation 6).
from each sample and were tested sep-
magaluma (Al, Mg), manganese (Mn), When the silicon content exceeded 18
arately. An average of the three num-
and ferrosilicon (Fe-Si) in the filler wt-%, the CO concentration was not
bers was calculated and recorded. The
metal helps reduce the amount of enough to keep the weld pool boiling.
wear tracks were observed by Gwyd-
porosity. Since Al and Mg are better The bubbles rose in the weld pool
dion 2.39.
deoxidants than the others, they re- more slowly. Under high cooling
duce the oxidizability of the welding speeds, gas bubbles that do not have
Results and Discussion atmosphere at an earlier stage of deox- enough time to leave deep weld pools
idization. The reaction formulas of de- result in weld porosity.
Effect of Silicon on Porosity of oxidization are Moreover, silicon is well known to
the Alloy promote ferrite. Ferrite has orders of
2Al + 3O = Al2O3 (2) magnitude less soluble for nitrogen
Figure 2 shows the typical surface than does austenite. The ferrite was
appearance of hardfacing deposited by Mg + O = MgO (3) formed directly from the liquid in the
using slag-free, self-shielded flux-cored silicon-added hardfacing alloy (see Fig.
wires. The hardfacing alloys show good Moreover, at the latter deoxidiza- 5); the porosity was also expected.
surface appearance without the pres- tion (mainly in the weld pool), the re- Porosity results and analyses dis-
ence of cracks or slags. Figure 3 shows action formulas of deoxidization are cussed previously suggest that the ideal
the changes of pore sensitivity of the content of Si was less than or equal to
hardfacing with the percentage change Mn + O = MnO (4) 12 wt-%. The residual silicon element
of silicon powder in the core of the affected the microstructure during the
wire. With the silicon content increas- Si + 2O = SiO2 (5) following solidification process.
ing from 0 to 12 wt-%, there was no
porosity observed in the hardfacing al- C + O = CO (6) Effect of Silicon on the Alloy
loy. However, porosity appeared when Microstructure
the silicon content reached 18 wt-%. Large amounts of CO gas resulting
When the silicon content was 24 wt-%, from a chemical reaction (Equation 6) Table 5 shows the chemical compo-
the porosity of the alloy was relatively bring the weld pool to the boil owing to sitions of the hardfacing alloys. With
severe compared to the porosity of the their intense escape from the pool. the increase of silicon additive in the
alloy with 18 wt-% silicon, and porosity Thus, the gas bubbles (H2, N2, CO2, etc.) wire, the silicon content increased in
in the form of large discontinuous cavi- escape from the boiling weld pool easily. the hardfacing alloy.
ties or long continuous holes occurred The hardfacing alloys deposited by slag- Figure 5 shows the XRD pattern of
as shown in Fig. 3B. free, self-shielded flux-cored wires are the hardfacing alloys. The phase in the



Si-free hardfacing alloy was mainly com- A B

posed of (Cr, Fe)7(C, B)3, Fe3(C, B), and
austenite. The figure also shows the
presence of ferrite and Fe3Si in the hard-
facing alloy with silicon addition (e.g.,
the alloy containing 12 wt-% Fe-Si).
The distribution of silicon, chromi-
um, and manganese is illustrated in
Fig. 6. Figure 6B shows chromium was
detected in the precipitations with
white color while manganese was
mainly detected in these precipitations C D
— Fig. 6C. It was identified that the
white precipitations were Cr-rich Mn-
rich carbides. In addition, silicon was
detected into the matrix but not M7(C,
B)3 carbides — Fig. 6D. Accompanying
the formation of the primary M7(C,
B)3 carbides, the residual liquid was
enriched in carbon, Fe, Si, B, and C.
The eutectic of austenite plus Fe3(C, B)
and Fe3Si was subsequently formed
when the silicon concentration in the Fig. 6 — EPMA area analysis for silicon­added alloy: A — Overall image; B–D — Cr, Si, Mn
residual liquid reached a certain level. distribution.
Furthermore, changing the silicon
content altered the microstructure, as
illustrated in Fig. 7. As shown in Fig.
7A, the Si-free hardfacing alloy dis- Table 3 — Welding Parameters Table 4 — Sliding Wear Test Conditions
plays a typical hypereutectic mi-
crostructure that consisted of primary Process parameter Constant value Parameter Value
hexagonal-shaped M7(C, B)3 and eutec- Welding current (A) 440–460 Counterface Material Al2O3
tic colonies of M3(C, B) plus marten- Arc voltage (V) 32–34 Load (N) 10
site and residual austenite as deter- Electrode polarity positive Velocity (rev/min) 560
mined by XRD analysis. With increase Welding speed (m min­1) 0.3 Wear time (min) 20
Stickout (mm) 25–32
in the amount of silicon additive (Fig. Electrode angle to plate 10
Diameters of the ball (mm) 3
7B, C), the primary M7(C, B)3 carbides surface (deg) Radius of wear track (mm) 4
gradually refined and became more
uniform. Figure 8 displays the change spectively — Fig. 9C. Therefore, the crostructure of the alloy with 12 wt-%
of average diameter of the M7(C, B)3 effect of silicon was to increase the silicon (see the red arrow in Fig. 10C).
carbides with different silicon con- level of silicon but reduce the level of The atomic ratio between Fe and Si was
tents. The average carbide diameter chromium in the matrix. The decrease about 3:1; therefore, the Fe-Si phase
was the largest in the Si-free alloy in the chromium content of the matrix was highly likely corresponding to the
(17.8 um) followed by that in alloys formed should, in fact, be beneficial Fe3Si in the phase diagram (Ref. 18).
with 6 wt-% silicon (13.2 um) and al- since chromium was best used in This was confirmed by XRD analysis, as
loys with 12 wt-% silicon (8.6 um). It forming hard M7(C, B)3 carbides dur- shown in Fig. 5. The Fe3Si was also
indicates the carbide size gets smaller ing earlier solidification. found in the GTAW cladding alloyed on
with the increase in the silicon content Figure 10 shows the SEM images of the St52 steel with preplaced 45 Fe-39
in the hardfacing alloy. Similar results hardfacing alloys with various silicon Cr-6C-10Si powders (Ref. 19).
were found in the high-strength steels contents. As seen in Fig. 10A, there
(Ref. 17). was a typical hypereutectic structure
in the silicon-free alloy. During the so- Effect of Silicon Addition on
Figure 9 shows the EDS results of
matrix of hardfacing alloys with vari- lidification process, the primary Alloy Hardness and Wear
ous silicon contents. The matrix of sili- hexagonal M7(C, B)3 carbides were Resistance
formed in the high-temperature weld
con-free hardfacing alloy consisted of pool, followed by the eutectic reaction.
13.7 wt-% Cr as shown in Fig. 9A. Figure 12 shows the effect of silicon
The eutectic colonies consisted of long on the hardness and wear resistance of
Moreover, when the Fe-Si additive was bar-like eutectic carbides plus austen-
6 wt-%, the Si and Cr contents were ite matrix. In alloys with 6 wt-% sili- hardfacing alloys. It can be seen that
6.15 and 12.32 wt-%, respectively — con, the eutectic carbides were the the hardness was increased steadily
Fig. 9B. When the Fe-Si additive was scattered web form — Fig. 10B. with the increase in silicon content.
12 wt-%, the Si and Cr contents Figure 11 shows the EDS spectrum The hardness of the silicon-free alloy
changed to 13.54 and 4.55 wt-%, re- of a small strip of particles in the mi- was 58.8 HRC and increased to 62.7




Fig. 7 — Microstructures of hardfacing alloys with different silicon additions: A — 0 wt­%; B — 6 wt­%; C — 12 wt­%.


Figure 14 shows the worn surface C

Fig. 8 — The change in average diame­ after the sliding wear test. The worn
ter of the M7(C, B)3 carbides with differ­
ent silicon contents.
surface of the silicon-free alloy was
easily plastically deformed and
grooved, and the wear behavior was
HRC when adding 12 wt-% silicon. Sol- featured as abrasive and adhesive wear
id solution of silicon in the matrix was — Fig. 14A. As can be seen, the worn
beneficial to the hardness. With the surface of the alloy with 12 wt-% sili-
increase in silicon content, the forma- con was characterized by the presence
tion of more refined M7(C, B)3 carbides of shallower grooves and slighter ad-
also led to the increase in bulk hard- hesive features (Fig. 14C) than that of
ness. Furthermore, the wear loss de- the alloy with 6 wt-% silicon (Fig. 14B)
creased with an increase in the silicon and silicon-free alloy — Fig. 14A. It Fig. 9 — The level of silicon and
in the wire. This improved wear resist- indicates the alloy with 12 wt-% sili- chromium in the matrix of hardfacing al­
ance was attributed to the formation con additive displayed the best wear loys with different silicon additions.
of hard M7(C, B)3 carbides in the mi- resistance.
crostructure of the solid solution (Fe, The microstructure of the hardfac- cient toughness. Both properties de-
Cr, Mn, Si) and also to the significant ing alloys consisted of austenite with pended on the amount, size, and dis-
microstructural refinement. M7(C, B)3 carbides, M3(C, B) carbides, tribution of the hard carbides as well
The friction coefficient was meas- or Fe3Si particles. In general, the two as on the hardness and fracture tough-
ured automatically during wear tests, phases of the wear-resistant materials ness of both constituents and the
and the results are plotted in Fig. 13. served different functions: the hard bond between them.
The friction coefficients of the silicon- M7(C, B)3 carbides and M3(C, B) car- A major effect of silicon was to refine
added hardfacing alloys were less than bides were to impede wear by grooving the morphology of the primary M7(C,
that of the silicon-free hardfacing alloy. or indenting mineral particles, while B)3 carbides. This morphological refine-
This can be attributed to the high hard- the matrix was meant to provide suffi- ment should be beneficial to the tough-
ness of the silicon-added hardfacing al-
loy that resulted in a small real area of
contact, thus, the smaller number of Table 5 — Chemical Compositions of the Hardfacing Alloys (wt­%)
junctions required less energy to be Specimen Si C B Cr Mn Fe
sheared during sliding than the silicon- (Fe­Si additive)
free hardfacing alloy. Moreover, the
tough matrix through hardenability and 0 0 2.70 0.89 19.28 1.21 Bal.
the refinement microstructure reduced 6 2.14 2.79 0.92 18.59 1.16 Bal.
12 4.32 2.92 0.90 18.37 1.24 Bal.
the adhesion in the wear process.




Fig. 10 — SEM images of hardfacing alloys with different silicon additions: A — Silicon­free; B — 6 wt­% silicon; C — 12 wt­% silicon.

Fig. 11 — The EDS spectrum of a small strip of particles in Fig. 12 — The effect of silicon on the hardness and wear loss of hardfac­
the microstructure of the alloy with 12 wt­% silicon. ing alloys.

crease the level of sili- ing the following solidification

con in the matrix. Solid process. Based on the results, the fol-
solution of silicon also lowing conclusions can be drawn:
enhanced hardness. For 1) Silicon up to 12 wt-% reduced
these reasons, the wear the formation of the CO gas, resulting
loss of the alloy with 12 in the absence of the weld pool boil-
wt-% silicon was the ing, thus leading to weld porosity.
smallest among all the 2) The Si-free hardfacing alloy dis-
alloys owing to the played a typical hypereutectic mi-
higher hardness and crostructure that consisted of primary
refinement of the hexagonal-shaped M7(C, B)3 and eutec-
microstructure. tic colonies of M3(C, B) plus austenite.
With increase in the amount of Fe-Si
Conclusions additive, the primary M7(C, B)3 carbides
gradually refined and became more uni-
A new type of sili- form. The ferrite was formed directly
con-added, slag-free, from the liquid in the silicon-added
Fig. 13 — The friction coefficient vs. sliding time for the
hardfacing alloy with different silicon additions. self-shielded flux- hardfacing alloy. Fe3Si was formed when
cored wire was devel- the silicon concentration in the residual
oped. Silicon had a liquid reached a certain level (the alloy
ness of the alloy, perhaps imparting bet- high affinity for oxygen and was easily with 12 wt-% silicon additive).
ter abrasion wear resistance, and in fact, oxidized to change the pore formation 3) The addition of silicon to iron-
experiments are in progress to confirm tendency, and the residual silicon ele- based hardfacing alloy improved the
this. The effect of silicon was also to in- ment affected the microstructure dur- wear resistance owing to the higher




Fig. 14 — The macromorphology of the worn surface of hardfac­

ing alloys with different silicon additions: A — 0 wt­%; B — 6 wt­
%; C — 12 wt­%.

2010. Microstruc- 11. Wang, Y., Li, S., Pan, C., et al. 2006.
tural and abrasive Development of the high-chromium cast
characteristics of iron flux cored wire for self-shielded. Pow-
high carbon Fe-Cr- der Metallurgy Industry 16(3): 14.
hardness and refinement of the mi- C hardfacing alloy. 12. Narayanan, B. K., Kovarik, L.,
crostructure. The wear loss of the alloy Tribology International 43(5): 929–934. Sarosi, P. M., et al. 2010. Effect of microal-
3. Yüksel, N., and Şahin, S. 2014. Wear loying on precipitate evolution in ferritic
with 12 wt-% silicon was the smallest
behavior-hardness-microstructure relation welds and implications for toughness. Acta
among all the alloys. of Fe-Cr-C and Fe-Cr-C-B based hardfacing Materialia 58(3): 781–791.
4) The iron-based, slag-free, self- alloys. Materials & Design 58: 491–498. 13. Patrick, C. W., and Newell, W. F.
shielded flux-cored wire offered the best 4. Zhi, X. H., and Wang, J. X. 2014. Ef- 2014. Understanding welding cost: Using
combination of the properties when 12 fect of niobium on primary carbides of hy- flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) for cost re-
wt-% silicon was added into the core. pereutectic high chromium cast iron. Iron- duction and productivity improvement.
making and Steelmaking 41(5): 394–399. ASME 2014 Pressure Vessels and Piping Con-
5. Hajihashemi, M., Shamanian, M., ference. New York, N.Y.: American Society
Acknowledgments and Azimi, G. 2014. Physical, mechanical, of Mechanical Engineers.
and dry sliding wear properties of Fe-Cr- 14. Liu, D. S., Liu, R. P., and Wei, Y. H.
WC hardfacing alloys under different tung- 2012. Effects of titanium additive on mi-
sten addition. Metallurgical and Materials crostructure and wear performance of
This work was supported by Fund- Transactions B, pp. 1–9. iron-based slag-free self-shielded flux-
ing of National Natural Science Foun- 6. Zhou, Y. F., Yang, Y. L., Jiang, Y. W., cored wire. Surface and Coatings Technology
dation of China (Grant No. et al. 2012. Fe-24 wt.%Cr-4.1 wt.%C hard- 207: 579–586.
51405208), Open Research Fund of facing alloy: Microstructure and carbide re- 15. Liu, D. S., Liu, R. P., Wei, Y. H., et al.
Provincial Key Laboratory of Ad- finement mechanisms with ceria additive. 2013. Microstructure and wear properties
vanced Welding Technology of Jiangsu Materials Characterization 72: 77–86. of Fe-15Cr-2.5Ti-2C-xB wt.% hardfacing
University of Science and Technology 7. Buchely, M. F., Gutierrez, J. C., Leon, alloys. Applied Surface Science 271:
(Grant No. JSAWT-14-03), Founda- L. M., et al. 2005. The effect of microstruc- 253–259.
tion for Scientists of Jiangsu Universi- ture on abrasive wear of hardfacing alloys. 16. Liu, D. S., Liu, R. P., and Wei, Y. H.
Wear 259(1): 52–61. 2014. Influence of tungsten on microstruc-
ty of Science and Technology (Grant
8. Kirchgaßner, M., Badisch, E., and ture and wear resistance of iron base hard-
No. 635061312), and a Project Funded Franek, F. 2008. Behaviour of iron-based facing alloy. Materials Science and Technolo-
by the Priority Academic Program De- hardfacing alloys under abrasion and im- gy 30(3): 316–322.
velopment of Jiangsu Higher Educa- pact. Wear 265(5): 772–779. 17. Atamert, S., and Bhadeshia, H. K. D.
tion Institutions. 9. Jiang, M., Li, Z. X., Wang, Y. J., et al. H. 1988. Proceedings of International Con-
2008. Effect of vanadium on microstruc- ference on Heat Treatment ‘87. London, UK:
tures and properties of Fe-Cr-C self-shield- Institute of Metals. pp. 39–43.
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and Technology of Welding & Joining 13(2): Slukhovskii, O., et al. 2002. Structural
114–117. properties of liquid Fe-Si alloys. Journal of
1. Zhou, Y. F., Yang, Y. L., Li, D., et al. 10. Francis, J. A., Bednarz, B., and Bee, Non-Crystalline Solids 306: 90–98.
2012. Effect of titanium content on mi- J. V. 2002. Prediction of steady state dilu- 19. Azimi, G., and Shamanian, M. 2010.
crostructure and wear resistance of Fe-Cr- tion in multipass hardfacing overlays de- Effect of silicon content on the microstruc-
C hardfacing layers. Welding Journal 91(8): posited by self shielded flux cored arc ture and properties of Fe-Cr-C hardfacing
229-s to 235-s. welding. Science and Technology of Welding alloys. Journal of Materials Science 45:
2. Chang, C. M., Chen, Y. C., and Wu, W. & Joining 7(2): 95–101. 842–849.



Effect of FCAW Current on the Hardfacing Layer

— Microstructure and Wear Resistance
An investigation was conducted to determine optimal binding strength through
the effects of flux cored arc welding current on the microstructure,
wear resistance, and welding association on the hardfacing layer


mance alloy, which posesses excellent

ABSTRACT mechanical properties (Ref. 3).
In the surface coating technologies,
The hardfacing layers were deposited with different welding currents. The hardfacing (hard-surface welding) is
microstructure was observed by optical microscope (OM), field emission scanning attracting more and more attention
electron microscope (FESEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The because of its high efficiency, low
phase structure was determined by X­ray diffraction (XRD). Macrohardness and
price, and excellent controllability
microhardness of the hardfacing layer were determined by a Rockwell hardness
tester and a Vickers hardness tester, respectively. The wear resistance was measured (Ref. 4). Of all of the hardfacing meth-
by a belt­type wear testing machine. Shear strength between the hardfacing layer ods, flux cored arc welding (FCAW)
and the base metal was determined by an electronic universal testing machine. Sub­ has been used more and more widely
sequently, the temperatures of the hardfacing molten pools were simulated by ANSYS because of its high deposition rates
software with three welding currents. The CCT curves of the hardfacing layers were and its excellent surface appearance
calculated by JMatPro software during the cooling process. The results indicate that (Refs. 5, 6).
binding strength of the hardfacing layer and the base metal enhances gradually with During the welding process, weld-
the increase of the welding current. When the welding current reaches 360–380 A, ing parameters directly affect welding
the binding strength is the highest. With the increases of the welding current, molten performance. C. E. Jackson (Ref. 7)
pool temperature of the hardfacing layer increases, which improves the hardenability
found the welding voltage controls the
of the hardfacing layer. Therefore, the amount of martensite increases while that of
retained austenite decreases, which leads to the increase of the hardness and wear welding arc length and weld bead
resistance of the hardfacing layer. width. With an increase of the welding
voltage, the welding arc length in-
creases and the weld bead width
widens as well. V. Gunaraj (Ref. 8) in-
dicated that, with an increase in travel
KEYWORDS speed, weld bead penetration and weld
• Hardfacing Layer • Welding Current • Wear Resistance • Numerical Simulation bead width both decrease. T. Kannan
(Ref. 9) showed that wire feed rate is
the most direct factor affecting the
morphology of the weld bead. With an
The hot-rolling supporting roller is when manufactured by integral cast, increase in the wire feed rate, the dep-
a key workpiece during hot-rolling the cost is high. Therefore, in recent osition rate increases, which leads to
production, because it plays an impor- years, the authors attempted to manu- an increase in the height and a de-
tant role in supporting the work roller. facture the hot-rolling supporting crease in the width of the weld bead.
Therefore, the quality of the hot- roller by a new method. During pro- Moreover, during the hardfacing
rolling supporting roller affects not cessing, the core material of the roller process, when the welding parameters
only its service life, but also the quali- is Q235 steel. This material is not only are selected incorrectly, weld defects,
ty and production efficiency of hot- cheap, but also has good toughness, such as pores, slag inclusions, and
rolled products indirectly (Refs. 1, 2). and can be used as a coating layer on a cracks, appear on the hardfacing layer
Although the quality of the hot- material’s surface. The layer material (Refs. 10, 11).
rolling supporting roller is certified is the self-developed, high-perfor- Of all the welding parameters,

J. YANG, X. HOU, X. XING, C. WANG, Y. YANG, and Q. YANG ( are with the State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and
Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, China. X. REN is with the School of Engineering, Liverpool John
Moores University, Liverpool, UK.



welding current is the most impor-

tant. After performing sensitivity
analysis experiments on the welding
parameters, S. Karaoğlu (Ref. 12) sug-
gested that welding current is the
most influential parameter in deter-
mining the dimensions of the weld
bead penetration and heat-affected
zone (HAZ). However, although some
scholars have realized the importance
of welding current on the welding
Fig. 1 — Dimensions of the shear testing specimen.
process, most researchers are focusing
their attention on the effect of pene-
tration, the size of the HAZ, joint A B
strength, and so on. Research on the
welding current’s impact on the micro-
structure and mechanical properties of
the hardfacing layer by FCAW is rare.
In this work, the authors studied
three hardfacing layers created by self-
developed flux cored wires operated at
different welding currents. The effects
of welding current on the microstruc-
ture, wear resistance, and welding as-
sociation of the hardfacing layers were
analyzed by experiments, numerical
simulation, and thermodynamic calcu- Fig. 2 — Abrasive belt­type wear tester. A — Photograph; B — schematic (Ref. 13).
lation, which can supply a theoretical
foundation for improving the mi- Microstructure and X­ray Dif­ EM), and a Jeolarm-200F transmis-
crostructure and properties of the fraction Characterization sion electron microscope (TEM).
hardfacing layer. In order to analyze the phase struc-
The morphologies of the hardfacing ture of the hardfacing layer, X-ray dif-
Experiment layer and welding joint surface, which fraction (XRD) of type D/max-
were etched with 4% nitric acid alcohol 2500/PC was undertaken on a diffrac-
Materials and FCAW Processing after being metallographically pol- tometer, using Cu-K radiation. The
ished, were characterized by an Ax- samples were scanned from 20 to 120
Parameters deg with a step size of 0.02 deg. Each
iovert 200 MAT optical microscope
(OM), Hitachi S4800 field emission step size was allowed 9 s for X-ray
YD-254M flux cored wire, combined
scanning electron microscope (FES- detection.
with HJ260 flux, which is produced by
Beijing Iron and Steel Research Insti-
tute, was used in this work. The base Table 1 — Chemical Composition of the Q235 Low­Carbon Steel
metal used was Q235 low-carbon steel,
whose composition is listed in Table 1. Elements C Mn Si S P Fe
In order to analyze the effect of
Content (wt­%) 0.15 0.55 0.30 0.03 0.03 balance
welding current on microstructure and
properties of the hardfacing layer, the
same welding voltage, travel speed, wire
Table 2 — Welding Parameters
diameter, and tracks overlap were em-
ployed with three different welding cur-
rents. The welding parameters are listed Welding Current Arc Voltage Travel Speed Layer Thickness Tracks Overlap Wire Diameter
(A) (V) (mm/min) (mm) (%) (mm)
in Table 2. The composition of the hard-
facing layer is given in Table 3. 200–220
280–300 29–30 300 7.5–8.5 45–50 2.8

Table 3 — Chemical Composition of the Hardfacing Layer

Elements C Cr Ni Mo V Mn Si La S Fe

Content (wt­%) 0.20 5.60 3.20 2.01 0.35 1.55 0.83 0.30 0.03 balance




Fig. 3 — Morphologies of the binding profiles with different welding currents. A — 200–220 A; B — 280–300 A; C — 360–380 A.

B Table 4 — The Amounts of Retained Austenite in the Hardfacing Layers with Different Welding
Welding Currents (A) 200–220 280–300 360–380

Contents (Vol­ %) 17.8 11.2 7.1

microhardness along the depth in the hardfacing layers and the base metals
profile section of the layer was meas- with different welding currents are
ured by an FM-700 Vickers hardness given in Fig. 4.
Fig. 4 — Shear strengths between the tester with a load of 0.2 kg for 10 s. When the welding current is 200–
hardfacing layers and the base metals The value presented is the average of 220 A, the hardfacing layer and base
with different welding currents. A — 200– five measurements after the highest metal are not mutually merged, and
220 A; B — 280–300 A; C — 360–380 A. and lowest values were discarded. the weld interface exists between
them — Fig. 3A. As seen in Fig. 4, the
Numerical Simulation and shear strength between the hardfacing
Shear Strength, Hardness, and Thermodynamic Calculation layer and the base metal is 374 MPa.
Wear Resistance Testing When the welding current increases
In order to research the effect of to 280–300 A, shown in Fig. 3B, the
Shear strength between the hard- welding current on the temperature of weld interface still exists, but is signif-
facing layer and the base metal was de- the hardfacing molten pool, ANSYS icantly widened. Moreover, there are
termined by an Inspeckt-100 Table software was applied to simulate the some merge areas appearing between
electronic universal testing machine. welding temperature field. On the pro- the hardfacing layer and the base met-
The specimen dimensions are given in cessing, the temperature field module al. Meanwhile, the shear strength in-
Fig. 1. During processing, the tensile was selected. creases to 458 MPa.
rate was set as 1 mm/min. Subsequently, CCT curves of the When the welding current is 360–
The macrohardness of the hardfac- hardfacing layer during the cooling 380 A, the hardfacing layer and base
ing layer was measured using an HR- process were calculated by thermody- metal merge significantly and the weld
105A Rockwell hardness tester with a namic database JMatPro software interface almost disappears, as shown
load of 150 kg. Subsequently, a wear (Ref. 14) developed by Sente Software, in Fig. 3C. Moreover, the shear
resistance experiment was carried out Ltd., UK. During the input data pro- strength between the hardfacing layer
on the abrasive belt-type wear tester, cessing, the general steel database was and the base metal is the highest at
in which SiC of 80 mesh was selected selected as material type, and the 546 MPa. These results show binding
as the abrasive material, the wear ve- chemical composition was inputted ac- strength between the hardfacing layer
locity of the abrasive belt was 1.8 × 104 cording to Table 3. and the base metal enhances gradually
mm/min, and the applied load was with the increase in welding current.
100 N. Figure 2 shows the photograph
and schematic diagram of the abrasive Results Microstructure
belt-type wear tester (Ref. 13). Elec-
tronic balance with accuracy of 0.1 mg Welding Associativity Figure 5 displays the optical micro-
was used to weigh the mass loss of the scope (OM) morphologies of the hard-
layer per 30 min. After the wear test, Morphologies of the binding pro- facing layers with different welding
the worn surface morphology was ob- files between hardfacing layers and currents. In Fig. 5A, when the welding
served by a KYKY-2800 scanning elec- base metals with different welding current is 200–220 A, the microstruc-
tron microscope (SEM). currents are shown in Fig. 3. More- tures are composed of short black acic-
For the welding joint surface, the over, the shear strengths between the ular martensite and retained austen-




Fig. 5 — Optical microscope morphologies of the hardfacing layers with different welding currents. A — 200–220 A; B — 280–300 A; C —
360–380 A.


Fig. 6 — Scanning electron microscope morphologies of the hardfacing layers with different welding currents. A — 200–220 A; B — 280–
300 A; C — 360–380 A.

ite. With an increase in welding cur- pletely. The amount of retained creases from 82.2 to 92.9 vol-%, which
rent, shown in Fig. 5B and C, the austenite can be measured according is consistent with the results in Fig. 5.
amount of martensite increases to the XRD patterns (Ref. 15):
constantly. Hardness
Figure 6 shows the scanning elec- 1.4I
V = (1)
tron microscope (SEM) morphologies I a + 1.4I Figure 9 shows the hardness of the
of the hardfacing layers with different hardfacing layers with different weld-
welding currents. Similar conclusions where V is the volume fraction of re- ing currents. When the welding cur-
were obtained from these results; with tained austenite; I is the average inte- rent is 200–220 A, average hardness of
an increase in welding current, the grated intensity of austenite diffrac- the hardfacing layer is HRC 42. With
amount of martensite increases con- tion peak of (200) and (311) planes; the increasing welding current, hard-
stantly. Moreover, there is no change and I is the integrated intensity of ness of the hardfacing layer increases
in the martensite morphology. martensite diffraction peak of (211) gradually, and it reaches HRC 45 when
Figure 7 illustrates the transmis- plane. the welding current is 360–380 A.
sion electron microscope (TEM) mor- Table 4 lists the amounts of retained The average lateral microhardness
phologies of the hardfacing layers with austenite in the hardfacing layers with from the base metal to the hardfacing
different welding currents, in which, different welding currents. From it, layer is shown in Fig. 10. The value 0 on
with an increase in welding current, when the welding current increases to the x-axis represents the weld interface
the number of dislocations increases 360–380 A from 220 to 220 A, the between the base metal and the hard-
because of the increasing amount of amounts of retained austenite decrease facing layer. From Fig. 10, the authors
martensite. from 17.8 to 7.1 vol-%. Because of the observed the microhardness of the base
The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pat- very low carbon content, the amount of metal is low. Due to the heat input of
terns of the hardfacing layers with dif- carbide can be ignored, which means the hardfacing, the microhardness of
ferent welding currents are shown in the amount of martensite VM can be ap- the HAZ increases slightly. Meanwhile,
Fig. 8. From these results, the authors proximated as Equation. 2: the fusion zone is relatively narrow dur-
noted the intensities of martensite (- ing the hardfacing process. With an in-
Fe) peaks increase, while austenite (- VM = 1–V (2) crease in welding current, the micro-
Fe) peaks decrease with the increase in hardness of the hardfacing layer in-
welding current. When the welding Therefore, with the increase in creases. When the welding current is
current reaches 360–380 A, the welding current, the amount of 200–220 A, the lateral microhardness is
austenite (-Fe) peaks disappear com- martensite in the hardfacing metal in- 422 HV; when the welding current is




Fig. 7 — Transmission electron microscope morphologies of the hardfacing layers with different welding currents. A — 200–220 A; B —
280–300 A; C — 360–380 A.

– Table 5 — Thermal Properties of the Hardfacing

– Layer

Parameter Value
Molar Mass / kg•mol 55.85
Density / kg•m­3 6976
Viscosity Coefficient / Pa•s 0.0063
Specific Heat Capacity / J•kg­1•K­1 809
Thermal Conductivity / W•m­1•K­1 13.4

wide and deep and flaking exists — Fig.

12A. With the increase in welding cur-
rent, surface scratches become shallow
Fig. 8 — X­ray diffraction patterns of the hard­ Fig. 9 — Hardness of the hardfacing layers and narrow. When the welding current
facing layers with different welding currents. with different welding currents. increases to 360–380 A, the scratches
are the shallowest and narrowest, as
shown in Fig. 12C.
– Figure 13 shows the XRD patterns of

– the hardfacing layers with different
– welding currents after the wear test.
– Compared with Fig. 8, the amount of re-

tained austenite in the worn hardfacing
layer is decreased, while that of marten-
site is increased. The result indicates
strain hardening is occurring during the
wearing and influences the wear resist-
ance of the hardfacing layer.

Fig. 10 — Microhardness along the depth­in­ Fig. 11 — Weight loss of the hardfacing
profile section of the arc hardfacing layer. layers with different welding currents.
The results mentioned previously
indicated the hardness and wear re-
280–300 A, the lateral microhardness current is the largest. When the welding sistance of the hardfacing layer both
increases to 448 HV; when the welding current increases to 280–300 A, the increase with the increase in welding
current is 360–380 A, the lateral micro- wear resistance of the hardfacing layer current. To further investigate the
hardness is the highest at 480 HV. improves significantly and the wear mechanism, the effects of the welding
weight loss reduces. When the welding current on the hardfacing molten pool
Wear Resistance current is 360–380 A, wear resistance of temperature and the hardenability of
the hardfacing layer is the highest. the hardfacing layer were studied.
The weight loss curves of the hard- Figure 12 illustrates the wear mor- However, because of the limit of
facing surface layers with different phologies of the hardfacing layers with the experimental conditions, it was
welding currents are shown in Fig. 11. different welding currents tested for impossible to directly measure the
As shown, the weight loss of the hard- 240 min. When the welding current is hardfacing molten pool temperature
facing layer with 200–220 A welding 200–220 A, surface scratches are both and the hardenability of the hardfac-




Fig. 12 — Wear morphologies of the hardfacing layers with different welding currents tested for 240 min. A — 200–220 A; B — 280–300 A;
C — 360–380 A.

Fig. 13 — X­ray diffraction patterns of the hardfacing lay­ Fig. 14 — Element division of the calculated specimen.
ers with different welding currents after wear test.

ing layer. Therefore, ANSYS and JMat- where R is the effective heating radius
of the arc; h is the welding thermal effi- T T 
Pro calculation softwares were selected c =   +
to calculate, respectively, the hardfac- ciency; U and I are welding voltage and t x x 
ing molten pool temperature and sim- welding current, respectively; and r is T   T
ulate the CCT curves of the hardfacing the distance between P to arc center.   y  + z   z  + Q (4)
layers during the cooling process.
Model Building and Thermal
ANSYS Results Properties where  and c are specific heat capaci-
ty and density of the material, T is the
Heat Source Selection The tested specimen used for calcu- temperature, t is the time, Q is the
lation was made of the hardfacing lay- heat source, and  is the thermal con-
The effect of welding current on the er metal with the dimensions 60 × 20 ductivity. Moreover, X, Y, and Z are the
hardfacing molten pool temperature mm. During the simulation process, coordinate axes.
was simulated by ANSYS software. This the temperature fields can be treated The boundary conditions applied
work only concerned itself with the rela- as the axial symmetry. Therefore, in during the ANSYS modeling can be di-
tionship between the welding current order to reduce the calculation vided into upper surface boundary
and the hardfacing molten pool temper- amount, the calculated specimen was condition, lateral and lower surface
ature. The other factors, such as welding halved, as shown in Fig. 14. The speci- ones, and the Y axis symmetry plane.
speed and welding direction, were ig- men was divided into 200 elements For the upper surface, because the
nored. Because of the small computa- and 231 nodes, and the hardfacing re- Gaussian heat source model was used,
tional amount and the high computa- gion is shown by the dotted lines — the model cross section in the Z direc-
tional accuracy, the Gaussian heat Fig. 14. Thermal properties of the tion is round, and heat-flux density on
source model was used, in which heat hardfacing layer are listed in Table 5. the cross section obeys Gauss distribu-
flux of point P is shown as Equation 3 Boundary Conditions tion. Moreover, heat-flow density val-
(Ref. 16): ues are the same in all parts of the Z
The heat transfer control equation of axis. The specific boundary condition
3UI 3r 2 
qr = exp  (3) the welding process is given as follows: is given as follows:
2 2




Fig. 15 — Molten pool temperatures of the hardfacing layers with different welding currents. A — 200–220 A; B — 280–300 A; C — 360–380 A.

the surface thermal emission rate, and

Ta is the room temperature. x

 ( x,T ) =
For the lateral and lower surfaces,
the boundary condition is D Tq  0

( ) (1 x )
T 2x/3
= q +  T T0 (7) x 2(1 x )/3

= c
+ r
(8) where a = 2(G-1)/2,  is an empirical co-
efficient, G is the ASTM grain size, D
is an effective diffusion coefficient, T
where a is the total heat transfer coef- is the undercooling, and q is an
Fig. 16 — CCT curves of the hardfacing lay­
ers with different welding currents. ficient, ac is the thermal convection exponent.
coefficient, and ar is the thermal radi- Figure 16 shows the CCT curves of
ation coefficient. the hardfacing layers during the cool-
For the Y axis symmetry plane sur- ing process. With the increase of the
3CsQ face, the boundary conditions are molten pool temperature, the pearlite
( )
q x, y, z =
shown as follows: phase region moves to the right, and
 H 1 3  the martensitic transition start tem-
 e  perature Ms decreases constantly —
T u w
 = 0, = 0, = 0, v = 0 (9) Fig. 16. When the molten pool temper-
y y y
 3C  ature increases from 2424.77 to
( )
x2 + y2 

(5) 3278.27 K, the martensitic transition
start temperature Ms decreases from
 log  z   Simulation Results 243.7˚ to 174.1˚C.
The reason is, when the molten
Figure 15 shows the molten pool pool temperature (austenitizing tem-
where Cs is the heat source focus coef- temperatures of the hardfacing layers perature) is high, the cementite disso-
ficient, Cs = 3/R02, R0 is the heat source with different welding currents. When lution and austenitic homogenization
opening radius, H is the heat source the welding current is 200–220 A, are promoted, and the austenite grain
height, and Q is the heat source power. molten pool temperature is 2424.77 K is coarsened. Therefore, the formation
During processing, heat is lost in — Fig. 15A. With an increase in weld- of the pearlite is delayed, which causes
the forms of thermal convection and ing current, the molten pool tempera- the pearlite phase region to move to
thermal radiation. The boundary con- ture increases. When the welding cur- the right. At the same time, the grain
dition is shown in Eq. 6: rent is 360–380 A, the molten pool becomes coarse and dissolved carbide
temperature is the highest at 3278.27 increases, so the carbon content of
K — Fig. 15C. austenite increases, which decreases
T the Ms temperature (Ref. 18).
= hc T Ta ) JmatPro Results The rightward motion of the
 T 4 Ta4 } (6)
The CCT curves calculation by the
pearlite phase region and the decreas-
ing martensitic transition start tem-
JmatPro software follows the general perature in the CCT curve both illus-
where hc is the convection coefficient, equation established by Kirkaldy (Ref. trate the increase in hardenability of
s is the Stefan-Boltzman constant, e is 17): the hardfacing layer, which then caus-



es the amount of martensite to in- ing the wearing, and then affects the formance 95(1): 246–261.
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the increase in welding current, the Effect of process parameters on clad bead
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