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Riemann curvature tensor

In the mathematical field of differential geometry, the Riemann curvature tensor or Riemann–Christoffel tensor (after
Bernhard Riemann and Elwin Bruno Christoffel) is the most common method used to express the curvature of Riemannian manifolds. It
assigns a tensor to each point of a Riemannian manifold (i.e., it is a tensor field), that measures the extent to which the metric tensor is
not locally isometric to that of Euclidean space. The curvature tensor can also be defined for any pseudo-Riemannian manifold, or
indeed any manifold equipped with an affine connection.

It is a central mathematical tool in the theory of general relativity, the modern theory of gravity, and the curvature of spacetime is in
principle observable via the geodesic deviation equation. The curvature tensor represents the tidal force experienced by a rigid body
moving along a geodesic in a sense made precise by the Jacobi equation.

The curvature tensor is given in terms of the Levi-Civita connection by the following formula:

where [u,v] is the Lie bracket of vector fields. For each pair of tangent vectors u, v, R(u,v) is a linear transformation of the tangent space
of the manifold. It is linear in u and v, and so defines a tensor. Occasionally, the curvature tensor is defined with the opposite sign.

If and are coordinate vector fields then and therefore the formula simplifies to

The curvature tensor measures noncommutativity of the covariant derivative, and as such is the integrability obstruction for the
existence of an isometry with Euclidean space (called, in this context, flat space). The linear transformation is also called
the curvature transformation or endomorphism.

The curvature formula can also be expressed in terms of the second covariant derivative defined as:

which is linear in u and v. Then:

Thus in the general case of non-coordinate vectors u and v, the curvature tensor measures the noncommutativity of the second covariant
derivative.

Contents
Geometric meaning
Informally
Formally
Coordinate expression
Symmetries and identities
Ricci curvature
Special cases
Notes
References
Geometric meaning

Informally
One can see the effects of curved space by comparing a tennis court and the Earth. Start at the
lower right corner of the tennis court, with a racket held out towards north. Then while
walking around the outline of the court, at each step make sure the tennis racket is
maintained in the same orientation, parallel to its previous positions. Once the loop is
complete the tennis racket will be parallel to its initial starting position. This is because tennis
courts are built so the surface is flat. On the other hand, the surface of the Earth is curved: we
An illustration of the motivation of
can complete a loop on the surface of the Earth. Starting at the equator, point a tennis racket Riemann curvature on a sphere-like
north along the surface of the Earth. Once again the tennis racket should always remain manifold. The fact that this transport
parallel to its previous position, using the local plane of the horizon as a reference. For this may define two different vectors at
path, first walk to the north pole, then turn 90 degrees and walk down to the equator, and the start point gives rise to Riemann
finally turn 90 degrees and walk back to the start. However now the tennis racket will be curvature tensor. The right angle
symbol denotes that the inner
pointing backwards (towards the east). This process is akin to parallel transporting a vector
product (given by the metric tensor)
along the path and the difference identifies how lines which appear "straight" are only between transported vectors (or
"straight" locally. Each time a loop is completed the tennis racket will be deflected further tangent vectors of the curves) is 0.
from its initial position by an amount depending on the distance and the curvature of the
surface. It is possible to identify paths along a curved surface where parallel transport works
as it does on flat space. These are the geodesic of the space, for example any segment of a great circle of a sphere.

The concept of a curved space in mathematics differs from conversational usage. For example, if the above process was completed on a
cylinder one would find that it is not curved overall as the curvature around the cylinder cancels with the flatness along the cylinder, this
is a consequence of Gaussian curvature and the Gauss–Bonnet theorem. A familiar example of this is a floppy pizza slice which will
remain rigid along its length if it is curved along its width.

The Riemann curvature tensor is a way to capture a measure of the intrinsic curvature. When you write it down in terms of its
components (like writing down the components of a vector), it consists of a multi-dimensional array of sums and products of partial
derivatives (some of those partial derivatives can be thought of as akin to capturing the curvature imposed upon someone walking in
straight lines on a curved surface).

Formally
When a vector in a Euclidean space is parallel transported around a loop, it will again point in the initial direction after returning to its
original position. However, this property does not hold in the general case. The Riemann curvature tensor directly measures the failure
of this in a general Riemannian manifold. This failure is known as the non-holonomy of the manifold.

Let xt be a curve in a Riemannian manifold M. Denote by τxt : Tx0M → TxtM the parallel transport map along xt. The parallel transport
maps are related to the covariant derivative by

for each vector field Y defined along the curve.

Suppose that X and Y are a pair of commuting vector fields. Each of these fields generates a one-parameter group of diffeomorphisms in
a neighborhood of x0. Denote by τtX and τtY, respectively, the parallel transports along the flows of X and Y for time t. Parallel transport
of a vector Z ∈ Tx0M around the quadrilateral with sides tY, sX, −tY, −sX is given by
This measures the failure of parallel transport to return Z to its original position in the tangent space Tx0M. Shrinking the loop by
sending s, t → 0 gives the infinitesimal description of this deviation:

where R is the Riemann curvature tensor.

Coordinate expression
Converting to the tensor index notation, the Riemann curvature tensor is given by

where are the coordinate vector fields. The above expression can be written using Christoffel symbols:

(see also the list of formulas in Riemannian geometry).

The Riemann curvature tensor is also the commutator of the covariant derivative of an arbitrary covector with itself:

since the connection is torsionless, which means that the torsion tensor vanishes.

This formula is often called the Ricci identity. This is the classical method used by Ricci and Levi-Civita to obtain an expression for the
Riemann curvature tensor. In this way, the tensor character of the set of quantities is proved.

This identity can be generalized to get the commutators for two covariant derivatives of arbitrary tensors as follows 

This formula also applies to tensor densities without alteration, because for the Levi-Civita (not generic) connection one gets:

Symmetries and identities

The Riemann curvature tensor has the following symmetries:

Here the bracket refers to the inner product on the tangent space induced by the metric tensor. The last identity was discovered by
Ricci, but is often called the first Bianchi identity or algebraic Bianchi identity, because it looks similar to the Bianchi identity
below. (Also, if there is nonzero torsion, the first Bianchi identity becomes a differential identity of the torsion tensor.) These three
identities form a complete list of symmetries of the curvature tensor, i.e. given any tensor which satisfies the identities above, one can
find a Riemannian manifold with such a curvature tensor at some point. Simple calculations show that such a tensor has
independent components.

Yet another useful identity follows from these three:

On a Riemannian manifold one has the covariant derivative and the Bianchi identity (often called the second Bianchi identity or
differential Bianchi identity) takes the form:

Given any coordinate chart about some point on the manifold, the above identities may be written in terms of the components of the
Riemann tensor at this point as:

Skew symmetry

Interchange symmetry

This is often written

where the brackets denote the antisymmetric part on the indicated indices. This is equivalent to the previous
version of the identity because the Riemann tensor is already skew on its last two indices.

again using the antisymmetry on the last two indices of R.

The algebraic symmetries are also equivalent to saying that R belongs to the image of the Young symmetrizer corresponding to the
partition 2+2.

Ricci curvature
The Ricci curvature tensor is the contraction of the first and third indices of the Riemann tensor.

Special cases
Surfaces

For a two-dimensional surface, the Bianchi identities imply that the Riemann tensor has only one independent component, which means
that the Ricci scalar completely determines the Riemann tensor. There is only one valid expression for the Riemann tensor which fits the
required symmetries:

and by contracting with the metric twice we find the explicit form:

where is the metric tensor and is a function called the Gaussian curvature and a, b, c and d take values either 1 or 2. The
Riemann tensor has only one functionally independent component. The Gaussian curvature coincides with the sectional curvature of the
surface. It is also exactly half the scalar curvature of the 2-manifold, while the Ricci curvature tensor of the surface is simply given by

Space forms

A Riemannian manifold is a space form if its sectional curvature is equal to a constant K. The Riemann tensor of a space form is given by

Conversely, except in dimension 2, if the curvature of a Riemannian manifold has this form for some function K, then the Bianchi
identities imply that K is constant and thus that the manifold is (locally) a space form.

Introduction to the mathematics of general relativity
Decomposition of the Riemann curvature tensor
Curvature of Riemannian manifolds
Ricci curvature tensor

Notes
1. Lawson, H. Blaine, Jr.; Michelsohn, Marie-Louise (1989). Spin Geometry. Princeton U Press. p. 154. ISBN 978-0-691-08542-5.
2. Synge J.L., Schild A. (1949). Tensor Calculus. first Dover Publications 1978 edition. pp. 83, 107. ISBN 978-0-486-63612-2.
3. P. A. M. Dirac (1996). General Theory of Relativity. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-01146-2.
4. Lovelock, David; Rund, Hanno (1989) . Tensors, Differential Forms, and Variational Principles. Dover. p. 84,109. ISBN 978-0-
486-65840-7.
5. Ricci, Gregorio; Levi-Civita, Tullio (March 1900), "Méthodes de calcul différentiel absolu et leurs applications" (http://www.springerlin
k.com/content/u21237446l22rgg7/fulltext.pdf) (PDF), Mathematische Annalen, 54 (1–2): 125–201, doi:10.1007/BF01454201 (https://
doi.org/10.1007%2FBF01454201)
6. Sandberg, Vernon D (1978). "Tensor spherical harmonics on S 2 and S 3 as eigenvalue problems" (https://authors.library.caltech.ed
u/32877/1/SANjmp78.pdf) (PDF). Journal of Mathematical Physics. 19 (12): 2441–2446. Bibcode:1978JMP....19.2441S (http://adsab
s.harvard.edu/abs/1978JMP....19.2441S). doi:10.1063/1.523649 (https://doi.org/10.1063%2F1.523649).
7. Bergmann P.G. (1976). Introduction to the Theory of Relativity. Dover. pp. 172–174. ISBN 978-0-486-63282-7.

References
Besse, A.L. (1987), Einstein manifolds, Springer
Kobayashi, S.; Nomizu, K. (1963), Foundations of differential geometry, vol. 1, Interscience
Misner, Charles W.; Thorne, Kip S.; Wheeler, John A. (1973), Gravitation, W. H. Freeman, ISBN 978-0-7167-0344-0