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TOOLS IN READING | Summer 2019 1
Professor: Dr. Merriam Maldo
Prepared by: Christian B. Llaguno, LPT
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“To be able to prepare a good test, one has to have a mastery of the subject matter,
knowledge of the pupils to be tested, skill in verbal expression and the use of the
different test format”
-Evaluating Educational Outcomes
(Oriondo & Antonio)
What is a test?
 A test is a sample of behavior, products, answers, or performances from a particular
domain (Carrington, 1994)
 Tests are evaluative devices such as inventories and scales. (The New Standards for
Educational and Psychological Testing, 1999)
 A device for obtaining a sample of an individual behaviors. (Allen and Yun, 1979)
 A test will predict performance levels, and the learner will somehow reconstruct its parts
in meaningful situations when necessary. (McCann, 2000)

Classifications of Tests (Manarang & Manarang, 1983; Louise & Descamps, 1992)
1. As to the mode of response
a. Oral test – a test wherein the test taker gives his answers orally.
b. Written test – a test where answers to questions are written by the test taker.
c. Performance test – one in which the test taker creates an answer or a product
that demonstrates his knowledge or skill, as in cooking and baking.
2. As to ease of quantification of purpose
a. Objective test – a paper and pencil test wherein the students’ answers can be
compared and quantified to yield a numerical score. This is because it requires
convergent or specific purpose.
b. Subjective test – a paper and pencil test which is not easily quantified as
students are given the freedom to write their answer to a question, such as an
in essay test. Thus, answers to this type of test is divergent.
3. As to mode of administration
a. Individual test – a test administered to one student at a time
b. Group test – one administered to a group of students simultaneously.
4. As to test constructor
a. Standardized test – a test prepared by an expert or specialist. This type of test
samples behavior under uniform procedures. Questions are administered to
students with the same directions and time limits. Results in this kind of test are
scored following a detailed procedure based on its manual and interpreted
based on specified norms or standards.
b. Non-standardized test – one prepared by teachers for use in the classroom,
with no established norms for scoring an interpretation of results. It is
constructed by a classroom teacher to meet a particular need.
5. As to the mode of interpreting results
a. Norm-referenced test – a test that evaluates a student’s performance by
comparing it to the performance of a group of students on the same test.
b. Criterion-referenced test – test that measures a student’s performance
against an agreed upon or pre-established level of performance.
6. As to the nature of the answer
a. Personality test – a test designed for assessing some aspects of an
individual’s personality. Some areas tested in this kind of test include the
following: emotional and social adjustment, dominance and submission, value
orientation, disposition, emotional stability, frustration level, and degree of
introversion or extroversion.
b. Intelligence test – a test that measures the mental ability of an individual.
TOOLS IN READING | Summer 2019 2
Professor: Dr. Merriam Maldo
Prepared by: Christian B. Llaguno, LPT
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c. Aptitude test – a test designed for the purpose of predicting the likelihood of
an individual’s success in a learning area or field of endeavor.
d. Achievement test – a test given to students to determine what a student has
learned from formal instruction in school.
e. Summative test – a test given at the end of instruction to determine the
students’ learning and assign grades.
f. Diagnostic test – a test administered to students to identify their specific
strengths and weakness in past and present learning.
g. Formative test – a test given to improve teaching and learning while it is going
on. A test given after teaching the lesson for the day is an example of this type
of test.
h. Socio-metric test – a test is used in discovering the learner’s likes and dislikes,
preferences, and their social acceptance, as well as social relationships
existing in a group.
i. Trade test – a test designed to measure an individual’s skill or competence in
an occupation or vocation.
Other Types of Test (Gabuyo, 2012)
1. Supply test vs. Fixed response test
a. Supply test – a type of test that requires the examinees to supply an answer,
such as an essay test item or completion or short answer
b. Fixed-response test – a type of test that requires the examinees to select an
answer from a given option such as multiple-choice test, matching type of test,
or true/false test.
2. Mastery test vs. Survey test
a. Mastery test – a type of achievement test measures the degree of mastery of
a limited set of learning outcomes using criterion-reference to interpret result.
b. Survey test – a type of test that measures students’ general achievement over
a broad range of learning outcomes using norm-reference to interpret the
3. Speed test vs. Power test
a. Speed test – designed to measure number of items an individual can complete
over a certain period of time.
b. Power test – designed to measure the level of performance rather than speed
of response. It contains test items that are arranged according to increasing
degree of difficulty.
Uses of Tests (Arends, 1994; Escarilla & Gonzales, 1990)
1. School administrators utilize test results for making decisions regarding the
promotion or retention of students
2. Improving or enriching the curriculum
3. Bases for conducting staff development program for teachers
4. Provides a clear picture of the extent to which the objectives of the school’s
instructional program is achieved.
Uses of Tests (
 Inform learners and teachers of the strengths and weaknesses of the process
 Motivate learners to review or consolidate specific material
 Guide the planning/development of the ongoing teaching process
 Create a sense of accomplishment
 Determine if the objectives have been achieved
 Encourage improvement
TOOLS IN READING | Summer 2019 3
Professor: Dr. Merriam Maldo
Prepared by: Christian B. Llaguno, LPT
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Characteristics of a Good Test (Sparzo, 1990; Reyes, 2000; Manarang & Manarang,
1983; Medina, 2002)
1. Validity – the degree to which a test measures what it seeks to measure.
Questions to be considered to have a valid test:
a. Does the test adequately sample the intended content?
b. Does it test the behavior/skills important to the content being tested?
c. Does it test all the instructional objectives of the content taken up in class?
2. Reliability – the accuracy with which a test consistently measures that which it
does measure. A test is reliable if it produces similar results when used repeatedly.
A test may be reliable but not necessarily valid. On the other hand, a valid test is
always a reliable one.
3. Objectivity – the extent to which personal biases or subjective judgment of the
test scorer is eliminated in checking the students’ responses to the test items, as
there is only one correct answer for each question.
4. Scorability – easy to score or check as answer key and answer sheets are
5. Administrability – easy to administer as clear and simple instructions are
provided to students, proctors, and scorers.

Garcia, Carlito D. (2004). Educational Measurement and Evaluation: A Complete
Guide for Students and Instructors. Books Atbp. Publishing Corp.
Gabuyo, Yonardo A. (2012). Assessment of Learning I (Textbook and Reviewer). Rex
Book Store, Inc.
Zulueta, Francisco M. (2006). Principles and Methods of Teaching. National Book
Navarro, Rosita L. & Santos, Rosita. (2012). Assessment of Learning Outcomes 1.
Lorimar Publishing, Inc.