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Provides 2 types of services –

(1) Fixed WLL
(2) WLL with portability
What is WLL?
Features of WLL –
- Communication system that connects us to PSTN. i) Dynamic STD/ISD locking.
ii) Call Waiting / Call transfer.
- Use Radio Frequency Signals. iii) Call Forwarding.
iv) STD / ISD call details.
- Useful for Subscribers located in pockets.

- Provided using a telephone instrument. - Provides portability feature to WLL subscriber.

- FWT will be wall mounted.
- This can be done by a portable hand Set which
can be carried in the pocket.
- Short cable connected from outdoor
aerial to wall set.

- Wall set powered by an a.c. supply.

• 2G GSM networks operate in the 900 MHz or

1800 MHz bands
History • GSM-900 uses 890–915 MHz to send information
- Torleiv Maseng is regarded as the father of the GSM from the mobile station to the base station (uplink)
•  935–960 MHz for the other direction (downlink),
- 1989, GSM responsibility was transferred to the
European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) •  providing 125 RF channels (channel numbers 0
- first GSM network was launched in 1991 by Radiolinja in to 124) spaced at 200 kHz. Duplex spacing of 45
Finland with joint technical infrastructure maintenance
MHz is used
from Ericsson.
• MS refers to the physical
phone itself.
• uniquely identified by the
International Mobile
Equipment Identity (IMEI)
• Sim is small smart card that
is inserted into the phone and
carries information specific to
the subscriber

• carry out radio communications • allocation of radio channels

between the network and the MS
• frequency administration
• handles speech encoding,
encryption, multiplexing (TDMA), • power and signal measurements
and modulation/demodulation from the MS,

• between 1 and 16 Transceivers • handovers from one BTS to

(TRX) another

• gateway between two

• call routing, call setup, and basic
switching functions
• switch to the Public Switched
• iner-BSC handoffs as well as
Telephone Network (PSTN).
coordinates with other MSC's for
inter-MSC handoffs.
• HLR maintains subscriber-
specific information such as the • EIR is a database that keeps
MSISDN, IMSI, current tracks of handsets on the network
location using the IMEI
of the MS, roaming
restrictions, • handles the authentication and
encryption tasks for the network
• VLR is a database that
a subset of the information
located on the HLR

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