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Medium Voltage Drives

ACS 2000
General Purpose MV Drive
3.3KV – 6KV Steven Husein,
steven.husein@id.abb.com

© ABB Group.
April 23, 2015 | Slide 1
MVD-EOIP02-EN
ACS 2000
Agenda

§ Product Family Overview


§ ACS 2000
§ Mechanical Design
§ Topology
§ Technology
§ Control HW
§ Service & Maintenance
§ System Integration

© ABB Inc.
April 23, 2015 | Slide 2
Medium Voltage Drives
For industries including…

Cement, Mining &


Chemical, Oil & Gas Marine Metals
Minerals

Special applications,
Power Pulp & Paper Water
such as wind tunnels

© ABB Inc.
April 23, 2015 | Slide 3
Medium Voltage Drives
For applications such as…

§ Blowers & fans


§ Conveyors
§ Compressors
§ Crushers, rolling mills
§ Extruders, mixers
§ Marine propulsion
§ Mine hoists
§ Pumps
§ Refiners
§ Gas & hydro turbine starters
§ Soft starters for large machines
§ Test stands, wind tunnels
© ABB Inc.
April 23, 2015 | Slide 4
MV Drives Market
Boundary Conditions

MV Drive

Network
compatible Motor Compatible
Harmonic Minimize V/I Stress
Compliance

It is how this is
accomplished that
differentiates solutions

external several direct-to-line drives on


© ABB Group transformer a common AC bus
April 23, 2015 | Slide 5
Medium Voltage Drives
Scope of supply

MV Distribution MV Variable MV Motor


Frequency Drive (VFD)

© ABB Group
April 23, 2015 | Slide 6
© ABB Inc.
April 23, 2015 | Slide 7
Medium Voltage Drives
ACS 2000

ACS 2000 4kV

Cooling: air
Power range 300 – 3000 HP
Output voltage: 4.0 kV – 4.16 kV
Available for: direct-to-line connection

ACS 2000 6kV

Cooling: air
Power range: 250 – 2,240 kW
Output voltage: 6.0 – 6.9 kV
Available for: direct-to-line connection
connection to a separate two
winding transformer
with an integrated transformer

© ABB Inc.
April 23, 2015 | Slide 8
ACS 2000
Industries and Applications

Industries Applications

Cement, mining and


Conveyors, crushers, mills, fans, pumps
minerals
Pumps, compressors, extruders, mixers,
Chemical, oil and gas
blowers

Metals Fans, pumps

Fans, pumps, refiners, vacuum pumps,


Pulp and paper
chippers

Power generation Fans, pumps, conveyors, coal mills

Water Pumps

Other applications Test stands, wind tunnels

© ABB Group
April 23, 2015 | Slide 9
ACS 2000
Simple and Reliable Motor Control

Output Output
Design Standards Configuration
Voltage Rating (ND)

Direct to Line
300-3000hp NEMA, IEEE, cUL
4-4.16 kV External Trafo
(224-2300kW) IEC, EN, CE

External Trafo
3.3kV, 250-2240kW Internal Trafo
IEC, EN, CE
6-6.9kV (335-3000hp) Direct to Line

© ABB Group
April 23, 2015 | Slide 10
ACS 2000
Configurations Shipping Today: 3.3kV, 6kV

ACS 20xx ACS 20xx


3.3 – 6.9kV 3.3– 6.9kV
up to 2 MVA up to 2 MVA
for external integrated
transformer transformer
AFE/Diode AFE/Diode

ACS 20xx
3.3 – 6.9kV
up to 2MVA
direct-to-line
AFE

© ABB Group
April 23, 2015 | Slide 11
General Purpose Drive
Splash Screen
Maximal Flexibility Key Features

USP2 – footprint – common AC bus


Low Harmonic

direct-to-line (DTL)
– simplicity – 3in3out – trsp costs

integrated transformer
voltage matching – galvanic 3MVA
isolation – simplicity – 3in3out

external transformer
voltage matching – heat & footprint
in el. room – galvanic isolation

2MVA

USP2 – footprint – common AC bus


Regenerative

direct-to-line (DTL)
– simplicity – 3in3out – trsp costs

integrated transformer
voltage matching – galvanic
isolation – simplicity – 3in3out 1MVA

external transformer
voltage matching – heat & footprint
in el. room – galvanic isolation

6kV

4kV
1 1
3.3kV, 6 kV 4 kV
1 Basic Motor Service Voltage Class
2 Unique Selling Preposition: World‘s first transformerless Voltage Source Inverter / PF 1
ACS 2000
General Purpose Medium Voltage Drive
Inverter
Line Side Compliance LV Control section Unit (INU)
• IEEE 519, IEC 61000-2-4, Class 2 Compliant
• Simple system integration
• Networks up to 45kA Short Circuit(500MVA for 6.660kV)
• Suitable for Solid, Resistive, and Floating Networks
• Common Mode mitigation built in

• Voltage Source Inverter design maintains near unity


power factor across the entire speed range

Transformerless Configuration
§ Braking Energy Recovery
Removable
§ Dynamic Compensation of Network Voltage Interchangeable
Fluctuations up to 30% Dip phase modules
§ “3 in 3 out” cabling minimizes installation time and Top and bottom Active Front End (AFE)
cost entry, for line/load
and control power
© ABB Group
connections
April 23, 2015 | Slide 13
ACS 2000
General Purpose Medium Voltage Drive
Inverter
Machine Friendly Operation LV Control section Unit (INU)
§ 5 Level Topology
§ Optimized filtering and silicon
§ Maximize reliability while minimizing size , weight
and complexity

§ dV/dt filter built in to reduce voltage stress on


machines

Modular Construction
§ Serviceable from Front
§ One Phase Module spare for each frame
§ Industry Leading Mean Time To Repair (MTTR)
provides high availability and low maintenance Removable
costs Interchangeable
§ Supports OEM repackaging phase modules
Top and bottom Active Front End (AFE)
entry, for line/load
and control power
© ABB Group
connections
April 23, 2015 | Slide 14
ACS 2000
General Purpose Medium Voltage Drive
Inverter
Direct Torque Control (DTC) LV Control section Unit (INU)
§ Provides fast, accurate and stepless control
from zero to full speed
§ Power ride through during supply voltage dips

Air Cooled
§ High reliability
§ Easy to apply

Late Stage Configure to Order


Removable
§ Standard feature set to meet main market Interchangeable
requirements phase modules
§ Pre-Engineered options which are easy to Top and bottom Active Front End (AFE)
select entry, for line/load
and control power
§ Industry leading lead times
© ABB Group
connections
April 23, 2015 | Slide 15
ACS 2000
Typical Options List

§ Redundant cooling fans


§ Additional I/Os for motor supervision
§ Additional I/Os for transformer supervision
§ Converter Space Heater
§ Push Buttons/ Pilot Lights
§ Fieldbus adapters
§ Busbars Types
§ Cabinet paint finish
§ MV Switchgear Packages
§ Auxilary Control Power Transformer
§ Standard Basic, PCBA, and Power Part Spare parts kits

© ABB Group
April 23, 2015 | Slide 16
ACS 2000 Factory
Production Facility
Helsinki, Finland
AC Drives
New Berlin WI,
USA Turgi, Switzerland
MV Drives PG Krakow,
Poland

Beijing,
China

Bangalore,
4160V Markets India

Local Production, Product Development


Headquarters, Production, Product Development
Regional Warehouse & Logistics
© ABB Group
April 23, 2015 | Slide 17 Major Sales Locations
ACS 2000 DTL
A look inside

LV Control Inverter
Swing Frame Phase Modules

DC Link Cap
and ground switch

Terminal Entry Active Front End


Unit with fuses Phase Modules
and MOVs

© ABB Group
April 23, 2015 | Slide 18 Input filter
unit
Mechanical Design
ACS 2000 phase module

Phase interface
control board

Connectors

Frame 1, Phase Module Shown


Phase capacitor
AFE or INU

© ABB Group
April 23, 2015 | Slide 19
Mechanical Design
ACS 2000 phase module

Phase capacitor

Gate units

Low inductive
busbar

Integrated current
sensor

IGBT modules

Frame 1, Phase Module Shown Heatsink


AFE or INU

© ABB Group
May 24, 2013 | Slide 20
Power Topology
General topology facts

§ 5-level topology VSI chosen in ACS 2000 is an extension


of the well-established 3-level VSI
§ Balanced Silicon and Filtering
§ Using HV IGBTs
§ Control and Measurements local to module

§ Interchangeable Phase Module


§ AFE and INU
§ One per leg
§ One Spare per frame

§ Designed for quick replacement


§ 5 min phase module replacement

§ Thin Film Capacitors used for high reliability

© ABB Group
April 23, 2015 | Slide 21
Power Topology
General topology facts

§ Easy to integrate into network


§ Integrated Input Filter
§ Network Compliance
§ Integrated dV/dt filter on output
§ No need to coordinate with upstream breaker
§ No special requirements on network grounding
method

§ Transformerless Configuration (DTL)


§ Integrated Common Mode Choke
§ Integrated Line Side Decoupling Fuses
§ Integrated Overvoltage protection
§ No Special requirements on other loads on
common AC bus
§ No special requirements on input cable length
or construction
© ABB Group
April 23, 2015 | Slide 22
Control
Simple and Flexible

§ Same Control board for AFE and INU


§ Same AMC 34/Phase Int as all of our MV Drives
§ Quick exchange with removable flash memory
§ Factory defaults to meet target markets
§ Pre Engineered Options
§ Same IOEC I/O cards as ACS 1000
§ Freely programmable I/Os
§ Control Power Derived from Aux Power
§ Standard Buffer Module
§ No external UPS required
§ Distributed Power Module control
§ Galvanically insulated control power supply
§ One fiber optic link per phase module

© ABB Group
April 23, 2015 | Slide 23
ACS 2000
Installation options
Classic configuration with Direct-to-line (DTL) connections
transformers
Main power supply

Line side breaker

Transformer

ACS 2000

Motor ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
© ABB Group
April 23, 2015 | Slide 24
external integrated single DTL several direct-to-line drives on
transformer transformer a common AC bus
System Configurations
External Transformer

© ABB Inc.
April 23, 2015 | Slide 25
System Configurations
Direct-to-Line

© ABB Group
April 23, 2015 | Slide 26
System Configurations
Diode Front End Integrated Transformer

© ABB Inc.
April 23, 2015 | Slide 27
ACS 2000 Direct to Line
Block Diagram

© ABB Group
April 23, 2015 | Slide 28
ACS 2000 External Transformer
Block Diagram

© ABB Group
April 23, 2015 | Slide 29
ACS 2000 Integrated transformer
Block Diagram

© ABB Group
April 23, 2015 | Slide 30
Expanded Scope of Supply
Integrated MV Switchgear Configuration

Manual no-load
disconnect switch
with access window
Base converter
(Frame 1, 2 or 3)

Motor protection relay


(e.g. GE Multilin)

Custom controls

© ABB Group
April 23, 2015 | Slide 31
Expanded Scope of Supply
Integrated MV Switchgear Configuration

§ Standard configuration
§ Vacuum contactor (7.2 kV, 400 A)
§ No load disconnect switch
§ Optional configuration
§ Control power transformer
§ Motor monitor relay
§ Custom controls

© ABB Group
April 23, 2015 | Slide 32
§Typical LV-IGBT circuit

IGBTs: 360
Diodes: 108
Power Fuses: 54 M
MV-IGBT circuit

MP

§IGBTs 36 pcs
§FW Diodes36 pcs M

§I/p Diodes12 pcs


ABB Topology
From 3-level to 5-level topology

3-Level NPC VSI

© ABB Group
April 23, 2015 | Slide 35
ABB Topology
From 3-level to 5-level topology

From 3 levels to 5 levels:

© ABB Group
April 23, 2015 | Slide 36
Topology
From 3-level to 5-level topology

From 3 levels to 5 levels: 1. Replacing IGCTs with IGBTs


2. Adding the Phase Capacitor
Charged to ¼ of the total DC-
link voltage

© ABB Group
April 23, 2015 | Slide 37
Topology
Phase to ground voltage levels

5-Level ANPC VSI


Phase output voltages

VPH

+VDC

+VDC/2

NP

-VDC/2

-VDC

© ABB Group
April 23, 2015 | Slide 38
Topology
Phase to ground voltage levels

5-Level ANPC VSI


Phase output voltages

VPH

+VDC

+VDC/2

NP

-VDC/2

-VDC

© ABB Group
April 23, 2015 | Slide 39
Topology
Phase to ground voltage levels

5-Level ANPC VSI


Phase output voltages

VPH

+VDC

+VDC/2

NP

-VDC/2

-VDC

© ABB Group
April 23, 2015 | Slide 40
Topology
Phase to ground voltage levels

5-Level ANPC VSI


Phase output voltages

VPH

+VDC

+VDC/2

NP

-VDC/2

-VDC

© ABB Group
April 23, 2015 | Slide 41
Topology
Phase to ground voltage levels

5-Level ANPC VSI


Phase output voltages

VPH

+VDC

+VDC/2

NP

-VDC/2

-VDC

© ABB Group
April 23, 2015 | Slide 42
Topology
Phase to phase voltage levels

© ABB Group
April 23, 2015 | Slide 43
Topology
Phase to phase voltage levels

© ABB Group
April 23, 2015 | Slide 44
Topology
Phase to phase voltage levels

© ABB Group
April 23, 2015 | Slide 45
Topology
Phase to phase voltage levels

© ABB Group
April 23, 2015 | Slide 46
Topology
Phase to phase voltage levels

© ABB Group
April 23, 2015 | Slide 47
Topology
Phase to phase voltage levels

§ The switching vectors are


symmetrical for the
negative side of the
waveform.

© ABB Group
April 23, 2015 | Slide 48
Topology
Phase to phase voltage levels

3 level converter
3 level phase to GND
5 level phase to phase
Output sine filter required

5 level converter
(ACS 2000)
5 level phase to GND
9 level phase to phase
Output dV/dt filter
-> multilevel waveform

0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035 0.04

© ABB Group
April 23, 2015 | Slide 49
Semiconductor Technology
HV IGBT (High Voltage Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor)

§ Electrical Characteristics
§ Low Switching losses
§ Limited ability to absorb energy
§ Capable of tuning off short circuit
§ Separate Gate unit
§ HV chips
§ 6- 6.9kV configuration: 4.5 kV
§ 4.16kV configuration 3.3 kV
§ 3.3 kV configuration 3.3 kV

§ Mechanical Characteristics
§ Single Side Cooled
© ABB Group
April 23, 2015 | Slide 50
§ Simple Mechanically Integrate
Technology
Semiconductors

IGCT • IGCT: Integrated Gate


Commutated Thyristor
• Integrated gate unit
• Press pack design mounted in
stacks

HV IGBT: • HV IGBT: High Voltage


Insulated Gate Bipolar
Transistor
• Separate gate unit
• Module design mounted on
heat sinks
• Low switching losses / high
on-state losses

© ABB Group
April 23, 2015 | Slide 51
Semiconductor Technology
Protection against short circuit
§ IGBTs limit short circuit current
§ Device goes into Saturation
§ Resulting in Voltage across closed IGBT
§ IGBTs can turn off short circuit
§ Limited ability to absorb energy
§ Need to design fast detection and response to prevent
damage
§ Primary: Switch off IGBTs within 12 us
§ Module level response - Short Sensed at gate level
§ No need for Semiconductor Fuses in Power Part
§ Secondary: If short not cleared in 18us
§ System Level response
§ Crow Bar switched on, Protection Firing, then Line
Fuses decouple from Network within one cycle

© ABB Group
April 23, 2015 | Slide 52
Protection Concept
Protection against short circuit

dI/dt dI/dt ACS 2000 has “Two Lines of Defense”


clamp Crowbar DC link clamp
AFE +DC
INU 1. Fast semiconductor level
§ A fast short-circuit detection is implemented in
the gate unit; allows short-circuit current to be
+ switched off inside the gate unit at
semiconductor level
2. System level
Active Front End

§ When the short circuit can not be cleared on

Inverter
NP
semiconductor level or occurs in another part
of the drive (e.g. in the DC link) protection firing
is initiated.

+
§ Thyristor crowbar located in the DC link used
to discharge the main energy sources and to
prepare the drive for a safe protection firing.
Why are there still fuses in the converter?
§ 3 line fuses at the input of the drive used to
-DC
decouple the drive in case of a protection firing
§ No fuses in the power part (fuseless
protection)
© ABB Group
April 23, 2015 | Slide 53
Technology Rectifier Ridethrough performance
80 8000

Direct Torque Control (DTC) Fault occurs

Grid voltage magnitude (V)


60 6000

Input current(A)
40 4000

20 2000

Typical torque
response (t) of a DTC
drive, compared with 0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0

flux vector control and time(s)


10500
open loop pulse width
modulation (PWM) 10000

9500

DC link voltage (V)


9000
§ Provides fast, accurate and stepless control from Rectifier
zero to full speed 8500
Inverter

8000

§ Full torque with optimal speed accuracy over the 7500


whole speed range
7000
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
§ Negligible low torque ripple Motoring time(s)
Mode Inverter Ridethrough performance
100
§ Minimal inverter switching losses with maximum
control performance
§ Safe ride through during supply voltage dips 50
Speed/Torque %

§ Field measurements performed at Voestalpine Stahl


GmbH, Linz, Austria
0 Speed
Fast Torque

Regeneration recovery
-50
Mode
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
time(s)
© ABB Group
April 23, 2015 | Slide 54
Control HW
Structure and Overview

© ABB Group.
April 23, 2015 | Slide 55
IOEC
Standard digital signal allocation

§ DC Signal level: typ 24 VDC


max 100 VDC
§ AC Signal level: typ 24 VAC
max 230 VAC
§ Input 8 … 25 mA
© ABB Group.
April 23, 2015 | Slide 56
IOEC
Standard analog signal allocation

§ Voltage mode
§ Signal range 0 … 10 V
§ Load impedance 250 kΩ

§ Current mode
§ Signal range 0 … 20 ma
§ Load impedance 105kΩ

§ Analog output resolution


12 bit
§ Signal level 0 … 20 mA
§ Load impedance 250 Ω

© ABB Group
April 23, 2015 | Slide 57
IOEC
Optional analog signal allocation

§ Voltage mode
§ Signal range 0 … 10 V
§ Load impedance 250 kΩ

§ Current mode
§ Signal range 0 … 20 ma
§ Load impedance 105kΩ

§ Analog output resolution


12 bit
§ Signal level 0 … 20 mA
§ Load impedance 250 Ω

© ABB Group
April 23, 2015 | Slide 58
IOEC
Optional digital signal allocation

§ DC Signal level: typ 24 VDC


max 100 VDC
§ AC Signal level: typ 24 VAC
max 230 VAC
§ Input 8 … 25 mA
© ABB Group
April 23, 2015 | Slide 59
Control HW
Local control panel (CDP 312)

CDP 312 control


panel Clear back-lit
LCD, 4 line
display

Navigation
keys
Supply OFF/
Discharging
Supply ON /
Charging
Scroll keys
Fault / Alarm

Local control
Ground switch keys
released

Emergency OFF
pushbutton

© ABB Group
April 23, 2015 | Slide 60
ACS 2000
Advanced software tools

§ DriveOPC (OPen Connectivity)


§ For communication between ABB
drives and Windows®-based
applications
§ DriveWindow
§ Easy-to-use tool for
commissioning and maintenance
of ABB drive systems

© ABB Group
April 23, 2015 | Slide 61
Reliability
MTBF Calculation

By commodity By Sub-Assembly

Commodity Failure Rate MTBF Sub-Assembly Failure Rate MTBR MTTR


[FIT] [years] [%] [FIT] [years] [%] [hours]
Semiconductors 2,680 42.60 19.78% Phase Module 6,955 16.41 51.32% 0.50
PCBAs 6,242 18.29 46.06% NP Frame 1,604 71.16 11.84% 6.00
Passive Components 1,493 76.49 11.01% COU 3,070 37.19 22.65% 4.00
Mechanics 1,130 101.02 8.34% Inductor 135 845.59 1.00% 8.00
Power Supplies 500 228.31 3.69% Cooling 960 118.91 7.08% 4.00
Control 1,508 75.72 11.12% Resistor Box 828 137.92 6.11% 8.00
Total 13,552 8.42 Total 13,552 8.42 2.72

Power Semiconduct Resistor Box


Cooling
Supplies ors 6%
20% 7%
4% Inductor
Control
Mechanics 11% 1%
8%
COU Phase Module
23% 51%

PCBAs NP Frame
46% 12%
Passive
Components
11%

Availability: 99.9963%

© ABB Group
April 23, 2015 | Slide 62
ACS 2000
Simple and efficient maintenance
The ACS 2000 features
phase modules which
can be replaced within
Reliable components
minutes
§ Minimized parts count through multilevel
VSI topology results in increased
reliability
§ Extended Mean Time Between Failure
(MTBF) and improved availability

Easy access
§ Easy front access to all drive
components

Redundant cooling option


§ Redundant fans increase availability

© ABB Group
April 23, 2015 | Slide 63
Medium voltage drives
DriveMonitor TM intelligent monitoring

§ DriveMonitorTM is an intelligent
diagnostic system consisting of
§ Hardware module
(installed in- or outside of the drive)
§ Software layer
(collect and analyze selected drive
DriveMonitor signals and parameters)
§ Functions
§ Monitoring of drive’s performance,
and, if required, other shaft line
components (main circuit breaker,
transformer, motor)
§ Fast fault finding process

DriveMonitor 3000

© ABB Group
April 23, 2015 | Slide 64