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Vol:6, No:8, 2012

Steady-State Heat Transfer in Rectangular Ribs

Tao Nie, Weiqiang Liu

Abstract—In order to obtain an accurate result of the heat transfer In this paper considering the real operation environment and

of the rib in the internal cooling Rectangular channel, using separation establishing mathematic model, we can find that the analytical

of variables, analytical solutions of three dimensional steady-state heat solution of three dimension steady-state heat conduction in

conduction in rectangular ribs are given by solving three dimensional

rectangular rib using variable separation method.

steady-state function of the rectangular ribs. Therefore, we can get

solution of three dimensional temperature field in the rib. Based on the

solution, we can get how the Bi number affected on heat transfer. II. PHYSICAL MODEL

Furthermore, comparisons of the analytical and numerical results

indicate agreement on temperature field in the rib.

Open Science Index, Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering Vol:6, No:8, 2012 waset.org/Publication/9515

heat transfer

I. INTRODUCTION

in the blade and thrust chamber. Ribbed channel is usual used

for this technique which can heat exchange because it can

intensify turbulence of the coolant and enlarge area of heat

transfer; accordingly, it can take away the heat quantity which Fig. 1 rectangular rib at Cartesian coordinate system

hot gas transfers to the wall, which can effectively reduce the

temperature of the wall. For the moment it mostly has two Rectangular rib in internal cooling duct has been shown in

means to investigate internal flow and heat transfer in internal Fig.1. Supposing thermal conductivity is constant, no internal

cooling duct. One is experimental investigation, the other one is heat source and steady state. The bottom of the rib is constant

numerical simulation. But if no experimental data, it can not temperature. The length of the rib is 2L，whose width is 2δ and

ensure the veracity of numerical simulation [1]. In addition, the height is H. The boundary condition of Both ends and the top of

cost of experimental investigation is too high, which sometimes the rib are adiabatic, in addition both side are convection.

go with danger. Furthermore, sometimes the experimental Considering symmetry of the model, the differential equation

investigation conditions can not reach the real operational of the rib heat conduction can be written as follows in cartesian

environment, for example, physical dimension. Therefore the coordinate system:

analytical Solutions of some subject fundamental equations

have importance theory significance, which can comprehensive ∂ 2t ∂ 2t ∂ 2t

+ + =0 (1)

and downright illuminate physical phenomena. Furthermore, it ∂x 2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2

can be criterion which can accelerate the development of

numerical solution [2]. Many scholars have studied analytical Boundary conditions:

Solutions of two dimension steady-state heat conduction [3-5].

x = 0, t = t0 ⎫

Xiao qibo, et al analyzed pool boiling, finding that the heat flux ⎪

of pool boiling is the function of degree of wall superheat, ∂t ⎪

x = H, = 0

activate cave, maximum dimension and fluid physical ∂x ⎪

characteristics. ∂t ⎪

y = 0, = 0 ⎪

∂y ⎪

⎪

∂t ⎬ (2)

y = δ , λ + h(t − t f ) = 0 ⎪

Tao Nie is with the National University of Defense Technology, Chang sha ∂y ⎪

410073, China (e-mail: nietao2007@163.com). ∂t ⎪

Weiqiang Liu is with the National University of Defense Technology, z = 0, = 0 ⎪

Chang sha 410073, China (e-mail: liuweiqiang_1103@163.com). ∂z ⎪

This investigation was supported by a Major Program of National Natural ∂t ⎪

Science Foundation of China (90916018) and a Research Fund for the Doctoral z = L, = 0 ⎪⎭

Program of Higher Education of China (200899980006).and Natural Science ∂z

Foundation of Hunan Province, china(09JJ3109)

International Scholarly and Scientific Research & Innovation 6(8) 2012 1569 ISNI:0000000091950263

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

International Journal of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering

Vol:6, No:8, 2012

rib, h is coefficient of heat transfer on the surface, λ is thermal The general solution of the Eq.(7):

conductivity, t f is ambient temperature. j ( Z ) = C3 cos( χ Z ) + C4 sin( χ Z ) (14)

Boundary conditions:

III. ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS Z = 0, j ' = 0 (15)

Over temperature θ=t-tf, for the sake of more easily Z = KL , j = 0 '

(16)

analyzing, we take the differential equation and boundary The final form of the solution

conditions to be dimensionless. j ( Z ) = C3 cos( χ Z ) (17)

∂ Θ ∂ Θ ∂ Θ

2 2 2 Where,

+ + =0 (3) sin( χ K L ) = 0 (18)

∂X 2 ∂Y 2 ∂Z 2

The characteristic value of Eq.(18)

X = 0, Θ = 1 ⎫ nπ

∂Θ ⎪ χn = (n=0, 1, 2…) (20)

X = KH , =0 ⎪ KL

∂X ⎪

⎪ Omitting constant C, we can get corresponding eigenfunction.

∂Θ

Y = 0, =0 ⎪ j ( Z ) = cos( χ n Z ) (21)

∂Y

Open Science Index, Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering Vol:6, No:8, 2012 waset.org/Publication/9515

⎪⎪

∂Θ ⎬ (4) C. Analytical solution of f(X)

Y = 1, + BiΘ = 0 ⎪

∂Y ⎪

For different χn and βm, The general solution of the Eq.(5)

∂Θ ⎪

Z = 0, =0 f ( X ) = C5 c h(η X ) + C6 s h(η X ) (22)

∂Z ⎪ 2 2 2

⎪ Where, η =β +χ .

∂Θ ⎪

Z = KL , =0 Boundary conditions:

∂Z ⎭⎪

X = KH , f ' = 0 (23)

Where, Θ = (t − t f ) (t0 − t f ) , Bi = hδ λ , and K L = L δ ， The final form of the solution

KH = H δ . sh(η K H )

f ( X ) = C5 [ch(η X ) − sh(η X )] (24)

Supposing Θ(X, Y, Z)=f(X)g(Y)j(Z), which can be substituted ch(η K H )

into Eq.(3). three ordinary differential equations can be Omitting constant C5, we can gain corresponding

obtained as follows: eigenfunction.

f '' − ( β 2 + χ 2 ) f = 0 (5) sh(η K H )

f ( X ) = ch(η X ) − sh(η X ) (25)

ch(η K H )

g '' + β 2 g = 0 (6)

D. Analytical solution of Θ(X, Y, Z)

j +χ j=0

'' 2

(7) The linear sum of the basic solution for different

characteristic value is the analytical solution of the temperature

Where, β , χ are independent of X, Y and Z. field.

∞ ∞

A. Analytical solution of g(Y) θ ( X , Y , Z ) = ∑∑ Cmn f ( X ) g (Y ) j ( Z ) (26)

m =1 n = 0

The general solution of the Eq.(6):

Using inhomogeneous boundary conditions at X=0, we can

g (Y ) = C1 cos( β Y ) + C2 sin( β Y ) (8)

find:

Boundary conditions: ∞ ∞

Y = 0,

∂g (Y )

=0 (9)

∑∑ C

m =1 n = 0

mn f (0) g (Y ) j ( Z ) = 1 (27)

∂Y

Using the orthogonality of the characteristic function,

∂g (Y ) termwise integration using arithmetic operators at both side of

Y = 1, + Bi1 g (Y ) = 0 (10)

∂Y Eq.(9): ∫01 g m (Y )dY and ∫0K L jn ( Z )dZ , we can get:

This gives the final form of the solution

g (Y ) = C1 cos( β Y ) (11) 1 KL

With Cmn =

∫ 0

g ( β m , Y )dY ⋅ ∫

0

j ( χ n , Z )dZ

(28)

β tan( β ) = Bi1 (12) N ( β m ) ⋅ N ( χ n ) ⋅ f (0)

2 2

From Eq.(12) we can find the number of β is infinite. Omitting

1 1

constant C, we can get corresponding eigenfunction. ∫0

g ( β m , Y )dY =

βm

sin( β m ) (29)

g (Y ) = cos( β mY ) (m=1, 2, 3 ……) (13)

International Scholarly and Scientific Research & Innovation 6(8) 2012 1570 ISNI:0000000091950263

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

International Journal of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering

Vol:6, No:8, 2012

( β m2 + Bi 2 + Bi )

N 2 (β m ) = (30)

2( β m2 + Bi 2 )

when χ n ≠ 0 （ n = 1 ，2，3…）:

KL

N 2 (χn ) = (31)

2

KL 1

∫0 j ( χ n , Z )dz =

χn

sin( χ n K L ) = 0 (32)

while χ n = 0 （ n = 0 ）:

N 2 (χn ) = K L (33)

KL

∫0 j ( χ n , Z )dz = K L (34) Fig. 3 3d temperature field of the rib

Open Science Index, Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering Vol:6, No:8, 2012 waset.org/Publication/9515

t0=300K and tf=200K. The 3d temperature field of rib has been

shown in Fig.2. From Fig.2, we can find the temperature

reduces along the y direction, and the same rule can be found at

x direction, which is coincident with the data measured in tests.

Fig.3 shows the dimensionless parameter Θ distribution of the

rib. From Fig.3 we know that the dimensionless parameter Θ

distribution of the rib is coincident with the temperature

distribution, so the Θ is corking parameter that can represent

temperature distribution in the rib.

solution are shown in Fig5. From Fig.5, we can find analytical

solution is consistent with numerical solution.

The Θ distributions with different Bi are shown in Fig.6.

From Fig.6, we can find the high Θ field distribution with

different Bi is different. And the high Θ field extends when Bi

increases.

shown in Fig.4. From Fig.4, we can obtain temperature is

constant along z direction. The reason is the adiabatic at Z=0,

Z=KL and Y=1. In addition, the boundary condition is

isothermal wall at Y=0.

International Scholarly and Scientific Research & Innovation 6(8) 2012 1571 ISNI:0000000091950263

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

International Journal of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering

Vol:6, No:8, 2012

V. CONCLUSIONS

Open Science Index, Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering Vol:6, No:8, 2012 waset.org/Publication/9515

heat transfer by using ribs, which can be usually used in heat

exchange equipments. It can evidently enlarge heat exchange

area and turbulence. In this paper, we can find analytical

solution of rectangular rib Laplace equation in internal cooling

channel. Then according to the analytical solution, we get three

dimensional temperature field of Rectangular Rib.

REFERENCES

[1] Sandip Dutta, “Andrew Malcolm J Han Je Chin. Prediction of

turbulent flow and heat transfer in rotating square and rectangular

smooth channels” ASME, 962GT2234.

[2] Cai R X, Zhang D Y, “Some explicit analytical solutions of

unsteady two phase flow”, Chinese Journal of Mechanical

Engineering, 2001, Vol.37, No.9, PP. 1-3

[3] Li M, Diao N R, Fang Z H, “Analysis on two-dimensional

steady-state heat conduction in rectangular fins”, Journal of

ShangDong University of Architecture and Engineering, 2005

Vol.20,No.1,pp. 64-68

[4] Zhang J Z, Advanced Heat Transfer , Beijing: China Science and

Technology Press, 2009, pp.49-50

[5] Yang Q S, Pu B R, Advanced Heat Transfer , Shanghai: Shanghai

Jiao Tong university Press, 1996, pp.21-22

[6] Xiao B Q, Wang Z C, Jiang G P, Chen L X, Wei M J, Rao L Z

“Mathematical analysis of pool boiling heat transfe”, Acta

Physica. Sinica., 2009, Vol.58,No.4, 2523-2527

International Scholarly and Scientific Research & Innovation 6(8) 2012 1572 ISNI:0000000091950263

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