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ARCH 383: Planning 1-Site Planning & Landscape Architecture


Physical Factors


























“Understanding All The Features of a Site, Using and Protecting The Best, and
Minimizing The Impact of The Worst.”

- Is a preliminary phase of architectural and urban design processes dedicated to

the study of the climatic, geographical, historical, legal, and infrastructural
context of a specific site.

The site visit is one of the first things in the design process. After the completion of a
site visit, a detailed site analysis has to be done so as to really grasp the features of the
site, which will be very important during the design. Here are some of the points one must
pay attention during the site visit as well as during the site analysis and study:


Climate is the statistics of weather, usually over a 30-year interval. It is measured

by assessing the patterns of variation in temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure,
wind, precipitation, atmospheric particle count and other meteorological variables in a
given region over long periods of time. Climate differs from weather, in that weather only
describes the short-term conditions of these variables in a given region.

A region's climate is generated by the climate system, which has five

components: atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere.


Prevailing winds are winds that blow predominantly from a single general
direction over a particular point on the Earth's surface. The dominant winds are
the trends in direction of wind with the highest speed over a particular point on
the Earth's surface. A region's prevailing and dominant winds are often affected
by global patterns of movement in the Earth's atmosphere. In general, easterly
flow occurs at low and medium latitudes globally. In the mid-latitudes, westerly
winds are the rule and their strength is largely determined by the polar cyclone. In
areas where winds tend to be light, the sea breeze/land breeze cycle is the most
important to the prevailing wind; in areas which have variable terrain, mountain
and valley breezes dominate the wind pattern. Highly elevated surfaces can
induce a thermal low, which then augments the environmental wind flow.

Wind direction, speed and frequency will influence the building design
including bracing requirements, roof and wall cladding selection, weather
tightness detailing, building entry locations, window size and placement and
provision of shelter for outdoor spaces.

a.1. Designing for wind

Generally, designing for wind will require providing shelter but in hot
or humid climates, the building design may deliberately incorporate
features or shapes to provide cooling breezes for a passive cooling effect.

In remote locations, wind speed and frequency may also be a

factor in selecting wind as a power generation source.

Make your assessment of wind effects early in the design process.

This should include the speed (average and peak) and direction of wind,
and how it affects the site at different times of year.

a.2. Wind Direction

Most of the locations will have a general major direction from which
the wind comes. However, this will not always hold true and will vary from
location to location. If we are to design a climatologically responsive
building, it will be important to consider the direction of the wind so that it
can be channelized through the interiors. This will play a major role in
placement & size of openings.

The thing to be remembered is that the wind direction may vary from
place to place inside the site itself and thus have to be checked from a few
different places especially if it is a large site.
a.3. Prevailing Winds in the Philippines

The Philippines is located in the tropics and the weather and climate
prevailing in any particular place in the country is due to its geographical
location and the different wind systems that prevail in the locality during
the different times of the year.

When we speak of weather, it refers to the condition of the

atmosphere at a particular time. Weather is thought of in terms of
temperature, humidity, precipitation, cloudiness, brightness, visibility and
wind on a certain day or hour. All these climatic elements are closely
associated with each other and determine to a large extent the final
outcome of fishpond production.

On the other hand, when we speak of climate, we simply refer to the

long term records of weather such as long term average conditions of
weather elements, the greatest amount of rainfall or sunshine as the case
may be.

The prevailing wind systems in the Philippines are as follows:

1. Northeast (NE) monsoon - from November to February
2. Southwest (SW) monsoon - from July to September
3. Trade winds - winds in the tropics. They generally come from the
east. The trade winds prevail during the rest of the year whenever
NE monsoons are weak.

The typhoon season is usually from the month of July to November.

Most often typhoons touch the islands between the southern tip of
Samar and Northern Luzon. Approximately 15 per cent of typhoons strike
areas south of Samar. The least frequently visited is Southern Mindanao.
Northern Luzon is visited by approximately 35 per cent of typhoons,
Central Luzon by 20 per cent while Southern Luzon and the Central and
Northern Islands by approximately 30 per cent. Climate in the Philippines
has been described in terms of the characteristics of the distribution of
rainfall received in a locality during the different months of the year.
There are four climatic types in the Philippines based on rainfall
distribution. It will be noted that most differences in climatic types from
North to South are due to mountain barriers which are high enough to
cause variations in rainfall distribution.

a.4. Five Basic Principles of Air Movement: Velocity, Direction, Pressure,

Density and the Venturi Effect.

Venturi Effect

As a result of the friction, air velocity is slower near the surface
of the Earth. The cause of this reduction in velocity is the roughness
of the ground, including contour changes and vegetation
configuration. Ground wind velocities measured at the site are
frequently much lower than those measured at the top of an airport
tower. Likewise, exposed sites or buildings at altitudes higher than the
airport tower are likely to experience much higher wind velocities.

Is that air tends to continue moving in the same direction
when it encounters an obstruction. As a result it tends to flow around
objects like water flows around a rock in a stream, rather than
reflecting off the objects.

Air flows from high-pressure to low-pressure areas. For
example, cross ventilation is created by a positive pressure being
built up on the windward side of a structure and a negative pressure
being created on the leeward side.

Is convection, which involves the temperature and density of
the air. For example, air flowing from a forested area to a meadow
will tend to rise because air in the meadow is exposed to more solar
radiation, making that air less warmer and dense

When the air flow is channeled and restricted, the pressure
rises and the velocity increases. This is called the venturi effect.

Vegetation can be used to redirect the flow of air and

channel it to specific areas or locations on the site. The "Venturi
effect" can also be created to increase the velocity of air
movement in the area of the structure.

a.5. Special Forces

Strong Breeze
- A wind of force 6 on the Beaufort scale (22–27
knots or 25–31 mph) where long waves begin to
form; white foam crests are very frequent and
some airborne spray is present.

- A gale is a very strong wind where in some twigs
broken from trees; cars veer on road and
progress on foot is seriously impeded.

- A storm is any disturbed state of an

environment or astronomical
body's atmosphere especially affecting its
surface, and strongly implying severe weather.

Tropical Cyclone
- A rapidly rotating storm system characterized
by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level
atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a
spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that
produce heavy rain.

- a violently rotating column of air that spins
while in contact with both the surface of
the Earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare
cases, the base of a cumulus cloud.

Considering the special forces, design require

different levels of weathertightness detailing
against wind and rain because of the at-risk
features incorporated into the design.


Orientation is the positioning of a building in relation to seasonal variations

in the sun’s path as well as prevailing wind patterns.
The impact of the sun on a site, as well as the building’s location, the
spatial arrangement, orientation, window placement, daylight access and
other design features, the designer can take full advantage of passive solar
design features and increase the energy efficiency and comfort of the

When combined with the wind direction and sun path, would give a good
idea as to how the design should be oriented so as to optimize the design. The
orientation along with the sun path will also determine the placement of rooms
inside buildings.

The sun path direction tells one which will be the side from which the maximum
heat will be coming, especially in the afternoons. In warmer climates, the
design will try to reduce the amount of incident sunlight so as to reduce the
heat intake to a minimum.

b.1. Sun paths

Assessing the passage of sun across a site is important. There are a

number of locally-produced tools that can help, but a site visit is still
necessary to identify site-specific conditions such as the impact of a large

Sun path diagrams provide a broader overview of sun on a site as

they map the path of the sun across the sky at different times during the
day throughout the year. They can help establish the position of the sun
relative to a site and can be used to determine the effect of shadows cast
by buildings, trees and landforms on and around the site.

NIWA’s online tool Solar View can provide information quickly and
accurately. However, it only accounts for geographic (land) features.
Foliage and fences may also need to be considered. Be aware that if the
site is shaded for more than 40% of the time compared to a clear site, then
this has significant implications for the thermal performance of the house.

The orientation of the site plays a very important role in siting of the
building. This, when combined with the wind direction and sun path, would
give a good idea as to how the design should be oriented so as to optimise
the design. The orientation along with the sun path will also determine the
placement of rooms inside buildings. For instance, in a warm tropical
climate, the bedrooms will be placed such that they are not facing the
west or the south.


The average temperature of the area, as well as the monthly average

temperature has to be studied to determine the temperature range and the
fluctuations, which will impact the design.

The sun path direction tells one which will be the side from which the
maximum heat will be coming, especially in the afternoons. In warmer
climates, the design will try to reduce the amount of incident sunlight so as to
reduce the heat intake to a minimum. The lesser surface area of the building
which is exposed to the sun, lesser will be the conductive heating.

In colder climates, the design will try to maximize the amount of sunlight
incident on the building so as to have maximum warmth as possible.

The microclimate temperatures of the site may be different from the

general data collected at the airport and can vary significantly at the site.
Again, large bodies of water will tend to stabilize temperatures on the land
adjacent to them. During a hard freeze in the False River area of Louisiana,
most of the citrus trees within a quarter mile of the lake survived, while most of
those outside that area did not.

Through evapotranspiration, trees and other vegetation cool the air around
them. A moist lawn is 10° to 15°F cooler than bare soil and 30°F cooler than
unshaded asphalt. The shade temperature of a large tree can be 10° to 15°F
cooler than the unshaded lawn during a summer day.

Sites with a more southern slope will be warmer than a flat site because
radiation from the sun is more perpendicular to its surface. Likewise, a northern
sloping site would not receive as much radiation and would therefore be

- The coolest months fall in January with a mean temperature of 25.5

oC while the warmest month occurs in May with a mean

temperature of 28.3 oC.

- Based on the average of all weather stations in the Philippines,

excluding Baguio, the mean annual temperature is 26.6 oC.


Humidity is the amount of water vapor in the air. Water vapor is the gaseous
state of water and is invisible. Humidity indicates the likelihood
of precipitation, dew, or fog. Higher humidity reduces the effectiveness
of sweating in cooling the body by reducing the rate of evaporation of
moisture from the skin. This effect is calculated in a heat index table
or humidex. The amount of water vapor that is needed to achieve saturation
increases as the temperature increases. As the temperature of a parcel of air
becomes lower it will eventually reach the point of saturation without adding
or losing water mass. The differences in the amount of water vapor in a parcel
of air can be quite large, for example; A parcel of air that is near saturation
may contain 28 grams of water per cubic meter of air at 30 °C, but only 8 grams
of water per cubic meter of air at 8 °C.
There are three main measurements of humidity: absolute, relative and
specific. Absolute humidity is the water content of air at a given temperature
expressed in gram per cubic meter. Relative humidity, expressed as a percent,
measures the current absolute humidity relative to the maximum (highest
point) for that temperature. Specific humidity is a ratio of the water vapor
content of the mixture to the total air content on a mass basis.

Sites located near large bodies of water or rivers tend to be more humid
than inland areas. Wind direction also affects humidity. Downwind from the
water is more humid than up wind. Vegetation will also increase moisture in the
air. Water vapor is a gas that occupies the same space with other gases that
together constitute air. But in some ways, water vapor acts independently of
the air. For any given temperature and degree of saturation, water vapor in
the air exerts its own vapor pressure. It flows or migrates from areas of higher
vapor pressure toward areas of lower vapor pressure in air or in materials.
Moisture, driven by vapor pressure, can even travel through porous materials
through which air cannot pass.

Typically this happens in buildings, when warm moist air comes into contact
with cooler surfaces that are at, or below the dew point, such as windows, and
water condenses on those surfaces.

Condensation affects the performance of buildings causing problems such

• Mould
• Mildew
• Staining
• Slip Hazards
• Corrosion and Decay
• Poor Insulation

Fact: In the Philippines the average monthly relative humidity varies

between 71 percent in March and 85 percent in September.

 Air Temperature is the dominant control on RH

 Highest RH typically occurs at night when it is coldest
 Lowest RH occur mid day when it is hottest


The amount of rainfall that the site receives and also the time period
during which the rainfall occurs are to be found out. The average annual rainfall,
often measured in mm, gives you an idea about the precipitation happening
throughout the year.

It is also important to study the water drainage pattern in the site -

whether it stagnates, or if it flows following the natural slope, this has to be
analysed to incorporate in the design.

The Relative Humidity of the place also has to be found out to determine
the moisture content in the atmosphere. A higher relative humidity suggests a
humid climate, for which cross circulation of wind at the body level is a must for
comfort. A lower relative humidity will suggest a dry climate.

Hydrology, as the name suggests, refers to things related to water. During

the site visit, we need to identify water bodies present in and around the site like
ponds, lakes, rivers etc. The location and size of these water bodies should be
studied so that they can be integrated into the design scheme. The presence of
water can lead to reduction in the overall temperatures. It will also affect the
moisture content in the atmosphere. One thing to be checked is whether there is
any excessive glare present.

The water table is another very important feature in any site study. This refers
to the level below the soil at which water is present. For areas close to water
bodies, the water table may be very shallow. A shallow water table will affect the
stability of foundations and additional precautions will have to be taken.


Type I - There are two pronounced seasons: dry, from November to April;
wet, during the rest of the year.
Average rainfall : 100.58 in.
Type II - There is no dry season with a very pronounced maximum rain
period from November to January.
Average rainfall : 129.08 in.

Type III - Seasons are not very pronounced; relatively dry from November
to April and wet during the rest of the year.
Average rainfall : 77.26 in.

Type IV - Rainfall is more or less evenly distributed throughout the year.

Average rainfall : 101.84 in.


The mean annual rainfall of the Philippines varies from 965 to 4,064
millimeters annually.
Topography is the study of the shape and features of the surface of the Earth and
other observable astronomical objects including planets, moons, and asteroids. The
topography of an area could refer to the surface shapes and features themselves, or a
description (especially their depiction in maps).

This field of geoscience and planetary science is concerned with local detail in
general, including not only relief but also natural and artificial features, and even local
history and culture. This meaning is less common in the United States, where topographic
maps with elevation contours have made "topography" synonymous with relief. The older
sense of topography as the study of place still has currency in Europe.

Topography in a narrow sense involves the recording of relief or terrain, the three-
dimensional quality of the surface, and the identification of specific landforms. This is also
known as geomorphometry. In modern usage, this involves generation of elevation data
in digital form (DEM). It is often considered to include the graphic representation of the
landform on a map by a variety of techniques, including contour lines, hypsometric tints,
and relief shading.

It is a description of real estate that is sufficient to identify for legal purposes. In

most situations, the best practice is to use the legal description from the most
recent deed to the property.

a.1. Types of Legal Description

Subdivision (Lot and Block)

If real estate is located in a subdivision, the legal description may be
very simple. It will typically refer to one or more lots, the block/s on which
the lots are located, the subdivision name, and the country and state.

Survey (Metes and Bounds)

A metes and bounds description describes the property by locating
it within the public surveying system. The boundaries of the property are
described by working around a parcel of real estate in sequence, starting
with a point of beginning. The point of beginning could be a landmark or a
point described based in the United States Public Land Survey System.
B. Topographic maps and aerial photos

Topographic map

Aerial photo
b.1. Contours and spot elevations

Contour lines are used to determine elevations and are lines on a

map that are produced from connecting points of equal elevation.
Spot elevation are used principally to indicate points higher than
their surroundings.

Elevation of a point on a map or chat, usually indicated by a dot

accompanied by a number indicating the vertical distance of the point
from the reference datum.

Dealing with land contours in site analysis

b.2. Slopes: percentage, aspect, orientation

Slope is the rise or fall of a land surface. The direction of a slope faces
can affect the physical and biotic features of the slope.


Slope Aspect is the orientation of slope, measured clockwise in
degrees from 0 to 360, where 0 is north-facing, 90 is east-facing, 180 is south-
facing, and 270 is west-facing.

Slope Orientation is the compass direction that the slope of a land

surface faces toward (e.g., north, northwest, south)

Building on a sloping site offers many advantages. These

advantages include opportunities for views and the capture of prevailing
breezes. However building on a sloping site may require more site
planning and design consideration to minimise the environmental, visual
and amenity impact on neighbouring properties and surrounding

The key to minimising construction costs on a sloping site is to

reduce the amount of earthworks required to level the site through cut
and fill and to minimise the number of engineered retaining walls. This can
be achieved by adopting a house design that suits your sloping site.
Some cut and fill on sloping sites may be unavoidable, but the
visual, structural and drainage impacts can be mitigated by designing the
building to step with the landscape and minimise the need for extensive

b.3. Escarpments
Escarpment is an area of the Earth where elevation changes
suddenly. It usually refers to the bottom of a cliff or a steep slope and
separates two level land surface.
b.4. Erosion channels

Soil erosion is, at its core, a natural process. Put simply, it is when
topsoil, which is the upper-most layer of the ground, is moved from one
spot to another. Why this matters is because topsoil is the part of the land
that is highest in organic matter and best suited for farming and other
fertile activities, which is why soil erosion can have the greatest impact on
farmers and agricultural land. In other words, soil erosion is a naturally
occurring and slow process that refers to loss of field’s top soil by water
and wind or through conversion of natural vegetation to agricultural land.

When farming activities are carried out, the top soil is exposed and
is often blown away by wind or washed away by rain. When soil erosion
occurs, the movement of the detached topsoil is typically facilitated by
either a natural process – such as wind or water movement – or by the
impact of man, such as through tilling farmland.

Process of soil erosion is made up of three parts:

Detachment: This is when the topsoil is actually “detached” from the rest
of the ground.

Movement: This is when the topsoil is relocated to another area.

Deposition: Where the topsoil ends up after this process.

Causes of Soil Erosion

As mentioned, the predominant causes of soil erosion are either related to

naturally-occurring events or influenced by the presence of human
activity. Some of the principal causes of soil erosion include:

Rain and rainwater runoff: In a particular heavy rain, soil erosion is

common. First of all, the water starts to break down the soil, dispersing the
materials it is made of. Typically, rainwater runoff will impact lighter
materials like silt, organic matter, and finer sand particles, but in heavy
rainfall, this can also include the larger material components as well.

Farming: When land is worked through crops or other agricultural

processes, it reduces the overall structure of the soil, in addition to
reducing the levels of organic matter, making it more susceptible to the
effects of rain and water. Tilling in particular, because it often breaks up
and softens the structure of soil, can be a major contributor to erosion.
Farming practices that reduce this activity tend to have far less issues with
soil erosion.

Slope of the land: The physical characteristics of the land can also
contribute to soil erosion. For example, land with a high hill slope will
perpetuate the process of rainwater or runoff saturation in the area,
particularly due to the faster movement of the water down a slope.

Lack of vegetation: Plants and crops help maintain the structure of soils,
reducing the amount of soil erosion. Areas with less naturally-occurring
flora may be a hint that the soil is prone to erosion.

Wind: Wind can be a major factor in reducing soil quality and promotion
erosion, particularly if the soil’s structure has already been loosened up.
However, lighter winds will typically not cause too much damage, if any.
The most susceptible soil to this type of erosion is sandy or lighter soil that
can easily be transported through the air.

Effects of Soil Erosion

A major problem with soil erosion is that there is no telling how quickly or
slowly it will occur. If largely impacted by ongoing weather or climate
events, it may be a slow-developing process that is never even noticed.
However, a severe weather occurrence or other experience can
contribute to rapid-moving erosion, which can cause great harm to the
area and its inhabitants.

Some of the greatest effects of soil erosion include:

Loss of topsoil: Obviously, this is the biggest effect of soil erosion. Because
topsoil is so fertile, if it is removed, this can cause serious harm to farmer’s
crops or the ability to effectively work their land.

Soil compaction: When soil under the topsoil becomes compacted and
stiff, it reduces the ability for water to infiltrate these deeper levels,
keeping runoff at greater levels, which increases the risk of more serious

Reduced organic and fertile matter: As mentioned, removing topsoil that

is heavy with organic matter will reduce the ability for the land to
regenerate new flora or crops. When new crops or plants can’t be placed
successfully in the area, this perpetuates a cycle of reduced levels of
organic nutrients.

Poor drainage: Sometimes too much compaction with sand can lead to
an effective crust that seals in the surface layer, making it even harder for
water to pass through to deeper layers. In some ways, this can help
erosion because of the densely packed soil, but if it perpetuates greater
levels of runoff from rainwater or flooding, it can negatively impact the
crucial topsoil.

Issues with plant reproduction: When soil is eroded in an active cropland,

wind in particular makes lighter soil properties such as new seeds and
seedlings to be buried or destroyed. This, in turn, impacts future crop

Soil acidity levels: When the structure of the soil becomes compromised,
acidity, which will significantly impact the ability for plants and crops to

Long term erosion: Unfortunately, if an area is prone to erosion or has a

history of it, it becomes even harder to protect it in the future. The process
has already reduced the soil structure and organic matter of the area,
meaning that it will be harder to recover in the long run.

Water pollution: A major problem with runoff from soils – particularly those
used for agricultural processes – is that there is a greater likelihood that
sediment and contamination like the use of fertilizer or pesticide. This can
have significant damage on fish and water quality.

Solution for erosion:

When it comes to finding solutions for soil erosion, the most useful
techniques found tend to be those that emphasize reinforcing the
structure of the soil, and reducing processes that affect it.

Careful tilling: Because tilling activity breaks up the structure of soil, doing
less tilling with fewer passes will preserve more of the crucial topsoil.

Crop rotation: Plenty of crop rotation is crucial for keeping land happy
and healthy. This allows organic matter to build up, making future
plantings more fertile.

Increased structure for plants: Introducing terraces or other means of

stabilizing plant life or even the soil around them can help reduce the
chance that the soil loosens and erodes. Boosting areas that are prone to
erosion with sturdy plant life can be a great way to stave off future effects.
Water control: For those areas where soil erosion is predominantly caused
by water – whether natural or man-made – specialized chutes and runoff
pipes can help to direct these water sources away from the susceptible
areas, helping stave off excess erosion. Having these filters in particular
areas rather than leading to natural bodies of water is a focus to reduce

Increased knowledge: A major factor for preventing soil erosion is

educating more and more people who work with the land on why it is a
concern, and what they can do to help reduce it. This means outreach to
farmers in susceptible areas for ways that they can help protect crops
from inclement weather, or ways that they can help make sure their soil
remains compact without restricting their plant growing activities.

b.5. Extent, location, and general configuration of rocks, ledges outcrops,

idges, drainage lines and other features

UNIFORM SLOPES are indicated by parallel contours which are evenly


CONVEX SLOPES are shown by parallel contours spaced at increasing

intervals going uphill. In other words, the closer contours are at the lower

CONCAVE SLOPES are shown by parallel contours spaced at decreasing

intervals going uphill. In this case, the closer contours are at the higher

VALLEYS are indicated by contours that form a v-shape which point

uphill. These V’s are always an indication of a drainage path that could
also be a stream or river.

RIDGES are indicated v-shape pointing down the hill.

SUMMITS are contours forming circles. Highest point of

surface.DEPRESSIONS indicated by circular contour with lines radiating to
the center.
b.6. Visual Characteristics
A physical characteristic present in a site that can be used as a
part of a certain project.

b.7. Potential problem areas during construction

Soil erosion- wearing away of topsoil

Siltation- a process by which water becomes dirty as a result of fine
mineral particles in the water.

Controlling Sediment and Erosion on Construction Sites

Controlling sediment and erosion problems are critical to an

effective storm water pollution prevention plan, or SWPPP. In
addition, controlling runoff water helps to reduce erosion and
sediment problems and ultimately reduces the environmental
impact of a project.

Minimizing Disturbed Areas

When starting your construction project, be careful to disturb

only the areas necessary for construction. This is the best way to limit
the amount of erosion and sediment control that is required
throughout the project. Keep natural vegetation in place and leave
topsoil undisturbed as much as possible.
Phasing Construction Activity

Control erosion and sedimentation by dividing your project

into phases, and do not break new ground until absolutely
necessary. This limits the amount of erosion and sediment control
that you must manage during each construction phase.
Completing each phase will also complete the erosion control for
that area (in many cases) so you can focus on controls in the area
of the next phase.

Sediment Traps or Ditches

Sediment traps and ditches are common methods of

controlling runoff water from within and around construction
areas. This can include site work to redirect natural runoff to a
sediment trap or similar structure to trap sediment-filled runoff
water. Runoff also can be controlled by redirecting it with
diversion ditches located at the up-slope side of a
construction site.

Stabilizing Soil

Many permits require you to have stabilization

measures in place after a specific time frame. Some
temporary measures can include the use of seeding, mulch,
blankets, and wool binders. If the stabilization measure is
permanent, it may include permanent seeding, planting,
channel stabilization, and green buffer. After the permanent
stabilization is complete, you can go to your SWPPP to mark
the area as completed and stop inspections in that area.

Slope Protection

There are multiple options for erosion and sediment

control on slopes. On gentle to moderate slopes, active
measures such as silt fencing or fiber rolls can be installed on
leveled contours between 10 or 20 feet in distance. Geo-
textiles, turf blankets, and mats can also be used for slope

Storm Inlet Protection

Storm inlets typically are protected inside a project area

and, less frequently, on adjacent or nearby storm drain inlets.
Storm inlet protection can be achieved by using silt fencing,
rock-filled bags, or block and gravel. The protection method
used depends on the type of drain inlet, the configuration of
the inlet opening, and the expected flow.

Controlling the Perimeter

A clean perimeter is established by installing a temporary silt

fence barrier that is trenched into the ground to provided lateral
resistance. Note that a perimeter fence is effective at retaining
sediment carried by stormwater only in small areas and is useless for
large areas and high slopes. Do not use silt fencing or fiber rolls
alone in areas that drain more than a quarter-acre per 100 feet of

Dewatering and Sediment Traps

Sediment control traps or basins reduce runoff water and

allow sediment to settle before it is discharged. EPA requires that a
sediment basin works as a sediment trap to reduce the amount of
energy being discharged into water systems. Sediment basins must
have the capacity to store at least two years of storm runoff water.

Dewatering practices are used to remove ground water or

accumulated rain water from excavated areas. Sometimes a
separate permit is required for dewatering activities.
Site Inspections

Regular inspection of the construction site is critical to

controlling sediment and erosion problems. Sites should be
inspected after any storm event, including a light rain,
according to the management plan. Routine inspections help
to ensure the system is prepared to handle runoff water
appropriately and to promote early detection of potential

C. Analysis of Physical feature, including major focal and vantage

points and their relationship within, into, and out from the site

Physical features is a natural feature on the surface such as water,

mountains and deserts.
Landforms are natural features of the landscape, natural physical features
of the earth's surface.

D. Existing access and circulation

Circulation – how do visitors/pedestrians/traffic to or near the site

flow around or within it.

Accessibility – current provisions of disabled access to the site and

how will this need to be considered.
Ex. Chabot College
Vehicular and pedestrian circulation patterns are illustrated on this

Campus entry points and major vehicular circulation routes are

shown, along with areas allocated for parking. Pedestrian
circulation patterns are illustrated on this graphic, along with
underutilized outdoor spaces.

Pedestrian paths from parking lots, drop-offs and bus stops are
illustrated along with the major pedestrian circulation routes
through campus.
The following issues were identified:

 Signage announcing Chabot College is inadequate along

Hesperian Boulevard.
 The campus does not have a clear "front door".
 The campus is inwardly focused.
 Accessing the parking lots is unclear.
 Navigating the parking lots is confusing.
 There is limited directional signage on campus for first-time visitors.
 A clear pattern of pedestrian circulation exists on campus.
 The elliptical circulation path is disorienting without clear landmarks
and uniform buildings.
 Some outdoor areas are actively utilized, while others are under-
developed and under-utilized.

Zone A - Grand Court and Library

The existing character of this space is a large, almost entirely unbroken

expanse of paving. Pollarded sycamore trees separate the turf
amphitheatre from the paved plaza area. Two groves of Magnolia
grandiflora create dense shade on either side of the library. This zone is
one of the key landscape identity areas for the campus. It is desirable to
make this area more attractive, inviting and accessible on a day to day
basis while maintaining the flexibility of the space to be used for many

 Enhance the Grand Court as a campus focal point.

 Strengthen the landscape identity of the space.
 Provide human scale and places that invite use on a day to day
 Update amenities and provide additional seating.
 Reduce large expanses of paving and inconsistent paving
Zone B - Covered Walk

The covered walk is the main circulation route within the campus. I
provides protection from the sun and rain while connecting to centrally
located buildings. The covered walk creates narrow, shady planting areas
adjacent to some buildings including the library and the central services
building. These are difficult to plant and maintain with any success.

 Enhance and differentiate paving from adjacent uses.

 Update site furniture, lighting and signage and incorporate
additional seating.
 Enhance connections with adjacent plazas
 Raise height of adjacent planters to provide additional soil depth.
Plant with appropriate shade tolerant plants that provide color and
texture in shaded areas.


Vegetation is an assemblage of plant species and the ground

cover they provide.

Existing trees and plants on a site should be assessed for their

value to the site including to provide shade, wind shelter, soil stability
and a habitat for birds.

They also provide aesthetic value and, if removed, take many

years to replace.
The impact of the building’s proximity to an existing tree – a
building too close to a tree may affect its long-term viability.

The possibility of incorporating a tree or shrub into the building

design, for example, designing a house or a deck around it

Trees that are protected under the District Plan or site-specific

documents such as an open space covenant and must be retained.

F. Existing water bodies

A body of water or waterbody (often spelled water body) is any significant

accumulation of water, generally on a planet's surface. The term most often refers
to oceans, seas, and lakes, but it includes smaller pools of water such
as ponds, wetlands, or more rarely, puddles. A body of water does not have to be
still or contained; rivers, streams, canals, and other geographical features where
water moves from one place to another are also considered bodies of water.
f.1. Location, sizes, depth, direction of flow and

f.2. Water quality: clean, polluted, anaerobic condition, etc.

The Environmental Management Bureau projected a classification of one
thousand nineteen (1,019) water bodies in the country according to
beneficial use by CY 2019. Seven hundred ninety one of these are already
classified according to beneficial use and two hundred twenty eight (228)
are targeted to be classified until CY 2019.

The identification of these one thousand nineteen (1,019) water bodies is

listed according to regional distribution and location by province.

The classification according to beneficial use of seven hundred ninety

one (791) water bodies from the identified one thousand nineteen (1,019)
water bodies as well as the identified Water Quality Management Areas
(WQMAs) and its respective classifications are integrated in the
aforementioned information.

The classification serves as a benchmark, hence water bodies and its

tributaries within WQMAs shall keep its water quality within the Water
Quality Guidelines conforming to the water body’s classification (e.g.,
Class C or Class SC) or even improve the quality to higher classification
(e.g., from C to B or SC to SB). A WQMA Action Plan shall be prepared in
order to address water quality issues and problems in the area and later
result to the improvement or better water quality of the said water body.

To date, there are thirty seven (37) officially- designated WQMAs,

including the areas within the jurisdiction of LLDA which was designated
as one management area by virtue of the Clean Water Act.
The water quality is assessed based on the set beneficial use as defined in
DENR Administrative Order Number 2016-08 (Water Quality Guidelines and
General Effluent Standards).

Below are Tables 1 and 2 for the water body classification and usage of
freshwater and marine waters, respectively.

Groundwater is replenished or recharged by rain and seepage

from rivers. It contributes 14 percent of the total water resource
potential of the Philippines. Region X has the lowest potential
source of groundwater compared to its surface water potential,
while Regions I and VII have the highest potential.

Groundwater is used for drinking by about 50 percent of the

people in the country. Based on the water rights granted by the
National Water Resources Board (NWRB) since 2002, 49 percent of
groundwater is consumed by the domestic sector, and the
remaining shared by agriculture (32 percent), industry (15 percent),
and other sectors (4 percent). About 60 percent of the
groundwater extraction is without water-right permits, resulting in
indiscriminate withdrawal. A high percentage (86 percent) of
piped-water supply systems uses groundwater as a source.

Water Quality

Pollution of groundwater may come from domestic wastewater,

agricultural runoffs, and industrial effluents. This occurs when
contaminants reach the aquifer or water table in the form of

Domestic wastewater is the main contributor of bacterial

contamination to the groundwater supplies. The presence of
coliform bacteria in drinking water supplies can cause water-borne
diseases such as diarrhea, cholera, dysentery, hepatitis A, and
others. Limited data on the bacteriological content of
groundwater from 129 wells indicated a high level of positive
coliform bacteria in 75 wells (58 percent).

Another problem is saline water intrusion, which is caused by over-

exploitation or excessive withdrawal of groundwater. This reduces
water availability for domestic usage, including drinking and
agricultural usage.
f.3. Use: seasonal, year round


Year-round streams (perennial) typically have water flowing in

them your-round. Most of the water comes from smaller upstream
waters or ground water while runoff from rainfall or other
precipitation is supplemental

Rain-dependent streams (ephemeral) flow only after precipitation.

Runoff from rainfall is the primary source of water for these streams.
Like seasonal streams, they can be found anywhere but are most
prevalent in arid areas.



There are 421 rivers, not counting small mountain streams that
sometimes swell to three times their size during rainy months. The
rivers are an important means of transportation and a valuable

source of irrigation water for fields and farms through which they
pass. There are also 59 natural lakes and more than 100 000 ha of
freshwater swamps.

The five principal river basins, cover more than 5 000 km2, are:

 Cagayan river basin in north Luzon (25 469 km2);

 Mindanao river basin on Mindanao island (23 169 km2);
 Agusan river basin on Mindanao island (10 921 km2);
 Pampanga river basin near Manila on Luzon island (9 759 km2);
 Agno river basin on Luzon island (5 952 km2).

Only 18 river basins have an area greater than 1 000 km2: eight are
on the island of Mindanao, seven on Luzon, two on Panay and one
on Negros Island. The smallest river basins are frequently under 50

In order to have manageable units for comprehensive planning of

water resources, the National Water Resources Board divided the
country into 12 water resources regions. Major considerations taken
into account in this regionalization were the hydrological boundaries
defined by physiographic features and homogeneity in climate of
the different parts of the country. In fact, these water resources
regions generally correspond to the existing political regions. Minor
deviations dictated by hydrography affected only northern Luzon
and northern Mindanao.

The average annual precipitation is about 2 348 mm (Table 2). The

long-term average annual renewable surface water resources are
an estimated 444 km3. In nine years out of ten, the annual runoff
exceeds 257 km3. Groundwater resources are distributed in four
major areas covering around 33 500 km2: 10 000 km2 in Cagayan,
9 000 km2 in Central Luzon, 8 500 km2 in Agusan, and 6 000 km2 in
Cotobato. Combined with smaller reservoirs already identified, this
aggregates to about 50 000 km2. The groundwater resources are an
estimated 180 km3/year, of which 80 percent (145 km3/year)
constitute the base flow of the river systems. Total internal water
resources are therefore 444+180-145=479 km3/year.

f.4. Wetlands: ecological features

Wetland is a land are that is saturated with water, either

permanently or seasonally. Areas where water covers the soil.
f.5. Variations: expected water levels, tides, wave action

Water Level is the height reached by the water in a reservoir, river,


Tides are the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined
effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the Moon and the
Sun, and the rotation of the Earth.

Wave action refers to a conservable measure of the wave part of a


f.6. Coastal features
Ria coast is formed when a rise of sea level or a crustal sinking
(or both) brings the shoreline to rest against the sides of river
valleys previously carved by streams. Because the new
embayments are fed fresh water from the streams the valleys
formerly contained, they become estuaries.

Fiord coast is similar to the ria coast. Steep-walled fiords are

created from submerged glacial troughs rather than from
submerged stream valleys, as in the case of ria coasts.

Barrier-island coast is associated with a recently emerged

coastal plain. A barrier island is a low ridge of sand, lying a short
distance from the coast, that is created by wave action and
increases in height as coastal winds fortify the island with dunes.

Deltas can grow rapidly, example at rates ranging from 3 m

(about 10 ft) per year for the Nile Delta to 60 m (about 200 ft) per
year for the Mississippi Delta. Some cities and towns that were at
river mouths several hundred years ago are today several
kilometers inland.

Volcano coasts arise where volcanic deposits—lava and ash—

flow from active volcanoes into the ocean. Wave action erodes
the fresh deposits, creating low cliffs. Beaches are typically
narrow, steep, and composed of fine particles of the extrusive
rock. Coral-reef coasts are unique because the new land
is made by organisms—corals and algae. Growing
together, these organisms secrete rock-like deposits of
carbonate minerals, called coral reefs. As coral colonies die,
new ones are built on them, accumulating as limestone.

The final type of coastline is a Fault coast. Faulting of the coastal

margin of a continent can leave the shoreline resting against a
fault scarp. A classic example occurs on the northern coast
of Chile, where the Andes Mountains rise from the Peru–Chile
trench. In central California, near the coastal town of
Lucia, the continental shelf is very narrow, suggesting that
the marine cliffs there are the result of faulting.
G. Drainage Canals: rivers, streams, marshes, lakes, ponds,etc.

DRAINAGE - is the natural or artificial removal of a surface's water and sub-

surface water from an area.


 NATURAL DRAINAGE - this means that excess water flows from

the farmers' fields to swamps or to lakes and rivers.

 ARTIFICIAL/ BUILT DRAINAGE - employ the help of pipes, wells,

and other constructed materials to achieve a successful
drainage solution.


o CONTOUR CANAL - These canals run nearly parallel to

the contours of the country. Main canal taking off from a
river is mostly contour canal for some length near the
diversion head works. Even branch and distributaries can
be contour canals. The contour chosen for the alignment
should include all the contours of the area it has to

Contour canals, provide irrigation on one side only as

contours of other side are higher and irrigation water
cannot flow under gravity. However, irrigation facilities
can be provided to the area lying on higher side of the
contour canal by lift canals.

Contour canals have only one bank. Other side being

higher does not require the second bank. These canals
are also be having two banks also. They do not follow
the same contour all along. Some longitudinal slope has
to be given to cause flow in the canal. Because of
longitudinal slope, contour canal slowly leaves the higher
contour and adopts the next lower contour.

o RIDGE CANAL - The canal which follows the ridge of the

country is known as ridge canal. It generally takes off
from a contour canal. It irrigates on both sides. Since this
canal can irrigate areas along both the banks it
commands the largest area with minimum length of
canal. They do not cross any drainage and hence
constructions of cross-drainage works are obviated. If
ridge takes a very sharp turn the canal should be aligned

This reduces the length of the canal but involves

construction of cross drainage work to pass run-off from
enclosed area, to the other side of the canal. Also
irrigation in this enclosed area cannot be done. Canals
may also have to leave the watershed to bye-pass the
towns and villages located on the water shed. Most of
the irrigation canals are ridge canals.

o SIDE SLOPE CANAL - The side slope channels are aligned

roughly at right angles to the contour canals, along the
slope between the ridges and the valleys. They are
roughly parallel to the natural drainage of the country.
They do not intercept any cross-drainage and hence no
cross-drainage works have to be constructed. Side slope
canals have to be lined, as they have very steep bed
slope and Kucha canal may not withstand the erosive
effect of increased velocities.
 DRAINAGE GRADIENT - is a term in road design, defined as the
combined slope due to road surface cross slope (CS) and
longitudinal slope (hilliness). Although the term may not be
used, the concept is also used in roof design and landscape

If the drainage gradient is too low, rain and melt water

drainage will be Insufficient. This results in water pooling on the
road surface, thereby increasing the risk for hydroplaning and
wet-pavement vehicle crashes.


Most road design manuals require drainage gradient to
exceed 0.5%, in order to drain water and prevent excessive
skid accidents.


Typically, on straight road sections, the drainage gradient is
at least 1–3% due to the normal cross slope of 1–3%.
The road's longitudinal slope contributes to a high drainage
gradient. However, longitudinal highway slopes steeper than
0.5% are surprisingly rare outside hilly or mountainous areas.


 ACCORDANT DRAINAGE PATTERN - A drainage system is described as

accordant if its pattern correlates to the structure and relief of the
landscape over which it flows.

o DENDRITIC DRAINAGE PATTERN - are not straight and are the

most common form of drainage system. In a dendritic
system, there are many contributing streams (analogous to
the twigs of a tree), which are then joined together into the
tributaries of the main river (the branches and the trunk of
the tree, respectively). They develop where the river channel
follows the slope of the terrain. Dendritic systems form in V-
shaped valleys; as a result, the rock types must be
impervious and non-porous.
o PARALLEL DRAINAGE PATTERN - is a pattern of rivers caused by
steep slopes with some relief. Because of the steep slopes, the
streams are swift and straight, with very few tributaries, and all
flow in the same direction.

Parallel drainage patterns form where there is a pronounced

slope to the surface. A parallel pattern also develops in regions
of Tributary streams tend to stretch out in a parallel-like fashion
following the slope of the surface. A parallel pattern sometimes
indicates the presence of a major fault that cuts across an area
of steeply folded bedrock. All forms of transitions can occur
between parallel, dendritic, and trellis patterns.

o TRELLIS DRAINAGE PATTERN - is similar to that of a common

garden trellis along a strike valley, smaller tributaries feed into
from the steep slopes on the sides of mountains. These
tributaries enter the main river at approximately 90-degree
angle, causing a trellis-like appearance of the drainage system.
develops on rocks that are of approximately uniform resistance
to erosion, but which have two directions of joining at
approximately right angles or 90 degrees. The joints are usually
less resistant to erosion than the bulk rock so erosion tends to
preferentially open the joints and streams eventually develop
along the joints. The result is a stream system in which streams
consist mainly of straight line segments with right angle bends
and tributaries join larger streams at right angles.

o RADIAL DRAINAGE PATTERN - the streams radiate outwards from

a central high point. Volcanos usually display excellent radial
drainage. They can sometimes also be found on tops of
mountains. Other geological features on which radial drainage
commonly develops are domes and laccoliths. On these
features the drainage may exhibit a combination of radial
patterns. The radical pattern develops when streams flow in
different directions from a central peak or dome like structure.

o CENTRIPETAL DRAINAGE PATTERN - The centripetal drainage

system is similar to the radial drainage system, with the only
exception that radial drainage flows out versus centripetal
drainage flows in.

o DERANGED DRAINAGE PATTERN - is a drainage system in

drainage basins where there is no coherent pattern to the rivers
and lakes. It happens in areas where there has been much
geological disruption.
o ANNULAR DRAINAGE PATTERN - streams follow a roughly circular
or concentric path along a belt of weak rock, resembling in
plan a ring like pattern. It is best displayed by streams draining a
maturely dissected structural dome or basin where erosion has
exposed rimming sedimentary strata of greatly varying degrees
of hardness.

o ANGULAR DRAINAGE PATTERN - Angular drainage patterns form

where bedrock joints and faults intersect at more acute angles
than rectangular drainage patterns. Angles are both more and
less than 90 degrees.
 DISCORDANT DRAINAGE PATTERN - A drainage pattern is described as
discordant if it does not correlate to the topography and geology of the
area. Discordant drainage patterns are classified into two main types:
antecedent and superimposed, while anteposition drainage patterns
combine the two. In antecedent drainage, a river's vertical incision ability
matches that of land uplift due to tectonic forces. Superimposed
drainage develops differently: initially, a drainage system develops on a
surface composed of 'younger' rocks, but due to denudative activities this
surface of younger rocks is removed and the river continues to flow over a
seemingly new surface, but one in fact made up of rocks of old
geological formation.

H.Existing waterways easements

Easement is a right of use over the property of another. Traditionally,

the permitted kinds of uses were limited, the most important being right
of way and right concerning flowing waters.

Purpose of Waterway Easements

The right to install a storm drain to carry rainwater to a river, wetland, or other
body of water.


h.1. Surface Easement

Surface drainage is the removal of excess water from the surface of
the land. This is normally accomplished by shallow ditches, also called open
drains. The shallow ditches discharge into larger and deeper collector
drains. In order to facilitate the flow of excess water toward the drains, the
field is given an artificial slope by means of land grading

h.2. Subsurface Easement

A right easement is a right given party to use space
underground such as for buried electrical, cable, water or sewage
I.Surface Drainage

Surface drainage refers to the removal of surface water by

development of the slope of the land utilizing systems of drains to carry
away the surplus water. In subsurface drainage open ditches and tile
fields intercept groundwater and carry it off.

i.1. Patterns On and Off the Site

 Dendritic

o Most common form and looks like the branching

pattern of tree roots.
o Develops in regions underlain by homogeneous
o The subsurface geology has a similar resistance to
weathering so there is no apparent control over the
direction the tributaries take.
o Tributaries joining a larger stream at acute angle (less
than 90 degrees).

 Deranged

o Found in areas recently disturbed by events like glacial

activity or volcanic deposition.
o Over time, the stream will adjust the topography of
such regions by transporting sediment to improve flow
and channel pattern.
 Centripetal

o The opposite of the radial as streams flow toward a

central depression.
o This pattern is typical in the western and southwestern
portions of the United States where basins exhibit
interior drainage.
o During wetter portions of the year, these streams feed
ephemeral lakes, which evaporate away during dry
o Salt flats are created in these dry lake beds as salt
dissolved in the lake water precipitates out of solution
and is left behind when the water evaporates away.

 Trellised

o It is a rectangular shaped drainage pattern that

develops where bands of rocks vary in resistance.
o In some areas there are alternate bands of hard and
soft rocks.
o The flowing water can erode the soft rocks and thus
flows along the bands of soft rock.
o Many such water channels form a trellis.
o The streams (called subsequent rivers) cut out the
valleys (called vales) and join the main river (called
Consequent River) at right angles.
o The main river, by sheer force, cuts the hard rock and
flows down the slope forming an escarpment and thus
a river gap is created.
i.2.Proximity to Floodplains

Naturally attracted human settlement due to

their proximity to water supplies, fertile soils and flat landscape,
which make them attractive for building and construction. As a
result, a large proportion of the global population now lives on
river floodplains.

 Maximum Flood Levels

o Flood stage is the level at which a body of water's

surface has risen to a sufficient level to cause
sufficient inundation of areas that are not normally
covered by water, causing an inconvenience or a
threat to life and/or property.
o When a body of water rises to this level, it is
considered a flood event.
 Frequently Flooded Areas

o Those areas identified on FEMA flood insurance

maps as areas of special flood hazard, which
include those lands in the floodplain subject to a
one percent or greater chance of flooding in
any given year.

i.3.Local Watershed Areas, Amount of Runoff Collected and Location

of Outfalls
A Watershed is a land area whose runoff drains into any
stream, river, lake, and ocean. Watershed boundary is the
divide separating one drainage area from another.
i.4.Swampy and Concave Areas of Land without Positive
Drainage and other Obstacles that may interrupt or obstruct
Natural Surface Drainage

i.5. Potential Areas for Impoundments, Detention/Retention Ponds

 As a consequence of the process of suburbanisation and the

decrease of natural landscapes and permeable soil surfaces,
rainfall-triggered, increased surface runoff and so-called
urban floods are often causes significant loss in human
properties and may pose a threat to human lives.
 To mitigate future economic losses, the objective of the
present study was to carry out a rapid method (vertical
distance based inundation mapping, VDBIM) to delineate the
extent of impounded areas at 1 m, 5 m and 10 m above the
actual riverbed.
 Due to the narrow valleys in the headwater section of the
catchment, the combined area of the flooded valleys was
only 1.75 larger at 10-m water depth than at 1-m
 Impounded areas include residential areas, transport routes
(primarily the railway), industrial estates, and agricultural and
food processing facilities.
 Flash floods pose a significant threat to railway embankments
as this strategic-importance railroad connects with the
national capital.

J.Unique Site Features

Can be a barrowed landscapes

Rock formation at a Beach in Batanes, Philippines

Mount Pinatubo

Chocolate Hills, Bohol


Geotechnical engineering is the branch of civil engineering concerned with the

engineering behavior of earth materials. Geotechnical engineering is important in civil
engineering, but also has applications in military, mining, petroleum and
other engineering disciplines that are concerned with construction occurring on the
surface or within the ground. Geotechnical engineering uses principles of soil
mechanics and rock mechanics to investigate subsurface conditions and materials;
determine the relevant physical/mechanical and chemical properties of these materials;
evaluate stability of natural slopes and man-made soil deposits; assess risks posed by site
conditions; design earthworks and structure foundations; and monitor site conditions,
earthwork and foundation construction.
A typical geotechnical engineering project begins with a review of project needs to
define the required material properties. Then follows a site investigation of soil, rock, fault
distribution and bedrock properties on and below an area of interest to determine their
engineering properties including how they will interact with, on or in a
proposed construction. Site investigations are needed to gain an understanding of the
area in or on which the engineering will take place. Investigations can include the
assessment of the risk to humans, property and the environment from natural hazards
such as earthquakes, landslides, sinkholes, soil liquefaction, debris flows and rockfalls.
A geotechnical engineer then determines and designs the type of foundations,
earthworks, and/or pavement subgrades required for the intended man-made structures
to be built. Foundations are designed and constructed for structures of various sizes such
as high-rise buildings, bridges, medium to large commercial buildings, and smaller
structures where the soil conditions do not allow code-based design.
Foundations built for above-ground structures include shallow and deep foundations.
Retaining structures include earth-filled dams and retaining walls. Earthworks
include embankments, tunnels, dikes and levees, channels, reservoirs, deposition
of hazardous waste and sanitary landfills.
Geotechnical engineering is also related to coastal and ocean engineering. Coastal
engineering can involve the design and construction of wharves, marinas, and jetties.
Ocean engineering can involve foundation and anchor systems for offshore
structures such as oil platforms.
The fields of geotechnical engineering and engineering geology are closely related, and
have large areas of overlap. However, the field of geotechnical engineering is a
specialty of engineering, where the field of engineering geology is a specialty
of geology. Coming from the fields of engineering and science, respectively, the two
may approach the same subject, such as soil classification, with different methods.
Soil is simply a porous medium consisting of minerals, water, gases, organic matter, and
The traditional definition is: a dynamic natural body having properties derived from the
combined effects of climate and biotic activities, as modified by topography, acting on
parent materials over time.
It affects the human activities from agriculture to engineering and construction of roads,
building & sewage disposal system.
Property also varies according to the type of soil whether Sandy soil, clayey soil, laterite
and etc, all have different properties, which affect the design of the building.

A. Basic surface soil type

a.1. Sand
a naturally occurring granular material
composed of finely divided rock and mineral
particles. It is defined by size, being finer
than gravel and coarser than silt.

a.2. Clay
a fine-grained natural rock or soil material that
combines one or more clay minerals with traces of metal
oxides and organic matter.
a.3. Silt
Granular material of a size between sand and clay, whose
mineral origin is quartz and feldspar.

a.4. Rock
Is a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.

Three major groups of rocks are defined:

igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic.

• a.5. Shale
A fine-grained, elastic sedimentary rock composed
of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny
fragments of other minerals.
a.6. Gravel
Composed of unconsolidated rock fragments that have a
general particle size range and include size classes
from granule- to boulder-sized fragments.

a.7. Loam
Composed mostly of sand, silt and clay at 40%-40%-
20% concentration. These proportions can vary to a
degree, however, and result in different types of loam
a.8. Limestone
Composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine
organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs. Its major
materials are calcite and aragonite.
About 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones.

a.9. Alkali Soil

Are clay soils with high pH (> 8.5), a poor soil structure and a
low infiltration capacity.
Alkali soils has an unfavorable physico-chemical properties
which causes the soil to swell and difficult to clarify/settle.

a.10. Permafrost Soil

Is ground at or below the freezing point of water 0 °C (32 °F)
for two or more years.
Most permafrost is located in high latitudes, but alpine
permafrost may exist at high altitudes in much lower latitudes.

a.11. Peat Soil

Is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation or
organic matter that is unique to natural areas
called peatlands, bogs, or mires.

Peat forms in wetland conditions, where flooding obstructs

flows of oxygen from the atmosphere, slowing rates of
B. Rock and soil type
b.1. Igneous Rock
Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ignis
meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three
main rock types. Igneous rock is formed through the
cooling and solidification of magma or lava.

Melting is caused by:

 an increase in temperature
 a decrease in pressure
 or a change in composition
Solidification into rock occurs either below the surface
as intrusive rocks or on the surface as extrusive rocks.
b.2 Sedimentary Rock
Rock that has formed through the deposition and
solidification of sediment, especially sediment
transported by water (rivers, lakes, and oceans), ice
(glaciers), and wind. Sedimentary rocks are often
deposited in layers, and frequently contain fossils

Sedimentation is the collective name for processes

that cause mineral and/or organic particles to settle
in place.
The sediment was formed by weathering and erosion.
Then transported to the place of deposition by agents
of denudation.
The sedimentary rock cover of the continents of
the Earth's crust is extensive at 73% of the Earth's
current land surface.
b.3. Metamorphic Rock
a type of rock which has been changed by extreme
heat and pressure. Its name is from 'morph'
(meaning form), and 'meta' (meaningchange). The
original rock gets heated (temperatures greater than
150 to 200 °C) and pressured (1500 bars). This causes
profound physical and/or chemical change.
b.4. Bearing capacity
In geotechnical engineering, bearing capacity is the capacity
of soil to support the loads applied to the ground. The bearing capacity
of soil is the maximum average contact pressure between
the foundation and the soil which should not produce shear failure in
the soil.

Bedrock (also termed Bed rock) is a layer of undisturbed rock usually

located beneath a surface layer of soil or other material. In areas of high-
erosion, bedrock may become exposed to the surface.
c.1. Depth to bedrock
Bedrock can extend hundreds of meters below the
surface of the Earth, toward the base of Earth's crust. In some
areas, the bedrock layer is exposed, while in others it is
hundreds of meters below the surface. Scientists believe that
bedrock extends to the base of the planet's crust. The upper
boundary of bedrock is called its rockhead.

c.2. Bedrock classification

Because till is often derived from local bedrock,
bedrock geology can often be used as a good indicator of
till composition and texture in cases where no other
information exists.

1. Intrusive–granite/granodiorite/diorite/monzonite/syenite/pegmatite

2. Ultramafic–gabbro/pyroxinite/hornblendite/serpentinite/dunite

3. Metamorphic–gneiss

4. Metamorphic–schist/phyllite/amphibolite/slate

5a. Sedimentary (Mesozoic or older) -


5b. Sedimentary (Cenozoic or younger)–sandstone/wacke/conglomerate

6. Sedimentary–Limestone/dolostone (or dolomite)/marble

7. Sedimentary–siltstone/shale/mudstone

8. Volcanic (andesite or rhyolite)–flows/breccias/porphyries

9. Volcanic (basalt)–flows/breccias/porphyries/greenstone

10. Volcanic–tuffs/pyroclastics/lahars
D. Seismic conditions

d.1. Seismic Waves

Are waves of energy that travel through the Earth's layers,
and are a result of earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, magma
movement, large landslides and large man-made explosions.

Earthquakes create distinct types of waves with different

velocities, their different travel times help scientists to locate the
source of the hypocenter.

d.2. Seismic Hazards

The probability that an earthquake will occur in a given
geographic area, within a given window of time, and with ground
motion intensity exceeding a given threshold. With a hazard thus
estimated, risk can be assessed and included in such areas as building
codes for standard buildings, designing larger buildings and
infrastructure projects, land use planning and determining insurance

The seismic hazard studies also may generate two standard

measures of anticipated ground motion, both confusingly abbreviated
MCE; the simpler probabilistic Maximum Considered Earthquake (or
Event ), used in standard building codes, and the more detailed
and deterministic Maximum Credible Earthquake incorporated in the
design of larger buildings and civil infrastructure like dams or bridges. It
is important to clarify which MCE is being discussed.
E. Environmental Hazards

• An environmental hazard is a substance, state or event which has the

potential to threaten the surrounding natural environment and / or
adversely affect people's health.
• Incorporates topics like pollution and natural disasters such as storms
and earthquakes.
• Hazards can be categorized in four types:
 Chemical
 Physical (mechanical, etc.)
 Biological
 Psychosocial

Antibiotic agents in animals destined for human consumption
Arsenic - a contaminant of fresh water sources (water wells)
Asbestos - carcinogenic
Endocrine disruptors
Explosive material
Halo alkanes
Heavy metals
Hormones in animals destined for human consumption
Lead in paint
Marine debris
Polychlorinated biphenyls
Radon and other natural sources of radioactivity
Soil pollution
Tobacco smoking
Toxic waste

e.2. Physical
Cosmic rays
Electromagnetic fields
Light pollution
Noise pollution
Ultraviolet light

e.3. Biological

Avian influenza
Food poisoning
Pollen for allergic people
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
Sick building syndrome

e.4. Hazard Maps of Tacloban City


Utilities mean useful features, or something useful to the home and businesses such as
electricity, gas, water, cable and telephone.

A. Potable Water
Water that is safe for drinking.
Apart from drinking it to survive, people have many other uses for water. These

washing their bodies
washing clothes
washing cooking and eating utensils; such as billies, saucepans, crockery and
keeping houses and communities clean
recreation; such as swimming pools
keeping plants alive in gardens and parks

a.1. Recycled water

These are all alternative water supplies that, when treated as

required, are suitable for a range of purposes.

It contributes to conservation of drinking quality water, improves

the reliability of our water supplies, frees up water for the
environment or growth, and reduces the amount of treated
effluent discharged into our bays and oceans.
B. Electricity

Electricity is the presence and flow of electric charge.

Using electricity we can transfer energy in ways that allow us to accomplish

common chores.

b.1. Solar power

The conversion of energy from sunlight into electricity

b.2.Solar photovoltaic system

A power system designed to supply usable solar power by means

of photovoltaic.

b.3.Concentrated solar power

Use lenses or mirrors and tracking systems to focus a large area of

sunlight into a small beam.


Is the replacement of overhead cables providing electrical power

or telecommunications, with underground cables.

typically performed for fire prevention and to make the power lines
less susceptible to outages during high wind thunderstorms or
heavy snow or ice storms.
C. Gas

Is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon used as a source of energy for

heating, cooking, and electricity generation.

c.1. Gas transmission system

Is piped
in an underground system similar to water distribution.
D. Telephone
Is a telecommunications device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when
they are too far apart to be heard directly.

E. Cable Television

A system in which television programs are transmitted to the sets of

subscribers by cable rather than by a broadcast signal.
F. Sanitary Sewer Service

Is a system of underground pipes that carries sewage from bathrooms, sinks,

kitchens, and other plumbing components to a wastewater treatment plant
where it is filtered, treated and discharged.

f.1. Sewage treatment

The process of removing contaminants from municipal

wastewater, containing mainly household sewage plus some
industrial wastewater.
G. Storm drainage

A system designed to carry rainfall runoff and other drainage. It designed

to carry sewage or accept hazardous wastes.

g.1. Surface storm water system

Occurs when rainwater falls on a property and drains away.

a.2.Subsurface storm water system

Used for infiltration, rainwater collection, and solving storm water runoff
problems. It offers a cost-effective solution for projects that do not require
load-bearing capacity, lending itself to installations under landscaped
areas such as parks, plazas, and backyards.


Effective storm water systems must be able to adequately manage small,

minor and major storm events. They can be designed to do this by
considering the management objectives of each design event and the
scale at which the solution (usually a single or series of best management
practices) is to apply. Additionally, pre-development peak flow rates and
total volume runoff from the whole sub-catchment should be maintained
at outlets from the site. This helps to protect ecological values.

The design of a drainage system must address the needs of the traveling
public as well as those of the local community through which it passes.
The drainage system for a roadway traversing urbanized region is more
complex than for roadways traversing sparsely settled rural areas. This is
often due to:



a.4. The benefits of sustainable drainage systems can include:

 Reducing flooding.
 Reducing the demand on existing drainage systems (potentially making a
development viable in an area where it might otherwise not be viable).
 Enhancing water quality
 Reducing pollution.
 Providing habitats for wildlife.
 Providing local amenity.
 Recharging groundwater and watercourses resulting in a reduced risk of
 Recharging groundwater and watercourses resulting in a reduced risk of

H. Fire Protection

 Designed to offer an acceptable level of fire safety

 Minimize the risks from heat and smoke
 Primary objective is to reduce to within acceptable limits the
potential for death or injury to the occupants of a building and
others who may become involved, such as the fire and rescue
 Protect contents and ensure that as much as possible of a building
can continue to function after a fire and that it can be repaired.
The risk to adjoining properties also needs to be considered, as well
as possible environmental pollution.
 One of the most utmost concerns of the government. Hence, for a
continued citizen’s awareness of damages brought by fire to life
and property.
 Planners and builders have their own contribution in this campaign,
by making their plans and construction conform to the Fire Code

h.1. There are a number of possible causes of ignition.

Natural phenomena

Lightning damages buildings as an electrical current

passes through building materials or along crevices between
them, and energy is dissipated with heat reacting with the
water content of building materials to produce very hot

Buildings most at risk are those at high altitudes, on

hilltops or hillsides, in isolated positions and tall towers and
chimneys. Such structures should be provided with a
lightning-conductor system to dissipate the electrical shock
directly to the ground.

Human carelessness

Human carelessness is the most common cause of

ignition and the most difficult to design against. Fires may be
started by smoking, matches, cookers and other appliances.
Deliberate acts of arson are also very difficult to design out.

Technological failure

Building services in particular present a major ignition

risk. Plant rooms, laboratories, boiler houses and large
kitchens should be sited where their threat is minimized. In
the short term, services and installations should be correctly
designed, specified, constructed, checked and
commissioned. In the long term, checking and replacement
cycles should be in place so that correct operation can be


One of the many responsibilities given to the

Architects and Engineers by their License to Practice, is the
protection of the building against loss of life and damage to
property from fire. The owner on the other hand, is very
much concerned with the preservation of the structure and
its contents from the destructive effect of fire.

As part of their responsibilities, planners and builders

should look into all the facets possible problems that maybe
encountered including fire safety.

Tall building presents variety of unique problems,

more particularly on fire safety. Therefore, problems on fire
safety must be addressed at the very start of the planning
stage. Because the belief that these imposing structures of
modern technology are totally immune to fatal fire, is hard
to accept.

A useful way to consider tall buildings is to define a

high-rise building in terms of fire protection.


 Too high to be completely accessible to firefighting

equipment from the ground
 Too high to make a complete evacuation of the occupants.
 Tall enough to make possible chimney for air and smoke

Planning for fire protection involves an integrated approach in which system designers
need to analyze building components as a total package. The design of any fire-
protection system is an exact science that takes into account a buildings use,
occupancy, footprint, and even its other installed system. In most cases, the analysis
needs to go beyond basic code compliance and the owner’s minimum legal
responsibilities for providing protection. The design process should be a holistic one for
both new construction and retrofits. Building ownership and management, architects,
engineers, contractors, planners, consultants all need to be involved in the planning
and design and design process, and fully understand the issues and concerns of all
other parties.
h.3. In the design process, these typical fire-protection system goals
for consideration:

• Saving lives
• Saving property
• Preserving business continuity

It all depends on how a building is used and occupied. A warehouse or

storage facility, for example, will have different fire-protection
requirements than a multi-tenant office building.

While no standard fire-protection design blueprint exists for any two

buildings, the systems found in any building typically include these.

h.4. Basic components:

• Detection.
• Alarms and notification
• Suppression.

All components of modern fire-protection systems need to work together

to effectively detect, contain, control, and/or extinguish a fire in its early
stages - and to survive during the fire. To achieve the most beneficial
symbiosis between these components, it’s best to involve an experienced
system designer, such as a fire-protection engineer, in the early stages of
the planning and design process.

Detection Systems

Modern smoke-detection systems go beyond the small device that

senses smoke and triggers the alarm system. Intelligent smoke detectors
can differentiate between different alarm thresholds. Heat detectors are
another option. They can trigger alarms and notification systems before
smoke even becomes a factor.

Specification and installation of detection systems can sometimes

be selective.The main benefit of good detection (beyond triggering the
alarm system) is that, in many cases, there is a chance to extinguish a
small, early blaze with a fire extinguisher.
Alarms and Notification Systems

Alarm systems are a must in any facility - alarms that alert building
occupants of a fire and alarms that alert emergency public responders
(police and fire) through a central station link so they can initiate a

This can be achieved with AutoCAD floorplan integration. When an

alarm goes off in a building and alerts the security or management team,
an AutoCAD screen comes up on the computer, showing the floor where
the alarm was activated and providing a computer print-out of that
screen. Security can then hand the floorplan, which indicates the alarm
zone, to first responders when they arrive.

Many modern systems now include speakers that provide alerts in

place of (or in addition to) traditional bell-type alarms. These speakers also
can be used in emergencies other than fires to instruct and inform
occupants of the situation.

These voice-actuated systems can include pre-recorded or live

messages that play in the event of fire or another emergency. Typical pre-
recorded messages tell occupants that an alarm has been sounded and
that they should remain in their designated area for further instruction.
Building management can then manually use the system to deliver
additional information and prepare occupants for an evacuation, if

Alert systems can also close fire doors, recall elevators, and
interface and monitor the installed suppression systems, such as sprinklers.
The systems can also connect with a building’s ventilation, smoke-
management, and stairwell-pressurization systems - all of which are critical
to life safety. Again, these features are dependent on the building in
which the system is installed.

Suppression Systems

Sprinklers are the most widely specified suppression system in

commercial facilities - particularly in occupied spaces. The presence of
sprinklers cuts the chance of death and average property loss from a fire
by one-half to two-thirds as compared to scenarios where sprinklers are
not present. Each independently operating sprinkler has a heat-sensitive
element inside. These elements heat up to the sprinkler’s operating
temperature and activate that sprinkler head.

In situations where sprinklers aren’t feasible because of special

considerations (e.g. water from sprinklers would damage sensitive
equipment or inventory), designers might suggest an alternative fire-
suppression system, such as gaseous/chemical suppression. Once more,
experts note that the type of sprinkler used depends on the building’s

Immediate Surroundings
A. Neighborhood structures: buildings,satellite dishes, etc.

1. the neighborhood buildings of a site is key to enabling the designer to weave

the new design in with the existing fabric of the site.
2. Allows us to understand the existing opportunities, or problems in the site.
3. Turn away or eliminate certain unwanted site conditions.
4. Impact of future adjacent developments to the site such as solar and mind
exposure, daylighting, ventilation.
5. Respect existing aesthetic view sheds from existing buildings, landscape,
features, and historic sites and to acknowledge the natural and cultural
heritage of the site and surrounding community.
6. Minimize habitat disturbance.
7. Future expansion of the building.

A building's immediate surroundings change its effective weather patterns, as

nearby buildings or trees can block sunlight and change wind patterns. When
designing a new building, you’ll want to take surrounding buildings into account
– both so you can understand how they affect your design, and what passive
strategies you can rely on.

B.Shading and solar access

b.1. Shading

The use of the things around or outside the structure to provide shading.


Shading analysis is one of the most essential steps in phase of solar energy
system design or analysis. In photovoltaics it is important to analyse
shading caused by surrounding objects and/or vegetation. In special
cases like analysis or design of BIPV systems, exact analysis of shadow-
voltaic systems (overhangs, vertical shading fins, awnings etc.) is also very
important. Similar analysis is also part of passive house or solar house
design - overhangs must also be planned very carefully in such case.
Basic calculations can be done by some simple equations - formulas for
some typical simple cases you may find below. Some graphical tools like
solar path calculator (pilkington) are also available. For analysis of
complex objects several computer tools are available. Some of them offer
even 3D simulation. Shading is especially important in photovoltaics. It
should be eliminated as much as possible. Even small obstacles like
chimneys, telephone poles etc. shouldn't be neglected. To minimise
influence of photovoltaic array shading (if shading can not be avoided)


Use of shading device can improve building energy performance,

prevent glare, increase useful daylight availability and create a sense of
security. Realizing these potential benefits, a no. shading devices have
been invented, such as fixed, manual and automatic moveable internal
and external shading device.


The effects of shading by one building upon another can be either

positive or negative depending upon the site-specific circumstances of
the properties involved. A potential benefit of shading for adjacent
structures may be a cooling effect gained during warm weather.
Negative consequences of shading include the loss of natural light for
passive or active solar energy applications or the loss of warming
influences during cool weather. Factors influencing the relative impact of
shadow effects are site-specific and include differences in terrain
elevation between involved properties, the height and bulk of structures,
the time of year, the duration of shading in a day, and the sensitivity of
adjacent land uses to loss of sunlight.


Shade is often required in the summer, but in most parts of the country,
winter sun is desirable. Obstructions on a site may block sunlight access at
times when it is required.

When considering sunlight and building design, assess the impact of

obstructions in the future as well as the present. For example, a small tree
on an adjacent site may grow into a large one that blocks sun, a building
may be erected on a currently vacant site or an existing building may be
demolished and replaced by a larger one.

Alternatively, existing trees may be retained for summer shade.


Solar access is the ability of one property to continue to receive

sunlight across property lines without obstruction from another’s property
(buildings, foliage or other impediment). Solar access is calculated using a
sun path diagram. Sun is the source of our vision and energy. Its
movements inform our perception of time and space. Access to sun is
essential to energy conservation and to the quality of our lives.

Solar access is differentiated from solar rights or solar easement,

which is access is a right to sunlight upon certain building façades
regardless of the presence of active or passive solar energy systems.

Assessing a site for sun

When assessing a site for sun, consider:

• the time during the day that the site receives sunlight
• the sun's path at different times of the day and year
• how the site’s shape, slope and orientation affect solar access
• how obstructions such as adjacent buildings, trees and landforms
will impact on the site and the potential design
• the owners' lifestyle – for example, when they want to have sun or
C.Noise from streets, emergency services, aircraft,etc.
Transportation - Aircrafts, Trains, Road Vehicles, Vessels
Industrial Buildings - Factories-Machineries, Air-conditioning Systems

Commercial Buildings - Office Buildings, air-conditioning systems,

ventilating systems

Construction Sites - Excavation, Piling, Road Work, Demolition,

Domestic Buildings - Mahjong Playing, Hi-fi, Musical Instruments
Public Places - Open Markets, Streets, Parks
Products - Intruder Alarms of Buildings ad Motor Vehicles

Aside from school quality and view, noise is among the most
significant locational factors affecting the value of residential property.
Noise affects humans in many negative ways. Excessive noise is blamed
for health problems induced by sleep disturbance. Noise negatively
affects the cognitive function of school aged children, indices
physiological stress reactions, cardiovascular disease, and other
psychiatric disorders, all of which hurt productivity.

Noise matters and the effects are likely to be non-linear based on

prior studies. Design and construction might be used to partially mitigate
the effects of noise. For example, triple insulated windows will bring noise
levels down considerably and are frequently observed on buildings near
airports. In other studies where it do not find significant impacts from noise
at the highest decibel levels, the location is also very central and thus
highly valuable land. This makes it harder to separate out the over lapping
negatives from noise and the positives from a central urban location. With
better location controls, we will see that noise is a very significant factor
influencing the values of any given site and property.

An odor is another word for a smell. When you notice an odor,, that tells you are
exposed to something in the air that triggered your sense of smell.

d.1. Health Effects

Exposure to odors could result in health effects ranging from

none, to mild discomfort, to more serious symptoms. Some
chemicals with strong odors may cause eye, nose, throat or lung
irritation. Strong odors may cause some people to feel a burning
sensation that leads to coughing, wheezing or other breathing
problems. People who smell strong odors may get headaches or
feel dizzy or nauseous. If an odor lasts a long time or keeps
occurring, it also could affect mood, anxiety and stress level.

d.2. Origin

Odor-producing products and activities are a common part

of our daily lives and affect both outdoor and indoor air quality. For
example, outdoor odors may be produced by chemical, sewage
treatment or food processing plants. Paper mills, landfills, dredge
spoils or transportation facilities also emit odors. In agricultural
communities, you may smell composting, feed lots or manure and
sludge spreading. Indoors, everyday activities such as cooking or
cleaning could produce odors. Many personal care products are
scented, such as candles and air fresheners. Spilled heating oil or
stored petroleum products will also produce odors and may affect
indoor air.

d.3. Eliminating odor

Locate the garbage and other wastes in an area where it is

properly disposed.

Plan the air ventilation where it can get rid unpleasant odors.

E.Views and vistas


An arrangement of the camera and level geometry to create a well-

constructed view of something important in a level.

A view, especially one through a long narrow avenue of trees or


e.1. Visual protection and enhancement are added benefits of

landscaping. A well landscaped livestock operation that is pleasing
to see, or even hidden from view, is more acceptable than one
which is not.

e.2. Good Orientation – facing your vistas to a much more visually

attractive spots.
When a landscape is thoughtfully designed with vistas and
captured views, it can provide stunning perspectives from every
vantage point. Vistas and captured views ensure that natural
beauty can be enjoyed not only while standing amidst landscape
features, but also from inside the building, the curb and beyond.

A landscape vista creates a panoramic view amidst buildings, trees

and landscape features, both inward (from the grounds to the
house) or outward (from the grounds to the house). The inward vista
creates picturesque views of the building, while simultaneously
creating outward views of the landscape and horizon. Captured
views link interiors to the outdoors by framing garden focal points.
Axial designs, which create a clear and crisp linear pattern using a
long pathway, a row of trees or shrubs and a strong focal point like
a fountain or sculpture, have been used for hundreds of years. The
garden at Versailles, for instance, is a wonderful example of formal
axial vistas and captured views.

This technique for creating a formal, organized landscapes later

became a tradition of southern plantations. They focus on the view
of a home from the end of a long allee. The technique of using
an axial line that leads to a focal point in a vista can also be used
on smaller or more casual scales to create simple and balanced
Captured views can be carefully cultivated by placing garden
features in places that will allow them to be perfectly framed by
windows and doors. This feature can be enjoyed from the inside of
the home.

Even homes that don’t naturally have grand landscape views can
be designed to offer charming or elegant views with impeccable
garden designs that inspire, delight and capture the eye.

Other examples:
General Services
Services that are applicable to the entire firm and are not confined to any
department or function, such as insurance, medical, payroll, personnel, and

A.Fire protection and Police Protection

a.1. Fire Protection

Rescue is the most important function of every fire

department. From day one in recruit school, firefighters are
programmed that life safety is the number one priority.
If a station is located near the high-response section of
a community (such as a heavily populated area of multiple-
occupancy or wood-frame structures) that location will
probably be appropriate.

If a station is far- away, a fire hydrant must also be

present in an area.

Fire Hydrant is a connection point by which firefighters can

tap into a water supply.

All buildings must also have sufficient equipment in case of

fire like fire extinguisher, fire hose and etc.

a.2 Police Protection

Police, body of officers representing the civil authority

of government. Police typically are responsible for
maintaining public order and safety, enforcing the law, and
preventing, detecting, and investigating criminal activities.
These functions are known as policing. Police are often also
entrusted with various licensing and regulatory activities.

In metropolitan areas, police stations are strategically

located for stronger coverage and faster response times. In
rural areas, a state police troops and county sheriff's
departments establish barracks or substations in towns that
don't have their own police department. A small station may
have limited hours for the public, but it provides a location
where officers can complete reports and process evidence
without removing themselves from their coverage area.

B.Trash/refuse removal services

Waste are unwanted or unusable materials. Waste is any substance

which is discarded after primary use, or is worthless, defective and of no
use. Examples include municipal solid waste, hazardous waste,
wastewater, radioactive waste, and others.

Waste collection and rubbish disposal play an extremely important

role in the global cleanliness and sustainability drive, with people’s health
and the conservation of resources being the responsibility of every

This is time to remove the rubbish or waste saturated from your

house backyard or in office premises or in industry or manufacturing plant.
Segregation of waste in various bins is one of the difficult jobs for any one.
Hiring a professional junk removal service also simplifies waste removal
work and saves time and energy.
b.1.Various Industry Types, Various Waste Types:

Let it be new construction waste or remodelling wastages or medical

waste removal, the different waste needs to be disposed of properly
or else there will be hazardous effects on surroundings and citizens
staying in that place.

Construction and restructuring create a large amount of wastages

due to building material keeps on accumulating day by day.
xRenovations also add up lot of wastages as it includes scratch down
the old constructions. Large number for debris can’t be handled by
you. Here you need hire junk removal services that do all the
bifurcation of junk and dispose of properly.

Medical wastages need to handle with care, as it can spread the

inflection or harmfulness that can cause major health problems.
Hospitals need to be very much sanitised and maintained properly,
so that the patients don’t have any added health problems. Hiring
junk removal service is expert in handling such kind of waste and also
disposes it accordingly.

b.2. Advantages of Hiring Rubbish Removal Melbourne Services:

Rubbish removal services are professionals, skilled and trained

workman. They have proper equipment to collect and separate the
debris, waste materials that do not negatively impact on your
environment, or business.

The experts know how to remove waste material procedure including

government regulations that is applicable to various industries.

• After separating the wastages and collecting them in different

bins, these junk removal services will be removing the bins as

• Easy collection of garbage from your house and separating

them and then disposing them accordingly.

• Junk removal services will be coming on the time that you have
asked for. So it will easy for you to check out if there is anything
that you need to keep. They have equipments have separates
the junk with into types like as metal, concrete, wood and many
more. This we can’t do it or else doing it by self can be a frustrating