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1.

1 INTRODUCTION

Human resource management is the essential function of


organization. Among the HR practices recruitment is the basic function
where employees are entering into the organisations. Recruitment is the
process of searching prospective employees to apply for the job.
Selection is the process of choosing an appropriate candidate among the
job applicants. Selection process starts after the completion of the
recruitment process. Recruitment is the positive aspect where as selection
is the negative aspect of HR practices.

Successful recruitment methods include a thorough


analysis of the job and labour market conditions. Recruitment almost
central to any management process and failure in recruitment can create
difficulties for any company including an adverse effect on its
profitability and inappropriate levels of staffing or skills.

This project on the study on role of recruitment and


selection process is conducted in the KR Bakes, Kottakkal. It was
established in the year 1969, as a small tea shop, run by Mr. Balan at
Coimbatore the shop menu, or its freshness, unique recipe, aroma, taste
and quality, started gaining popularity in Coimbatore and nearby areas.
The increasing customer flow due to the mouth publicity and untiring
efforts made by its crew, resulted in a slow and steady progress of this
establishment, to grow as bakery shop. This study deals with the
importance of recruitment and selection process in KR Bakes. The study
mainly focuses on how effectively KR Bakes conducting their
recruitment and selection process.

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1.2 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

● Helps to create a talent pool of potential candidates for the benefits of


the organisation.

● To increase the pool of job seeking candidates at minimum cost.

●It helps to increase the success rate of selection process by decreasing


the number of visits qualified or over qualified job applicants.

● Helps in identifying and preparing potential job applicants who will be


appropriate candidature for the job.

● Helps in increasing organisation and individual effectiveness of


various recruiting techniques and for all the types of applicants.

● To study the stages of Selection procedure in the industry.

● To find the reasons for accepting the offer in the respective selected
organisation.

1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The quality of employees depends on an effective


recruitment and selection strategy. It is important to have a well-defined
recruitment policy in place, which can be executed effectively to get the
best fits for the vacant positions. Selecting the wrong candidate or
rejecting the right candidate could turn out to be costly mistakes for the
organisation. This study deals with effective and efficient role of
recruitment and selection process in KR Bakes, Kottakkal to attract best
manpower.

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1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

a. Primary Objectives:

● To study the role of recruitment and selection in KR Bakes, Kottakkal.

b. Secondary Objectives:

● To understand the current recruitment policies being followed at KR


Bakes, Kottakkal.

● To study different methods of recruitment and selection depending on


the requirements of the organisation.

● To find the relationship whether jobs offered based on qualification to


the employees in the organisation.

● To study the level of job satisfaction in the organisation.

● To study various factors involved in recruitment and selection process.

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1.5 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research methodology is a systematic way to solve a research


problem. The methodology should combine economy with efficiency.

a) Research Design

Research design is defined as the specification of methods and


procedures for acquiring the information needed. It is a plan of
organisation frame for doing the collection of data. Data which is
required for the study is collected from both the primary and secondary
sources. This study uses a descriptive design.

b) Sample Design

The process of extracting a sample from a population is called


sampling. The selection of sample to conduct the research depends upon
the nature and scope of the study along with objective to be achieved.
Random sampling method is used in this study.

c) Sample Size

The sample is selected on the basis of random sampling


technique drawn from employees at KR Bakes, Kottakkal. A sample of
30 employees is selected and analysis has been done by way of
questionnaire.

d) Sources of Data

The data has been collected from both primary and secondary
sources.

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 Primary Data

The primary data is collected by using primary methods such as


questionnaires, interviews, etc. For this study, questionnaires are used to
collect primary data from the employees of KR Bakes, Kottakkal.

 Secondary Data

Secondary data is collected from various journals, books,


websites, and other research reports.

e) Data Analysis and Presentation Tool

Data analysis is very important aspect of project, as it basically


involves the analysis of all the information that collected. Data analysis is
a body of methods that help to describe facts, detect patterns, develop
explanations and test hypothesis. After analysis of each of the questions
in a questionnaire the interpretation of the same is also being provided
which includes the reason about the particular aspect of the organisation.
Percentage, Pie diagram, Table chart have been used as statistical tools
for analysis of the study.

1.6 Period of study

The study was conducted for the period of 21 days.

1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

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●The quality of information highly depends on the response of the
respondents.
●Period of the study is too short.
●The sampling size is limited to 30.

1.8 CHAPTER PLAN

1. Introduction

 Significance of the study


 Statement of the problem
 Objectives of the study
 Research methodology
 Period of study
 Limitations of the study

2. Review of literature

3. Theoretical framework

4. Data analysis and interpretation

5. Findings, suggestion and conclusion

6. Bibliography

7. Appendix

LITERATURE REVIEW

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Work by Korsten (2003) & Jones et al. (2006):

According to Korsten (2003) and jones et al. (2006), Human


Resource Management theories emphasize on techniques of recruitment
and selection and outline the benefits of interviews, assessment and
psychometric examinations as employee selection process. Successful
recruitment techniques involve an incisive analysis of the job, the labour
market scenario/conditions and interviews, and psychometric tests in
order to find out the potentialities of job seekers.

Work by Alan Price (2007):

Price (2007), in his work Human Resource Management in a


Business Context, formally defines recruitment and selection as the
process of retrieving and attracting able applications for the purpose of
employment. He states that the process of recruitment is not a simple
selection process, while it needs management decision making and broad
planning in order to appoint the most appropriate manpower. Their
existing competition among business enterprises for recruiting the most
potential workers in on the pathway towards creating innovations, with
management decision making and employers attempting to hire only the
best applicants who would be the best fit for the corporate culture and
ethics specific to the company (Price 2007)

Work by Hiltrop (1996):

Hiltrop (1996) was successful in demonstrating the


relationship between the HRM practices, HRM organizational strategies
as well as organizational performance. He conducted his research on HR
manager and company officials of 319 companies Europe regarding HR
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practices and policies of their respective companies and discovered that
employment security, training and development programs, recruitment
and selection, teamwork, employee participation, and lastly, personnel
planning are the most essential practices (Hiltrop 1999).

Work by Jackson et al. (2009) & Bratton and Gold (1999):

As discussed by Jackson et al. (2009), Human Resource


Management approaches in any business organization are developed to
meet corporate objectives and materialization of strategic plans via
training and development of personnel to attain the ultimate goal of
improving organizational performance as well as profits. Work of Bratton
& Gold (1999) suggest that organizations are now developing models of
the kind of employees they desire to recruit, and to recognize how far
applicants correspond to their models by means of reliable and valid
techniques of selection. However, recruitment and selection are also the
initial stages of a dialogue among applications and the company that
shapes the employment relationship (Bratton & Gold 1999)

Work by Silzer et al. (2010):

However, the process of recruitment does not cease with


application of candidature and selection of the appropriate candidates, but
involves sustaining and retaining the employees that are selected, as
stated by Silzer et al. (2010). Work of Silzer et al. (2010) was largely
concerned with Talent Management, and through their work they were
successful in resolving issues like whether or not talent is something one
can be born with or is it something that can be acquired through
development. According to Silzer et al. (2010), that was a core challenge
in designing talent systems, facing the organization and among the senior
management. The only solution to resolve the concern of attaining

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efficient talent management was by adopting fully- executable
recruitment techniques.

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THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK

According to Edwin B Flippo, personnel management / human


resource management is “planning, directing and controlling of the
procurement, development, compensation, integration, maintenance, and
reproduction of human resources, to the end that individual,
organizational; and societal objectives are established.”

Objectives of human resource management

1. Organizational Objectives:
HRM is a means to achieve efficiency and effectiveness. It
serves other functional areas, so as to help them to attain efficiency in
their operations and attainment of goals to attain efficiency. Acquiring
right man for the right job at right time in right quantity, developing
through right kind of training, utilizing the selected workforce, and
maintaining the workforces are the organizational objectives of HRM.
Succession planning is an important issue to be taken up as a
contemporary organizational objective.

2. Functional Objectives:
HRM performs so many functions for other departments.
However, it must see that the facilitation should not cost more than the
benefit rendered.

3. Personal Objectives:
In today’s world there is shortage of requisite talent. Employees
are encouraged by competitive firms to change the jobs. HRM has the
responsibility to acquire, develop, utilize, and maintain employees. This
would be possible only when the HRM helps employees to achieve their

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personal goals to get their commitment. Creating work-life balance for
the employees is a personal objective.

4. Societal Objectives:
HRM must see that the legal, ethical, and social environmental
issues are properly attended to. Equal opportunity and equal pay for equal
work are the legal issues not to be violated. To take care of farmers
(whose land has been acquired for the factory) and tribal’s (who are
displaced by industries and mining companies) are the ethical issues.

FUNCTIONS OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

Human resource management is requires to perform a number


of functions. These functions are common in all organizations and
generally it can be classified into two broad categories:

1. Managerial Functions. 2. Operative Functions.

Managerial Functions

1. Planning: This function is very vital to set goals and objectives of an


organization. The policies and procedures are laid down to achieve these
goals. When it comes to planning the first thing is to foresee vacancies,
set the job requirements and decide the recruitment sources. For every job
group, a demand and supply forecast is to be made, this requires an HR
manager to be aware of both job market and strategic goals of the
company. Shortage versus the excess of employees for that given job
category is determined for a given period. In the end, a plan is ascertained
to eliminate this shortage of employees.

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2. Organizing: The next major managerial function is to develop and
design the structure of the organization. It fundamentally includes the
following:
a. Employees are grouped into positions or activities they will be
performing.
b. Allocate different functions to different persons.
c. Delegate authority as per the tasks and responsibilities that are
assigned.

3. Directing: This function is preordained to inspire and direct the


employees to achieve the goals. This can be attained by having in place a
proper planning of career of employees, various motivational methods
and having friendly relations with the manpower. This is a great
challenge to any HR manager of an organization; he/she should have the
capability of finding employee needs and ways to satisfy them.
Motivation will be a continuous process here as new needs may come
forward as the old ones get fulfilled.

4. Controlling: This is concerned with the apprehension of activities as


per plans, which was formulated on the basis of goals of the company.
The controlling function ends the cycle and again prompts for planning.
Here the HR Manager makes an examination of outcome achieved with
the standards that were set in the planning stage to see if there are any
deviations from the set standards. Hence any deviation can be corrected
on the next cycle.

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Operative Functions

1. Recruitment: This is the most challenging task for any HR manager. A


lot of attention and resources are required to draw, employ and hold the
prospective employees. A lot of elements go into this function of
recruitment, like developing a job description, publishing the job posting,
sourcing the prospective candidates, interviewing, salary negotiations and
making the job offer.

2. Training and Development: On the job training is the responsibility


of the HR department. Fresher training may also be provided by some
companies for both new hires and existing employees. This Fresher
training is mainly done to make the employees up to date in their
respective areas as required by the company. This function makes the
employees understand the process and makes it easy for them to get on
their jobs with much ease. During the process of the training and
development, the results are monitored and measured to find out if the
employees require any new skills in addition to what he/she has.

3. Professional Development: This is a very important function of


Human Resource Management. This function helps the employees with
opportunity for growth, education, and management training. The
organization undertakes to sponsor their employees for various seminars,
trade shows, and corporal responsibilities. This, in turn, makes the
employees feel that they have been taken care by their superiors and also
the organization.

4. Compensation and Benefits: A company can attain its goals and


objectives if it can acclimatize to new ways of providing benefits to the
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employees. Some of the benefits given by companies are listed below for
our understanding:
1. Working hour flexibility
2. Extended vacation
3. Dental/Medical Insurance
4. Maternal/Paternal Leave
5. Education Reimbursement for children

5. Performance Appraisal: The employees of any organization will be


evaluated by the HR department as per the performance. This function of
Human Resource Management is to help the organization in finding out if
the employee they have hired is moving towards the goals and objectives
of the organization. On the other hand, it also helps the company to
evaluate whether the employees needs improvement in other areas. It also
helps the HR team in drawing certain development plans for those
employees who have not met the minimal requirements of the job.

6. Ensuring Legal Compliance: To protect the organization this function


plays a crucial role. The HR department of every organization should be
aware of all the laws and policies that relate to employment, working
conditions, working hours, overtime, minimum wage, tax allowances etc.
Compliance with such laws is very much required for the existence of an
organization.

RECRUITMENT

Once the required number and the kind of human resources


are determined, the management has to find the places where required

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human resources are/will be available and also work out strategies for
attracting them towards the organization before selecting suitable
candidates for jobs. This process is generally known as recruitment. Some
people use the term ‘recruitment’ for employment. These two are not one
and the same. Recruitment is only one of the steps in the entire
employment process. Some others use the term recruitment for selection.
These two terms are different. Technically speaking, the function of
recruitment precedes the selection function and it includes only finding,
developing the sources of prospective employees and attracting them to
apply for jobs in an organization, whereas the selection is the process of
finding out the most suitable candidate to the job out of the candidates
attracted(i.e., recruited).

Definition:
According to Edwin B. Flippo, “It is a process of searching for
prospective employees and stimulating and encouraging them to apply for
jobs in an organisation.” He further elaborates it, terming it both negative
and positive.

Sources of Recruitment of Employees:


The searching of suitable candidates and informing them
about the openings in the enterprise is the most important aspect of
recruitment process. The candidates may be available inside or outside
the organisation. Basically, there are two sources of recruitment i.e.,
internal and external sources.
(A) Internal Sources:
Best employees can be found within the organization when a
vacancy arises in the organisation, it may be given to an employee who is

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already on the pay-roll. Internal sources include promotion, transfer and
in certain cases demotion. When a higher post is given to a deserving
employee, it motivates all other employees of the organisation to work
hard. The employees can be informed of such a vacancy by internal
advertisement.

Methods of Internal Sources:

1. Transfers:
Transfer involves shifting of persons from present jobs to other
similar jobs. These do not involve any change in rank, responsibility or
prestige. The numbers of persons do not increase with transfers.

2. Promotions:
Promotions refer to shifting of persons to positions carrying
better prestige, higher responsibilities and more pay. The higher positions
falling vacant may be filled up from within the organisation. A promotion
does not increase the number of persons in the organisation. A person
going to get a higher position will vacate his present position. Promotion
will motivate
employees to improve their performance so that they can also get
promotion.

3. Present Employees:
The present employees of a concern are informed about likely
vacant positions. The employees recommend their relations or persons
intimately known to them. Management is relieved of looking out
prospective candidates. The persons recommended by the employees may

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be generally suitable for the jobs because they know the requirements of
various positions. The existing employees take full responsibility of those
recommended by them and also ensure of their proper behaviour and
performance.

(B) External Sources

1. Advertisement:
It is a method of recruitment frequently used for skilled
workers, clerical and higher staff. Advertisement can be given in
newspapers and professional journals. These advertisements attract
applicants in large number of highly variable quality. Preparing good
advertisement is a specialized task. If a company wants to conceal its
name, a ‘blind advertisement’ may be given asking the applicants to
apply to Post Bag or Box Number or to some advertising agency.

2. Employment Exchanges:
Employment exchanges in India are run by the Government. For
unskilled, semi-skilled, skilled, clerical posts etc., it is often used as a
source of recruitment. In certain cases it has been made obligatory for the
business concerns to notify their vacancies to the employment exchange.
In past, employers used to turn to these agencies only as a last resort. The
job-seekers and job-givers are brought into contact by the employment
exchanges.

3. Schools, Colleges and Universities:


Direct recruitment from educational institutions for certain jobs
(i.e. placement) which require technical or professional qualification has

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become a common practice. A close liaison between the company and
educational institutions helps in getting suitable candidates. The students
are spotted during the course of their studies. Junior level executives or
managerial trainees may be recruited in this way.

4. Recommendation of Existing Employees:


The present employees know both the company and the
candidate being recommended. Hence some companies encourage their
existing employees to assist them in getting applications from persons
who are known to them. In certain cases rewards may also be given if
candidates recommended by them are actually selected by the company.
If recommendation leads to favoritism, it will impair the morale of
employees.

5. Factory Gates:
Certain workers present themselves at the factory gate every
day for employment. This method of recruitment is very popular in India
for unskilled or semi-skilled labour. The desirable candidates are selected
by the first line supervisors. The major disadvantage of this system is that
the person selected may not be suitable for the vacancy.

6. Casual Callers:
Those personnel who casually come to the company for
employment may also be considered for the vacant post. It is most
economical method of recruitment. In the advanced countries, this
method of recruitment is very popular.

7. Central Application File:

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A file of past applicants who were not selected earlier may be
maintained. In order to keep the file alive, applications in the files must
be checked at periodical intervals.

8. Labour Unions:
In certain occupations like construction, hotels, maritime
industry etc., (i.e., industries where there is instability of employment) all
recruits usually come from unions. It is advantageous from the
management point of view because it saves expenses of recruitment.
However, in other industries, unions may be asked to recommend
candidates either as a goodwill gesture or as a courtesy towards the union.

9. Labour Contractors:
This method of recruitment is still prevalent in India for hiring
unskilled and semi-skilled workers in brick klin industry. The contractors
keep themselves in touch with the labour and bring the workers at the
place where they are required. They get commission for the number of
persons supplied by them.

10. Former Employees:


In case employees have been laid off or have left the factory at
their own, they may be taken back if they are interested in joining the
concern (provided their record is good).

11. Other Sources:


Apart from these major sources of external recruitment, there
are certain other sources which are exploited by companies from time to
time. These include special lectures delivered by recruiter in different

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institutions, though apparently these lectures do not pertain to recruitment
directly. Then there are video films which are sent to various concerns
and institutions so as to show the history and development of the
company. These films present the story of company to various audiences,
thus creating interest in them. Various firms organize trade shows which
attract many prospective employees. Many a time advertisements may be
made for a special class of work force (say married ladies) who worked
prior to their marriage. These ladies can also prove to be very good
source of work force. Similarly there is the labour market consisting of
physically handicapped. Visits to other companies also help in finding
new sources of recruitment.

SELECTION:

Selection is a process of measurement, decision making and


evaluation. The goal of a selection system is to bring in to the
organisation individuals who will perform well on the job. To have an
accurate and fair selection system, an organisation must use reliable and
valid measures of job applicant characteristics. In addition, a good
selection system must include a means of combining information about
applicant characteristics in a rational way and producing correct hire and
no-hire decisions. A good personnel selection system should add to the
overall effectiveness of the organisation.

Organisations vary in the complexity of their selection system. Some


merely skim applications blanks and conduct brief, informal interviews,
whereas others take to resting, repeated interviewing, and background
checks and so on. Although the latter system is more costly per applicant,
many benefits are realized from careful, thorough selection. An

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organisation needs to have members who are both skilled and motivated
to perform their roles. Either such members can be identified by careful
selection or attempts can be made to develop them after hire by extensive
training. Thus cursory selection may greatly increase training and
monitoring costs, whereas spending more on the selection process will
reduce these post-hire expenses.

SELECTION PROCEDURE

Selection procedure employs several methods of collecting


information about the candidate’s qualifications, experience, physical and
mental ability, nature and behaviour, knowledge, aptitude and the like for
judging whether a given applicant is suitable or not for the job. Therefore,
the selection procedure is not a single act but is essentially a series of
methods or stages by which different types of information can be secured
through various selection techniques. At each step, facts may come to
light which are useful for comparison with the job requirement and
employee specifications.

Steps in Scientific Selection Process

(i) Job Analysis, (ii) Recruitment. (iii) Application Form, (iv) Written
Examination, (v) Preliminary Interview (iv) Business Games (vii) Tests.
(viii) Final Interview. (ix) Medical Examination (x) Reference Checks.
(xi) Line Manager’s Decision. (xii) Job offer (xiii) Employment.

Job Analysis:

Job analysis is the basis of selecting the right candidate. Every


organization should finalize the job analysis, job description, job

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specification and employee specifications before proceeding to the next
stop of selection.

Human Resource Plan:

Every company plans for the required number of and kind


of employees for a future date. This is the basis for recruitment function.

Recruitment:

Recruitment refers to the process of searching for prospective


employees and stimulating then to apply for jobs in an organization. It is
the basis for the remaining techniques of the selection and the latter varies
depending upon the former. It develops the applicants’ pool.

Development of Bases for Selection:

The Company has to select the appropriate candidates from


the applicants’ pool. The company develops or borrows the appropriate
bases/techniques for screening the candidates in order to select the
appropriate candidates for the jobs.

Application Form:

Application Form is also known as application blank. The


technique of application bank is traditional and widely accepted for
securing information from the prospective candidates. It can also be used
as a device to screen the candidates at the preliminary level. Many
companies formulate their own style of application forms depending upon
the requirement of information based on the size of the company, nature
of business activities, type and level f the job etc. Information is generally
required on the following items in the application forms: Personal
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background information, Educational attainments, Work experiences,
Salary, Personal details and References.

Written Examination:

The organizations have to conduct written examination for the


qualified candidates after they are screened on the basis of the application
blanks so as to measure candidate’s ability in arithmetical calculations, to
know the candidates’ attitude towards the job, to measure the candidates’
aptitude, reasoning, knowledge in various disciplines, general knowledge
and English language.

Preliminary Interview:

The preliminary interview is to solicit necessary information


from the prospective applicants and to assess the applicant’s suitability to
the job. This may be conducted by an assistant in the personnel
department. The information thus provided by the candidate may be
related to the job or personal specifications regarding education,
experience, salary expected, aptitude towards the job, age, physical
appearance and other physical requirements etc. Thus, preliminary
interview is useful as a process of eliminating the undesirable and
unsuitable candidates. If a candidate satisfied the job requirements
regarding most of the areas, he may be selected for further process.
Preliminary interviews are short and known as stand-up interviews or
sizing-up of the applicants or screening interviews. However, certain
required amount of care is to be taken to ensure that the desirable workers
are not eliminated. This interview is also useful to provide the basic
information about the company to the candidate.

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Business Games:

Business games are widely used as a selection technique for


selecting management trainees, executive trainees and managerial
personnel at junior, middle and top management positions. Business
games help to evaluate the applicants in the areas of decision-making
identifying the potentialities, handling the situations, problem-solving
skills, human relations skills etc. Participants are placed in a hypothetical
work situation and are required to play the role situations in the game.
The hypothesis is that the most successful candidate in the game will be
the most successful one on the job.

Group Discussion:

The technique of group discussion is used in order to secure


further information regarding the suitability of the candidate for the job.
Group discussion is a method where groups of the successful applicants
are brought around a conference table and are asked to discuss either a
case study or a subject-matter. The candidates in the group are required to
analyses, discuss, find alternative solutions and select the sound solution.
A selection panel then observes the candidates in the areas of initiating
the discussion, explaining the problem, soliciting unrevealing information
based on the given information and using common sense, keenly
observing the discussion of others, clarifying controversial issues,
influencing others, speaking effectively, concealing and mediating
arguments among the participants and summarizing or concluding apply.
The selection panel, based on its observation, judges the candidates’ skill
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and ability and ranks them according to their merit. In some cases, the
selection panel may also ask the candidates to write the summary of the
group discussion in order to know the candidates’ writing ability as well.

Test:

Psychological tests play a vital role in employee selection. A


psychological test is essentially an objective and standardized measure of
sample of behavior from which inferences about future behavior and
performance of the candidate can be drawn. Objectivity of tests refers to
the validity and reliability of the instruments in measuring the ability of
the individuals. Objectivity provides equal opportunity to all the job
seekers without any discrimination against sex, caste etc. standardization
of test refers to uniformity of the total behavior of the prospective
employee on the job.

Types of Test

Tests are classified into six types. They are Aptitude tests,
Achievement tests, Situational tests, Interest tests, Personality tests and
Multidimensional testing.

Aptitude tests: These tests measure whether an individual has the


capacity or latent ability to learn a given job if given adequate training.
Aptitudes can be divided into general and mental ability or intelligence
and specific aptitudes such as mechanical, clerical, manipulative capacity
etc.

Emotional Quotient (EQ): Most of the organizations realized that


emotional involvement and commitment of the employees determine their
contribution to the company rather than their intelligence quotient. As

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such, emotional quotient (EQ) is used as important criteria in the
employee selection process.

Achievement Tests: These tests are conducted when applicants claim to


know something as these tests are concerned with what one has
accomplished. These tests are more useful to measure the value of a
specific achievement when an organization wishes to employ experienced
candidates. These tests are classified into: (a) Job knowledge test: and (b)
Work sample test.

Situational test: This test evaluates a candidate in a similar real life


situation. In this test, the candidate is asked either to cope with the
situation or solve critical situations of the job.

Interest tests: These tests are inventories of the likes and dislikes of
candidates in relation to work, job, occupations, hobbies and recreational
activities. The purpose of this test is to find out whether a candidate is
interested or disinterested in the job for which he is a candidate and to
find out in which area of the job range/occupation the candidate is
interested. The assumption of this test is that there is a high correlation
between the interest of a candidate in a job and job success. Interest
inventories are less faked and they may not fluctuate after the age of 30.

Personality Tests: These tests prove deeply to discover clues to an


individual’s value system, his emotional reactions and maturity and
characteristic mood. They are expressed in such traits like self-
confidence, tact, emotional control, optimism, decisiveness, sociability,
conformity, objectivity, patience, fear, distrust, initiative, judgment
dominance of submission, impulsiveness, sympathy, integrity, stability
and self-confidence.

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Other Tests:

Cognitive Ability Tests: These tests measure mathematical and verbal


abilities. Popularly known tests of this category include Graduate Record
Examination (GRE) and Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT).

Polygraph Tests: The polygraph is an instrument that records changes in


breathing, blood pressure, pulse and skin response associated with
sweating of palms and plots these reactions on paper.

Multi-dimensional Testing: However, the need for multi-skills is being


felt by most of the companies’ consequent upon globalization,
competitiveness and the consequent customer-centered strategies.
Organization have to develop multi-dimensional testing in order to find
out whether the candidates possess a variety of skills or not, candidate’s
ability to integrate the multi-skills and potentiality to apply them based on
situational and functional requirement.

Personal interview:

Candidates proving themselves successful through tests are


interviewed personally. The interviewers may be individual or a panel. It
generally involves officers from the top management.

The candidates are asked several questions about their experience on


another job, their family background, their interests, etc. They are
supposed to describe their expectations from the said job. Their strengths
and weaknesses are identified and noted by the interviewers which help
them to take the final decision of selection.

Reference check:

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Generally, at least two references are asked for by the company
from the candidate. Reference check is a type of crosscheck for the
information provided by the candidate through their application form and
during the interviews.

Medical examination:

Physical strength and fitness of a candidate is must before they


takes up the job. In-spite of good performance in tests and interviews,
candidates can be rejected on the basis of their ill health.

Final selection:

At this step, the candidate is given the appointment letter to


join the organization on a particular date. The appointment letter specifies
the post, title, salary and terms of employment. Generally, initial
appointment is on probation and after specific time period it becomes
permanent.

Placement:

This is a final step. A suitable job is allocated to the appointed


candidate so that they can get the whole idea about the nature of the job.
They can get adjusted to the job and perform well in future with all
capacities and strengths.

28
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION

Basis Recruitment Selection

Meaning It is an activity of establishing It is a process of picking up


contact between employers more competent and
and applicants. suitable employees.

Objective It encourages large number of It attempts at rejecting


Candidates for a job. unsuitable candidates.

Process It is a simple process. It is a complicated process.

Hurdles The candidates have not to Many hurdles have to be


cross over many hurdles. crossed.

Approach It is a positive approach. It is a negative approach.

Sequence It proceeds selection. It follows recruitment.

Economy It is an economical method. It is an expensive method.

29
4.1 TABLE SHOWING DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLE

Gender wise clasification of employees

Basis No of respondents Percentage


Male 18 60%
Female 12 40%
Total 30 100%

Table showing age of the employees

Basis No of respondents Percentage


20-30 15 50%
30-40 8 26.6%
40-50 5 16.6%
Above 50 `2 6.6%
Total 30 100%

Table showing educational qualification of the employees

Basis No of respondents Percentage


Below SSLC 3 10%
SSLC 15 50%
PDC/ +2 8 27%
Degree 4 13%
Total 30 100%

30
INTERPRETATION
From the above table, it can be understood that there are 60%
of male and 40% of females working in KR Bakes, Kottakkal. Majority
of employees are in 20-30 age groups only. About 26.6% of employees
belong to 30-40 years. 6.6% of employees are in 50 and above classes.
The table also reveals that 50% of employees have got secondary
education and only 10% belongs to below SSLC.

31
4.2 WORK LIFE OF THE EMPLOYEES

TABLE

Basis No of respondent Percentage


0-5 years 12 40%
5-10 years 11 36.6%
10-15 years 5 16.6%
More than 15 years 2 6.6%
Total 30 100

14

12

10

8
No of respondent
6
Percentage
4

2
40% 36.60% 16.60% 6.60%
0
0-5 years 5-10 years 10-15 years More than 15
years

FIGURE 4.1

INTERPRETATION
Here, the figure shows that there are 40% of employees
working between 0-5 years, 36.6% are working for 5-10 years and son.
From the above, it is understood that employees working between 0-5
years are more comparing to other work life of employees.

32
4.3 RECRUITEMENT SOURCES

TABLE

Basis No of respondents Percentage


Through advertisement 15 50%
Promotion 3 10%
By reference 8 26.6%
Any other 4 13.3%
Total 30 100%

FIGURE 4.2

INTERPRETATION
The above figure reveals that 50% of employees were
recruited through advertisement and 26.6% were recruited by reference.
Promotion and Other sources are of 10% and 13.3%. It is understood that
advertisement plays an important role in recruitment process.

33
4.4 METHODS OF SELECTION

TABLE

Basis No of respondent Percentage


Personal interview 10 33.3%
Practical test 12 40%
Any other 8 26.6%
Total 30 100%

FIGURE 4.3

INTERPRETATION
Here, the above figure shows that there are 33.3% of
employees selected through personal interview, 40% of them were
selected through practical test and 26.6% of employees selected through
other methods.

34
4.5 TABLE SHOWING EMPLOYEE SATISFACTION ON
RECRUITEMENT PROCESS

TABLE

Basis No of respondent Percentage


Highly satisfied 5 16.6%
Satisfied 12 40%
Neutral 8 26.6%
Dissatisfied 5 16.6%
Total 30 100%

FIGURE 4.4

INTERPRETATION
The above figure reveals that 40% of employees are satisfied
with the recruitment process conducted.

35
4.6 EMPLOYEE FEEDBACK ON RECRUITMENT
PROCESS

TABLE

Basis No of respondent Percentage


Yes 14 46.6%
No 16 53.3%
Total 30 100%

FIGURE 4.5

INTERPRETATION
The above figure reveals that 46.6% of employee’s feedbacks
were taken and 53.3% of employees feedback weren’t taken by the
company.

36
4.7 POSITION OBJECTIVES, REQUIREMENTS AND
CANDIDATE SPECIFICATION IN RECRUITMENT
PROCESS

TABLE

Basis No of respondent Percentage


Yes 19 63.3%
No 11 36.6%
Total 30 100%

FIGURE 4.6

INTERPRETATION
Here, the above figure reveals 63.3% employees respond to
Yes and 36.6% employees respond to No.

37
4.8 ORGANISATION’S AFFIRMATIVE ACTION NEEDS
IN THE SELECTION PROCESS

TABLE

Basis No of respondent Percentage


Excellent 8 26.6%
Good 10 33.3%
Average 6 20%
Poor 4 13.3%
Very poor 2 6.6%
Total 30 100%

FIGURE 4.7

INTERPRETATION
From the above figure, it is understood that 33% of
employees have claimed that the organization’s affirmative action needs
are clarified and supported in the selection process.

38
4.9 EFFECTIVENESS OF SELECTION PROCESS

TABLE

Basis No of respondent Percentage


Excellent 9 30%
Good 12 40%
Average 5 16.6%
Poor 2 6.6%
Very poor 2 6.6%
Total 30 100%

FIGURE 4.8

INTERPRETATION
From the above, it is understood that effectiveness of selection
process in the organization is good.

39
4.10 PROPER JOB ANALYSIS

TABLE

Basis No of respondent Percentage


Always 6 20%
Frequently 5 16.6%
Occasionally 11 36.6%
Rarely 5 16.6%
Never 3 10%
Total 30 100%

FIGURE 4.9

INTERPRETATION
Here, the figure shows that job analysis is done occasionally in
the organization as it has 37% of the respondents.

40
4.11 SELECTION OF CANDIDATES FROM NON-
TRADITIONAL SOURCES

TABLE

Basis No of respondent Percentage


Excellent 4 13.3%
Good 7 23.3%
Average 14 46.6%
Poor 3 10%
Very poor 2 6.66%
Total 30 100%

FIGURE 4.10

INTERPRETATION
The above figure shows that Human Resource finds good
candidates from non-traditional sources when necessary.

41
4.12 SATISFACTION OF THE EMPLOYEES WITH THE
PRESENT RECRUITMENT AND SELCLTION
PRACTICES

TABLE

Basis No of respondent Percentage


Highly satisfied 7 23.3%
Satisfied 9 30%
Moderately satisfied 11 36.6%
Dissatisfied 2 6.6%
Highly dissatisfied 1 3.33%
Total 30 100%

% of respondent
3%
7% 23% Highly satisfied
Satisfied
37%
Moderately satisfied
30%
Dissatisfied
Highly dissatisfied

FIGURE 4.11

INTERPRETATION
From the above figure, 37% of the employees are moderately satisfied,
30% are satisfied, 23% are highly satisfied, 7% are dissatisfied and 3%
are highly dissatisfied.

42
4.13 EFFICIENCY IN SELECTION POLICY OF THE
EMPLOYEES

TABLE

Basis No of respondent Percentage


Yes 19 63.3%
No 11 36.6%
Total 30 100%

FIGURE 4.12

INTERPRETATION
Here, the figure reveals that there is an efficient selection policy
of employees in the organization.

43
4.14 RELIABILITY OF THE RECRUITMENT AND
SELECTION PROCESS

TABLE

Basis No of respondent Percentage


Very high 6 20%
High 9 30%
Average 9 30%
Poor 4 13.3%
Very poor 2 6.6%
Total 30 100%

FIGURE 4.13

INTERPRETATION
From the above figure, it is understood that the reliability of the
recruitment and selection process is high and at the same time average as
it both gives 30% each.

44
4.15 DIRECT RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION
PROCESS

TABLE

Basis No of respondent Percentage


Yes 18 60%
No 12 40%
Total 30 100%

% of Respondents

70%
60%
50%
40%
% of Respondents
30%
20%
10%
0%
yes no

FIGURE 4.14

INTERPRETATION
From the above figure, it is understood that 97% of workers
have been respond to yes and it is clear that direct recruitment and
selection practices is quite long process.

45
FINDINGS

● Around 60 % of employees are male and 40% of employees are female


working in the organisation.

● Half of the company employee’s strength comprised of Youth that is


employees aging between 20 and 30 years of age.

● Half of the employees that KR Bakes employed were just SSLC


qualified.

● Advertisement plays the major role in recruitment process.

● Around 27% of employees were recruited by reference.

● Practical test is mainly used for the selection of an employee.

● Recruitment process conducted in the organization is satisfied by the


employees.

● The HR team does not take much of feedback of the employees on


recruitment process conducted.

● Position objectives, requirements and candidate specification in


recruitment process are clearly defined.

46
● The organization does proper job analysis before selection process
occasionally.

● Around 40% of employees claimed that the organization is efficient in


their selection process.

● Employees are also selected from non-traditional sources.

● Around 63% of workers claimed that the selection policy of the


employees are efficient.

● Direct recruitment and selection process is quite long.

● Reliability of recruitment and selection process is high and average.

47
SUGGESTIONS

● Promotion have to be provided for the skilled and efficient workers, so


that promotion can also play a vital role to the recruitment process.

● Trade test and aptitude test should be conducted along with the
practical test in the selection process.

● Continuous feedbacks of the workers have to be taken on the


recruitment process.

● Adequate job analysis before the selection process should be


conducted.

● HR should train hiring employees to make the best hiring decisions

● Recruitment can be given to the third party such as private employment


agencies, management consultants, etc.

48
CONCLUSION

The study was conducted to find out “The role of recruitment


and selection process with special reference to KR Bakes, Kottakkal”.
From this study, it can be concluded that the recruitment and selection
process in KR Bakes is satisfactory. It strongly believes in manpower
position of the organisation. The company is using various policies,
programmes like recruitment, selection, training etc, effectively and
efficiently to obtain the best manpower. Skilled and efficient employees
are an important component for the success of an organisation.
Efficient employees contribute to the productivity, quality and
profitability of an organisation. The performance of the organisation
depends on the efficiency that its employees exhibit. Hence it is
a crucial importance that employees with the most suitable
qualifications be selected. This is where the process of
recruitment and selection come in. It is difficult to separate one
from the other.

49