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Course Title: Social Psychology Professor: Dr. Ramon C. M. F. Lachica, PRsy

Course Description:

Studies the classical and contemporary theories and research in social psychology with
emphasis on the Philippine situation.

Course Objectives:

The course aims to enhance the knowledge and understanding of students of the influence
of the social environment on their and on other’s behavior and how these influences affect one’s
views and perspectives as a member of the community, and as a social studies teacher.

Specifically, at the end of the course, students shall have:

1. Enhanced their knowledge of concepts and theories in social psychology that are relevant in
the teaching of social studies.

2. Analyzed the socio-psychological related issues and concerns in the context of their social
systems and how these impact on their values and attitudes as members of their community, and
the teaching of social studies in the elementary level.

3. Gained new insights toward deeper appreciation and valuing of their individuality and social
being-ness thus making themselves mature and socially responsive members of society, and
hopefully transmit these to their students.

4. Appreciated the value of research in teaching.

5. Applied these knowledge and insights in their present personal lives as well as in their careers
as teaching professionals.

Course Outline:

I. Introduction IV. Social Influence VII. The Filipino Community


II. Concept of the Self & Others V. Social Antagonism VIII. The Filipino Family
III. Attitude Formation VI. Prosocial Behavior

Chapter I: Introduction (Day 1)

Social Psychology (Allport)

 branch of psychology which represents an attempt to understand and explain how the thought,
feeling and behavior of individuals are influenced by actual, imagined, or implied presence of
others; due to interpersonal and non-social factors.

A person influences a group and vice versa.

5 Major Theories & Perspectives in Social Psychology

1. Social Learning Theory (behaviorist; past experiences)

 Reinforcements; Associations; Observational Learning; Imitation of Models (Bandura)


 Emphasis: PAST LEARNING
 Causes are found in the External Environment; Overt Behavior
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2. Cognitive Theories (Gestalt; Here & Now)

 Thinking Process/Information Processing


 Perception/Interpretations: Groups, Categories
 Meanings
 Festinger’s Cognitive Dissonance Theory  an individual develops dissonance when
a situation does not agree with his/her goals and/or morals
 Heider’s Balance Theory: Likes = Compatibility; Dislike = Conflicts
 Attribution Theory: What Causes behavior?
 Naïve Psychology

 Emphasis: CURRENT SITUATION


 Internal Processes & External Causes

3. Decision-making Theory (Individual) / Social Exchange Theory (Interpersonal)


(Economics)

 Equity & Exchange Theory: Cost, Rewards, Profits


 Expectancy Theory: Probability of Success, Outcomes, Valances
 Gouldner’s Norm of Reciprocity

People behave according to the probability of success: People are friendly users

4. Role Theory (Sociology)

 Behaviors due to Positions, Statuses, etc; Norms  Expected Behavior


 Sanctions  people behave in a particular way not because of rewards but of punishments
 Structural (Passive)  roles are static; they do not change
 Interactionist (Active)  as individuals interact, they relate according to their ‘roles’

5. Motivational Theories (Psycho-Analytic)

 Internal Needs Determine Behavior: behaviors are explained through internal needs and
situations arouse these needs
 Emphasis: CHILDHOOD EXPERIENCES
 Unconscious Mind: Innate Death Instincts
 Desires: Sex & Aggression

Chapter II: Person Perception: Concept of Self & Others

Person perception

 the process by which we judge the traits and characteristics of others

 refers to the process by which we come to know about other’s temporary state (e.g., emotion,
intention, desires, etc) and enduring disposition (e. g., beliefs, traits, ability, etc)

 Susceptible to errors
 Affects the perceived person’s behavior (e. g., Rosenthal Effect, Pygmalion Effect)

A. Two Processes in Person Perception

a. Impression Formation  refers to the process involved when one interprets various
sources of information about another and arriving at an over-all judgment of the person’s
character

 It is based on a rapid assessment of salient/noticeable and observable qualities and


behavior

b. Attribution  the process by which people use information to make inferences about the
causes of behavior
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B. First Impression

- Refers to the process involved when one interprets various sources of information about
another, and arriving at an over-all judgment of the person’s character (e.g., Celebrities,
Politicians, Acquaintances)

Based on:

1. Physical Characteristics  e.g., baby face, skin color, thick eyebrows

2. Non-verbal Cues  given more weight than what people claim they do (e.g. Silence, fidgety,
smirks, etc)

C. Kinds of Non-verbal Behavior:

Exercise 1-Triads Will Identify Examples for Each Non-Verbal Behavior


Mechanics:

a. Form a triad
b. Discuss, Generate and List down Examples for Each of the Following Non-Verbal
Behavior and Their Corresponding Meanings
c. Facilitator Collates Output and Presents in Plenary Discussion

1. Emblems  gestures that signify meanings


2. Affect Displays
3. Illustrators  used when describing something
4. Regulators  used in regulating social interactions
 Used when emphasizing segments and points in the verbal flow
 e.g. nodding, eye contact, eyebrow & head movement
5. Adaptors  gestures that occur when the person is not paying attention to his/herself
especially during conflicts or distractions

Others:

6. Touch
7. Paralanguage  pitch, loudness, inflections, pauses, etc
8. Personal Space  intimate, casual/personal, public/social, etc

D. Two Principles on the Effect of First Impression (Day 2)

a. Primacy Effect – long lasting effect of first impression


 First impression carries more weight that later information

b. Recency Effect – the latest information carries more weight

E. Various Theories on Integrating Impressions

 processes involved in coming up with an entire impression

A. Mechanistic  evaluative in nature; impressions are reflective of the stimulus

1. Evaluation – good/bad; strong/weak; active/passive;  polarity

2. Averaging Principle:

2.a Anderson’s Averaging Model – adding favorable and unfavorable traits


sum up to an impression

 Whichever traits (positive/negative) are more, become the impression

2.b Asch Gestalt Model – impression depends on weights given to each trait;
altruism (From a scale of 1 to 10, how do you rate the person in terms of….?)
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3. Consistency – focusing on the traits that are most consistent

 Inconsistent behaviors are not emphasized (seen as exceptions due to the person’s
manipulations) eg: Halo Effect, Forked-tail Effect

4. Positivity Bias – perceptions are most of the time positive; focus on the good things

B. Cognitive

1. Meaning & Context  e.g., A student in a bikini (in the beach versus in the
classroom)

2. Salience (Figure-Ground Principle)  most outstanding characteristics

 That which draws attention  e.g.: those who are either attentive or disruptive
 Salience of Negativity  Negative behavior easily overshadows positive
impressions

3. Categorization (Socio-Cultural)  people are categorized into groups based on a


prototype that are held by culture

 Prototype – an abstract set of attitudes


 Exemplars – the real examples of the prototype

The Boss, The Grandmother, The Priest/Pastor, The Teacher

How about Impressions of Mixed Races?

4. Schema – a person’s set of knowledge about things or people

 Impressions are based on the consistency of the person’s behavior with the pre-
existing information in our minds (usually based on self-referencing)

 e.g.,: What is beautiful to you: Chinita/o, mestiza/o, morena/o, etc


What is good to you: honest, obedient, humble, etc

 Accuracy of Judgment  Judgment of external characteristics are more accurate

 Internal states (emotions, personality, attitudes) are more difficult to judge

 Inaccuracies are due to idiosyncratic preferences (unique characteristics)

 Eye of the Beholder Effect

Exercise 2-Individual Work: Sociometry of the Class

Mechanics:

1. Write your name on the first line.


2. Individually, answer the following question: “Among my classmates, who do I like most?”
Write your answer to the question below your name.
3. What do u like in this person?
4. Plenary: Facilitator constructs the Sociometric Structure of the Class
5. Which Theory was operational when you were answering question #3
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II. Attribution (Day 3)

 refers to the perceived causes of behavior (both our’s and others’)

 Why do people behave in a particular manner?

 One’s responses are influenced by perceived causes of other’s behavior

 e.g. Cause: accidental or intentional; Motive: Sincere or Pretensions

 Anger  it is higher when one perceives the situation to be within a person’s control
(if the situation is not within one’s control; we say: “What can we do?”)

A. 3 Information Processing Theories

1. Jones & Davies’ Theory of Correspondent Inference


 Dispositional Attribution
 Inferring traits from behavior  By working back to traits that led to the behavior
(What is in that person that made him/her do that?)
It is STRONGEST under the following conditions:

a) Socially Undesirable Behavior (Non-normative Behavior)

b) Behavior Has Non-Common Effects


 Ex: Risking one’s life, donations

a) Hedonic Relevance and Personalism


 Hedonism  seeking pleasure and avoiding pain
 Personalism  behavior that concerns us

2. Heiders’ Naïve Psychology  based on the idea that every person has a general
understanding of human behavior

2 Assumptions of the Theory

a) Every person has the need to form a coherent understanding of his world (attempts at
finding an explanation for events that take place)

b) Every person has a need to control his environment (possessing explanations leads to
the ability to predict w/c in turn leads to control)

e.g., CREATION Stories

Dimensions of Heider’s Theory: Internality, Stability; and Weiner’s Controllability


(Is the event w/in my control? Is the cause CHANGEABLE?)

Heider’s Locus of Control:

Internality: External vs. Internal

 Internal  causes of events in one’s life are found inside the person; excludes
environmental or social factors
 External  causes of events in one’s life are found outside the person; excludes
traits/characteristics of a person

Stability: Stable vs. Unstable (see diagram on next page)

 Stable – causes that are permanent or enduring


 Unstable – causes that are temporary, fluctuating or transient

Controllability (Weiner et al.) as a third dimension to the 2 dimensions


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STABILITY

Stable Unstable
Dispositional:

Internal
 Traits  Effort
 Ability  Mood
INTERNALITY

 Personal Characteristics  Physical State (tired)

 Luck

External

Tradition
 Opportunity
 Task difficulty
 Environmental
 Social history
enabler/hindrance

3. Causal Schema

 Discounting Principle  No particular cause is considered when other possible


causes are also available

 Over-Justification Effect  external rewards may undermine intrinsic motivation

B. Attribution Error

1. Actor–Observer Effect
 The tendency for actors to attribute their actions to situational requirements whereas,
observers tend to attribute the same actions to stable personal dispositions
 e.g. tripping because of an obstacle you tripped because you are careless
 e.g., Parent  Child

 Due to:
a. We possess more information about ourselves and we overgeneralize the limited
information that we have about others
b. Our perception of ourselves is focused on the external environment

Exceptions to Actor–Observer Effect:


 Positive behavior is attributed to internal disposition and negative behavior is
attributed to external factors
 Lack of personal reflection; reason, justifications, alibis

2. Salience Effect
 People and behavior that are perceptually salient are seen to be more causally central and
influential in general (these are people who are commonly noticed because of
positions, popularity/notoriety, status, etc)

e.g. Aquino assassination attributed to Marcos


Abuses are committed by “Rich Kids”
Bombings are attributed to the Abu Sayaff

3. Motivational Bias  self-preservation


 Self – serving bias  distortion of attribution to look “good” in order to enhance one’s
self esteem
 Self – handicapping  creating new causes to protect ourselves from future internal
attribution when failure is anticipated
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Exercise 3-Group Work: Application of Heider’s Attribution Theory on A Behavior


Analysis of A Historical Figure

Mechanics:

1. Group According to Subject Area


2. Choose a Historical Figure
3. Use Heider’s Theory on Attribution to Identify the Causes of Behavior of the Person
4. Individual Presentation per Grade/Year Level

Chapter 3: Attitude Formation and Change (Day 4)

Attitude  is learned evaluative response directed at a specific “target” (objects, persons, places,
etc.) which is relatively enduring; influences behavior in generally a motivating matter

e.g., Propaganda, Social Movements, Advertising

1. Characteristics of An Attitude

 Learned  culture, social groups


e.g., barkada, family, political organization, language groupings, religion, etc)

 Evaluative  involves a like or dislike for the target

 Generally Motivating  reflected in many behaviors

 Enduring  may be difficult to change

“Can behavior shape attitudes?”

2. Theories on Attitude Formation

I: Learning Theories

 “Tabula Rasa”
A. Classical Conditioning  developed through associations that are established
(e.g., strangers are bad; spinsters are grouchy)

B. Operant Conditioning  developed through reinforcements  negative reinforcements;


absence of negative reinforcements (e.g. Parents’ reward for good grades)

C. Modeling and Observational Learning (e.g. Parents’ view regarding other social classes)

II: Personality Dynamics

 attitudes serve the needs of a person


Prejudice  en expression of repressed anger and a form of protection from one’s feelings of
inadequacy and insecurity

III: Logical Influence Theories

 existing attitudes become the materials which other attitudes are built on

 the formation of new attitudes take into account their consistency with existing ones

 cognitive dissonance; inconsistent/opposing experiences

e.g., I have friends who are prostitutes therefore, I see other prostitutes not to be necessarily bad
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3. Three Components of Attitude

1. Cognitive  consists of all thoughts the person has about the target
Involves facts, knowledge and beliefs about the target (e.g. Snakes have slimy skin.
They bite and they can kill)

2. Affective  consists of emotions toward the target (e.g. I am scared of snakes)

3. Behavioral  consists of the person’s readiness and non-readiness to respond or tendency to


act regarding the target (e.g. I don’t play with snakes)

NOTE: Affect component is the most difficult to change

Fact vs. Attitudes: A form of sleeper effect – attitude remains

“Facts may change but attitudes can persist.”(e.g. Folk Belief/Superstition: Paglilihi)
“An attitude can persist long after the fact that produced it has been forgotten.”
(e.g., Hitler, the “Japs”)

4. 4 Function of Attitudes

1. Instrumental  brings rewards and prevents punishments


e.g., attitude towards attending church service
Note: Parent’s attitude is a predictor of the children’s attitudes

2. Ego Defense  resolves internal emotional conflicts and reduces anxiety


e.g. ‘sinfulness’ of an act: sexual intimacy (or vice versa); prejudice is rationalized as valid

3. Knowledge Function  creates a cohesive and comprehensible social world


e.g., elders have to be obeyed

4. Value Expression  reflects ones’ values (whatever is important to the person)


e.g., religiosity

Exercise 4-Indiviudal Work: Attitude Towards Homosexuals

Mechanics:

1. Individually, answer the following questions:

a. How do I regard (feelings, thoughts, behavior) male homosexuals?


b. How do I regard (feelings, thoughts, behavior) female homosexuals?

2. List down these feelings, thoughts, behaviors


3. Facilitator synthesizes output in plenary session

5. Four Factors that Affect the Success of Attitude Change

a. Communicator/Source

‘(S)He should have a favorable effect on the target”

Four Factors that serve as a basis for Communicator Evaluation

1. Credibility of the Communicator

Based on:
a) Expertise/Authority on the matter
 professional track record (e.g. Officers of PAMET for Safeguard)
 experience (e.g. Loren Legarda of Ariel)
 arguments based on facts is more persuasive (e.g. PAMET laboratory results; Pond’s)
 multiple sources advocate the same position (e.g. Magic Sarap; Ginisa Mix)
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b) Trustworthiness
 unbiased
 does not have any personal interests; when the communicator does not profit anything
by advocating a position (arguing against one’s interests leads to higher
persuasiveness) e.g., Princess Diana campaigning against Land Mines

2. Liking for the Communicator


Based on:
a) Similarity (in: age, education, sex, race, etc.)
b) Attractiveness
c) Reciprocal Liking (we like those who like us)

3. The Communicator Being Part of One’s Reference Group

 refers to members of a group which we consider our ideal (e.g. Tita Tita & Barbara Tengco)

4. The Communicator as Peripheral Cue

 the target “sets aside” the communicator

 the communicator as a peripheral cue becomes effective in persuasion only when:


a) a target does not scrutinize the information about the communicator
b) the communicator’s characteristics are easily figured out (i.e., he is popular)
e.g. Basta Ikaw Boss! “Approved without thinking”
e.g. John Lloyd for Biogesic; Vic Sotto for Solmux; Religious Leaders

Sleeper Effect

 as time lapses, the communicator becomes increasingly dissociated from the message
 the message is remembered but the communicator is forgotten
 e.g. myths, slogans, principles (“Credit is good, but we need cash”; “Learn the 3 R’s”;
“Better be late than never”)

b. Content of Communication

The content of what is communicated should have the following characteristics:

A. Discrepancy  the greater the discrepancy between new information and existing attitudes,
the greater potential pressure to change
 e.g. Vanity vs. Simple Lifestyle; Poverty vs. Abundance (by Religious Crusaders;
Tamblot)

Note: High level of discrepancy results to Source Derogation in order to maintain one’s
consistency (a possible response) e.g., Meat lovers vs. Vegetarianism; Smoking vs. Health

 The chances of achieving change is lower when the target knows he has a lot to give up (can
be over powered by what is to gain)

 Mechanisms for a feasible and realistic change process has to be in place

B. Motive Arousal

1. Aggression Arousal  the process of producing attitude change through aggressive


positions

e.g. Emphasis of Economic Deprivation by Militant Groups


 Cults: Ku Klux Klan, Labor Unions; Religious Groups: Ireland’s Orange Group
 Political Parties: CPP/NPA

 Personal frustrations make a person more vulnerable to aggressive positions


 It is an opportunity for people to vent out their frustrations (against: family,
government, racial and religious groups, etc.)
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2. Fear Arousal  the process of producing attitude change by arousing fear among the
target

e.g., Martial Law’s Philippine Constabulary (PC); Showing gruesome effects of: Lung
Cancer

 However, arousing too much fear may lead to defensive avoidance (a possible
response)

C. Strong Arguments

 may be in the form of Repetitions; Repetition is effective only when varied to avoid tedium

D. Communication Content as a Peripheral Cue

 Effective only when the amount of information content is voluminous (i.e. the target does not
scrutinize the content of the communication and “automatically” approves of it)
 eg: Buying an Insurance Policy; Registering in the Internet (Terms & Conditions)

c. Situational Factors

3 Situational Variables that May Affect Change:

A. Forewarning of Position (Affiliations)

 refers to the target’s prior knowledge of the communicator’s current position

 “forewarned is forearmed … unless you like it anyway”

- the target’s knowledge of the communicator’s strong position leads to lower chances of change

B. Forewarning of Intent (To Persuade)

 refers to the target’s prior knowledge of the communicator’s intent to persuade without
necessarily knowing the latter’s position

 “don’t believe him whatever he says”


e.g., a negotiator in a conflict; someone offering a business proposal

C. Distraction

 distracting the target’s attraction from the issue may enable the persuasive message to get
through (e.g. Abu Sayyaf vs. Peso Devaluation)

d. Target

3 Types of the Target’s Ego Involvement

1. Commitment  refers to the degree to which an individual is involved in his position which
creates pressure on him to defend his issues:

Sources of Commitment:

a. Behavior
 a person’s behavior reflects his attitude;
 a person stands by his decisions and actions
e.g., buying a new car; changing religious affiliations

b. Public Commitment
 a person stands by his decision to avoid going against what has been publicly
sworn/promised (word of honor)
e.g., commitment rituals: oath-taking, public confessions, commitment trees, etc.
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c. Free Choice
 a person stands by his decision when it was made without any coercion
e.g., voting on an issue; public & individual consultation

d. Direct Experience
 a person can stand by his position because of his personal experiences
e.g., The girl who slapped you will always be evil for you

2. Issue Involvement

♣ a person will involve himself in an issue if the issue affects him


e.g., Tuition fee increase (students); Salary Increase (teachers); Extra-Marital
Relationships (Married Couples); Security during old age (Singles)

♣ non-involvement in one’s issue (apathy) affects the person’s image and Social
Acceptability
Note: When the outcome matters to the person, arguments are processed carefully; when
they do not, the target focuses more on communicator characteristics

3. Response Involvement

♣ the person will involve himself in an issue when is response to an issue will entail public
scrutiny and results to either social approval or disapproval
e.g., Teachers’ involvement in the Implementation of School Policies

Chapter 4: Social Influence (Day 5)

 It involves the exercise of social power by a person or group to change the attitudes or
behavior of others in a particular direction (Cialdini & Goldstein, 2004)

3 Behavioral Consequences of Social Influence:

1. Conformity  takes place when people maintain or change their behavior to be consistent
with group standards or because others are doing it

 Solomon Asch’s Line Judgment Research (1951, 1952, 1956)


 the 6th participant (out of 7) was asked to make a judgment
 conformity was observed in 31% of the trials
 76% conformed on at least one trial

2. Compliance  occurs when people do what they are asked to do even though they prefer not
to

3. Obedience  happens when people follow a direct command usually from someone
perceived to be a legitimate authority

Social Norm Development (Muzafir Sherif, 1935): Autokinetic Effect of Light


Trial 1: Individual estimates
Trial 2: Stable range was established
Trial 3: Group of dyads and triads
Findings: “All participants tended to gradually change their estimates to be more similar to the
others. Moving from their individual standards, they converged on a standard established by
the group.”
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Exercise 5-Group Work: Conformity

Conformity

A. Situational and Personality Factors that Impact on Conformity:


1. Group Cohesiveness
♣ cohesive groups tend to be more intolerant of differing opinions
♣ brought about by social desirability and fear of rejection (e.g. barkada, family)

2. Topic Relevance
♣ group members tend to exert more pressure to conform when the topic is considered to be
important
3. Social Support
♣ social support for the person decreases conformity; any dissenting opinion against the
group decreases conformity (e.g. authoritarian rule)
4. Collectivist & Individualist Cultures
♣ conformity is prescribed within the in-groups of a collective culture
5. Current Self-awareness
♣ activities that involve private self-awareness (ie: refers to the temporary state of being
aware of hidden private self-aspects such as personal opinions, thoughts, etc.) lead the
person to act according to personal standards and reduces conformity (e.g. secret
balloting vs. viva voce)
6. Self Presentation
♣ conformity depends on what impression one is trying to protect
7. Desire for Personal Control (DPC)
♣ high desire for personal control lowers conformity

Conformity Prevents Social Rejection

Both physical pain & Social Rejection activates the anterior cingulated cortex (Eisenberger et al., 2003)

Being ostracized & ostracizing (ignored; alienated):

 being ostracized leads to impairment in reasoning, logic, and self-regulation (Baumeister et. al., 2002)
 ostracizing depletes one’s resources and causes stress, making it more difficult to engage in
self-regulation (Ciarocco, 2001)

B. Compliance

3 Factors that Forster Compliance

1. Positive Mood (Forgas, 1998)


2. Reciprocity (Regan, 1971, Uehara, 1995; Chartrand et. al., 1999)
3. Giving Reasons (Langer, 1978)

C. Obedience

Milgram’s Study (1963)


75 volts – grunts
150 volts – demands to be released
300 volts – refuses to answer
330 volts – silence
450 volts – (experimenter: “you must go on…”)
Results: 300 volts – 1st 5 defectors
450 volts – 65% of participants (26 out of 40) remained

B. Factors that Influence Obedience:


1. Ordinary persons giving orders led to lower obedience
2. Participant and victim in the same room led to higher obedience
3. Highest disobedience & obedience when others behave similarly
4. Sex is not a factor
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Day 6: Mid-term Examination

Chapter 5: Social Antagonism (Day 7)

3 Components of Social Antagonism:

1. Prejudice
 refers to the negative attitudes towards a group (e.g. resentment)
 a negative evaluation of a group or an individual based mainly on the person (s)’ group
membership
 does not necessarily lead to action
 can either be implicit (non conscious, latent) or explicit (conscious but may not
necessarily be expressed)

2. Discrimination
♣ the behavior expression of prejudice (e.g. physical attack, jokes, rejection)
♣ a negative action toward members of a specific social group

3. Stereotype
♣ beliefs about people that put them into categories and do not allow for individual
variation (i.e. every member is similar to each other and homogenous)

Degrees of Social Antagonism

1. Prejudice 3. Segregation
2. Discrimination 4. Annihilation

Exercise 6- Group Work: Regional Traits

Mechanics:

1. In groups of 5, list down words to describe your impressions of:

a. Tagalogs b. Bicolanos c. Cebuanos


d. Ilocanos e. Ilonggos f. Muslims g. Kapampangans

2. Facilitator collates and presents output in Plenary session

Theories on Prejudice
A. Leaning Theory
1. Socialization  refers to the process wherein we are introduced to the ways of living
(e.g. culture) of our group or society
 Ethnic identity (e.g. individual’s sense of personal identification with a particular
ethnic group)
 Agencies of Socialization: family, school, church, media

2. Dual-Process Model (Duckitt, 2001): Social Dominance Theory and Prejudice as a


Personality Disorder

 Social Dominance Theory  proposes that in all societies, groups can be organized
in a hierarchy of power with at least one group being dominant over all others.
(Pratto, 1996; Sidanius & Pratto, 1999)
 Strict and punitive disciplinarians develop a strong need to conform to authority
figures, social conventions and order. Thus a sensitivity to anything that threatens
the social order and diversity in the social world is dangerous and threatening.
Outgroups are seen as threats.
 Cold and unaffectionate parenting leads to tough-mindedness which views the world
as a ruthless competitive jungle where the strong win and the weak lose. This
worldview activates a desire for group dominance, power and superiority.

Egalitarian – wealth and/or effort will determine power and comfort


Utopia – ideal society which is not feasible
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B. Motivational/Psychodynamic Theories: Internal, Psychological


1. Displaced Aggression  a matter of perception
 Displacement  occurs when the source of frustration or annoyance cannot be
attacked because of fear or when the source is unavailable
 e.g. Economic Depression; Authoritarian Rule

2. Relative Deprivation  refers to a subjective feeling of being deprived as compared to


others, which results to resentment, and expressed through antagonism

2 Types OF Relative Deprivation:


a. Egoistic Deprivation – I am deprived by them
b. Fraternal Deprivation – We are deprived by them
 It can be done in the name of others, and could be stronger that egoistic
 Brings out reality in your claim; and Justifies prejudice

3. Realistic Group Conflict  theory that intergroup conflict develops from competition for
limited resources (Franzoi, 2006)
 Especially true when there is competition over scarce resources
 The in-group feels that the out-group frustrates the satisfaction of its need

4. Cognitive Theory: Categorization  perceivers naturally categorize other people


according to groups e.g. gender, race, age, religion, socio-economic status (SES)
 Categorization leads to stereotypes

C. Social Identity Theory: Cognitive and Motivational Combined (Tajfel, 1992)


 a theory suggesting that people seek to enhance their self-esteem by identifying with specific
social groups, and perceiving these groups as being better than other groups (Franzoi,2006)

- Assumption: People strive for a positive self-concept and derive this sense of self-esteem
from their social identity (e.g. I am proud to be a member of this group)

- A kind of social competition in which members try to boost the status of their group as a
way of boosting their own self-esteem; thus, members engage in activities that benefit
their group

Chapter 6: Altruism (Day 8)

Prosocial Behavior
 refers to a voluntary behavior that is carried out to benefit another person (Batson & Powell, 2003)

2 Forms of Helping Behavior:


a. Egoistic Helping – a form of helping which is motivated by the ultimate goal to increase
one’s own welfare (Franzoi, 2006)
b. Altruistic Helping – a form of helping which is motivated by the ultimate goal to increase
the other’s welfare without expecting anything in return (Franzoi, 2006)

“Why would some people risk their lives for others?”

Theories on Altruism

1. Evolutionary Perspective:  Helping others promotes the survival of the specie

a. Kin Selection helping blood relatives increase the odds that one’s genes will be
transmitted to subsequent generations (Zahavi,2003)

b. Reciprocal Helping  people are likely to help strangers if it is understood that


the recipient is expected to return the favor at some time in the future (Trivers,1971)

 Benefit for the recipient must be high and cost to the helper must be relatively low
 “Cheaters” who do not reciprocate are identified (Brown & Moore, 2000)
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Three Conditions that Promote Reciprocal Helping: (Trivers, 1973)


1. Social Group Living  allows for opportunities to give and receive help
2. Mutual Dependence  where species survival depends on cooperation
3. Lack of Rigid Dominance Hierarchies  where helping allows the
enhancement of each animals’ power

2. Social Norms

3 Social Norms that Guide Prosocial Behavior:

1) Reciprocity
 this norm prescribes that people should be paid back for whatever they give us; helping those
who help us (Brown & Moore 2000, Gouldner, 1960)

“What is the term used in our language that express this concept”

People experience a feeling of discomfort (e.g. embarrassment) when they receive but cannot
give something back in return

“How is this feeling of discomfort expressed in your culture?”

2) Social Responsibility: Especially those people who are superior


 this norm prescribes that people should help when others are in need and dependent on them
(Bieroff, 2000) regardless of the recipient’s worthiness (Nuner-Wrinkler, 1984)
e.g. Parents helping their children; Teachers attending to their students; Fire Volunteers

3) Social Justice
 this norm stipulates that people should only help when they believe that others deserve help

a. May contradict the norm of Social Responsibility: “In what way?


b. The “good” will most likely be helped: “Why is this so?”
c. “How would one’s locus of control interact with the norm of Social Justice?” 
Internalists promote Social Justice
d. “How would one’s culture (collectivist or individualist) interact with the norm of
Social Justice?”  Individualists promote Social Justice

3. Motivational Theory

Batson’s Empathy – Altruism Theory (Batson, 1991)

2 Emotional Reactions to Someone Suffering:


a. Personal Distress  refers to an unpleasant state of arousal in which people are
preoccupied with their own emotions of anxiety, fear, or helplessness upon viewing
the victim’s plight
b. Empathy  refers to a feeling of compassion and tenderness upon viewing a victim’s
plight also produces an unpleasant feeling when a person is not able to help, and
could not be reduced by flight; the stronger the feelings of compassion for the victim
lead to a greater motivation to help.

Is Altruism (or empathy) not egoistic since it also involves reduction of the unpleasant feeling
experienced during empathy?

4. Social Learning Theory  imitation

5. Operant Conditioning Model  past rewards


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Concept of Bystander Apathy

 Kitty Genovese Story (March 13, 1964, Queens, NYC)

Factors that may affect Decisions Along the 5 Steps:


1. Audience Inhibition
Occurs when the following conditions are present:
a. Outcome Dependence  occurs when people are inhibited to respond for fear of being
negatively evaluated as a result of being reactive (such as being agitated, frightened,
“panicky”) e.g. nerbyoso, OA
 Inhibited response provides misleading information to others to do the same

b. Information Dependence  occurs when the situation is vague and people depend on
others for a definition of reality e.g. when others are not showing any pertinent
reactions (such as being unconcerned, calmness, disinterest)

2. Diffusion of Responsibility  refers to the belief that the presence of other people in a
situation makes one less personally responsible

3. Emotional Arousal and Cost-Reward Assessment  assumes that emotional arousal takes
place during emergency situations and the unpleasant feelings need to be decreased

Cost-Reward Assesment Matrix (Piliavin et al., 1981)

COST

HIGH LOW

Most difficult Predicament:


HIGH

Intervene Call for assistance or


Reinterpret the situation
REWARD

LOW

Intervention would depend on


No intervention
Social Norms

 Altruism among modern day heroes does not usually involve this assessment
 May explain behavior of ordinary bystanders during emergency situations (Franzoi, 2006)

Exercise 7: Group Work: Constructing a Module for a Class Altruism Day

Mechanics:

1. Group according to subject area


2. Design a Module for an Altruism Day Activity for Your Class
3. The Module should have the following columns:

a. Rationale of the Activity


b. Objectives
c. Activities and Mechanics of the Activities
d. Time Frame
e. Values
f. Evaluation

4. Choose a Rapporteur to Present Output in Plenary session


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Chapter 7: The Filipino Community (Day 9)

Community (def.) – refers to people bound either by geography or by network links (webs of
communication) sharing common ties and interacting with one another (Hutchison, 1999)

A. Hillery’s Common Elements of a Community (1955):

1. Geographic Area
2. Social Interaction
3. Common Ties

B. Changing Aspects:

1. Electronic Communication
2. Physical Mobility
3. Communities of Interest (e.g., Professional, LGBT, Disabilities, Racial, Ethnic)

C. Theories on Social Interaction

1. Social Exchange Theory – the act of exchange refers to the process of getting something one
needs or desires from others by offering them something they need or desire (Lesser & Pope, 2011)

 An exchange takes place only if both parties feel it will benefit them or, at least, not hurt
them
 In the relationship, one has power when one controls the resources that someone else
needs; thus, the need for power-balancing strategies (e.g., find alternatives, finding
something that one controls that is valuable to the “powerful” party, forming
coalitions/alliances, depriving the powerful)

2. Social Networks – comprised of people, groups, orgs. or other social units that are connected
and interact to help meet their individual needs

3. Social Cohesion – refers to the strength of ties between members of the community;
reciprocity and fair exchange foster cohesion; unequal distribution of power (& resources)
threaten cohesion

4. Social Exclusion – describes situations in which individuals or groups of people are excluded
from participation in the life of the community (e.g., mental institutions, home for the aged)

D. Community Functions (Warren, 1978)

1. Production-Distribution-Consumption
2. Socialization
3. Social Control
4. Social Participation
5. Mutual Support

Exercise 8-Group Work: Functions of the Community

Mechanics:

1. Group according to place of origin/school


2. Identify how each of the functions are practiced in your respective community
3. Assign a Rapporteur to Present Output in Plenary session
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Chapter 8: The Filipino Family (Day 10 & 11)

A. Various Definitions of the Family

1. Sociological – Refers to a group of people related by marriage, blood, or adoption (Shepard,


2002);

 Traditionally been defined as a social unit of those related through marriage, birth, or
adoption who reside together in officially sanctioned relationships and who engage in
economic cooperation, socially approved sexual relations, reproduction and child rearing
(Gough, 1984 in Andersen & Taylor, 2009).

 Refers to a primary group of people – usually related by ancestry, marriage, or adoption –


who form a cooperative economic unit to care for any offspring (and each other) and who
are committed to maintaining the group over time (Lamanna & Riedmann, 2003 in
Andersen & Taylor, 2009).

How about those who do not fit into the definition?

2. Philippine Constitution

Article XV. The Family


 Concept of Family – In a broad sense, family is a group of persons united together by ties
of marriage and blood. In a very restricted sense, it is applied to the group formed by the
spouses and their children

Article II. Section 12. Declaration of Principles and State Policies: The State recognizes the
sanctity of family life and shall protect and strengthen the family as a basic autonomous social
institution

Rearing of the Youth for Civic Efficiency and Development of Moral Character:

 2. Right of State to interfere with education of children. - ...The state, however, has the
power reasonably to regulate all schools, their teachers and pupils; to require that all
children of proper age attend school, that teachers shall be of good moral character and
patriotic disposition, that certain studies plainly essential to good citizenship must be
taught, and that nothing be taught which is manifestly inimical to public welfare.

Importance of the family to the State:

 1. A basic social institution. - ...it is the family which provides the basic social unit of the
State. The family is the very heart of society, men’s system of living together in this
world. It comes into being in response to human needs and inclinations that are deeply
rooted in the nature of men.

 2. The community’s first socializing agency. – The family is, in fact, the community’s
first socializing agency and the source of its strength and stability. It is here that the child
learns obedience, cooperation, and respect for the rights of others; and it is here also that
the parents have constant occasions to rise above selfishness in responding to the needs of
their children.

3. Catechism of the Catholic Church:

 2201: The conjugal community is established upon the consent of the spouses. Marriage
and the family are ordered to the good of the spouses and to the procreation and
education of children

 2202: A man and a woman united in marriage, together with the children, form a family.
It should be considered the normal reference point by which the different forms of family
relationship are to be evaluated.
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Sociological Approaches:

1. Conflict Theory – conflict and change in society is natural and inevitable; Marxist

2. Social Exchange Theory – emphasizes that individuals attempt to make choices that they
expect will maximize their benefits and/or minimize their costs

3. Symbolic Interactionism – assumes that human behavior is guided by the meanings that
people ascribe to social situations; meanings arise and are derived from social interaction;
meanings are modified in an interaction process; the tool people use to develop and
modify “meanings” is symbolic language.

4. Structural-Functional – considers society as consisting of parts (structures) of a whole


and each part has a function; systems theory; the parts are subsystems; emphasizes the
integration of the parts that are interdependent; Parsonian

5. Developmental – attempts to integrate the approaches (structural-functional and symbolic


interactionism) and adds the dimension of time; looks at how structures and functions
develop over time.

6. Feminist – asserts that gender is basic to all social structures and organization;
emphasizes that experiences of women are different from those of men; may be
considered as an extension of the other approaches wand has a particular value.

Elements of Family Constellation

1. Membership

a. Family of Orientation – the family a person is born into, or the family of birth; the
family that orients the person

b. Family of Procreation – established upon marriage

2. Structure

a. Nuclear – the smallest group of individuals that can legitimately be called a family, is
generally composed of a mother, a father, and any children

b. Extended – consists of two or more adult generations of the same family whose
members share economic resources and live in a common household

3. Authority Structure

a. Patriarchal – the oldest man living in the household has authority over the rest of the
family members

b. Matriarchal – the oldest woman living in the household has authority over the rest of
the family members

c. Democratic – authority is split evenly between husband and wife

4. Power Structure- refers to the person(s) who make the decisions

5. Discipline Styles

a. Authoritarian – prescriptive, imposing, parents are the bosses


b. Democratic/Authoritative – children participate in the decisions affecting their lives
c. Permissive/Laissez-faire – children have the final say
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Functions of the Family:

1. Sex and Reproduction


2. Biological Maintenance
3. Socialization
4. Status Placement
5. Welfare and Protection
6. Functions in Relation to other Institutions (i.e., Economy, Education, Religion, Media,
Government)

Exercise 9- Group Work (2-3 members): Alternative Forms of the Filipino Family (Day
11/12)

Mechanics:

1. Choose 1 Form of Alternative Family Configuration from among the following:

a. Truncated b. Single Mother/Father c. Absentee Mother/Father


d. Working mother with father as househusband e. Informal Adoption
f. Stepfamily g. Stepfamily w/ half-siblings h. Weekend parents
i. Parent w/ live-in partner j. Gay partnership k. Others

2. Conduct an Interview with a Family Member using the following Guide:

a. Structure and Composition


b. Role of the Mother/Father; of each Member
c. Decision-maker in the Family / Power-holder / Economic Power
d. Authority Structure
e. Discipline Style

References

Lesser, J. G. & Pope, D. S. (2011). Human behavior and the social environment: Theory and
practice. MA: Allyn & Bacon

Myers, D. G.(2005). Social psychology. 8th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies Inc.

Smith, E. R. & Mackie, D. Social psychology. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Psychology Press.