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Chapter: 1

INTRODUCTION

Education, as it is rightly enunciated by the philosopher, is the name of continuous


process aimed at the bringing positive change in the human life as well as at social
level. Education is dual process involving the interaction of the personality of the of
the educator on that of the educated for positive modification of the latter s
behavior. This process has psychological aspects along with sociological one. The
study of the child s family tendency is as important as the development of the social
consciousness in the individual through education. Education can, thus can be
regarded as tri-lateral process [1].

In order to bring positive change in the society through education in accordance


with the changing circumstances, the whole process of education must be strictly
managed as every astray activity result in total failure.

Educational management encompasses the process of planning, organizing, and


controlling the educational activity for the achievement of set targets and goals of
education. Thus, educational management involve governing body, policy making
body or decision making body of the education. It also involves the art of arranging
various activities in such an effective manner to improve the educational
environment of an area through managing the educational bodies and
institutions[2].

For improving the managerial aspect of education and in order to actualize the
concept of “Right person for the Right job”, it was decided by the government of that
time in 2009 to divide education department into management cadre and teaching
cadre.

The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Sind government after 18th amendment actually
separated management and teaching cadre in education department as earlier they
lacked management and financial skill and administration which are the backbone

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of success for any organization. Before this managers were recruited within existing
teaching cadre through political favor without any special expertise in the field. For
better realization of program giving specialize in service training in financial
management, office management, personal management, planning community,
participation and Information Technology skill was proposed.

However , the bifurcation of education into two separate cadres envisaged in 2009
National Educational Policy was implemented half-heartedly as implementing in
2011 in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa was rolled back due to the stiff resistance from the
management cadre officers against political appointment.

Due to the positive effect over learning environment the incumbent government of
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa once again from the very beginning reinstated all those
persons over management posts selected by the Public Service Commission.

As Pakistan is under developing country and this imprint of under developness is


vivid in almost all aspect of national life, so the management aspect of the education
is not immune from this under developness dilemma.

1.1 Statement of the problem

The topic under study is” The Effect of Management Cadre in Improving Learning
Environment in Elementary And Secondary Education Department at District Level
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa ”.

1.2 Objective of the study

Following are the main objectives of the study

1. To collect data about the management cadre in Dir Lower a district KHYBER
PAKHTUNKHWA and its effect over learning environment.

2. To find out significance of management cadre in education department.

3. To find out the problems of management in education department.

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4. To give suggestion for the development of management in education department.

1.3 Hypothesis

1. Lack of government tendency toward appointing capable management over


management posts in education departments.

2. Undue political interference in appointing management cadre officer.

3. Discouraging capable management officers due to clandestine purposes of the


government.

4. Need for young skilled person in today intricacies.

1.4 Significance of the study

This study is likely to make a significant contribution in understanding the need for
a separate management cadre in school education department therefore study will
have importance for policy makers at national as well as provincial level. This study
will also serve as to indentify needs of taking decision about creation of an
independent Management Cadre in school Education therefore will have
significance for district management of education department. The findings and
recommendations of this research study will provide strategic guidance to the
decision makers at Federal, Provincial and Regional levels to create and
sustainable Education Management Cadre (EMC) in school
education department at provincial level.
1.5 Delimitation

Keeping in view the short time at disposal the study is delimited to only district
Education Office (M) Dir Lower, Ex-educational officers, Principals and the Member
of Provincial Assembly PK 76 who voted in the said piece of legislation at that time
is scrutinized for the overall improvement in education department in Dir Lower.

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Chapter: 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

The major purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of management cadre in
improving the learning environment in Elementary and Secondary Education
Department at district level. For this purpose, the related literature is reviewed
under the following subheadings:

1. Management

2. Role of management in everyday life.

3. Functions of Management

4. Educational Management

5. Components of Educational Management

6. Importance of Management in Elementary and Secondary Education Department

7. Management Cadre

8. Process of management cadre in education

9. Educational management set up at district level in Elementary and Secondary


Education Department Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

10.Aims and Objectives of Cadre in Elementary and Secondary Education


Department Management

11. Management Cadre and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Government

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2.1 Management

Management is a process of reaching the organizational goals by planning,

organizing the human and financial resources as well as influencing and controlling.

In planning, a planner keeping in view human, material resources and time set

objectives to achieve the organizational goals. Further, in planning tasks and

activities are identified and roles and responsibilities are defined for each step of

plan. A manager apart from planning needs effective communication skills to

coordinate among various levels of employees. While organizing a manager

allocates assignments to relevant members of an organization on merit with a view

to complete the task in coherent manners. This helps in monitoring and evaluating

the performance of each individual. In influencing a manager leads, motivates and

directs to complete the activities as per plan. In controlling a manager oversees the

functioning of various tiers of workforce to avoid wastage of time, energy and

resources.

Management is efficient when all activities are completed efficiently and effectively

for achieving organizational goals through other people within minimum time and

resources. It is a social process, which is designed to ensure cooperation,

participation, intervention and involvement of others effectively to achieve the

intended objectives. In fact good management serves as a network among various

levels/tiers and individuals in an organization for collective goals [3].

According to Aggarwal (1982), management can be classified under three main

levels which are given as under:

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a. Top Level of Management

At the top management level, relatively few technical skills are used. The stress here is on

planning

and there is notable less effort in relation to working with people to execute definite

activities.

b. Middle Level of Management

In general, the middle manager is responsible for the supervision of salary and salary

systems,

motivation of subordinates, conduction of meetings for purpose of training, control or


coordination,

conduction of appraisals and counseling. Personnel oriented activities are common in this
group.

c. Lower/Supervisory Management

Lower or supervisory managers arrange and implement routine activities, making certain

plans to be carried out by the workers.

2.2 Role of Management in everyday life


Our life is about goals. Rare person lives without an ultimate aim or a dream bird

fluttering somewhere over a horizon. But reaching this goal implies performing

thousands of petty tasks, everyday chores, meetings and actions. Planning these

activities effectively is what time management is about.

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Actually, time management is not exactly a right word since we cannot manage or

control the given time but can only manage ourselves, our actions to fit into the time

limits. That is why some prefer "life management" or "tasks management" terms.

Basic idea of tasks management is to organize your daily life so that you could easily

and quickly reach your ultimate goals. However, only a bunch of disciplined minds

manages not to lose their hearts dealing with complex time organizers, schedulers

and heaps of papers. The majority of common people consider them an attribute of

corporate life while still too boring and time-consuming thing to implement in a

daily routine.

Here's another idea: no day without planning. The main reason for this is that

human memory abilities are very limited in terms of simultaneously stored

elements. It was found that most of us can hold no more than 7 (±2) objects in a

short-term memory. Which inevitably means that we have to put some of our

thoughts or tasks in paper or type in a computer. Thus, we free the brain from

burdened need to remember irregular stuff, for example, that August 12 is your

aunt's wedding anniversary.

Another reason for daily planning is that it dramatically saves your time. The idea

of GTD (Getting Things Done) is getting very popular nowadays because thousands

of disorganized workers and housekeepers have found their peace and harmony

only due to the free time not spent on planning and memorizing. They now have got

a chance to use the time more effectively on creativity or just having a rest.

Getting Things Done is a method created by David Allen and described in a book of

the same name. GTD rests on the principle that a person needs to move tasks out of
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the mind by recording them externally. That way, the mind is freed from the job of

remembering everything that needs to be done and can concentrate on actually

performing those tasks [3].

2.3. Functions of Management

Generally, the management process consists of four functions which are explained

as under:

1. Planning

The process determines in advance what should be done and how it should be

realized is planning. Ideally, plans should be stated in specific terms in order to

ensure the provision of clear guidance for the managers and workers.

2. Organizing

The process of prescribing formal relationship among people and resources in order

to achieve goals is called organizing.

3. Influencing

The process of determining or affecting the behavior of others is known as

influencing. A large number of topics are placed under this heading, consisting

motivation, leadership, communication, group dynamics, politics, power, and

corporate culture. Motivation is the willingness to put forth effort in pursuit of goals

of an organization. Motivating personnel frequently means simply creating an

environment that makes them want to work.

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4. Controlling

The process of comparing actual performance with standards and taking any

essential corrective action is called controlling. Controls assist to ensure the

performance of workers in accordance with plans. If performance is poor and

unsatisfactory, then corrective remedial actions can be taken. For example, some

means of recognizing and correcting the problems. Control can also be applied for

positive tasks [3].

2.4 Educational Management


Educational Management is a process designed to ensure effective utilization of

human as well as material resources, to achieve the predetermined organizational

goals of an educational department. Educational Management is to facilitate the

implementation of policies in education through better governance in educational

institutions, organizations and departments, thus, Educational management

demands a very high degree of professional standards and expertise. The rapid

expansions of education system have put tremendous challenges for the managers

that require specialized qualification, experiences and skill to cope with these. [2]

2.5 Components of Educational Management

The educational management has eight most important components which are: (1)

Educational Planning, (2) Educational Administration, (3) Educational Organization,

(4) Educational Direction, (5) Educational Co-ordination, (6) Educational

Supervision, (7) Educational Controlling, and (8) Educational Evaluation.

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1. Educational Planning:

Being the first aspect in the scope of educational management, planning implies a

basic function that is how the aims and objectives are to be realized. A plan is

conceptualized as a predetermined strategy, detailed skills or parograme of action

related to the achievement of an objective. Educational planning is a process utilized

by an administrator while performing the role of a leader, decision maker, change

agent and so on. It is a basic management task and a means of achieving higher

levels of effectiveness.

2. Educational Administration:

Educational administration is another vital task of educational management so far

its scope is concerned. It plays a vital role in making management of every

educational programme grand success. It is a specialized set of organisational

functions whose primary purpose is to ensure the efficient and effective delivery of

relevant educational services as well as implementation of legislative policies

through planning, decision making and leadership behaviour. This keeps an

organisation to make focus on predetermined objectives of the programme or

system.

3. Educational Organization:

An organization can be defined as stable pattern of interaction, among conditions or

groups having a collective identity (a name and a location) pursuing interest and

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achieving given tasks and co-ordinated through a system of authority. Organisations

are social units deliberately constructed and reconstructed to seek specific goals.

4. Educational Direction:

It is essential that there must be an authority or an order or a policy for providing

direction to the management of every educational programme and for taking

decisions in solving the problems. For this direction is necessary for giving

leadership in order to implement the programmes and carrying out the entire

management.

5. Educational Co-Ordination:

For making smooth management of every educational programme for resulting in

adequate realization of its goals or objectives, there is need of ensuring co-

ordination and co-operation among the multifarious resources. Through this

coordination all facilities will be unified and all services are harmonized. So, through

this aspect of educational management different kinds of resources especially

human resources have to be interrelated or co-ordinated for utilizing the resources

properly in an effective manner.

6. Educational Supervision:

Educational supervision is the means to co-ordinate stimulate and direct the growth

of the teachers, to stimulate and direct the growth of every individual pupil through

the exercise of his talents towards the achievement of richest goals.

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7. Educational Control:

Educational controlling involves the human elements in relation to the management

of an educational programme. Both men and women involved in the educational

programme should have to discharge their duties efficiently and effectively by being

controlled.

8. Educational Evaluation:

Being the last but not the least aspect of educational management, educational

evaluation is an integral part of it as it determines the degree of realisation of

educational objectives or goals as well as the effectiveness of it; for this there must

be evaluation short-term or long-term, periodic or continuous and formal or

informal [7].

2.6 Importance of Management in Elementary and


Secondary Education Department

Educational Management plays a vital role in achieving the goals of any organization

or an institution. For qualitative improvement and quantitative expansion of

education system educational manager role is widely acknowledged. Considering

this importance, the developed nations have introduced a separate management

cadre consisting of qualified and skilled manager [8].

Choudhury (2001) stated that management, which is considered both as a practice

and as a field of thought and study, has a long history. She summarizes the

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evaluation concept, as there are seven conceptual foundations to the concept of

management.

1. Scientific management of works as the key to productivity.

2. Personnel management as the ordinary way of fitting people into organization

structures.

3. Manager development to prove for the management needs.

4. Decentralization as a basic principle of organization.

5. Managerial accounting, in the use of analysis and information as the foundation


for managerial decision-making.

6. Marketing

7. Financing
·

2.7 Management Cadre


A cadre is a group of specially trained people prepared to lead or instruct others.
Examples could be a military unit, a group of scientists, or a band of insurgents.
A cadre is a structure or framework that is created to address specific aspects of an
organization or department or a system with the help of qualified and experienced
group of people. People in a cadre are thorough professional, qualified and trained
in a profession. Management cadre is a career management program and or group of
employees strategizing/ learning the management protocol. In other words,
managers are the professional who carry forward the aims and objectives of the
organization with their knowledge, skills and experience. They are responsible to
perform the assigned tasks and activities under the organizational goals and vision.
To manage, administer, control and arrange all types of resources.

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The rapid expansions of education system have put tremendous challenges for the

managers that require specialized qualification, experiences and skill to cope with

these. Considering the complexity of the education governance and management

there have been a strong realization among policy makers for having a separate

cadre of educational managers. A cadre comprising trained, well-qualified and

satisfied education managers will effectively define the purpose and offer solution

to the challenges, the education set up is facing at present Management is the

process of coordination and managing resources in an efficient and effective

manner. Managerial skills are required to handle managerial tasks at institutional as

well as departmental level but due to lack of requisite professional skills, the

performance of Provincial, Divisional District and Tehsil Education Managers and

School heads have not been up to the desired level. Educational Managers are not

fully prepared to handle education matters in professional manners. When a teacher

is involved in the managerial tasks without building his/her capacity for new role,

performance as manager on one hand remains very low and the education badly

suffers on the other hand. The educational management being a specialized task

demands professional standards and expertise for which the provincial, divisional

district and tehsil education managers need to be prepared and trained properly.

The managers in education sector has to manage an environment that supports

academic activities Recognizing this, many countries around the globe are paying

special attention level, academic activity is the most important thing to be achieved

through efficient management. Successful management is the result of efficient

coordination among different organs in an organization provided management

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training which is need of the hour to enable the institutions to deliver as expected

[9].

2.8 Process of management cadre in education

Educational Management plays a vital role in achieving the goals of any organization

or an institution. For qualitative improvement and quantitative expansion of

education system educational manager role is widely acknowledged. Considering

this importance, the developed nations have introduced of separate management

cadre consisting of qualified and skilled manager.

Need for a separate management cadre has not emerged out of the blue. While

looking in historical perspective it reveals that erstwhile education policies have

also highlighted this aspect. Summary of the provision of previous education

policies is as under.

New Education Policy 1970 suggested that management of the

administration of educational institutions may allow community participation and

ensure academic freedom and administrative/financial autonomy needed by

educational institutions for their proper development (Government of Pakistan,

1970). All key posts in education administration will be manned by qualified and

experienced educators. Educational administration will be for effective supervision

and management of education (Government of Pakistan, 1979). National Education

Policy 1992-2002 states that the managerial and administrative skills of educational

personnel will be improved through professional training in techniques and method

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of educational administration. Management of district level education will be

improved by associating the local community. The Academy of Educational Planning

and Management will be further strengthened to enable it to expand its training

programs and extend it to the provinces (Government of Pakistan, 1992).

Therefore, National Education Policy 2009 states, "Educational management

demands professional standards and expertise, for which the traditional

policymakers at the ministries or the head teachers are unprepared and untrained.

At the institutional level, planning also takes time away from teaching

responsibilities." Policy states that most persons at management positions in

Pakistan's education sector have not any management training. With regard to

policy actions, it says that a management cadre for education, with specified training

and qualification requirements, shall be introduced [10].

2.9 Educational management set up at district level in


Elementary and Secondary Education Department Khyber
Pakhtunkhwa
At district level head of the educational department called District Education Officer

(DEO) is responsible for the overall planning and its execution in education. There is

chain of subordinate such as Deputy District Education Officer (DDEO), Sub District

Education Officer (SDEO). Assistant District Education Officer(ADEO). The SDEO is

concerned only to primary Schools. The SDEO is normally at Tehsil level. Where

ADEO the circle is related only to the primary Schools of the relevant aria. There are

also ADEOs (Sports, Establishment, planning etc) in the education office.

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At district level the work is done mostly on the implementation of the provisional

polices, orders and decision rather than planning [10] .

2.10 Aims and Objectives of Management Cadre in E&SED.

The aims and objectives of Management Cadre in Elementary and Secondary


Education Department are

1. To select right person for right job.

2.To reduce political interference in education department.

3. There such managerial persons in education department transfers the teaching

and non-teaching staff purely on merit basis.

4 . Political pressure does not influence the administrative powers of the education

officers and other official matters. .

5.To reduce the corruption in education offices under the management cadre

officers.

6. To select such officers for managerial staff appoints teaching and non-teaching

staff purely on the merit basis rather than political basis.

7.Under the management cadre, the officers implement and monitor all

educational activities in the district within the framework of provincial and national

guideline/policies/targets [8].

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2.11 Management Cadre and KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA
Government

According to Academic Education Planning and Management 2016 majority of the

respondents agreed that management cadre may be established as proposed in

National Education Policy 2009.The newly established Management Cadre in

education sector of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa has the following salient features:-

Management Cadre includes BS 16-19 officers at districts level in Khyber

Pakhtunkhwa Education sector is being managed professionally.

The concept of right person for the right job seems to be institutionalized. Due to

expansion of the cadre promotion opportunities for the existing workforce have

been enhanced. Absence of well-structured Management Cadre in the provinces

/areas. Overwhelming majority of the Education Managers responded positively in

favour of creating separate Management Cadre. Establishment of Management

Cadre would impact access, equity, quality and governance in Education. Separate

Management Cadre along with governing rules framed and notified only in Khyber

Pakhtunkhwa. Management Cadre includes BS 16-19 Officers in Khyber

Pakhtunkhwa.

i) School Executive Services (Director schools, District Management Officers (DEO,

DDEO,SDEO, ADEO)

ii) School Management Service (Principal, Vice principal and headmaster)

iii) School Finance Services (Director Finance, DDF,ADF)

Frustration in Education Department of KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA over induction of

Executive Officers in Education Management Cadre .Existing lot of Education


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Managers possess Bachelors/Masters degree in Education whereas a few possess

higher qualifications such as Master’s in Educational Planning and Management

(EPM), M.Phil and Ph.D Most of the Education Managers lack financial and

administrative skills[10].

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Chapter: 3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This chapter deals with the method of the study and covers population, selection of

the sample ,development of the tools and statistical techniques selected for data

analysis .after discussing the related literature in chapter II of the study , the

elements of the instructional design were established. Keeping in view these

elements , one questionnaire was developed and analyzed.

3.1 Design of the study


Descriptive survey design was selected for this study in the light of the

objectives of the study.

3.2 Population
The population of the study comprised officers in Elementary and Secondary

Department and 3 MPAs of district Lakki Marwat .

3.3 Sample
The researcher selected one MPA, DEO, Ex-EDO and Principals from the

above population of district Lakki Marwat.

3.4 Research Instrument


A questionnaire was used as an instrument for the collection revelant

&reliable data. the questioner was included about 15 items. The

questionnaire was consisting of alternate items .the instruction was clearly

stated with every statement ,so the relevant responses can be gained.

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3.5 Collection of data
For the collection of data, the procedure that the researcher had followed

that each questionnaire was distributed to each selected officer personally.

The researcher also gave the answer asked by the respondent at the time

filling the questionnaire. the opportunity had provided to the respondent to

fill the questionnaire by themselves in their own hand writing in the

convenient time.

3.6 Analysis of Data


The collected data was entered in MS-Excel and analyzed by using percentage

and frequency distribution as statistical techniques.

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Chapter: 4
Analysis & Interpretation of Data
This is designed to Know the “Effect of Management Cadre in Elementary and

Secondary Education Department at District level in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The

questioner is the main data collection tools. the data has been presented in

organized way in this chapter. This chapter gave analysis of data collected by all the

MPA Management Officer (DEO, DDEO, SDEO, ADEOs etc) and Schools

administration staff. the sample is delimited to MPA, DDEO, BPS – 19 Principals of

various Schools and Ex – DEO.

For analysis & interpretation of data a questioner consisting of 15 questions

is administrated and is distributed in personal contact among member of provincial

Assembly PK-95 and Education Officer of District Dir Lower. Which are mentioned

in appendix Index A.

The data is tabulated and interpcted in percentage methods after collecting

the questionnaire from various officers of Education Department of District Dir

Lower.

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4.1 Importance of Management for Education Department

Table 4.1
Statement Total No of Strongly Agree Disagree Undecided
Respondents Agree (A) (DA)
(SA)
A good Managerial 10 10 0 0 0
Staff is important for
education Department 100% 100% 0% 0% 0%

100%

90%

80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%
Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Undecided

Analysis

Data shows clearly those 10 (100%) respondents Strongly agreed with the

statement that good Managerial staff is important for Education Department.

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4.2 Need of separate management Cadre in Education Department

Table 4.2
Statement Total No of Strongly Agree Disagree Undecided
Respondents Agree (A) (DA)
(SA)
Separate Management 10 04 02 02 02
Cadre is necessary for
Education 100% 40% 20% 20% 20%
Department

100%

90%

80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%
Strongly Agree Agree Disgree Undicided

Analysis

Data shows that 40% respondents are strongly agree 20% agree and 20%

are disagree about the necessity of management cadre in Education Department

while the remaining 20% can not decide.

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4.3 Managerial Staff Professional Qualification

Table 4.3
Statement Total No of Strongly Agree Disagree Undecided
Respondents Agree (A) (DA)
(SA)
Managerial Staff 10 -- 08 02 --
should be qualified
professionally 100% -- 80% 20% --

100%

90%

80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%
Strongly Agree Agree Disgree Undicided

Analysis

Table 4.3 indicates that 8(80%) responds said that managerial should be

qualified professionally where as 2(20%) did not agree in this respect.

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4.4 Managerial Staff Selection

Table: 4.4
Statement Total No of Strongly Agree Disagree Undecided
Respondents Agree (A) (DA)
(SA)
Managerial Staff 10 02 05 02 01
Selection Should be
selected by Public 100% 20% 50% 20% 10%
Service Commission

100%

90%

80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%
Strongly Agree Agree Disgree Undicided

Analysis

Table 4.4 Shows that 2(20%) of the respondent are strongly agree 5(50%)

are agree 2(20%) are disagree while the remaining 1(10%) cannot decided about

the selection of Managerial by Public Service Commission.

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4.5 Management Cadre and Political Interference

Table 4.5
Statement Total No of Strongly Agree Disagree Undecided
Respondents Agree (A) (DA)
(SA)
Management cadre 10 -- 08 02 --
could reduce Political
Interference in 100% -- 80% 20% --
Education
Department

100%

90%

80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%
Strongly Agree Agree Disgree Undicided

Analysis

Table 4.5 shows that 8(80%) of the respondents are agreeing that the

management cadre could be able to reduce the political interference in Education

Department but 2(20%) are not agree.

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4.6 Actualization of “Right person for Right Job”

Table 4.6
Statement Total No of Strongly Agree Disagree Undecided
Respondents Agree (A) (DA)
(SA)
The Separation of 10 03 05 02 --
Management Cadre
would actualize the 100% 30% 50% 20% --
maxim “Right person
for Right Job”.

100%

90%

80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%
Strongly Agree Agree Disgree Undicided

Analysis

Table 4.6 shows clearly that 3(30%), 5(50%) and 2(20%) of the respondents

are strongly agree, agree and disagree respectuly about the separation of

management Cadre would actualize the maxim “Right Person for Right Job”.

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4.7 Management Cadre will uphold merit

Table 4.7
Statement Total No of Strongly Agree Disagree Undecided
Respondents Agree (A) (DA)
(SA)
The management 10 -- 08 02 --
cadre uphold merit
100% -- 80% 20% --

100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
Strongly Agree Agree Disgree Undicided

Analysis

Table 4.7 shows that 8(80%) of the respondents are in the favor of the

statement that Management Cadre will uphold merit are 2(20%) are not infavour of

the statement.

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4.8 Hurdle in creating management Cadre

Table 4.8
Statement Total No of Strongly Agree Disagree Undecided
Respondents Agree (A) (DA)
(SA)
There is Hurdle in 10 08 -- 02 --
creating management
cadre in Education 100% 80% -- 20% --
Department

100%

90%

80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%
Strongly Agree Agree Disgree Undicided

Analysis

Table 4.8 indicates that 8(80%) of the respondents are strongly agree about

the hurdle in creating management cadre in Education Department while 2(20%)

are disagree.

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4.9 Management Cadre and Supervision System.

Table 4.9
Statement Total No of Strongly Agree Disagree Undecided
Respondents Agree (A) (DA)
(SA)
Under management 10 02 06 01 01
cadre supervision
system satisfactory & 100% 20% 60% 10% 10%
Effective

100%

90%

80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%
Strongly Agree Agree Disgree Undicided

Analysis

Table 4.9 shows that 2(20%), 6(60%), 1(10%) and 1(10%) are strongly

agree, agree, disagree and undecided respectuly about the statement that under the

management cadre supervision system is satisfactory and effective.

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4.10 Management Cadre and implementation of Polices

Table 4.10
Statement Total No of Strongly Agree Disagree Undecided
Respondents Agree (A) (DA)
(SA)
The Management 10 04 04 -- 02
cadre officer would be
capable to implement 100% 40% 40% -- 20%
and monitor National
and Provincial policies
at District level.

100%

90%

80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%
Strongly Agree Agree Disgree Undicided

Analysis

Table 4.10 shows that 4(40%) of the respondents are strongly agreed with the

statement that the management cadre officers would be capable to implement and

monoter National and Provincial policies at District Level. Where 4(40%) are agree

2(20%) can not decided.

32
4.11 Managerial Officers and their Legal Power

Table 4.11
Statement Total No of Strongly Agree Disagree Undecided
Respondents Agree (A) (DA)
(SA)
All the managerial 10 -- 02 08 --
officer with in the
District are free of 100% -- 20% 80% --
Interference in there
legal Power

100%

90%

80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%
Strongly Agree Agree Disgree Undicided

Analysis

Data Shows that 8(80%) of the respondents have the idea that after

management cadre the officers are not free in their legal power while 2(20%) have

positive idea.

33
4.12Management Cadre and Transfer of Teaching and non
Teaching Staff

Table 4.12
Statement Total No of Strongly Agree Disagree Undecided
Respondents Agree (A) (DA)
(SA)
Management cadre 10 -- 03 04 03
officers are free in
transferring on merit 100% -- 30% 40% 30%
basis.

100%

90%

80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%
Strongly Agree Agree Disgree Undicided

Analysis

Data shows that 3(30%) of the respondents are agree 4(40%) are disagree

and 3(30%) cannot decide about the statement that management cadre officers are

free in transferring of teaching and non teaching on merit basis.

34
4.13 Annual Audit System and Management Cadre.

Table 4.13
Statement Total No of Strongly Agree Disagree Undecided
Respondents Agree (A) (DA)
(SA)
Annual Audit system 10 -- 04 05 01
is implemented
effectuly after creating 100% -- 40% 50% 10%
management cadre

100%

90%

80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%
Strongly Agree Agree Disgree Undicided

Analysis

Data shows that 4(40%) of the respondents are agree 4(40%) are disagree

and 1(10%) cannot decide about the statement Anuual Audit system is implemented

effectuly after creating management cadre.

35
4.14 Management Cadre and continuation of policies

Table 4.14
Statement Total No of Strongly Agree Disagree Undecided
Respondents Agree (A) (DA)
(SA)
The Management 10 01 05 02 02
cadre is helpful in
continuation of 100% 10% 50% 20% 20%
policies

100%

90%

80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%
Strongly Agree Agree Disgree Undicided

Analysis

Data shows that 1(10%) of the respondents are strongly agree 5(50%) are

agree 2(20%) that the Management cadre is helpful in continuation of policies,

while 2(20%) cannot decided.

36
4.15 Cadre officer is officers and salutation of Teacher Problems

Table 4.15
Statement Total No of Strongly Agree Disagree Undecided
Respondents Agree (A) (DA)
(SA)
The Management 10 -- 06 04 --
cadre officers are
available in offices for 100% -- 60% 40% --
solving the Teachers
problems.

100%

90%

80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%
Strongly Agree Agree Disgree Undicided

Analysis

Data indicate that 6(60%) are agree while 4(40%) are disagree with the

statement The Management cadre officers are available in officer for solving the

Teachers problems.

37
4.16 Suggestions by Respondents
The following suggestions are gives by the respondents to improve by

positive effective of management cadre in Elementary and Secondary Education

Department at District level in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

• Manger must be selected through an experienced well organized

independent body.

• Professional, managerial experience as well as honesty should be criteria for

selection of manager.

• At least 9, months managerial & professional along with society related

educational training must be provided to the selected managers.

• The selection of the management cadre officers should be from younger

energetic, honest and clean past people.

38
Chapter: 5
FINDINDINGS,CONCLUSIONS,RECOMANDATIONS AND
SUMMARY
5.1 Findings
After collecting the data and analyzing it carefully the researcher draw some

findings on the basis of findings then researcher made conclusions and

recommendations.

The analysis of data revealed following findings.

1. 100% of educational officers know about the importance of Management in

education.

2. 60% of educational officer are in fever of separation of Management cadre and

Teaching cadre.

3. 80% officers gives great importance to professional qualification.

4. 30% of the officers are not satisfied with the idea that the management cadre

officers should be selected by Public Service Commission.

5. About 80% are agree with the fact that Management cadre reduce the political

interference in education department.

6. Only 50% has positive view about the maxim “Right Person for Right Job” after

management cadre.

7. It is found that management cadre is very helpful in upholding merit.

39
8. 80% has view that there is great hurdle in creation of Management cadre.

9. Management cadre officers are capable in implementations of policies.

10. 80% officers are not free of interference in their legal power.

11. There is no change in transfer of teacher after management cadre.

12. After Management cadre continuity of polices is increased up to 50%.

13. There is no improvement in annual audit system.

14. The management cadre officers as compare to non management cadre

officers are interested in teachers problems solutions.

5.2 Conclusions
After analysis of the data, the researchers arrived at the following conclusions:

a. Weak Points

It was found that:

1. Higher authorities of education do not make their surprising visits regularly.

2. Funds given to institutions are not properly used for the wellbeing of the school.

3. Annual audit system is not implemented effectively.

b. Strong Points

It was found that:

1. The district educational management and administration system is cooperative


and democratic.

2. Monthly formal meetings of higher authorities within districts are arranged


regularly.

40
3. Political pressure does not influence the administrative powers of the education
officers and other official matters.

4. Transfers of the teaching and non-teaching staff are being made purely on merit
basis.

5. All the officers within district are sovereign in their legal powers.

6. Political interference is discouraged.

7. Service problems of teaching and non-teaching staff are solved quickly and
efficiently under

the management cadre.

8. Under the management cadre, supervision system is satisfactory and effective.

9. Corruption level has been decreased in education offices under the

management cadre.

10. Nepotism and favoritism has been discouraged.

11. Appointments of the teaching and non-teaching staff are being made purely on
the merit basis.

12. Under the district educational management system, the officers take appropriate
corrective

actions based on the information received from their subordinate officers.

13. Under the management cadre, the officers enforce relevant federal provincial
laws, rules and policies more effectively.

14. Under the management cadre, the officers implement and monitor all

educational activities in the district within the framework of provincial and national

guideline/policies/targets.

5.3 Recommendations
Keeping in view the conclusions, the researcher make some recommendations
which are described as under:

• It is strongly recommended that political interference should be discouraged. The


education
41
officers should be made sovereign and autonomous in the use of their legal powers.

• Surprising visits should be made regularly in order to assess the teaching


performance of the

teachers. For this purpose, the officers are advised to make a schedule in which
ample time

should be reserved for office work and surprising visits. Therefore, we recommend
that they

should reserve three days for surprising visits and three days for office work.

• Training opportunities regarding administration and management should be


provided to all

newly appointed officers for the effective management and administration.


Consequently, their

administrative performance will be further improved.

• It is also recommended that regular formal monthly meetings should be arranged


among the

education officers, principals and headmasters to improve the quality of the


education system.

In the same meetings, various educational issues and problems should be discussed
so that its

appropriate solutions are explored.

• It is also recommended that annual audit system should be properly


institutionalized to

minimize the level of corruption.

• To eliminate corruption in funding provided to the institutions, special


supervisory staff should be appointed for this purpose. Effective check and balance
system should be lunched.

• Transfers of the officials should be made on purely merit basis. Political


interference should be discouraged in the same matter.

42
• The contemporary district educational management system should take necessary
actions to

institutionalize a system of reward and punishment to ensure the excellent


performance of

teachers and other officials. Teachers and administrators should be rewarded on


their

outstanding and extraordinary performance.

• It is strongly recommended that newly appointed education officers should keep


an eye on their office subordinates because they are habitual to get involved in
corruptions under former

educational management system.

• Those officials who were found guilty should be punished and a drastic legal action
should be

taken against them. Consequently, our education system will be strengthened and
will produce

fruitful and effective results.

• All the education officers should take a drastic action against the curse of
unfairmeans during

the examinations conducted by boards and universities. For this purpose, special
strict rules and regulation should be made.

• All the education officers should be selected directly through transparent and
competitive

examination. Their appointments should be made purely on merit basis to enhance


the quality

of education.

5.4 Summary
It was found that after the creation of Management Cadre the district educational
management is more effective, transparent and fruitful. Under the management
cadre , political interference is discouraged; service problems of the officials are
being solved properly; appointments are being made on merit basis; corruption

43
level has been decreased; supervision system is effective; the evil of nepotism and
favoritism has been eradicated; education officers are sovereign in their legal
powers; and federal, provincial and national rules and policies are properly
implemented. In addition, there also exists some weaknesses in the management
cadre but it is expected that these weakness will be also eradicated with the
passage of time. In a nutshell, it is right to say that the management cadre is more
effective, successful, fruitful and transparent. It is expected that newly developed
management cadre will bring a constructive revolution in education in Khyber
Pukhtunkhwa (Pakistan).

44
Appendix – A
List of Respondents
i. Member of Provincially Assembly Pk-95.

ii. Deputy District Education Officer Male Dir Lower.

iii. Principal GHSS Lal Qilla District Dir Lower.

iv. Principal GHSS Lal Qilla District Dir Lower.

v. Principal GHSS Ranai District Dir Lower.

vi. Principal GHS Chinar Kot District Dir Lower.

vii. Principal GHSS Talash Dir Lower

viii. ADEO (M) Sports District Dir Lower.

ix. SDEO (M) Tehsil Dir Lower.

x. Principal GHSS Rabat District Dir Lower.

45
RENCEFRSES
[1 ]. S.M Shahid “History and pilosopy of Education”(2012)

[2]. Choudhury, N.R. 2001. Management in Education. A.P.H. Publishing Corporation, New

Delhi

[3] Megginson, Leon C., et all. 1992. Management Concept & Application. New York: Harper
& Row.

[4]Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Teacher Education Strategy 2013-2018, Cadre Management in the
Public Sector

[5] Certo, S. C. 2003. Modern Management: Adding Digital Focus. Prentice-Hall of India
Private Limited. New York.

[6] Qureshi, S. 2002. Decentralization to District Level. Ministry of education, Islamabad,

Pakistan.

[7] Baht, K. S. 1985. Administration of Education. Seenta Publications Rana Dratap Bagh,
Delhi, India.

[8] https://www.researchgate.net/publication/260191457

[9]. http://www.answers.com

[10]. Dr. Sardar Malik Abdul Ghaffar Pakeez “Creation OF Management Cadrein the School
Education Department in the Punjab province” (2016).

46