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The operation of the power producing engine is directly proportional to smooth and efficient compressor operation. The efficiency of an engine is directly related to the compression ratio of the compressor and expansion ratio of the turbine. So the need of understanding pressure loss due to low performance and poor reliability, slipping of flow is essential in today scenario. An investigation of flow over a centrifugal impeller is aimed to control the boundary layer build-up due to side slip of

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ISSN (P): 2249-6890; ISSN (E): 2249-8001

Vol. 9, Issue 2, Apr 2019, 525-530

© TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.

Karpagam Academy of Higher Education, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India

ABSTRACT

The operation of the power producing engine is directly proportional to smooth and efficient compressor

operation. The efficiency of an engine is directly related to the compression ratio of the compressor and expansion ratio

of the turbine. So the need of understanding pressure loss due to low performance and poor reliability, slipping of flow is

essential in today scenario. An investigation of flow over a centrifugal impeller is aimed to control the boundary layer

build-up due to side slip of working fluid. For the purpose of flow analysis a CAD model of an impeller was designed

using CATIA V5 and structural analysis has carried out for the designed model to check the maximum stress. As the

main objective is being fluid flow analysis, the flow volume for the impeller model was generated using GAMBIT

software and analysis was carried out using FLUENT.

Original Article

Received: Jan 18, 2019; Accepted: Feb 08, 2019; Published: Mar 13, 2019; Paper Id.: IJMPERDAPR201950

INTRODUCTION

Centrifugal compressors have its extensive usage over the last century and in rotorcraft engines over the

last 68 years for energy production. The designs of compressors are highly experimental, employ scaling strategies

and rely on prototype testing to reach design goals. This design process reverberate the facts that the flow in these

machines is highly complex [2]. The primary objective of the compressor is to compress the working fluid either it

is gas or vapor for the purpose of increasing the pressure of any compressible fluid. The compression of the fluid is

done by reduction of fluid specific volume while the fluid is allowed to pass through the compressor. So that it

delivers a higher pressure level of fluid than its original pressure for power generation [1].

Dheeraj Sagar et.al, investigated turbulent separated flow in an axisymmetric diffuser due to skin friction.

They mainly concentrated in flow separation as well as to downstream reattachment. They found and concluded

that the pressure distribution becomes uniform and separation was getting delayed as diffuser half-angle α decrease

[3]. Yangwei Liu et.al, performed numerical studies for both design and off-design flow conditions. They inquired

the effects of boundary layer suction on corner separation in a highly loaded compressor cascade. They proposed

two new BLS slot configurations and a total of five suction slot configurations. Using this compound slot

configuration, the maximum reduction of total pressure loss was obtained at 7 degree incidence could be 39.4%

[4]. Yu-Tai Lee, et.al. predicted the flow separations at the shroud in front of the leading edges ofthe blade. An

improvement in impeller performance would require reducing this shroud flow separation. They experience the

difficulty due to the boundary layer at large curvature of the shroud as it approached the blade might be partially

responsible for the flow separation [5]. Several investigations and studies on flow separation was made earlier at

the diffuser and impeller shroud, and of course at impeller blade. Generally velocity variations from hub to shroud

resulting changes in flow directions complicate the design procedure for centrifugal compressors. C.H.Wu [2] has

526 C. Nithiyapathi & B. Akilan

presented the three dimensional theory in an impeller. It is composed of two solutions, one in the meridional surface

(hub-to-shroud),

shroud), and the other in the stream surface of revolution (blade-to-blade).

(blade blade). Based on his theory flow analysis was

carried to find the velocity drop point to encounter the loss in kinetic energy at impeller.

The present study concentrated on investigating the pressure losses due to incidence loss that is the direction of

the relative velocity of fluid at inlet does not match with the inlet blade angle and therefore fluid cannot enter the blade

passage smoothly by gliding along the blade surface.

surface. It causes a sudden discontinuity in fluid properties and flow

parameters resulting escaping from the flow path. To carry over the study, an investigation was done for a compressor

shape for 120 KW micro-turbine

turbine output.

COMPUTATIONAL METHODOLOGY

A single

ngle shaft micro gas turbine is considered here for the generator utilization which has a single shaft that

appended to the compressor and turbine. The work of the shaft is stuck to be same, however the work done has been

utilized and it is a different amount of transmitted power along the joint segments of the shaft. The part of the power

generated by gas turbine is consumed by the compressor in its work is assumed to 55 to 60 percentages [7]. For the greater

safe side the consumption of power is taken as 60% at that point the power created is calculated as 120kW which is an

outstanding force of 40% from the shaft control delivered by a gas turbine.. Hence the shaft power to operate the

compressor would be 180kW.

For the finest rotational speed the microturbine typically operates at 45krpm to 100krpm because the maximum

airflow will not exceed Mach number of 1. The diameter of the shaft from the below

below formula it is found that ds = 0.0152 m.

for safety consideration it was assumed to be 20mm (0.02m). The impeller hub, which is attached to the shaft is having a

length of 42mm (mathematically calculated). Here the material is considered to be the usual one,

one that is 42CrMo4V.

(1)

Impact Factor (JCC): 7.6197 SCOPUS Indexed Journal NAAS Rating: 3.11

Control of Boundary Layer Build-Up in an Impeller 527

Limiting yield stress had checked for safety with respect to torsion applied. It was known and found that torque

given is not exceeding the limiting torque yield stress value. For finding out impeller outside and inside diameter the inlet

and outlet temperature of the impeller was first found, outside tip velocity of the impeller evaluated using air inlet

temperature (equation 2). The calculated values were tabulated below.

− (2)

Implicit Values Calculated Values

Parameters Values Parameters Values

Microturbine Output 120kW Torsional Moment 38.1978 Nm

Optimal rotational speed of Impeller to Shaft applied Torsional 452278.86

45krpm to 100krpm

Microturbine stress N/m2

42CrMo4V Ultimate Tensile

1100MPa Applied Torque 71.039 Nm

Strength

Air Inlet temperature 298K Air Outlet Temperature 488.88K

The design specifications were taken from the calculated values that were obtained using mathematical formulae.

As per the targeted power produce the required shaft diameter is 20mm and outer diameter of the impeller was about

181mm. Further design of the compressor impeller is developed using a solid multi - section to fix the blades in the

compressor disk. For the designated values the impeller thickness to the shaft was 42mm and outflow thickness was

6.94mm and the blade angle was 23.35 degrees. Number of blades on the impeller would find by slip factor and air intake

velocity. The design parameters were tabulated below.

Objects Parameter Magnitude

Shaft diameter ds (mm) 20

Impeller inner diameter d1 (mm) 73.3

Impeller outer diameter d2 (mm) 181

Impeller thickness to shaft h (mm) 42

Impeller outflow thickness b (mm) 6.94

Blade/vane degree β (degree) 23.35

Number of blades/vanes n 11

Using the evaluated geometrical parameter, a three dimensional model have been drawn as shown in figure below.

Figure 3 gives 3D view of designed impeller.

Structural analysis for designated centrifugal impeller is carried out here by using ANSYS software. This analysis

is also said to be as Finite Element Analysis which is a mathematical portrayal of a physical framework comprising a part/

assembly (model), material properties and applicable boundary conditions (collectively referred to as pre-processing), the

528 C. Nithiyapathi & B. Akilan

solution of that mathematical depiction (solving), and the study of the results of that solution (post-processing).

For pre-processing FEA software typically uses a CAD representation of the physical model and breaks it down

into small pieces called finite “elements”. This process is called ―meshingǁ. Before meshing, at first, the properties of the

element should be defined properly which includes young’s modulus, poisson’s ratio, and density for the structural

analysis.

More attention was focused on mesh specification and mesh suitability (refer figure 4) i.e. appropriate choice of

element types and mesh density to give a solution to the required degree of accuracy. The material for the impeller (blade)

was chosen into two different materials (commonly used for small size compressor) for the analysis [10] was tabulated

below.

Young’s Poisson’s Ultimate Tensile

Material Density, ρ(Kg/m3)

Modulus, E (Pa) ratio, γ Strength, UTS MPa

Titanium AlloyTi-b-120UCA 0.102E12 0.3 4850 1147

Stainless Steel Alloy-304 0.193E12 0.29 8030 1675

It was noted that the Loads, constraints and Deformations were experienced in the compressor mainly due to two

kind forces (refer figure 5). One was its inertial loads caused by own material property due to the movement of rotation.

These parameters are dependent to properties such as mass and density of a material and speed of rotational objects.

The region was on all parts of the body. In the meantime the issues, including three dimensional axisymmetric solids of

transformation were subjected to Axisymmetric loading. Revolving bodies like compressor can be dissected by introducing

centrifugal forces in the body force term.

Blade Speed Volume with Slot

Impact Factor (JCC): 7.6197 SCOPUS Indexed Journal NAAS Rating: 3.11

Control of Boundary Layer Build-Up in an Impeller 529

FLOW ANALYSIS

Analysis begins with a mathematical model of a physical problem using CFD. It deals with conservation of

matter, momentum, and energy that must be satisfied throughout the region of interest. Fluid properties are modelled

empirically and Streamlining suppositions are made with a specific end goal to make the issue tractable. Also, it provides

appropriate initial and boundary conditions for the problem. The analysis region is modelled using GAMBIT for the

designated compressor stage where the fluid flow carries over. Normally the flow enters at inlet and exits radially at the tip,

so the required boundary conditions at the inlet and outlet is set to get output as the pressure parameter.

The complete mesh of 3D hexahedral was done and the boundary conditions were given according to the flow

conditions.

From figure 7 and 8 the static pressure and the total pressure value of the impeller without and with slots shows

that a better increase in the pressure at the tip of the impeller so that at the exit section of the compressor it might reach

close to the required pressure ratio.

530 C. Nithiyapathi & B. Akilan

The analysed results gave great increase to pressure rise as well as the efficiency of the compressor. In future it is

essential to get further improvement is sizing the dimension of slots and identifying the accurate place of flow slipping for

better result.

CONCLUSIONS

The application of slots at a velocity falling point due to side slip controls the greater level of escaping fluid from

its desired path. Hence at the tip of the impeller 90% of the kinetic energy have a possible to catch and convert into

pressure energy to attain greater pressure level close to the requirement.

REFERENCES

1. G. Eason, B. Noble, and I.N. Sneddon, “On certain integrals of Lipschitz-Hankel type involving products of Bessel functions”

Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, vol. A247, pp. 529-551, April 1955. (references)

2. J. Clerk Maxwell, A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, 3rd ed., vol. 2. Oxford: Clarendon, 1892, pp.68-73.

3. I.S. Jacobs and C.P. Bean, “Fine particles, thin films and exchange anisotropy,” in Magnetism, vol. III, G.T. Rado and H.

Suhl, Eds. New York: Academic, 1963, pp. 271-350.

5. R. Nicole, “Title of paper with only first word capitalized,” J. Name Stand. Abbrev., in press.

6. Sathish, T., "Experimental investigation on degradation of heat transfer properties of a black chromium-coated aluminium

surface solar collector tube", International Journal of Ambient Energy, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1-5, 2018

7. Y. Yorozu, M. Hirano, K. Oka, and Y. Tagawa, “Electron spectroscopy studies on magneto-optical media and plastic substrate

interface,” IEEE Transl. J. Magn. Japan, vol. 2, pp. 740-741, August 1987 [Digests 9th Annual Conf. Magnetics Japan, p.

301, 1982].

8. M. Young, The Technical Writer’s Handbook. Mill Valley, CA: University Science, 1989.

Impact Factor (JCC): 7.6197 SCOPUS Indexed Journal NAAS Rating: 3.11

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