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Guideline For Reusable Parts And Salvage Operations

Procedure to Measure and Straighten Bent Crankshafts

Media Number -SEBF8054-08 Publication Date -31/08/2004 Date Updated -31/08/2004

SEBF80540001

Procedure to Measure and Straighten Bent Crankshafts


SMCS - 1202

CATERPILLAR®
SEBF8054-08
August 2004
SMCS Codes: 1202

GUIDELINE FOR
REUSABLE PARTS
AND SALVAGE OPERATIONS
Procedure to Measure and Straighten Bent Crankshaft

Summary of Revisions

Page Description
All Revised the format.

All This guideline has been revised with


new information.

Introduction

This guideline enables dealers and their customers to benefit from cost reductions made possible through an
established parts reusability and salvage program. Every effort has been made to provide the most current
and relevant information known to Caterpillar Inc. Since the Company makes ongoing changes and
improvements to its products, this guideline must be used with the latest technical information available
from Caterpillar to ensure such changes and improvements are incorporated where applicable.

For questions or additional information concerning this guideline, contact Caterpillar Service Support
Division, Dealer Support (309) 494-1934.

Summary

A used crankshaft must be checked for taper, out-of-round, thrust face wear, profile, and surface finish. If
the crankshaft is ground undersize, the radius and journal hardness must also be checked. All crankshafts
that are used or ground undersize must also be checked for straightness.

This guideline provides information on the procedures and the tools required to measure a used/reground
crankshaft to see if it can be used again. If a crankshaft meets the specifications found in this guideline, it
can be expected to give normal performance until the next overhaul when used again in the same
application.

Measurement information in this guideline is given in five areas:

  Procedure to determine if a crankshaft can be used again “as is” (Procedure to measure used
crankshafts for bend)
  Procedure to measure crankshafts after the bearing journals are ground

  Procedure to determine if a bent crankshaft can be straightened

  Straightening a bent crankshaft

  Crankshaft measurements

Some bent crankshafts can be used again if they are straightened. Measuring the crankshaft carefully is the
first step in the salvage procedure.

Refer to SEBF8041, “Crankshaft Specifications” for the “Use Again” measurements required in order to
determine the reusability of most used crankshafts.

References
Reference Material

Form No. Title

SEBF8039 Inspection of Crankshafts for


Cracks

SEBF8041 Crankshaft Specifications

SEBF8042 Procedure to Grind and Polish


Crankshafts

SEBF8043 Visual Inspection of Crankshafts

SEBF8156 Procedure to Inspect Crankshafts


in 3500 Family of Engines

Tooling and Equipment

Tooling and Equipment1

Part Part Description


Number

7H-1940 Universal Attachment2

7H-1942 Dial Indicator2

7H-1944 Post2

7H-1948 Snug2

8S-2329 Dial Indicator Base2

5P-4163 Contact Point3

5P-8637 Support Groups (V-Blocks)

6V-6035 Hardness Tester

7B-0337 Surface Plate

- Radius Gauges
1
Refer to the latest version of NENG2500 “Tools and Shop Products Guide”, for any changes.
2
This tooling is part of the 8T-5096 Dial Indicator Test Group.
3 This tooling is part of the 6V-7926 Dial Indicator Group.

View Image

When replacement parts are required for this


product Caterpillar recommends using
Caterpillar replacement parts or parts with
equivalent specifications including, but not
limited to, physical dimensions, type, strength
and material.

Failure to heed this warning can lead to


premature failures, product damage, personal
injury or death.

Crankshaft Inspection

Before spending valuable time performing a magnetic particle inspection, measuring, straightening and
grinding a potentially scrap crankshaft, perform the following visual checks first to ensure the part is a good
candidate for reuse.

Note: When inspecting crankshafts, refer to SEBF8039 “Inspection of Crankshafts for Cracks” and
SEBF8043 “Visual Inspection of Crankshafts” for additional information.

If the crankshaft was removed from a running, assembled engine…

1. Examine all surfaces of the crankshaft for discoloration caused by excessive heat. Do not reuse any parts
removed from an engine that have been involved in a vehicle fire.

2. Examine the exterior surfaces of the crankshaft for physical damage - nicks dents, large cracks, etc.

3. Examine the connecting rod and main bearing journals for deep scratches, cracks in the fillets, metal
transfer due to lack of lubrication, evidence of damage due to improper grounding during welding.

Note: Any of the above features will disqualify a crankshaft from being reused.

If the crankshaft was received as a disassembled core…

1. Examine all surfaces of the crankshaft for discoloration. Any crankshaft that has gotten excessively hot
should not be reused.
2. Examine the complete crankshaft for signs of rust and corrosion.

Note: Any of the above features will disqualify a crankshaft from being reused.

3. Make certain the crankshaft is correct for the intended engine application.

4. If the crankshaft is to go into a Caterpillar engine, make certain the crankshaft is also genuine
Caterpillar.

One common “job shop” method used to straighten bent crankshafts is to grind the bearing surfaces to a
smaller diameter. This method is limited, because the bearing surfaces must “clean up” (the complete surface
must be ground) and the finished size must not be smaller than the next available bearing undersize. In
addition, it is much easier to grind after the crankshaft has been straightened. Caterpillar recommends
straightening all crankshafts (if necessary) before grinding.

Note: Some marine societies and insurance companies do not approve the use of reground crankshafts in
marine engines. Contact the insurance company or marine society representative to determine whether
reground crankshafts are acceptable.

Procedure to Determine If a Crankshaft Can Be Used Again “As Is”


(Procedure to Measure Used Crankshafts for Bend)

Tooling Set-up

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Illustration 1

Dial indicator with contact point

1. Use the dial indicator, base, post, snug, and rod from the 8T-5096 Dial Indicator Group with 5P-4163
Contact Point from 5P-4165 or 6V-7926 Dial Indicator Group (Illustration 1).
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Illustration 2

Support the crankshaft with V-blocks under the end main journals

2. Put two 5P-8637 Crankshaft Support Groups (V-blocks) on a surface plate or a concrete floor. Do not
use a workbench since the weight of the crankshaft can bend the workbench and cause an error in
measurements.

Note: The V blocks should be aligned before and after placing the crankshaft on them. The aligning
purpose is to have both the V block bases an equal distance to an established reference point. (E.g., a secured
metal strip that is parallel to the edge of a surface plate or a "blue line" reference point on concrete.)

3. Support the crankshaft with V-blocks under the end main journals (Position 1, Illustration 2). Check the
V-blocks and crankshaft to ensure they are stationary and aligned. The crankshaft must rotate in the V-
blocks, but must not move horizontally.

Note: Ensure that the oil hole area does not come in contact with the center of the V-block and, if possible,
keep the V-block to one side of the crankshaft journal (but not into the fillet) so the crankshaft journal
diameter is the only point of contact with the V-block.

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Illustration 3

Piece of steel with three pads to hold the dial indicator’s magnetic base stationary

4. Use a piece of steel to hold the magnetic base for the indicator. Weld 3 pads, or spaces, 120 degrees
apart under the piece of steel to keep it stationary (Illustration 3).

Note: Use the same reference point in Step 2 to align the base of the indicator, this will ensure a more
efficient set-up and inspection procedure.

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Illustration 4

5. Put the magnetic base for the dial indicator on the piece of steel. Put the contact point for the dial
indicator on one of the two main journals that are next to a V-block as shown in Illustration 4. The contact
point must be to the side of the oil hole, perpendicular (at a 90-degree angle) to the bearing surface and
horizontal.

6. Once the adjustments are made, rotate the crankshaft 360 degrees to insure indicator travel is sufficient
and adjust indicator to zero.

Procedure for performing the measurement

Note: The Tooling Set-up Procedure must be performed each time the V-blocks are moved.

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Illustration 5

Note: Assume that the tooling was set up on the main journal bearing (A)

1. With the crankshaft and tooling set-up as described above. Rotate the crankshaft 360 degrees and record
the (TIR) Total dial Indicator Reading. The TIR is the difference between the highest and lowest readings on
the dial indicator while the crankshaft is rotated.

Note: You can get a wrong TIR if the oil hole area comes in contact with the center of the V-block. If
possible, keep the V-block to one side of the crankshaft journal (but not into the fillet) so the crankshaft
journal diameter is the only point of contact with the V-block.

2. Move the dial indicator to the other main bearing journal (B) next to a V-block. Rotate the crankshaft as
was done in Step 1 and again record the TIR.

View Image

Illustration 6

3. Move each V-block 1 main bearing journal toward the center of the crankshaft as shown in Illustration 6
(Position 2).
View Image

Illustration 7

4. Measure the next main bearing journals located to the inside of and next to the V-block supports (C), as
shown in Illustration 7.

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Illustration 8

Measurement of center main bearing

5. Continue the procedure until the center main bearing journal is measured as shown in Illustration 8.

Note: If there are two maximum points during measurement of TIR, use an outside micrometer and check
for an out-of-round main journal or an incorrect TIR caused when an oil hole area came in contact with a V-
block.

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Illustration 9

Crankshaft

(1) Pilot hub for flywheel (5) Flange for pulley, gear or damper
(2) Flange face for flywheel (6) Straight or tapered shaft
(3) Flange for flywheel (7) Flange face for pulley or damper
(4) Main bearing journals (8) Pilot hub for damper

Procedures to Measure Crankshafts after the Bearing Journals are Ground

If a crankshaft is reground, journals must be in alignment with other surfaces of the crankshaft. If the TIR for
any of the measurements that follow is more than specifications shown in SEBF8041, “Crankshaft
Specifications”, the crankshaft cannot be used again “as is”. If possible, grind the crankshaft to the next
standard size and measure again.

Note: The bold numbers following the headings refer to Illustration 9 (crankshaft drawing).

Measurement of TIR on Hub Circumference (1) or Flange (3) for Flywheel

View Image
Illustration 10

Measurement of flange circumference for flywheel

1. Put V-Blocks under the front and rear main bearing journals. Put contact point for the dial indicator on
the flywheel pilot circumference as shown in Illustration 10.

Note: The contact point must not be in the wear groove of the rear crankshaft seal.

View Image

Illustration 11

Measurement of hub circumference for flywheel

2. The contact point must be perpendicular to the surface and at the approximate centerline of crankshaft.
For all engines with a pilot hub for the flywheel, put contact point for the dial indicator on the hub of
crankshaft as shown in Illustration 11.

Note: The pilot hub on a crankshaft can be much shorter than the pilot hub shown in Illustration 11. Refer
to the notes at the end of Chart A, “Measurements of Reground Crankshafts.”

3. Turn the crankshaft 360 degrees and check the TIR.

Measurement of TIR on Flange Faces for Pulley or Damper, and Flywheel (2 & 7)
View Image

Illustration 12

Measurement of flange face for pulley or damper on a lathe. This measurement can also be made with V-
Blocks, a hardened steel ball, and a heavy steel object.

Refer to “How to Prevent Axial Movement of Crankshaft”. Remove the 5P-4163 Contact Point. Install 7H-
1940 Universal Attachment to dial indicator. Put the point for the universal attachment on face of flange for
pulley or damper as shown in Illustration 12. The point of the universal attachment must be near the outer
circumference of flange face so it will not hit the holes in the crankshaft. Turn crankshaft 360 degrees and
check TIR. Use the same procedure for the face of the flywheel flange.

Measurement of TIR on Main Bearing Journals (4)

Measure the main bearing journals as shown in “Procedure to Measure Used Crankshafts for Bend”. The
maximum TIR specification for the main bearing journals is 0.13 mm (0.005 inch) for any reground
crankshaft.

Measurement of TIR on Front Flange (5), Straight Front Shaft (6) or Hub Circumference (8)

Perform the Steps outlined under “Measurement of TIR on Hub Circumference (1) or Flange (3) for
Flywheel” in order to check the TIR on the Front Flange, the Straight Front Shaft or the Hub Circumference.
The contact point must be perpendicular to the surface and at the approximate centerline of the crankshaft.
Turn the crankshaft 360 degrees and check the TIR. Do not let the contact point hit a keyway.

Measurement of TIR on Tapered Front Shaft (6)


View Image

Illustration 13

Measurement of tapered surface

Refer to section “How to Prevent Axial Movement of Crankshaft”. Put contact point for the dial indicator
near end of tapered surface (refer to Illustration 13). The contact point must be perpendicular to tapered
surface and at the approximate centerline of the crankshaft. Turn crankshaft 360 degrees to check TIR. Do
not let the contact point hit a keyway.

How to Prevent Axial Movement of Crankshaft

The remainder of the measurements can be done with accuracy only if any axial movement of the crankshaft
is prevented. One method is to install the small and medium size crankshafts on a lathe in crankshaft
machine centers (machined holes in each end of crankshaft).

Note: Do not use a lathe to check TIR of main bearing journals of a large crankshaft. The weight of the
crankshaft can cause incorrect TIR measurements.

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Illustration 14

Crankshaft with steel ball pushed against heavy steel object

A second method is to use V-Blocks with a 19.7 to 22.4 mm (0.62 to 0.88 inch) diameter steel ball that has
been hardened. Put the steel ball in the machined center on front end of crankshaft and push crankshaft and
steel ball against a heavy steel object as shown in Illustration 14. The heavy steel object must not move or be
dented (pushed in) when the crankshaft is pushed against it. The crankshaft must be held against the steel
object while measurements are made. Put oil on the steel ball.

Procedure to Determine if a Bent Crankshaft Can Be Straightened

Follow this procedure to measure overall TIR at the center main bearing.

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Illustration 15

Crankshaft installed on V-Blocks. Measure TIR at center main journal only, to determine if crankshaft can be
straightened with safety.

1. Perform Steps 1 through 4 of “Tooling Set-up” under the “Procedure to Determine If a Crankshaft Can
Be Used Again “As Is”
(Procedure to Measure Used Crankshafts for Bend)”.

2. Place the contact point for the dial indicator on the center main bearing (C). Refer to Illustration 15. The
contact point must be to the side of the oil hole, perpendicular (at a 90 degree angle) to bearing surface and
at the approximate centerline of the crankshaft.

3. Once the adjustments are made, rotate the crankshaft 360 degrees to insure indicator travel is sufficient
and adjust indicator to zero.

4. Turn the crankshaft 360 degrees and check dial indicator. Make a note of TIR.

5. If TIR is within the specifications found in SEBF8041, “Crankshaft Specifications”, the crankshaft can
be straightened.

Straightening a Bent Crankshaft

Equipment Needed to Straighten Bent Crankshafts

Heating Oven

It is very important that an oven be used to heat the crankshaft. The oven must heat the crankshaft to 177 to
232°C (350 to 450°F). To prevent cracks, do not straighten crankshaft at normal room temperature.
Crankshaft temperature can be measured with a thermometer or with 9U-7043 Temperature Recorder
Crayons, which become liquid at specific temperatures.

Hydraulic Straightening Press

A hydraulic straightening press is necessary to straighten the crankshaft. The press must be equipped with
one or more dial indicators to measure TIR on main bearing journals while the crankshaft is in the press.

Straightening presses are available from:

Dake Corporation
724 Robbins Road
Grand Haven, MI 49417 U.S.A.
Telephone: (616) 842-7110
telex: 228-459

Peterson Machine Tool, Inc.


5425 Antioch Drive
Shawnee Mission, KS 66201 U.S.A.
Telephone: (913) 432-7500
U.S.A. Cable Address: Petmactinc
TLX4-2532
Storm Vulcan, Inc.
2225 Burbank St.
Dallas, TX 75235 U.S.A.
Telephone: (214) 637-1430

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The surfaces of the anvils and press ram that are


in contact with the crankshaft bearing surfaces
must be made of soft steel or copper to prevent
damage to bearing surfaces. Do not use brass or
any materials not made of metal because they
can shatter (break into many pieces) under high
pressure. Do not use 5P-8637 V-Blocks as
supports during the procedure to straighten
crankshaft.

NOTICE

Do not use anvils or press rams that are wider


than the bearing journal straight length (the
length between the radii at each end of the
bearing journal surface). Wider anvils or rams
can cause damage to the fillet area.

Magnetic Crack Detection Equipment

A crankshaft that has been straightened must be checked for cracks. Use magnetic crack detection
equipment after the straightening procedure is completed.

Refer to Guideline for Reusable Parts, SEBF8039, “Inspection of Crankshafts for Cracks”, for more
information.
Shot Peening Machine

A shot peening procedure is necessary on some crankshafts in the bearing journal fillet areas. This procedure
must be done after the crankshaft has been straightened. Refer to SEBF8041, “Crankshaft Specifications”,
in order to determine which fillets need this procedure. Refer to Guideline For Reusable Parts, SEBF8094,
“Procedure to Grind Crankshafts”, for more information.

NOTICE

Put protection on the journals during shot


peening.

Procedure To Straighten Bent Crankshaft

1. Heat the crankshaft in the oven for a minimum of 1 1/2 hours. Do not use a torch. Using a torch causes
the crankshaft to become too hot in some areas and not hot enough in others. Straighten the crankshaft when
it is between 177 to 232°C (350 to 450°F).

2. Put anvils under main bearing journals, on either side of main journal to be straightened. Check for burrs
on anvil and press ram surfaces.

3. Turn crankshaft so ram can make contact at the high point (where shaft is bent the most). Put a dial
indicator in position to measure crankshaft deflection (movement from zero).

4. Put press ram carefully against main bearing journal that is to be straightened.

5. Put a small amount of pressure on the crankshaft, and release press ram. The deflection during this step
must not be more than one half of TIR measured in “Procedure to Measure Used Crankshafts for Bend”.

6. Check to see how much the crankshaft has been straightened. Put the contact point for the dial
indicator(s) against main bearing journals. The contact points must be to the side of the oil holes.
Turn crankshaft and look at dial indicator(s). If TIR on main bearing journals next to V-Blocks is still more
than 0.13 mm (0.005 inch) [0.18 mm (0.007 inch) on 3406 Engines], put more pressure on crankshaft and
increase the deflection. Measure TIR again.

7. Increase the amount of pressure, a little at a time, until TIR on this journal is less than 0.13 mm (0.005
inch). Be careful not to use too much pressure since excessive pressure can cause the crankshaft to bend in
the opposite direction, causing cracks.

8. Repeat Steps 3 through 6 to straighten any other bent areas on the crankshaft.

9. Measure the amount the crankshaft is bent according to directions in “Procedure to Measure Used
Crankshafts for Bend”.
10. Check the crankshaft for cracks, especially in bearing journal fillets opposite the press ram. Use
magnetic crack detection equipment. Refer to Guideline for Reusable Parts, SEBF8039, “Inspection of
Crankshafts for Cracks”, for more information.

Crankshaft Measurement

Preparing Crankshaft for Measurement

View Image

Illustration 16

Crankshaft installed on two 5P-8637 Support Groups (V-Blocks).

Place the crankshaft on two 5P-8637 Support Groups (V-Blocks) on a sturdy, stable work surface to hold the
crankshaft during the following procedures. Refer to Illustration 16.

Use an outside micrometer with a vernier scale and friction thimble for taking measurements. The
micrometer must have a measurement graduation of 0.001 mm (0.0001 inch).

Note: For greatest accuracy, use a precision standard, or gauge block, to adjust the micrometer before each
crankshaft is checked.

Procedure to Check Surface Finish

View Image
Illustration 17

Surface finish analyzer in use

Note: A Sclerometer should not be used on any remanufactured crankshaft that has (MHT) Melonited Heat
Treat stamped next to the “0R” part number. To do so will damage the crankshaft.

The surface finish of bearing journals should be checked with a powered, surface finish analyzer that will
stroke the journal surface automatically. Refer to Illustration 17. The stylus radius must be approximately
0.013 mm (0.0005 inch) and the unit should have a 0.80 mm (0.030 inch) cutoff length.

Note: The maximum permissible surface roughness for crankshaft bearing journals is given in SEBF8041,
“Crankshaft Specifications”.

If the journals are rougher (have a higher number) than the specification, they must be polished. Refer to
Guideline for Reusable Parts, SEBF8042, “Procedure to Polish Crankshafts”.

The thrust face surface finish must be 0.45 micrometers (18 microinches) or smoother.

Make certain there are no wear steps or marks from grinding on the surface. Refer to Guideline for Reusable
Parts, SEBF8043, “Visual Inspection of Crankshafts”.

Surface Finish Analyzers

Surface finish analyzers are available from:

Rank Taylor-Hobson
P. O. Box 36
Guthlaxton Street
Leicester, LE2 OSP Great Britain
Telephone: 011-44-116-276-3771
Telex: 34411
Cable: Metrology Lestr

Gould Inc. Instruments Division


8333 Rockside Road
Valley View, OH 44125 U.S.A.
Phone: (216) 328-7000
Telex: 810-421-8580

Mitutoyo Manufacturing Co.


18 Essex Road
Paramus, NJ 07652 U.S.A.
Phone: (201) 368-0525

Mitutoyo Manufacturing Co.


45001 5 Mile Rd.
Plymouth, MI 48170 U.S.A.
Phone: (313) 459-2810

Mitutoyo Manufacturing Co.


16925 Gale Ave.
City of Industry, CA 91745 U.S.A.
Phone: (818) 961-9661

Mitutoyo Manufacturing Co.


965 Corporate Blvd.
Aurora, IL 60504 U.S.A.
Phone: (708) 976-5385

Bendix, Automation and Measurement Division


721 Springfield Street
P. O. Box 1127
Dayton, OH 45401 U.S.A.
Phone: (513) 254-5377
Telex: 288031

Procedure to Check for Out-Of-Round and Diameter

View Image
Illustration 18

Measurement of journal diameter for out-of-round

Use an outside micrometer to measure the journal diameter at TDC (top dead center) and 90 degrees from
TDC on rod journals and two places, 90 degrees apart, on main journals. Refer to Illustration 18. Be sure to
keep micrometer anvil out of the oil hole and the immediate area around the oil hole where journal surface is
lower.

The maximum and minimum dimensions must not be more than those found in SEBF8041, “Crankshaft
Specifications”. Two rod journals (or one main journal and one rod journal) can measure up to 0.005 mm
(0.0002 inch) under the minimum diameter specifications shown in SEBF8041, “Crankshaft Specifications”.

Note: If the crankshaft has been ground undersize, subtract the amount undersize from the minimum and
maximum dimensions found in SEBF8041, “Crankshaft Specifications”.

Procedure to Check for Taper

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Illustration 19

Measurement being taken on one side of the journal

Measure the diameter of the journal (rod journal at TDC) next to each fillet, but not on the fillets.
Measurements must be taken on both sides of the journal. Refer to Illustration 19. The difference in the two
measurements must not be more than that shown in the maximum taper column of the chart found in
SEBF8041, “Crankshaft Specifications”.

Example

Main bearing journal diameter of a 2P-2842 Crankshaft on 3306 Engine:

At one fillet = 88.890 mm (3.4996 inch)

At other fillet = 88.877 mm (3.4991 inch)

Difference = 0.013 mm (0.0005 inch)

The difference is less than the use again specification of 0.015 mm (0.0006 inch) maximum taper in the chart
so the journal has an acceptable taper.

Procedure to Check for Thrust Face Wear

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Illustration 20

Measurement of thrust face wear with an inside micrometer

Measure the distance between the thrust surfaces. Use a telescoping gauge and an outside or inside
micrometer (shown in Illustration 20).

The measurement between the thrust faces must be between the use again maximum and minimum
dimensions with an inside micrometer.

Note: Check for correct crankshaft endplay when the crankshaft is installed. Refer to the appropriate
Service Manual for specifications.

Procedure to Measure Profile

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Illustration 21
Crankshaft ready for profile measurement.

Follow this procedure when it is necessary to take specific profile measurements.

1. The following tooling is required for this test. Refer to Illustration 21.

3P-1568 Dial Indicator, or similar indicator with 0.002 mm (0.0001 inch) accuracy.

Dial indicator base and 7H-1948 Snug (from 8S-2328 Dial Test Indicator Group).

7B-0337 Surface Plate.

Two 5P-8637 Support Groups (V-Blocks).

Note: A lug back plate can be used instead of the 7H-1948 Snug to install the indicator on the dial indicator
base.

2. Put V-Blocks on a concrete floor or very rigid work surface. Put crankshaft on the V-Blocks and put a
surface plate under the journal to be measured.

3. Adjust dial indicator so the contact point will stroke (slide against) the top of the journal to be measured.

4. Adjust dial indicator to zero at the highest point of the journal diameter. Move indicator base on surface
plate to stroke the journal diameter horizontally at 3 mm (0.1 inch) intervals. Refer to Illustration 21.

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Illustration 22

On the graph, 25 mm (1.0 inch) horizontal is equivalent to 5.08 mm (0.200 inch) and 25 mm (1.0 inch), and
vertical is equivalent to 0.003 mm (0.0001 inch) dial indicator reading

5. Mark the location on graph paper, of each maximum indication (reading). When all readings are taken,
connect the points on the graph paper as shown in Illustration 22.
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Illustration 23

Typical example of acceptable profile: the second piece of graph paper shows all points are within 0.005 mm
(0.0002 inch) width

6. Put a second sheet of graph paper over the original, refer to Illustration 23, to check that all points are
within a 0.005 mm (0.0002 inch) width on the graph paper. If any points are outside this width, DO NOT
use the crankshaft again unless it is ground.

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Illustration 24

Crankshaft installed between centers on a lathe with 3P-1568 Dial Test Indicator Group mounted on tool
holder.

Specific profile measurements can be taken another way. This procedure is the same as the former, except
the crankshaft is put on the centers of a lathe with a 3P-1568 Dial Test Indicator Group on the tool holder.
The contact point is then adjusted to stroke the main or rod journal horizontally at 3.0 mm (0.100 inch)
intervals as shown in Illustration 24. Then use the graph procedure given in Steps 5 and 6.
Profile Measurement Equipment

Bendix, Rank Taylor-Hobson, and Federal all have electronic gauges to measure crankshaft profile. Bendix
and Rank Taylor-Hobson also have portable (can be easily moved) Profricorders, and Federal has precision
airways on which a contact point can be installed. For more information on equipment contact:

Metrology Instruments & Services,


Application Engineering Automation & Measurement Division of Bendix
P. O. Box 1127
Dayton, OH 45401 U.S.A.
Phone: (513) 254-5377

Federal Products Corporation


1144 Eddy Street
Providence, RI 02901 U.S.A.
Phone: (409) 781-9300

Federal Products Corporation Outside the U.S.

Brazil:

Federal Metrologia De Precisao Ltd.


Rue Visconde De Ouros, 367
Jardim Aeroporto
CEP 04632 Sao Paulo, S.P., Brazil

Canada:

Federal Gages Canada, Ltd.


1560 Bayview Avenue
Toronto, Ontario M4G 3B8

Great Britain:

Rank Taylor-Hobson
P. O. Box 36
Guthlaxton Street
Leicester, LE2 OSP Great Britain
Telephone: 011-44-116-276-3771
Telex: 34411
Cables: Metrology Lestr

Procedure to Check Journal Fillet Radii


There are two procedures for checking the fillet radius. The preferred method is to use the correct size
gauge. However, if the correct gauge is not available, use the “Bracket-Check” method.

Procedure to Check Radius with Correct Size Gauge

Follow this procedure to check crankshaft journal fillet radii after the crankshaft has been ground:

1. Use decimal radius gauges having a range of 2 to 20 mm (0.095 to 0.75 inch). Compare the profile of
the gauge with the profile of the fillet. If the gauge matches the fillet, there will be no space between the
two. Refer to existing Illustration 26. Fraction radius gauges can be used after the fractions are accurately
converted to their decimal or metric equivalents.

Note: Radius gauges in metric, inch-decimal and inch-fractions are available from:

L.S. Starrett Co.


165 Crescent St.
Athol, MA 01331-1915

2. Put the correct size gauge into the fillet. The gauge must come into contact with the center of the radius.

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Illustration 25

Measurement of fillet radius


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Illustration 26

Correct size gauge in full contact (A) with the fillet profile

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Illustration 27
Radius is too large. Gauge is contacting radius at location (A) with the nose of the gauge only.

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Illustration 28

Radius is too small. Gauge is contacting radius at location (B) with the shoulders of the gauge.

3. If the radius does not meet the specifications shown in Chart B “Crankshaft Measurement
Specifications”, do not use the crankshaft again.

Note: The radius dimensions given in SEBF8041, “Crankshaft Specifications” are before shot peening. If
possible, measure the fillets before shot peening. Refer to Guideline For Reusable Parts, SEBF8043, “Visual
Inspection of Crankshafts” for more information.

Procedure to “Bracket-Check” Journal Fillet Radii

If the exact size gauge cannot be found to measure the fillet radius, it will be necessary to “bracket” the fillet
radius size by using other gauges that have a larger and smaller radius than the specified fillet size. Refer to
the following example:

If SEBF8041, “Crankshaft Specifications” calls for a fillet radius of (0.192 inch), and that size gauge is not
available, select gauges of (0.190 inch) and (0.195 inch). Continue with Steps 2 and 3.

1. Select a gauge one size smaller than, but as close to, the specified radius. The nose of the gauge should
make contact with the contour of the fillet, as shown in Illustration 27. If the shoulders of the gauge make
contact, the fillet is larger than the gauge being used.

2. Select a gauge one size larger than, but as close to, the specified radius. The nose of the gauge should
NOT make contact with the contour of the fillet, as shown in Illustration 28. If the nose of the gauge makes
contact, the fillet is larger than the gauge being used.

3. Using the bracket-check procedure should show the actual fillet size is between the gauge sizes selected.
As long as the gauges selected are close to the specified fillet size, the crankshaft will give normal
performance as long as the crankshaft’s other physical requirements are met.

Special Checking Procedure for Specific Crankshafts

The following information is used to check the radius of the rod and main fillet. This information is only
used for 1W-0400, 0R-5560, 0R-5474, and 0R-5164 Crankshafts.

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Illustration 29

Check rod fillet radius


Fillet profile must fall within Zones A, B, and C.
Minimum radius in Zone C is 0.76 mm (0.030 inch).
Minimum radius in Zone B is 4.88 mm (0.192 inch)
Minimum radius in Zone A is 0.76 mm (0.030 inch), except double fillet intersection may occur in Zone A
and may be a sharp peak. (Refer to “typical profile” in Illustration 29).

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Illustration 30

Checking main fillet radius


Fillet profile must fall within Zones A. B, and C.
Minimum radius in Zone C is 0.76 mm (0.030 inch).
Minimum radius in Zone B is 2.34 mm (0.092 inch).
Minimum radius in Zone A is 0.76 mm (0.030 inch), except double fillet intersection may occur in Zone A
and may be a sharp peak. (Refer to “typical profile” in Illustration 30).

Procedure to Check Journal Hardness

If a journal shows signs of high heat or grinding, it must be checked for hardness with a sclerometer, such as
a 6V-6035 Hardware Tester. Only use the sclerometer since other methods may damage the crankshaft.
Refer to Illustration 31.

Follow the manufacturer’s recommendations for use of the sclerometer, such as a 6V-6035 Hardness Tester.
The readings must be within tolerances shown in SEBF8041, “Crankshaft Specifications”.

Note: At times, a soft area will be found on a journal. If this occurs, check both sides of this soft area. If
the journal hardness is within the specifications on both sides of the soft area, the journal hardness is
acceptable.

Important

On some crankshafts, (the 3208 Engines and 3300 Families of Engines, for example) the rear half of the rear
main journal and the far rear fillet can be softer than the specifications shown in SEBF8041, “Crankshaft
Specifications”.
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Illustration 31

Sclerometer in use

The following companies can provide more information on portable sclerometers:

Caterpillar Service Technology Group


100 NE Adams Street
Peoria, IL 61629-9110
Phone: 1-800-542-8665 (U.S.A.)
1-800-541-8665 (Illinois)
1-800-523-8665 (Canada)
404435 (Telex)
1-309-675-6618 (FAX)

Detroit Hardness Tester


17644 Mt. Elliott Avenue
Detroit, MI 48212 U.S.A.
Phone: (313) 891-5910

Outside the United States:

Gentrex
Ford Building
Detroit, MI 48226 U.S.A.
Phone: (313) 963-3611
Telex: 235505

Note: A sclerometer should not be used on any remanufactured crankshaft that has MHT, (melonited heat
treat), stamped next to the “0R” part number. To do so will damage the crankshaft.

© 2004 Caterpillar
All Rights Reserved Printed in the U.S.A

Copyright 1993, 2004 Caterpillar Inc.


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