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ESP objectives for student achievement.

Your awareness of students'


If you have had previous experience as a teacher of English as a capabilities is a crucial factor in designing a program with realistic goals
Foreign Language (EFL), your first question on receiving your current that takes into account the students' contribution to the learning
assignment to teach ESP may be: "How is ESP different from EFL?" situation. Figure 1.1. ESP assesses needs and integrates motivation,
The major difference between ESP and EFL lies in the learners and subject matter and content for the teaching of relevant (skills
their purposes for learning English. -ESP students are adults who 3. Establishing a Learning Environment: Your communication skills
already have some familiarity with English and are learning the establish the classroom atmosphere. Language is acquired by students
language in order to communicate a set of professional skills and to when they have opportunities to use the language in interaction with
perform particular job-related functions. An ESP program is therefore other speakers. As their teacher, you may be the only native speaker of
built on an assessment of purposes and needs and the functions for English available to students, and although your time with any one
which English is required . -ESP is part of a larger movement within student will be limited, you can model good communication skills in the
language teaching away from a concentration on teaching grammar classroom. This means that in your interactions with students you
and language structures to an emphasis on language in context. -ESP should listen carefully to what they are saying (or trying to say) and
covers subjects ranging from accounting or computer science to reflect your understanding or lack of understanding back at them
tourism and business management. The ESP focus means that English through your responses. Language learning is a great risk-taking
is not taught as a subject divorced from the students' real world; endeavor for students in which they must make many errors in order to
instead, it is integrated into a subject matter area important to the succeed. Language learners are handicapped in the classroom
learners. because they are unable to use their native language competence to
EFL and ESP differ not only in the nature of the learner, but also in the present themselves as knowledgeable adults. Instead, they have to
scope of the goals of instruction. Whereas in EFL all four language take on the role of inarticulate learner. You should create an
skills; listening, reading, speaking, and writing, are stressed equally, in atmosphere in the language classroom which supports the students.
ESP a needs assessment determines which language skills are most The non-native speaker of English must be self-confident in order to
needed by the students, and the program is focused accordingly. An communicate, and you have the responsibility to help build the learner's
ESP program, might, for example, stress the development of reading confidence.
skills in students who are preparing for graduate work in engineering; or Evaluating Students: Finally, you are a resource person who helps
it might stress the development of conversational skills in students who students identify their language-learning problems and find solutions to
are studying English in order to become tour guides. them. You identify the skills that students need to focus on, and take
ESP integrates subject matter and English language instruction. Such a responsibility for making choices which determine what and how the
combination is highly motivating because students are able to apply students learn. You will serve as a source of information to the students
what they learn in their English classes to their major field of study, about how they are progressing in their language learning.
whether it be computer science, accounting, business management, The role of the student
economics, or tourism. Being able to use the vocabulary and structures What does the learner bring to the classroom and what is the task the
that they learn in a meaningful context reinforces what is taught and language learner faces? The learners come to the ESP class with a
increases students' motivation. specific focus for learning, subject matter knowledge, and well-
The students' abilities in their subject-matter fields, in turn, enhance developed adult learning strategies. They face the task of developing
their ability to acquire English. Subject-matter knowledge gives them English language skills to reflect their native-language knowledge and
the context they need to understand the English of the classroom. The skills.
ESP class takes subject-matter content and shows students how the 1. Focus for Learning: The ESP student has a particular purpose and
same information is expressed in English. The teacher can exploit the focus for learning. People learn languages when they have
students' knowledge of the subject matter in helping them learn English opportunities to understand and work with language in a context that
faster. they comprehend and find interesting. ESP is a vehicle for such
Figure 1 summarizes what is meant by ESP. opportunities. Students will acquire English as they work with materials
The "specific" in ESP refers to the specific purpose for learning. which they find interesting and relevant and which they can use in their
Students approach the learning of English through a field that is already professional work or further studies. Successful learners pay attention
known and relevant to them. This means that they are able to use what to the meaning of the language they hear or read and do not focus
they learn in the ESP classroom right away in their work and studies. primarily on the linguistic input or isolated language structures. The
The ESP approach enhances the relevance of what the students are ESP student is particularly well disposed to focus on meaning in the
learning and enables them to use the English they know to learn even subject-matter field. In ESP, English should be presented not as a
more English, since their interest in their field will motivate them to subject or body of facts to be learned in isolation from real use, nor as a
interact with speakers and texts. mechanical skill or habit to be developed. Rather, English should be
The Role of the Teacher presented in authentic contexts to acquaint the learners with the
Some of you may already have experience teaching English as a particular ways the language is used in functions that they will need to
Foreign Language (EFL). If so, you can draw on your background in perform in their specialty fields.
language teaching. This Manual will help you identify the ways in which 2. Subject-Matter Knowledge: Learners in the ESP classroom are
your teaching skills can be adapted for the teaching of ESP. In addition, able to make a real contribution to the language learning process. They
you will need to seek out content-area specialists for assistance in are generally aware of the purposes for which they will need to use
designing appropriate lessons in the subject matter field you are English. Having already oriented their training toward a specific field,
teaching. they see their English instruction as complementing this orientation.
If you are a subject-area specialist with no experience in teaching EFL, Knowledge of the speciality area enables the students to identify a real
this Manual will be a valuable resource as it takes you through the context for the vocabulary and structures of the ESP classroom. In this
process of needs assessment and program design and offers concrete way, the learners can take advantage of what they already know about
suggestions for classroom activities. You will need to carefully study the the subject matter field to learn English.
EFL techniques suggested here to see how your subject-matter 3. Adult Learning Strategies: Learning as an adult has advantages --
knowledge can be used in the teaching of language skills. adults must work harder than children to learn a new language, but the
The Peace Corps ESP teacher must fill many roles. You may be learning strategies they bring to the task enable them to learn faster
responsible for organizing courses, for setting learning objectives, for and more efficiently. The skills they have already developed in reading
establishing a positive learning environment in the classroom, and for and writing their native languages will make learning English easier.
evaluating student progress. Although the English of the students you will be working with will most
1. Organizing Programs: You will set goals for the students and then likely be quite limited, the language learning abilities of the adult in the
translate those goals into an instructional program with hourly, daily, ESP classroom are potentially great. Language learning continues
and weekly activities. One of your primary tasks will be management; naturally throughout our lives. Educated adults are constantly learning
selecting and organizing course materials, supporting the students in new language behavior in their native languages; expanding
their efforts, and providing them with feedback on their progress. vocabulary, becoming more articulate in their fields, and modifying their
2. Setting Goals and Objectives: You arrange the conditions for linguistic behavior in new situations or new roles. ESP students can tap
learning in the classroom and set long-term goals and short-term these natural competencies in learning English.
What is ESP ? Figure 1 summarizes what is meant by ESP.
ESP is part of a larger movement within language teaching to an The "specific" in ESP refers to the specific purpose for learning.
emphasis on language in context. ESP covers subjects. ESP focus on Students approach the learning of English through a field that is already
a subject matter area important to the learners. known and relevant to them. This means that they are able to use what
ESP (ESP) refers to the teaching and learning of English as a second they learn in the ESP classroom right away in their work and studies.
or foreign language where the goal of the learners is to use English in The ESP approach enhances the relevance of what the students are
a particular domain. learning and enables them to use the English they know to learn even
TEACHER’S ROLE more English, since their interest in their field will motivate them to
1. Organizing Programs by setting goals and transform them into an interact with speakers an d texts.
instructional program, selecting and organizing course materials,
supporting students in their efforts, and providing them with
feedback on their progress.
2. Setting goals and objectives by arranging the condition for
learning in the classroom, setting short term and long term goals
for student achievement.
3. Establishing a positive learning environment by establishing
good atmosphere in the classroom, giving opportunities for the
students to speak English and express their ideas, modeling good
communication skills in the classroom, and listen carefully to what
the students are saying and give your responses.
4. Evaluating students’ progress by helping the students identify
their language learning problems and find the solutions, identifying
the skills that students need to focus on, making choices what and
how the students learn, being informant about how are the
students’ progression.
STUDENT’S ROLE
1. Focus for Learning
ESP students focus for learning according to their particular
purpose. Students will acquire English as they work with materials
which they find interesting and relevant and which they can use in
their professional work or further studies. Successful learners pay
attention to the meaning of the language they hear and read.
English should be presented in authentic contexts to acquaint the
learners with the particular ways the language is used in functions
that they will need to perform in their specialty fields
2. Subject matter Knowledge
ESP learners can make real contribution to the language learning
process, they’re generally aware of the purposes for what they will
need to use English, they’ve oriented their training to a specific
field, which is completed with English instruction, SMK enables
students to identify a real context for the vocabulary and structures
of the ESP classroom, so the learners can take advantage of what
they’ve known about the subject matter field to learn English.
3. Adult learning Strategies
The learning strategies they bring to the task enable them to learn
faster and more efficiently, the skills they have already developed
in reading and writing their native languages will make learning
English easier, the language learning abilities of the adult in the
ESP classroom are potentially great, educated adults are
constantly learning new language behavior in their native
languages, expanding vocabulary, becoming more articulate in
their fields, modifying their linguistic behavior in new situations or
new roles, ESP students can tap these natural competencies in
learning English.
"How is ESP different from EFL?"
The major difference between ESP and EFL lies in the learners and
their purposes for learning English.
ESP students are adults who already have some familiarity with English
and are learning the language in order to communicate a set of
professional skills and to perform particular job-related functions. While
EFL students are not familiar with English because English is a foreign
language for them.
ESP is part of a larger movement within language teaching away from
a concentration on teaching grammar and language structures to an
emphasis on language in context, while EFL concentrate on language
grammar and structures.
ESP covers subjects such as engineering, accounting, science, tourism
or management, while in EFL, English skill is the purpose.
In ESP a needs assessment determines which language skills are most
needed by the students, and the program is focused accordingly, while
in EFL all four language skills; listening, reading, speaking, and writing,
are stressed equally,
ESP integrates subject matter and English language instruction, while
EFL focuses on English language skill.
Definitions of ESP
Hutchinson Waters describes ESP is an acronym for ESP and it refers to a strong movement which is rapidly spreading all over the world. ESP is very powerful
itself and effective for every fields of life. ESP regard as a field in which the learners can overcome their learning problems remaining in the specific area of their
needs. ESP is helpful, keeping in view the fact that it satisfied the learner’s particularity then needs. Nowadays, classrooms are learner’s centered and the
Teacher has to work more on their needs and Teacher work as essential aid to the learner for development.

Definitions of ESP by Different Scholars


Different scholars have given different definition of ESP over the passage of time some of them are given below:
According to Evans (1977) ESP is delineating to encounter the distinct needs of the learners.ESP emphasis on the language appropriateness and its semantic
and Morphological meaning not on the lexical or syntactic meaning of the language.
Hutchinson (1987) stated ESP is an approach of teaching a language having proper command on syllabus, Methods and the activities used for learning a
language on the basis of the needs of the learners and for the antecedent of their learning.
According to Dudley- Evans & John (1998, p.1): Nowadays, ESP has been shifted from modals to general ELT still it has reserved its focus on the practicalities
of the results. ESP is always been concern with the needs analysis so with the help of knowing the needs we can see and also enhance the ability of the
learners so that they can communicate effectively in their work and study with the help of defined task.
Emergence of ESP
McDonough (1984) stated that ESP has grown from the early 1960’s different reports from all over the world were coming in the developing discontentment with
the learning of language and its teaching practice then the present day. Where east learners was given the knowledge of literature what so ever their needs and
interests they have in the target language.
As above mentioned ESP has started as a separate discipline from the early 1960’s and then after that become a part of EFL. Many universities all over the
world are developing courses in ESP for every field of life because of globalization of English language and English is need of the day for every field of life for
academic and professionals.
According to Anthony (1998) ESP becomes the most valuable and the remarkable area at the age of 1960’s and everything which are taught in our institutes
nowadays is all because of the existence of ESP. Many of the universities in the world were offering special master degree in ESP e.g. university of Birmingham
& Aston University in UK. Many other institutes all over the world develop short courses, diplomas and other special classes are held considering the needs of
the learners.
According to Mumbusho (1994) universities must have full liberty to design their own curriculum according to need of the learners and it was seen that after
giving liberty to the universities there was a rapid growth of courses of English language in all most all the fields and courses offered by the universities and ESP
courses rapidly take place of general English.
Hutchinson & Waters (1989) also identify three main reasons of emerging ESP given below:
 The development in all the speakers of life, due to which learners had come up with their specific objectives.
 The actualization of the fact that the need of language change from situation to situation.
 Progress in educational psychology.

Types of ESP
Carter (1983) describes types of ESP and explains that ESP has been developed in the past few years as there were many new fields immerging and to
facilitate the learners and their individual language needs. ESP got more importance nowadays
ESP has become part of our curriculum as see it in different fields such as Engineering; Medical & Teaching has their own registers so to overcome the barrier
of discourse specific needs are to be kept in mind. As we considered ESP as a approach of language teaching in a specific fields and ESP is further divided into
branches according to needs of the learners for their academic and communicating needs. ESP is categorized into sub division given below
ESP
EOP
EAP
English for academic purposes
(For all kinds of fields)
English for occupational purposes
(For teaching & training)
Figure 1ESP Classification( Carter,1983)
Actually there is no exact system of classification but there is a general scheme introduced in this figure.
Characteristics of ESP
According to Evans (1997) He elaborates the meaning of ESP and elaborates the meaning of ESP by using the metaphoric definition of ESP in the shape of
“Absolute” & “Variable” characteristics.
Absolute characteristics.
Evans (1997) introduces the characteristics that ESP explained as a separate discipline may helpful to fulfill the requirements of learners.ESP helps to use
learner’s contextual knowledge and uses different techniques and approaches it serves.ESP emphasis on the appropriateness and the meaning of
communication rather then on the structures of language.
Variable characteristics.
Evans (1997) introduces the characteristics that ESP is a separate discipline which is useful for making different courses for every field of life. In ESP courses
are different from general English because ESP serves situational setting for learners in real life situation.ESP is rapidly used nowadays for designing courses
for adult learners to cop up with their professional needs and they can freely communicate in real life situations. More often ESP courses use the language and
linguistics background knowledge of learners for better and effective learning.
The ESP Approach
According Barrantes Montero (2009) stated that ESP is a long time maintained and mature field in education some people took ESP as broader and separate
field and some people take it under the field of teaching a language.
Syllabus developers they describe precisely as the teaching of English in our academic studies and also for vocational and professional studies. ESP is actually
an approach to language teaching here the goals and the procedures are customized according to the needs of the learners. ESP introduced in early ages but
with passage of time many reform movement effects upon ESP and many approaches use to teach ESP. it change to the paradigms of teacher centered to
learner centered approach. In ESP mainly emphasized is on the usage of language in the real life situation not on the structures of grammar of language. And
the purpose behind learning a language was just to facilitate the learner and motivate them so they can easily use language at work places and use it for more
and more for communicative purposes.
EGP (English for general purposes) & ESP (ESP)
According to Holmes (1996, pp. 3-4) While preparing syllabus for the students studying general English in the course of ESP always designed by keeping in
view the nature of language and the classroom atmosphere where the learning take place. The syllabus in general English based on the real life situation and
the methodology and activities designed based on the language used for communication in real life setting. Mostly courses developed for the teenagers while
considering their language needs by conducting need analysis then designers design language based activities for learners to use language in real life situation.
ESP considers a sensible way for the syllabus designers to find out the need of the learners and then develop a course according to their needs.
Delgrego (2010) states that ESP (ESP) can delineate antithetical of English for general purposes. EGP (English for general purposes) can be is a language we
use in our daily life for communication in real life situation. Whereas ESP is a language we use for academic or professional purposes.
Bowker (2002) declared that in ESP classrooms students came just to fulfill their needs of English language to achieve their goals for future and all the
discussion students done in class not become professional or academic debate at the end it was just a aforementioned communication. The most important
thing is the focus on each skill in language classroom and the atmosphere where learning can take place and students can express their though in target
language without any hesitation
Bowker (2002) conclude that However, if we see at both programs there was a indistinguishable point that at the completion in both programs EGP (ESP) &
ESP (ESP) in both courses there is mainly focus on use of English language in communication. Students grow is classes having highly motivation and some of
them become proficient and achieve their aims at the completion of the program.
Learner’s Necessities
A program or course of ESP highly designed to achieve the objectives of learners and it start with the finding out their goals and needs of the learners and ends
on the achievement and analysis of their learning needs of an individual and group of learners.
Stapa (2003) proclaims that the teachers should seriously first search out the needs of the learners and then use the different methodology according to the
classroom situation and their linguistics background knowledge.
According to Hutchinson and Waters (1989, pp.55-57) they declared that the specific needs works as inclusive term to fulfill their needs, lacks & desires. Needs
were determined by the specific goals in inclusive situation and it may help the learner to work efficiently for their objectives in the target language. The absence
between the learners linguistic knowledge and the existing background knowledge prevails a gap between the target results of learners in the target situation
wants are sagacity of learners what they learns and what was the needs of all the individuals.
Language Skills to Meet Learners’ Necessities
According to Ellis (1992, pp.80-81.) Speakers and listener skill hang on linguistic and cognitive shift. A speaker can make all the choices of words & phrases’
which can help to express their thoughts that can help to differentiation among possible meanings and the listener can interpret the language of speaker by
using his existing linguistic and contextual knowledge. In our perception we can say that language play a role of chain to link the sender and receiver in a
communicative process and the language skill and their background knowledge help them to choose the appropriate words which can be a tool for
communication. Communication skills substantially contain as language skill but both have so many differences among them. It is totally wrong to employment
the expressions of communication skills and language skill substitutable
According to Smeltzer and Leonard (1994, pp.39-43) Communication skill is collectively capability of an individual to communicate and to express their thoughts
for understanding. In addition to this they give six factors which can effect on individual communication while communicating because of things like their
lankness of linguistic and background knowledge, cultural values, their financial and mental status, their stance, and last but not the least their emotions effect
the communication skills.
Language Skills as Focus of Instruction
There were four major language skills and the order of the skills is speaking, listening, reading and writing. Speaking and listening skill help to express language
through aural medium but if we sight upon other two skills reading and writing are helpful to express our thoughts by using visual medium. In speaking and
writing we actively involve by using action so this is a productive skill because we show our actions and reaction in the current situation but in the other side
reading and listening are receiving are receptive skills in other words we can say them as passive language skill.
Sender Receiver
Oral medium
Speaking skill
Listening skill
Written medium
Writing skill
Reading skill
Figure 3 Hartley and Clive (2002, p.6)
According to Murphy, Hilde Brandt and Thomas (2000) they state that all of that both of the mediums of communication oral or written had their regions of
productiveness of message. Howe ever, both mediums of communication differentiates each other by having different characteristics.
Oral
Written
Instant feedback
Linger on feedback
Chunks of language
Long phrases’
Discussions
More formal
Action in a stance
Linger on action
Information to convey meaning
Detailed information
Used of personal pronouns
Interpersonal pronouns
Productive skills
Receptive skills
Active language
Passive language
As Michael Long Intimate that English or any other language is teach with concrete unambiguous means in mind. The Instructions uses in teaching language
may look to learners to learners like “Language for no purpose,” to borrow Long’s words.
EAP (English for Academic purposes)
Etic (1975) states that EAP (English for Academic Purposes) is apprehensive with those communication skills which are obligatory for learning in formal tutoring
According to Jordan (1997) EAP take position in range of settings and situation. The country might have English the same as foreign language and use as
average of teaching at school and colleges. The students might require EAP (English for academic Purposes for instruction and study in their own country. The
students might use EAP (English for Academic Purposes) pre disappearance courses in their own country and to cram abroad.
Liyanage and Birch (October, 2004) states that the numeral of worldwide students who move toward from non-English communication backgrounds to countries
where English is the primary language is on the ascend necessitate the condition of English for Academic Purpose (EAP) plan courses for students to learn in
English-speaking institutions. Because of the diversity of educational backgrounds of students inflowing these courses, module take the shape of English for
General Academic Purposes (EGAP).
ESP (ESP) and EAP (English for academic purposes)
Ahsan (29 August, 2009) states in her article that in present context the globalization of English language have several effects on our lives all over the world. In
those country where first language is not English the authorities and linguists are trying to provide the awareness to the students through different programs e.g.
ELTL (English language teaching) EIL (English as international language etc.
Nowadays, English languages have so many varieties for every field there were separate jargons to fulfill learners’ professional requirements of language.
People use English for business, professional and academic purposes and in present context English is frequently uses by non native speakers.
Rahman (2002) stated that English language is requisition by the students in present days and parents also focus on those schools where all the courses are in
English language just to groom up their children’s with the international language for future.
Ahsan ( August, 2009) conclude that in present context it Is clear that students need satisfactory English language skills to fulfill their academic needs so, EAP
(English for academic Purposes) is aimed to taught the learners’ for their academic studies and those programs which are designed mainly focus on their
communicative needs.
EAP (English for academic purposes) as Learners’ Needs
Ferris & Tagg (1996) stated that it is most important to find out the need of learners’ their requirement and exceptions and then suggest variety of methods to
the instructors to fulfill that academic literacy duty.
As we have seen from different studies conquer a considerable gap between the background knowledge of learners about English Language and the courses
offered in university to fulfill their communication needs. Therefore, this research map out the gap EFLL (English as foreign language learners) and the native
speakers of target language.
In present days’ EFL (English as a foreign language) are cognizant of their learners’ professional and academic English needs. The specific needs of English
language are described by the learners and professional users of English language. The present study was design to investigate academic English needs of
students doing MA ELTL at Punjab University, Lahore.
ESP(ESP) atau Bahasa Inggris untuk tujuan khusus adalah suatu pendekatan baru dalam pengajaran dan penggunaan Bahasa Inggris untuk bidang dan
kajian khusus yang sesuai dengan kebutuhan bidang ilmu dan profesi pengguna Bahasa Inggris tersebut. Bidang ilmu dan profesi tersebut misalnya Bahasa
Inggris untuk ilmu hukum, kedokteran, teknik mesin, ekonomi, atau maritim dan lain sebagainnya. Robinson selanjutnya mengatakan “It (here ESP) is
generally used to refer to the teaching and learning of a foreign language for a clearly itilitarian purpose of which there is no doubt.”
Dengan demikian, pengajaran Bahasa Inggris untuk Tujuan Khusus (ESP–ESP) mempunyai pendekatan dan asumsi yang berbeda dengan General English
(GE) misalnya. Tujuan ESP adalah agar mahasiswa mampu menguasai Bahasa Inggris pada bidang yang mereka pelajari. Misalnya mahasiswa kimia, maka
mereka harus memahami Bahasa Inggris untuk kimia, atau jika mereka mahasiswa teknik, mereka harus mengetahui Bahasa Inggris untuk teknik, atau jika
mereka bekerja di perhotelan, maka mereka harus menguasai Bahasa Inggris perhotelan, jika mereka mahasiswa maritim, maka mereka harus menguasai
Bahasa Inggris maritim.
ESP umumnya digunakan pada pengajaran bahasa asing untuk kegunaan tertentu pada bidang ilmu dan profesi tertentu. Tujuan ini umumnya dipahami
sebagai manfaat dalam peran Bahasa Inggirs itu sebaga alat komuniksi baik lisan maupun tulisan. Maka dari itu, ESP sebaiknya dilihat sebagai pendekatan,
konsep dan metode yang memang berbeda dengan Bahasa Inggris umum (General English).ESP adalah suatu pendekatan pengajaran Bahasa Inggris yang
mempunyai pendekatan, persepsi, desain, materi, evaluasi dan tujuan yang berbeda. Materi ESPmengacu pada kebutuhan mahasiswa (students’ needs) dan
pengguna lulusan itu sendiri. Hal senada juga dikatakan oleh Mc Donough tentang definisi dan konsepESP. Dia berpepndapat “ESP courses are those where
the syllabus and materials are determined in all essentials by prior analysis of the communication needs of the learners.”[2]
Pendapat Donough mengindikasikan bahwa materi dan silabus serta tujuanESP harus dirancang dan dikembangkan berdasarkan kebutuhan mahasiswa dan
pengguna lulusan karena mahasiswa baik ketika mereka kuliah maupun ketika mereka akan bekerja materi ajar atau bahan ajar harus sesuai dengan
kebutuhannya. Jadi pendekatan ESP adalah pendekatan dari bawah ke atas (button up approach ).
Dengan uraian di atas, hal ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa ESP adalah bukan suatu produk baru, tetapi sebuah pendekatan dalam pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris
yang berbeda dengan Bahasa Inggris umum. ESP merujuk pada pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris yang berorientasi kebutuhan khusus pembelajar sesuai dengan
bidang ilmu dan pekerjaan. Materi ESP berbasis dan dikembangkan berdasarkan analisis kebutuhan.
2. Karakteristik English for Specific Purpose (ESP)
Sebagai suatu pendekatan baru dalam pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris, ESPmemiliki ciri dan karaketeristik yang berbeda dengan pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris
umum (General English). Karakeristik ini tentu juga berbeda secara jelas dan signifikan dengan pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris yang lain seperti seperti English
as Second Language (ESL) atau English as a Foreign Language (EFL).
Beberapa ahli ESP memberikan karakteristik dan ciri-ciri utama ESP dalam pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris yang beragam dan bervariasi. (Strevens,1988)
dalamKristen Gatehouse, Key Issues in ESP (ESP) Curriculum Development mengatakan bahwa ada empat karakteristik utama ESP sebagai pendekatan
dalam pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris yaitu a) ESP dirancang untuk memenuhi kebutuhan pembelajar, b) substansi dan isi ESP dikaitkan dengan tema dan topik
pada bidang ilmu tertentu, jenis pekerjaan atau aktivitas tertentu, c) berpusat pada bentuk kebahasaan yang sesuai dengan aktivitas dan bidang ilmu atau
pekerjaan seperti sintaksis, leksikal, wacana, semantik, dan sebagainya, dan d) ESP berbeda dengan General English.[3]
Robinson selanjutnya mengatakan bahwa ada tiga ciri utama ESP yang membedakannya dengan General English atau English a Foreign Language
(EFL)atauEnglish as a Mother Tongue (EMT). Ketiga karakteristik tersebut adalah 1)ESP adalah pembelajaran yang berorientasi tujuan (goal oriented). Dalam
konteks ini, pembelajar belajar Bahasa Inggris bukan karena alasan ingin tahu bahasa itu sebagai bahasa dan budaya yang terkandung di dalamnya, tetapi
pembelajar belajar ESP karena memiliki tujuan khusus, tertentu dan spesifik dalam bdang akademik dan profesi yang satu dengan yang lainnya. 2)
Substansi ESP dirancang dan dikembangkan berdasarkan konsep analisis kebutuhan (need analysis). Konsep analisis kebutuhan bertujuan untuk
mengkhususkan dan mengkaitkan serta mendekatkan apa yang dibutuhakan pembelajar baik dalam bidang akademik maupun profesi. 3) ESP lebih ditujukan
pada pembelajar dewasa dari pada anak atau remaja. Hal ini logis karena ESP umumnya diajarkan pada tingkatan akademik menengah dan tinggi dan
profesional atau tempat kerja.[4]
Agak berbeda dengan (Strevens,1988) dan Robinson, Evens dan Maggie mengajukan karakteristik ESP dengan menggunakan dua istilah utama yaitu a)
karakteristik yang absolut dan b) karakteristik variabelistik. [5]
Karakteritik absolut merupakan karakteristik yang hakiki dan merupakan tipikal dari ESP. Mereka lebih lanjut mengatakan bahwa krakteristik absolut
dari ESP adalah:
ESP is designed to meet needs of the learners; ESP makes use of the underlying methodology and activities of the disciplines it serves; ESP is centered on
the language (grammar, lexis, register), skills, discourse, and genre appropriate to these activities.
Dari kutipan di atas, dapat ditarik kesimpulan bahwa ada tiga hal yang berkaitan dengan ESP. Pertama, ESP harus disain dan dirancang untuk memenuhi
kebutuhan pembelajar. Berkaitan dengan pemenuhan kebutuhan pembelajar, mereka menambahkan bahwa hakikat ESP memenuhi kebutuhan pembelajar
berarti fokus pada kebutuhan pembelajar, berlangsung efektif, sesuai dengan kebutuhan pembelajar, dan memungkinkan pembelajar belajar dengan sukses
sesuai dengan rentang waktu yang dirancang. Berkaitan dengan analisis kebutuhan agar substansi ESP benar-benar sesuai dan memenuhi kebutuhan
pembelajar, (Hoadley-Maidment,1980) dalam McDonough (1984) mengemukakan ada tiga sumber informasi utama dalam melakukan analisis kebutuhan yaitu
a) pengajar, b) pembelajar, dan c) stakeholder ).[6]
Kedua, ESP merealisasikan metodologi dan aktivitas sesuai dengan bidang ilmu yang ditargetkan atau dipelajari dan diajarkan. Ini artinya bahwa metode dan
aktivitas yang dilakasanakan dalam pembelajaran di kelas harus sesuai dengan bidang ilmu, pekerjaan, dan profesi yang mencerminkan variasi dan
beragamnya esensi dari ESP itu sendiri.
Ketiga, sebagai suatu pendekatan baru, fokus ESP adalah penggunaan kebahasaan yang tipikal (grammar, lexis, register), keterampilan, wacana, genreyang
sesuai dengan aktivitas. Dalam hal ini cakupan kebahasaan dalam ESP baik dalam tataran, grammar, leksikal dan register dalam hal tertentu berbeda dengan
Bahasa Inggris Umum (General English).
Di samping itu, ciri fundamental lain dari ESP masih menurut Evens dan Maggie adalah keterampilan berbahasa, wacana dan genre. Dalam
pembelajaranESP,konsideran mengenai keterampilan berbahasa yang diajarkan menjadi isu penting yang harus dipertimbangkan. Dalam konteks akademik
dan profesi atau pekerjaan, fokus keterampilan cenderung berbeda antara bidang akademik dan profesi yang satu dengan yang lain. Ada bidang akademik
atau profesi yang memfokuskan dan mengutamakan keterampilan berbicara di satu sisi, tetapi ada juga bidang akademik atau profesi yang dominan dengan
keterampilan menulis.
Kemudian ciri fundamental tersebut, ESP juga memiliki variabel yang juga menunjukkan esensi lain dari ESP bila dibandingkan dengan GE atau ESL dan EFL..
Variabel-variabel tersebut misalnya a) ESP sebaiknya menggunakan situasi pembelajaran khusus dan metode mengajar yang berbeda dengan Bahasa Inggris
umum , b) ESP kelihatannya lebih sesuai dan cocok bagi pembelajar dewasa baik pada akademik tinggkat tinggi maupun profesi atau tempat kerja profesional,
namun ESP mungkin juga dapat digunakan bagi pembelajar tingkat menengah, c) biasanya ESPdirancang dan didesain untuk mahasiswa dengan level tingkat
menengah dan tinggi, namun demikian sebagian pembelajaran ESP juga memungkinkan untuk pembelajar tingkat pemula.
Dari uraian di atas, ada dua hal penting yang dapat ditarik sebagai kesimpulan. Pertama, karakteristik yang absolut dan fundamental. Absolut dan fundamental
artinya ciri tersebut merupakan wajib dan harus ada dan digunakan dalam pengembangan pembelajaran ESP dan bersifat final dan tetap. Kedua, karakteristik
yang bersifat optional atau lebih tepatnya dapat dikategorikan dengan menggunakan kata ’seharusnya’ atau kata atau frase ”lebih baik atau lebih sesuai.”
Artinya karakteristik tersebut masih dapat dirubah, dikembangkan dan atau disesuaikan sebagaian atau seluruhnya dalam pembelajaran ESP.Perubahan dan
penyesuaian tersebut tergantung pada konteks ESP itu sendiri.

[1]Paulina Robinson, ESP (Oxford: Pergamon Press, Ltd, 1990), p.5.


[2] Jo.Mc. Donough. ESP in Perspective A Practical Guide. (London: Collin ELT, 1984), p.3.
.
[3](Strevens,1988) Kristen Gatehouse. Key Issues in ESP (ESP) Curriculum Development oleh dalam Kristen Gatehouse dalam Kristen
Gatehouse/http//www.khe-service.com/7/26/2009) p.1.
[4] Paulina.C. Robinson, ESP Today: A Practioner’s Guide. (New York: Prentice Hall. 1991). p. 2-3
[5] Evens-Dudley Tony dan Maggie Jo st.John . Developments in ESP: A multi-disciplinary approach. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1998), p.4-5.
[6] Hoadley- Maidment, 1980 dalam McDonough. ESP in Perspectives: A Practical Guide. (London: Collin Educational Publishing,1984).p.38.
Dalam bab ini kita telah menelusuri asal-usul tempat SMK dalam pendidikan guru dari hari-hari pengajaran pengetahuan yang akan diteruskan kepada siswa
dalam mode magang untuk pembentukan institusi pembelajaran (disebut “sekolah normal”) di mana pendidikan guru dimulai. . Dalam pendidikan guru akhir
abad kesembilan belas dianggap terdiri dari mengajar konten yang diperlukan bersama dengan beberapa ide tentang cara mengendalikan siswa. Ide-ide awal
ini sering digunakan saat ini sebagai bentuk pendidikan guru dalam situasi krisis seperti setelah suatu negara telah melalui perang. Praktek saat ini secara
internasional berkaitan dengan SMK dalam pendidikan guru sangat bervariasi tetapi sebagian besar program memiliki komponen pusat yang berbasis
universitas. Mereka bervariasi dari basis konten umum diikuti oleh fase pendidikan guru di mana SMK dianggap sebagai prasyarat untuk pendidikan guru untuk
program di mana pengajaran konkret SMK dan metodologi berlangsung. Ada juga keragaman dalam program yang berkaitan dengan sekolah dasar dan
sekolah menengah. Seperti yang diharapkan, tingkat SMK yang lebih tinggi diperlukan untuk guru yang mengajar di tingkat sekolah menengah. Namun, karya
Ball et al. (2008) tentang pengetahuan matematika untuk mengajar memang menunjukkan potensi tinggi tingkat SMK yang diperlukan untuk benar-benar mahir
di tingkat sekolah dasar. Kami juga telah menjelajahi dua sekolah pemikiran yang berkaitan dengan sifat SMK dalam pendidikan guru. Sekolah Perancis di
bawah Chevallard (1991) dan Brousseau (1997) hanya relatif baru-baru ini dapat diakses oleh dunia berbahasa Inggris. Sebuah teori konkuren yang dipandu
oleh PCK telah berevolusi di dunia berbahasa Inggris dan kedua teori memiliki persamaan dan perbedaan. Keduanya berbagi gagasan "cocok untuk tujuan"
tetapi konsep transformasi di sekolah PCK dijelaskan dalam hal adaptasi dan modifikasi di sekolah Prancis. Sekolah Perancis melihat bagaimana konteks dan
praktik mengubah SMK sementara PCK berbicara tentang perlunya mengubahnya untuk mengajar.