Matrix

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Matrix

© All Rights Reserved

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You are on page 1of 3

� �

1 0 1

Problem 32.1: Find a right inverse for A = .

0 1 0

−1

Solution: We apply the formula Aright = A T ( AA T )−1 :

⎡ ⎤

1 0

AT = ⎣ 0 1 ⎦

1 0

� �

2 0

AA T =

0 1

� �

1/2 0

( AA T )−1 =

0 1

⎡ ⎤

1/2 0

A T ( AA T )−1 = ⎣ 0 1 ⎦.

1/2 0

⎡ ⎤

1/2 0

−1

Thus, Aright

= ⎣ 0 1 ⎦ is one right inverse of A. We can quickly check

1/2 0

−1

that AAright = I.

� �

4 3

Problem 32.2: Does the matrix A = have a left inverse? A right

8 6

inverse? A pseudoinverse? If the answer to any of these questions is ”yes”,

ﬁnd the appropriate inverse.

Solution: The second row of A is a multiple of the ﬁrst row, so A has rank

1 and det A = 0. Because A is a square matrix its determinant is deﬁned,

and we can use the fact that det C · det D = det(CD ) to prove that A can’t

have a left or right inverse. (If AB = I, then det A det B = det I implies

0 = 1.)

We can ﬁnd a pseudoinverse A+ = VΣ+ U T for A. We start by ﬁnding

the singular value decomposition UΣV T of A.

1

The SVD of A was calculated in the lecture on singular value decom

position, so we know that

� � � � � √ � � �

4 3 1 1 2 125 0 .8 .6

= √5 .

8 6 2 −1 0 0 .6 −.8

A U Σ VT

� √ �

1/ 125 0

Hence, Σ+ = and

0 0

A+ = V

�Σ U

+ T

�� √ �� � ��

.8 .6 1/ 125 0 1 1 2

= √

.6 −.8 0 0 5 2 −1

� �� �� �

.8 .6 1/25 0 1 2

=

.6 −.8 0 0 2 −1

� �� �� �

.8 .6 1/25 0 1 2

=

.6 −.8 0 0 2 −1

� �

1 4 8

= .

125 3 6

its row space using the bases we found while computing its SVD. Recall

that �

σj u j for j ≤ r

Av j =

0 for j > r.

� √ � � �

1/√5 1 4

Here u1 = and A+ u1 = √ = σ11 v1 . We can also check

2/ 5 125 3

� �� �

+ 1 4 8 2

that A u2 = 125 = 0.

3 6 −1

MIT OpenCourseWare

http://ocw.mit.edu

Spring 2011

For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms.

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