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e.g. Sachin/plays cricket. Active

Cricket/is played by Sachin. Passive

In the active Voice the subject is doing something, i.e., the verb form shows
the doer of an action; used when subject is to be shown importance.
In the passive voice, the object leans on to the subject, i.e., the verb form
shows that something is done to the subject i.e., the subject goes through or
receives some actions; used when the object is to be shown importance.

Some other rules of active & passive voice –

1. Only transitive verbs have can be changed into, active-passive, voices,
because only transitive verbs have objects.
2. If there are two objects in a sentence the direct object (principal
object) is more important in changing active to passive (generally asks
the question what?).
3. The verb+preposition combination cannot be changed while changing
the voices.
4. If, in a sentence, the IIIrd form of verb (M.V.) is coming after the
helping verb (auxiliary) then it is in the passive voice.
5. The passive is sometimes not possible when the object is a clause,
a) They have a nice house.
A nice house is had by them.
b) My shoes don’t fit me.
I am not fitted by my shoes. X
6. Newspaper headlines are generally in the passive voice , e.g.,
a)Terrorist arrested
7. Notices generally use passive, e.g.,
a) Tree cutters required.
b) All types of sewing jobs undertaken.
8. For reporting procedure, generally passive voice is used, e.g.,
a) The monitor, keyboard & printer were linked up.
b) The main cable was plugged in.
c) The monitor was switched on.
d) The disc is placed in drive A:
9. Statements generally use the passive voice, e.g.,
a) The Nile is believed to be the longest river in the world.
b) The Cheetah is known to be the fastest land animal.

The tenses used according to the active or passive

voice, look at the chart
Pr. Simple They play the Am/are/is+pst. Parti. The match is
match. played.
Pr. Continuous They are playing the Am/are/is+being+PP The match is being
match. played.
Pr. Perfect They have played Have/has+been+PP The match has been
the match. played.
Ps. Simple They played the Was/were+PP The match was
match. played.
Ps. Continuous They were playing Was/were+being+PP The match was
the match. being played.
Ps. Perfect They had played the Had+been+PP The match had been
match. played.
Fu. Simple They will play the Will+be+PP The match will be
match. played.
Fu. Perfect They will have Will+have been+PP The match will have
played the match. been played.
Going To They are going to Is/am/are+going to The match is going
play the match. be+PP to be played.

Voice is that form of a verb which tells us whether the subject does
something or has something been done to it, e.g.,
Ram killed a tiger. (act)
A tiger was killed by Ram. (pasv)
The teacher punished the naughty boy. (act)
The naughty boy was punished by the teacher.(pasv)
A verb is in the active voice when the person or thing denoted by the subject
is the doer of the action.
A verb is in the passive voice when the person or thing denoted by the
subject is the receiver of the action.
Rules for changing the active voice to passive voice:
1. The object of the verb in the active voice becomes the subject in the
passive voice.
2. The 3rd form of the main verb is used.(Past Participle).
3. Only transitive verbs can be changed into the passive voice.
4. Perfect Continuous of all tenses & the future continuous tense cannot
be changed into passive form.
5. If active voice is in an interrogative sentence, then passive voice is
also in an interrogative sentence.
6. If a transitive verb has two objects, either of them may be made the
subject in the passive voice & the other remains unchanged.e.g.,
a) He forgave me my fault. (act).
b) I was forgiven for my faults by him. (pas).
To preserve meaning while changing the voices, following points also
7. The verb in the passive voice is changed according to the subject in
number and person.
8. The verb ‘by’ is put before the new object, e.g.,
a) He knows me. (act).
b) I am known to him. (pas).
c) I was surprised at it. (pas).
Active Pronouns Passive Pronouns
Change of verb in Simple Present Tense
1. Sudha writes a story. (act)
A story is written by Sudha. (pas)
2. Do children love flowers? (act)
Are flowers loved by children? (pas)
Change of verb in Present Continuous Tense
1. They are plucking some flowers. (act)
Some flowers are being plucked by them.(pas)
2. The doctor is preparing medicine. (act)
Medicine is being prepared by the doctor.(pas)
Change of verb in Present Perfect Tense
1. She has cleaned the cups. (act)
The cups have been cleaned by her. (pas)
2. The children have made the box. (act)
The box has been made by the children. (pas)
Change of verb in Simple Past Tense
1. The mad dog bit the beggar. (act)
The beggar was bitten by the mad dog. (pas)
2. Did you answer all the questions? (act)
Were all the questions answered by you? (pas)
Change of verb in Past Continuous Tense
1. The girls were painting the box. (act)
The box was being painted by the girls. (pas)
2. Was he catching birds? (act)
Were birds caught by him? (pas)
Change of verb in Past Perfect Tense
1. They had won the match. (act)
The match had been won by them. (pas)
2. Had you broken the glass? (act)
Had the glass broken by you? (pas)
Change of verb in Simple Future Tense
1. Sudha will cook the food. (act)
The food will be cooked by Sudha. (pas)
2. Will the postman deliver the letters? (act)
Will the letter be delivered by the postman? (pas)
Change of verb in theFuture Perfect Tense
1. I shall have finished the work. (act)
The work will have been finished by me. (pas)
2. Raju will have helped Usha. (act)
Usha will have been helped by Raju? (pas)
Active to Passive of the Modal verbs
1. A doctor should examine him. (act)
He should be examined by a doctor. (pas)
2. Even a rat may help a lion. (act)
A lion may be helped even by a rat. (pas)
Active to Passive in Imperative Sentences
1. Put out the lamp. (act)
Let the lamp be put out. (pas)
2. Let him do this work. (act)
Let this work be done by him. (pas)
Active to Passive in the Infinitive Verb
1. It is time to pay the fee. (act)
It is time for the fee to be paid. (pas)
2. She worked hard to win the game. (act)
She worked hard for the game to be won. (pas)
3. He is a man to admire. (act)
He is a man to be admired. (pas)
Change of Voice when The Sentence has two objects
We refused them admission. (act)
They were refused admission by us. (pas)
My mother told me a story. (act)
A story was told to me by my mother. (pas)
Change of Voice without using ‘by’
Lived, known, disgusted, annoyed, surprised, alarmed, satisfied, offended,
contained, displeased, married, pleased,(use at/in/with/to) & not by :
1. The result surprised me. (act)
I am surprised at the result. (pas)
2. I know him. (act)
He is known to me. (pas)
3. The news pleased him. (act)
He was pleased with the news. (pas)
4. Deepak married to Deepak. (act)
Richa was married to Deepak. (pas)
5. This bottle contains ink. (act)
Ink is contained in the bottle. (pas)
6. Take this chair please. (act)
You are requested to take this chair. (pas)
7. Love the children. (act)
Children should be loved. (pas)
8. Close the door at once. (act)
Let the door be closed at once. (pas)
9. It is time to take tea. (act)
It is time for tea to be taken. (pas)
10.Inform the police of the accident. (act)
Let the police be informed of the accident. (pas)
11.How has he done it? (act)
How has it been done? (pas)
12.Duty must be done. (act)
One must do one’s duty. (pas)
13.Someone has picked my pocket. (act)
My pocket has been picked. (pas)
14.This water tastes sweet. (act)
This water is sweet when tasted. (pas)
15.Do help the poor. (act)
The poor must be helped. (pas)
16.They say that truth is God. (act)
It is said that truth is God. (pas)
17.Sit down. (act)
You are ordered to sit down. (pas)
18.People felt that the officers were corrupt. (act)
It was felt that the officers were corrupt. (pas)
The officers were felt to be corrupt. (pas)
19.We can’t take up this work now. (act)
This work can’t be taken up now. (pas)
20.Take this medicine in time. (act)
This medicine should be taken in time. (pas)
21.Nobody has slept in the bed for 2 days. (act)
The bed has not been slept in for 2 days. (pas)
22.The police arrested the thief & sent him to jail. (act)
The thief was arrested & sent to jail. (pas)
23.How do they make coffee? (act)
How is coffee made? (pas)

The servant said , “ Tea is ready”. D

The servant said that tea was ready. I

In the first sentence the actual words uttered by a speaker have been
reproduced; this is called direct speech.
In the second sentence, the words used by the speaker have been conveyed,
but the actual words have not been reproduced & some changes have been
introduced; this is called Indirect Speech.
He said,”I am hungry’.
He said that he was hungry.
She said , “Hurry up”.
She told me to hurry up.
He said , “ Please give me another chance”.
He requested them to give him another chance.
In the above sentences, it is noticed that, when changing from the direct
form of speech to the Indirect, the following changes take place;
a) Changes in pronunciation
b) Change in pronouns
c) Change in tense
d) Change in words indicating nearness in time and space
e) Change in sentence

Change in Punctuation
a) The ‘comma’ after the reporting verb and the ‘inverted commas’
of the reported speech disappear.
b) The conjunction ‘that’ is usually used to join the reporting
speech with the reporting verb in an assertive sentence.
c) The question mark and the exclamation mark give place to a
full stop.
 The farmer said to Jack, “ Go away!”. D
 The farmer asked Jack Go away.
 He said to Sudha, “ Am I ill?”
 He asked Sudha if he was ill.

Change in Pronouns
a) If pronoun is in Ist person, subject is changed, e.g.,
 Smita said, “ I am sick”
 Smita said that she was sick.
 He said to me, “ I am doing my work”.
 He told me that he was doing his work.
b) If a pronoun is in IInd person, object is changed, e.g.,
 Sudha said to me , “ You are my best friend”.
 Sudha told me that I was her best friend.
 He said to her, “ You are in the right”.
 He told her that she was in the right.
c) If pronoun is in the IIIrd person, there is no change, e.g.,
 I said, “ He is wealthy”.
 I said that he was wealthy.
 Ram said to me, “ He should mind hiis own business”.
 Ram told me that he should mind his own business.
Change of the Tense
a) Simple Present Changes to Simple Past
 He said, “ My mother cooks our breakfast”.
 He said that his mother cooked their breakfast.
 She said, “ I don’t want to go to Jhansi”.
 She said that she didn’t want to go to Jhansi.
b) Present Continuous becomes Past Continuous
 She said, “ He is taking his exam”.
 She said that he was taking his exam.
 Varun said, “ I am doing work”.
 Varun said that he was working.
c) Present Perfect becomes Past Perfect
 Abhishek said, “ I have finished the work”.
 Abhishek said that he had finished the work.
 Deepak said , “ Savita has done her work”.
 Deepak said that Savita had done her work.
d) Present Perfect Continuous becomes Past Perfect
 Ram said, “ Rahim has been giving us good milk”.
 Ram said that Rahim had been giving them good milk.
 She said, “ The teacher has not been teaching for a
 She said that the teacher had not been teaching for a
e) Simple Past Changes into Past Perfect
 Mr. Verma said, “ I saw the Taj Mahal”.
 Mr. Verma said that he had seen the Taj Mahal.
 Gita said, “ The cow died in the morning”.
 Gita said that the cow had died in the morning.
f) Past Continuous becomes Past Perfect Continuous
 The boys said, “ We were watching the game”.
 The boys said that they had been watching the game.
 He said, “ All were laughing then”.
 He said that all had been laughing then.
g) There is no Change in Past Perfect Tense & Past Perfect
Continuous Tense
 She said, “ I had waited for the bus for an hour”.
 She said that she had waited for the bus for an hour.
 Manoj said, “ I had been doing work since morning”.
 Manoj said that he had been doing work since morning.
h) Model Verbs Change into their Past Tense
 Varun said, “ I will come here again tomorrow”.
 Varun said that he would go there again the next day.
 Anil said, “Prakhar can stay at home”.
 Anil said that Prakhar could stay at home.
 The teacher said to me, “ the boy should come”.
 The teacher told me that the boy should come.
 Pari said, “ It may rain any time”.
 Pari said that it might rain any time.
i) If the Indirect Speech expresses a fact or a universal truth,
the tense of the verb remains unchanged, e.g.,
 The teacher said, “The Sun rises in the East”.
 The teacher said that the Sun rises in the East.
 Alok said, “ I go out for exercise daily”.
 Alok said that he goes out for exercise daily.
 Vivekanand said, “Man is mortal”.
 Vivekanand said that man is mortal.
 Ram said, “ We should not tell a lie”.
 Ram said that we should not tell a lie.
Change in words indicating nearness in time and space

Direct Speech Indirect Speech

This That
These Those
Ago Before
Last night Previous night/ the night before
Today That day
Now Then
Tomorrow The next day
Yesterday The previous day/the day before
Tonight That night
Next week The following week
Come Go
Here There
Hence Thence
Hither Thither
Thus So

Changes in Sentences
a) Changes in Assertive/Declarative Sentences
If the direct speech is without an object there is no
change in direct speech.
Direct - Ram says to you, “ You should mind your
own business”.
Indirect – Ram tells you that you should mind your
own business.
Direct – Pushpa said, “My brother arrived yesterday
& will go tomorrow”.
Indirect – Pushpa said that her brother had arrived the
previous day & would go the next day.
Direct – Rahul said to me, “I shall meet you at the
Indirect – Rahul told me that he would meet me at the
Change in Interrogative Sentences follow these rules: -
 Tenses, Pronouns & Adverb of Tense & Place change
in assertive sentences.
 The question mark is omitted in indirect.
 While introducing the reported speech ‘that’ is never
 The reporting verb ‘said’ or ‘said to’ is changed into
‘asked’, ‘enquired’, or ‘demand’ according to the
 The interrogative form of the verb is changed in to the
assertive form.
 The conjunction ‘if’ or ‘whether’ is used if the
interrogative sentence begins with helping verbs.
 No conjunction is used if the question begins with
interrogative words (?).
 ‘Sir’ & ‘Madam’ are changed into respectfully.

Examples of Interrogatives: -
Direct –He said to her, “Do you like my idea”.
Indirect –He asked her if she liked his idea.
Direct –I said to Kush, “ Did you meet my brother on
your way to school”.
Indirect –I asked Kush if he had met my brother on his
way to school.
Direct – He said to me, “ Do you know the way”.
Indirect – He enquired of me if I know the way.
Direct – The teacher said to Rani, “Did you break the
window pane?” “ No Sir”, said Rani.
Indirect – The teacher asked Rani if she had broken the
window pane, Rani replied respectfully that she
had not.
Direct – He said, “ Will you listen to such a man?”
Indirect – He asked whether they would listen to such a
Changes in Imperative Sentences:-
 The reporting verb ‘said’ or ‘said to’ is changed into
order/command/advice/request, according to the sense.
 While introducing the reported speech ‘that’ is never
 The imperative mood is changed into the infinitive.
Direct – He said, “Let me have some tea”.
Indirect – He wished to have some tea.
Direct – The teacher said to Isha, “Stand up on the bench”.
Indirect – The teacher ordered Isha to stand up on the
Direct – The beggar said to the old lady, “Give me
something to eat”.
Indirect – The beggar requested the old lady to give him
something to eat.
Direct – I said, “Let’s go out for a walk”.
Indirect – I proposed to go out for a walk.
Changes in Exclamatory Sentences: -
 The reporting verb ‘said’ may be changed in the
following sense – sorrow, joy, regret, surprise,
contempt, applaud or praise.
 Change the exclamatory sentence into the assertive
 Omit the exclamation mark (1).
 Use conjunction ‘that’ to introduce the reported speech.
 Omit words showing exclamation, such as, hurrah, alas,
wow, ho! etc.
Direct – They said, “May the Prime Minister live long!”
Indirect – They prayed that the Prime Minister might live
Direct – My friend said, “What a beautiful view!”
Indirect – My friend exclaimed that it was a very beautiful
Direct – The commander said to the soldiers, “ Bravo! You
fought well”.
Indirect – The commander applauded/praised the soldiers
as they had fought bravely.
Direct – “Pooh!”He said to me, “ You have again failed in
the examination”.
Indirect – He exclaimed with contempt that I had again
failed in the examination.
Direct – Ravi said, “ Alas! How foolish I have been!”
Indirect – Ravi confessed with regret that he had been very
Changes in Optative Sentences:-
 The reporting verb ‘said’/’said to’ changes into wished,
bade, prayed, etc.
 Change of optative to assertive sentence.
 Omit all interrogative & exclamations & convey, their
sense by using an adverb or adverbial phrase.
Direct – I said to my teacher, “ Good morning, Sir”.
Indirect – I respectfully wished my teacher good morning.
Direct – The statesman said, “Farewell my friends &
Indirect – The statesman bade farewell to his friends &
Direct – She said, “O for a glass of water!”
Indirect – She wished for a glass of water.
The sequence of Tenses
The sequence of tenses is that principle according to what
the tense of the verb in the main clause
governs/commands that of the sub-ordinate clause. The
main rules about the sequence of tenses are :-
a) If the verb in the main clause is in the present or
future tense, the verb in the sub-ordinate clause
may be in any tense, e.g.,
 He says that he wants money.
 I know what he is doing.
 He will come if you agree.
b) If the verb in the main clause is in the past tense,
the verb in the subordinate clause is generally in
the past tense, e.g.,
 He saw that he had made a mistake.
 Anoop worked hard that he might pass.
 She knew that she could not get success.
c) If the subordinate clause states some habit or
universal truth, the verb is then in the present tense,
 The teacher said that the earth revolves
round the Sun.
d) The past tense in the principal clause may be
followed by any tense in the subordinate clause, if
it is an adjective clause, e.g.,
 She came across the man who had stolen
her money.
 He bought a cow which gives milk.
e) The verb of the subordinate clause, if it is an
adverb clause of place, reason, may be in any
tense, even though the principal clause is in the
past tense, e.g.,
He went to Calcutta where his father is
f) If the verb in the subordinate clause is introduced
by the conjunction ‘than’ it will be in the present
tense even though the main clause is in the past
tense, e.g.,
Shikha likes you better than she likes me.
He helped us more than he helps his own
g) If the subordinate clause is being introduced by the
conjunction ‘before’ the main clause of present
perfect tense is followed by subordinate clause of
simple present tense & past perfect is followed by
simple present, e.g.
1. The guests have come before he
starts to sing.
2. They will have reached there before
I go.
h) If the subordinate clause is being introduced by the
conjunction ‘after’ , the present perfect of main
clause is followed by past indefinite . Past perfect
and future perfect are also followed by past
indefinite, e.g.,
1. She has started to write after he
2. Ram will have done his work after
they helped him.
i) The conjunction ‘ as if ’ and ‘as though’ always
take ‘were’ in the subordinate clause, whatever the
tense of the main clause , e.g.,
1. She talks as if she were mad.
2. Alok worked as though he were a