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Grades of Tolerance

Standard Tolerance: Various grades of tolerances are defined using the ‘standard tolerance unit’,
(i) in m, which is a function of basic size.
i 0.45 ∛𝐷 0.001D
where, D (mm) is the geometric mean of the lower and upper diameters of a particular diameter
step within which the chosen the diameter D lies. D=√𝒂𝒃
Diameter steps in B.I.S. are: (a-b, where a is above and b is up to of the basic size limits)
1-3, 3-6, 6-10, 10-18, 18-30, 30-50, 50-80, 80-120, 120-180, 180-250, 250-315, 315-400 and 400-
500 mm
It is understood that the tolerances have parabolic relationship with the size of the products. As the
size increases, the tolerance within which a part can be manufactured also increases.
IT01 – 0.3 + 0.008D
IT0 – 0.5 + 0.012 D
IT1 – 0.8 + 0.020D
IT2 to IT4 – the values of tolerance grades are placed geometrically between the tolerance grades
of IT1 and IT5.
IT5 – 7i; IT6 – 10 i; IT7 – 16i; IT8 – 25i; IT9 – 40i; IT10 – 64i; IT11 – 100i; IT12 –160i; IT13 – 250i;
IT14 – 400i; IT15 – 640i; IT16 – 1000i.

FORMULAE FOR FUNDAMENTAL DEVIATION FOR SHAFTS SIZES UP TO 500 mm


UPPER DEVIATION (es) LOWER DEVIATION (ei)
Shaft Designation In Microns (for D in mm) Shaft Designation In microns (for D in mm)
j5 to j8 No formula
= -(265 + 1.32D) for D ≤ 120
;and js ITx1/2
a = – 3.52D for D > 120 =+ 0.6x 3 √ D
= – (140 + 0.852D); for D <160 k4 to k7
;And k for Grade ≤3 and ≥4 =0
b = – 1.82D for D > 160
m = + (T7-IT6)
0.2
= – 52D for D ≤ 40 n = + 5D0.34
c = -(95 + 0.82) for D> 40 P = + IT7 + 0 to 5
cd G.M. of values for c and d = geometric mean of
r values for p and s
0.44
d = – 16D
e = -11D0.41 = IT8 + 1 to 4; for D ≤50
ef G.M. of values for e and f s = + 7T7 to + 0.4D; for D > 50
0.41
f = -5.5D t = + IT7 + 0.63D
fg G.M. of values for f and g u = + IT7 + D
0.34
g = -2.5D V = + IT1 + 1.2525D
X = + IT7 + 1.62D
y = + IT7 + 2D
z = + IT7 + 2.52D
za = IT8 + 3 + 3.152D
zb = + IT9 + 4D
h =0 zc = + IT10 + 4D
GENERAL RULE:
Hole limits are identical with the shaft limits of the
same symbol (Letter and Grade)but disposed on the
other side of the zero line.EI=-es (EI is equal upper
ALL DEVIATIONS EXCEPT THOSE deviation of shaft of the same letter symbol but of
GIVEN BELOW opposite sign.)
IT9 and
N Closer Grades ES=0
J,K.M, Up to Grade SPECIALS RULES:
For Size Above 3mm and N IT8 Inclusive ES= Lower deviation ei of the shaft of the same letter
symbol but one grade finer and of opposite sign
increased by the difference between the tolerances of
P to Up to Grades the two grades in;
For Size Above 3mm ZC 7 inclusive ei+ITx=ES+ITn and ei-ITn= ES-ITx (x=n-1)
Systems of Fit: There are two systems by which a fits can be accomplished –
1. Hole basis system
2. Shaft basis system

Figure: Hole basis system

Figure: Shaft basis system


Type of fit is interference