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In this paper, the oscillatory and non oscillatory behavior of all solutions of the second order neutral delay difference equations of the form mentioned by the equation is dealt with.
. Where nεN(n0), {an},{bn },{cn} are positive sequences and l, m>0.
Examples are provided to illustrate the main results.

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ISSN (P): 2249-6890; ISSN (E): 2249-8001

Vol. 9, Issue 2, Apr 2019, 659-664

© TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.

G. GOMATHI JAWAHAR

Department of Mathematics, Karunya Institute of Technology and Sciences, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India

ABSTRACT

In this paper, the oscillatory and non oscillatory behavior of all solutions of the second order neutral delay

difference equations of the form mentioned by the equation is dealt with.

∆(a n ∆( x n + p n xn−l )) − q n f ( x n−m ) = 0, . Where nεN(n0), {an},{bn },{cn} are positive sequences and l,

m>0.

Original Article

AMS SUBJECT CLASSIFICATION: 39A10.

Received: Feb 07, 2019; Accepted: Feb 27, 2019; Published: Mar 23, 2019; Paper Id.: IJMPERDAPR201966

1. INTRODUCTION

Consider the second order neutral delay difference equation of the form

Where, nεN(n0), {an},{bn },{cn} are positive sequences and l, m>o. ∆ is the forward difference operator

defined by ∆ yn = yn+1 – yn. f is a continuous function such that uf (u) ≠ o for ∀ u ≠ o.

By a Solution of (1.1), we mean a real sequence {xn} which satisfies (1.1) for all n ε N(no). A solution

{xn} of (1.1) said to be oscillatory if the terms {xn} of the sequence are not eventually positive or not eventually

negative. Otherwise, it is called non oscillatory.

In the past few years, there has been an increasing interest in the study of oscillatory and non oscillatory

behavior of all solutions of (1.1). Followings this trend, in this paper, we obtain some sufficient conditions for the

oscillation and non oscillation of all solutions of (1.1). Examples are provided to illustrate the main results.

2. MAIN RESULTS

Theorem 2.1

Let ρn be defined such that ∆ ρn > o and ∆ (an-m ∆ ρn) < o for ∀nεN(n0). Also, assume that

A1 : fnm> fn fm,

660 G. Gomathi Jawahar

∞

u

A2: ∑ < ∞ , for some ε > 0.

u = ε f (u )

n

If lim sup ∑ ρ s + 1 q s f (1 − p s − m ) = ∞

, then every solution of equation (1.1) is oscillatory.

n→∞

s=N 0

Proof: Suppose xn be a non oscillatory solution of (1.1). Without loss of generality we may assume that

xn is eventually positive.

f(zn-m)

∆wn< ρn+1 qn f (1- pn-m) – an ∆ zn {[ρn f(zn+1-m) – ρn+1 f (zn-m)]/ (f (zn-m )2}

∆wn < ρn+1 qn f (1-pn-m) –{an ∆znρn f (zn+1-m)/ (f ( zn-m) 2}+ ρn+1 an ∆zn/f (zn-m)

f ( zn-m)

∑ρ

s = N0

s +1 qs f ( 1- ps-m) < ∞, for n ≥ N0, which contradicts the given condition. Hence every solution of (1.1) is

Impact Factor (JCC): 7.6197 SCOPUS Indexed Journal NAAS Rating: 3.11

Qualitative Analysis on Second Order Neutral Delay Difference Equations 661

oscillatory.

Theorem 2.2

∞

A4: ∑ γq (1- p

s =n

s s-m) < ∞. Suppose, the sequence { vn} is defined as, vn1 = Qn,

∞

vnk + 2 = Qn,+

v

∑{Q v

s =n

s sk +1 / a s −m }

n−m ∞

Then, lim sup( ( ∑1 / a s )(−Qn + ∑ (Qs2 / a s −m ))≤1.

n→∞

s=N0 s=n

Proof

Let xn be a non oscillatory solution of (1.1). Without loss of generality assume xn>0, for n≥N0.

Let zn = xn + pn xn-l

{∆vn. zn-m zn+1-m +an ∆zn ∆zn-m }/zn-m < γ qn (1- pn-m)

n→∞

662 G. Gomathi Jawahar

N ∞ 2

vN - vn ≤ ∑ γ q (1 − p s s −m )−∑

vs

a s −m

(2.5)

S =n s =n

∞ 2

v

Since lim VN exists, ∑

n→∞

s

< ∞

δ = n a s − m

n→∞

∞

Equation(2.5) becomes, - vn < Qn- ∑v

s =n

2

s / a s −m

∞

vn≥ -Qn+ ∑v

s =n

2

s / a s −m , n≥N0.

Since vn ≥ Qn,

∞ ∞ 2

s= N0 s = N0

(2.6)

∞

vn ≥- Qn + ∑Q v

s =n

s s / a s −m , for n≥N0.

n−m

1

z n−m 1 Σ ( )as∆zs n−m

1 n−m

1

Σ

as

Thus = = z N0 + s = No

≥ {a s ∆ z s ∑ } / an =

an∆zn vn an∆zn s= N 0 as s = No as

n−m

1

Hence vn Σ

s = No as

≤1

n−m

1

Since an >0, lim sup vn

n→∞ Σ

s = No as

≤ 1. (2.7)

∞

vn2 =-Qn + ∑Q v

s =n

s s1 / a s −m ,

n−m

1

lim sup vn2

n→∞ Σ

s = No as

≤1 (2.8)

Impact Factor (JCC): 7.6197 SCOPUS Indexed Journal NAAS Rating: 3.11

Qualitative Analysis on Second Order Neutral Delay Difference Equations 663

∞ n−m

1

lim sup ( -Qn+

n→∞

∑ Qs2 / as−m )

s =n

Σ

s = No as

≤ 1. This completes the proof.

Theorem 2.3

Let xn be a non oscillatory solution of (1.1) and zn = xn+ pn xn-l. If {an} is an increasing sequence, then {zn ∆zn} is

eventually negative.

Proof

Without loss of generality, we may assume that xn-m-l > 0 for n≥ No.

Then zn> o.

Equation (1.1) becomes ∆ (an ∆zn) = qn f ( xn-m) < 0 for n≥ No. (2.9)

To prove ∆ zn < 0

Hence zn< 0.

This contradicts the fact that zn >0. Hence ∆zn <0. This completes our proof.

3. EXAMPLES

Example 3.1

All conditions of theorem (2.1) are satisfied. Hence all solutions of (3.1) are oscillatory. one such solution is (-1)n.

Example 3.2

664 G. Gomathi Jawahar

1 1 xn−1

∆( ∆ (xn+ xn-1) ) - = 0, for n>1 (3.2)

n n −1 n(n + 1)(n − 1)

All conditions of theorem (2.2) are satisfied and n is a non-oscillatory solution of (3.2).

∞ n−m

1

Hence, lim sup ( -Qn+

n→∞

∑ Qs2 / as−m )

s =n

Σ

s = No as

≤ 1.

4. CONCLUSIONS

In this paper, by using summation averaging techniques and comparison principle some new oscillation criteria

for second order neutral delay difference equation is obtained. Examples are provided to illustrate the results. Further none

of the results in the papers [3-8] can be applied to Eq. (1.1) to yield any conclusion.

REFERENCES

2. I. Gyori and G. Ladas, ‘Oscillation theory of Delay differential equations with applications’-Clarendon press, oxford(1991).

3. M. K. Grammatikopoulos, G. Ladas and A. Merimardou, Oscillations of second order neutral differential equations, Radovi

Mat.1, 267-274, (1985).

4. S. R Grace and S. R. Lalli, Oscillations of nonlinear second order neutral delay differential equations, Mat.3,77-84,(1987).

5. El-Sheikh, M. M. A., Sallam, R. A., & Nahed, M. M. New criteria for oscillation of second order nonlinear dynamic equations

with damping on time scales. IJRANSS, 3, 79-86.

6. S. R Grace, M. P Chen and B. S Lalli, Oscillation criteria for second order neutral differential equations, sea Bull.

Math.14,91-101, (1990).

7. G. Ladas and Y. G sficas, Oscillations of higher order neutral delay differential equations, Austral. Math. Soc.(seriesB) 27,

502-511,(1986)

8. G. Ladas and Y. G sficas, Oscillations of neutral delay differential equations, canad. Math. Bull. 29, 438-445,(1986).

9. Shaalini, J. V., & Pushpam, A. E. K. Application of RKHEM Method for Solving Delay Differential Equations with Constant

Lags.

10. Ozkan Ocalan, ‘Oscillation of neutral differential equation with positive and negative coefficients’- J. Math, Anal. Appl.

331(2007), pp.644-654.

Impact Factor (JCC): 7.6197 SCOPUS Indexed Journal NAAS Rating: 3.11

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