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Cold War

1947-1991
A Battle of Ideologies
And Changing the balance of power
United States of Union of Soviet
Socialist Republics
VS
America(USA)
(USSR)
What is Cold war?

This term is used to describe the relationship


between America and the Soviet Union 1945 to
1980. Neither side ever fought the other - the
consequences would be too appalling - but they
did ‘fight’ for their beliefs using other states who
fought for their beliefs on their behalf .
The competition
between the
superpowers
influenced the foreign
policies, political
institutions, and
economic systems of
societies in almost
every corner of the
world.
Historical and intellectual paradigms

#Adam smith #Karl Marx n’ Fredric Engles


*Capitalism *Socialism/Communism
Communism was Based What is
on the 1848 publication
'Communist Manifesto'
communism?
by two German political
philosophers, Karl Marx
(1818-1883) and his
close associate Friedrich
Engels (1820-1895)
It’s a economic and
social system in
which all (or nearly
all) property and
resources are
collectively owned by
a classless society
and not by individual
citizens
Capitalists believe that
markets are efficient
and should thus What is Capitalism?
function without
interference, and the
role of the state is to
regulate and protect.

First In 1776 work,


Adam Smith
describe the
essential features of
capitalism and how it
functions in “An
Inquiry into the
Nature and Causes
of the Wealth of
Nations”
Why were these two super powers so distrustful of
the other?
America Soviet Union
Free elections No elections or fixed

Democratic Autocratic / Dictatorship

Capitalist Communist
Everybody helps
‘Survival of the fittest’
everybody
Richest world power Poor economic base

Society controlled by the


Personal freedom
NKVD (secret police)

Freedom of the media Total censorship


War before the War

The Bolsheviks ,1919(1st


socialist movement in
Russia) overthrew the
existing Russian
government. Bolshevik leader
Vladimir Lenin

In December 1922 began


the formation of the Union of
Soviet Socialist Republics
(USSR) under Communist
control.
War before the War
But The capitalist United
States refused to recognize
the Soviet state until 1933.

The seeds of hostility


between the United States
and the USSR began near
the end of World War I.

 America had depicted the


Soviet Union as almost the
devil-incarnate. The Soviet
Union had depict America
likewise.
Friendship!!

The USA and the USSR fought as


allies during World War Two, their
relationship after the war would
be firm and friendly.

This never happened and any


appearance that these two
powers were friendly during the
war is illusory.

Their ‘friendship’ during the


war was simply the result of
having a mutual enemy - Nazi
Germany.
Causes of the Cold War
 The end of World War II and changes in the balance of
power

 Rebuilding Europe
 The Truman Doctrine (1947)
 European Recovery Program
 Marshall Plan, 1947

 Soviet troops occupied Eastern Europe and the Iron


Curtain

 Division of Germany
Major Leaders at the beginning

Joseph Stalin
Russian Leader

The "Big Three" at the Yalta


Conference, Winston Churchill,
Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph
Stalin
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
US President
Causes of cold war

Again The Big three: Winston Churchill, Harry S.


Truman and Joseph Stalin and the Potsdam
Conference (17 July to 2 August 1945)
Leaders of the cold war
Cause…

Stalin Rules Josef Stalin (1878-1953)


was the Dictator leader of
the Soviet Communist Party
from 1922 until his death in
1953.

He led the Soviet Union


through World War II and
believed that his country
made the greatest sacrifices
to defeat Nazi Germany.
Cause…
THE TRUMAN DOCTRINE

Harry S. Truman, 33rd


president of the United
States assumed a combative
stance against what he
considered Soviet
aggression.

His policy was to help war


effected Europe to resist
socialist threats.
Cause…
THE MARSHALL PLAN-The European recovery program

The European recovery


program known as Marshall
Plan was designed
according to the Truman
Doctrine.
George C. Marshall
The plan, which tried to
check the spread of
Communism, called for the
United States to spend
more than $13 billion to aid
war effected European
countries.
Cause… Division of Germany :Occupation zone borders in
Germany as of 21 February 1947 (valid up to 22 Apr 1949).

At the end of World War II, the Allied powers divided conquered Germany into
four zones, each occupied by either the United States, Great Britain, France, or
the Soviet Union (as agreed at the Potsdam Conference). The same was done
with Germany's capital city, Berlin.
Cause…

Eastern Blockade

After the 2nd world war Stalin imply his dominance


on eastern Europe.

And Americans were not really happy with Stalin's


power grab in Eastern Europe and began to take
measures to contain Soviet influence. .

Both of them had there own Justifications……..


BUT

The Cold War was on.


Cause…
Eastern Blockade
Cause… Iron Curtain

British prime minister Winston


Churchill in a speech at
Fulton, Missouri, U.S., on
March 5, 1946, said of the
communist states, “From
Stettin in the Baltic to
Trieste in the Adriatic, an
iron curtain has descended Winston Churchill at Fulton university
across the Continent.”

After that the phrase iron


curtain gained popularity as a
shorthand reference to the
division of Europe as the Cold
War strengthened.
Cause…
Iron Curtain

Dividing Europe Dividing Germany


Cause… THE Battle Has Began

The Berlin Blockade and the airlift (1948-1949)

In 1948 , Soviet Union tried to


limit the ability of France, Great
Britain and the United States over
Berlin and blockade the their
sectors of Berlin, which lay within
Russian-occupied East Germany
Cause…
Berlin Airlift
In June 1948 British and U.S.
occupation authorities organized
a system of air transport, known
as the Berlin airlift, to supply the
Western-occupied sectors of the
city.

The blockade was the first


major clash of the Cold War.

The Soviets lifted their blockade


in May 12, 1949.
Cause…
Berlin Wall (13 August 1961- 1989)

The Berlin Wall was


constructed in 1961 to
keep East Germans
from fleeing their
Communist state.

For 28 years the wall


symbolized tensions
between the Soviet
bloc and the West
until it was torn down
in 1989.
Became the symbol of cold war
THE WORLD is now Divided

1st World 2nd word 3rd world


The USA and the The USSR and the Non-aligned
countries within countries within countries and the
Democratic block Socialist block newly liberated
countries
(eventually these
countries has
become the under
developed and
developing
countries)
Leaders Used Strong Language

 US President Harry  Nikita Khruschcev,


Truman Leader of the Soviet
 “America will contain Party
communism  “History is on our side.
everywhere.” We will bury you.”
The Cold war is heating up

Proxy Wars

Chinese civil war and cold war


•Korean War
•Vietnam War
•Cuban Missile crisis
•Soviet occupation on Afghanistan
•Cold war and the Liberation war of
Bangladesh
Proxy Wars….

Chinese Civil war(1946-1949)

On October 1, 1949,
the People's Republic,
under Mao Zedong,
was proclaimed in
China. This
Communist triumph
was a great shock to
the United States.

Mao Zedong
Proxy Wars….
Korean War(25 June 1950 – 27
July 1953)

After the Second World War,


Korea north of 38th parallel had
been occupied by the Russians,
while south of the 38th parallel by
the Americans. As no agreement
on a common government for the
whole country had been reached,
the Russians established a
communist regime in North
Korea and the Americans a
western-oriented democracy in
South Korea.
Republic of Korea (South Korea), supported by
the United Nations,
Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North
Korea) Supported by Russia
Proxy Wars….
Vietnam war (1 November 1955 - 30April 1975 )

After the 2nd world war the Viet


Minh (rebel group of Vietnam,
leaded by Ho chi Minh) were by
receiving help from Communist
China. The country was meant
to be ruled by Bao Dai who was
supported by the west.

Communist victory in 1975 had


profound ramification for the
United States; it was a setback
to the containment of
communism in Asia.
Proxy Wars….
America Under Threat
Cuban Missile crisis
In 1958 Fidel Castro won a
revolution, took control of
Cuba, and declared that he
was a communist

The US opened its borders to


many Cubans and started an
embargo against many
communist products.

In April 1961 Kennedy sent


1,500 Cuban exiles to the Bay
of Pigs in Cuba to get them to
incite a coup against Castro.
Castro and Khrushchev

Che Guevara

Castro leads the rebels


A system was built that could
launch a nuclear weapon into the
US
But diplomacy saved the crisis

USA needed to keep the missiles


out of Cuba, but if he acted rashly
he could start an all out Nuclear
war……

He decided to order a blockade of


Cuba to keep the missiles from
reaching the area. The Russians
protested, but turned the ships
around

Hotlines where Established


where they could pick up the
phone and call the other directly
before annihilating the other
Proxy Wars….
Afghan-Soviet War(1979-1988)
The Soviet war in Afghanistan was a
war fought between the forces of the
Soviet Union, and Islamic tribes of
Afghanistan who were against the
Communist government set up by the
Soviets. The war began in December
1979, and lasted until February 1989.

The Mujahideens
Cold war and the birth of BANGLADESH

Richard Nixon
Henry Kissinger
The United States supported Pakistan both
politically and materially. And Russia supported
the freedom fighter along with India.

U.S. Nixon sent the aircraft carrier USS Enterprise


to the Bay of Bengal, a move deemed by the
Indians as a nuclear threat.

On 6 and 13 December, the Soviet Navy


dispatched two groups of ships, armed with
nuclear missiles, ; they trailed U.S. Task Force 74
in the Indian Ocean from 18 December until 7
January 1972.
New Alliances and Agencies

•NATO vs Warsaw pact


•CIA vs KGB
•SEATO
•Non Alien movement(NAM)
•OPEC
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

 By 1949 the Cold War


between the United States
and the Union of Soviet
Socialist Republics
(USSR) was underway.

 To contain the USSR and


Communism, the United
States and 11 other
nations entered into a
mutual security agreement
named NATO on April 4,
Warsaw Pact (1955-1991)

The Soviet Union and


seven of its European
satellites sign a treaty
establishing the Warsaw
Pact, a mutual defense
organization that put the
Soviets in command of the
armed forces of the
member states.

The Warsaw Pact


remained intact until 1991
Non Alien movement(NAM)

The Non-Aligned Movement is a


Movement of 115 members
representing the interests and
priorities of developing countries.
The Movement has its origin in the
Asia-Africa Conference held in
Bandung, Indonesia in 1955.
Cold War : An Atomic Intelligence Game

KGB-USSR
CIA-USA KGB, an initialism for Komitet gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti, was the
main security agency for the Soviet Union from 1954 until its collapse in
1991
THE WAR OF
THE
INDUSTRIAL
REVOLUTION:
NEW
TECHNOLOGY
The Arm Race

The Arms Race became the


focus of the Cold War.

After Nuclear bomb America


tested the first Hydrogen (or
thermo-nuclear) bomb in
1952, beating the Russians
in the creation of the "Super
Bomb".
Nuclear Weapons

The USA was the first introducer in 0n July


16, 1945.

The USSR tested its nuclear weapons in


September 23, 1949 at first.

Great Britain possessed it on October 3


,1952.

France on 13th February,1960.

China on 16th October,1964.


Nuclear Bomb- The Symbol of Power
Arm Race between two powers
The Cold War rivalry
between the two nations
focused on attaining firsts
in space exploration, which The space Race
were seen as necessary for
national security and
symbolic of technological
and ideological superiority. The Space Race involved
pioneering efforts to
launch artificial satellites,
sub-orbital and orbital
human spaceflight
around the Earth, and
piloted voyages to the
Moon.
In October, 1957, the Soviet Space Race
Union launched the first Began
satellite named Sputnik —
to be hurled into orbit
around the Earth.

What U.S. political leaders


thought that if the Soviet
Union had rockets powerful
enough to launch a satellite,
they might had rockets
powerful enough to
launch atomic bombs on
the U.S. Sputnik 1
Man on Space-USSR

In 1961 a
Russian An air
force pilot and
cosmonaut, Yuri
Alekseyevich
Gagarin became
the first human in
space on the
historic flight of
Vostok 1. Yuri Gagarin
Man on Space-USA

In 1962 the US put


their first man in
Space, John Glenn.

By 1967 they were


ready to launch the first John Glenn
manned mission of the
U.S. Apollo manned
lunar landing program, But
Apollo 1. Unfortunately,
Tragedy Struck
America Surprised the World

In 1969 America
gave the biggest
surprise by
successful landing of
Apollo 11 on the
moon.

The Apollo 11 crew from left to right:


Neil Armstrong, Commander; Michael
Collins, command module pilot; and ,
Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot.
On July 20, 1969, Commander Neil Armstrong
became the first man on the moon. He said the
historic words, "That's one small step for a man,
one giant leap for mankind."

An American flag
was left on the
moon's surface as a
reminder of the
accomplishment.
Race is Over
By landing on the moon, the United States
effectively "won" the space race that had begun
with Sputnik's launch in 1957.

the Soviets made four failed attempts to launch


a lunar landing craft between 1969 and 1972,
including a launch-pad explosion in July 1969
Beginning of the end

Russia is Declining

Russia started to spend more on space


an arm race, which their socialist
economic system could not handle any
more so the economic growth rate
dropped ,They had to purchase food
from the US.
Time to reform

Mikhail Gorbachev Ronald Reagan


Cold War is Cooling Down
 Gorbachev & Reagan renew
détente
 Arms reduction
 USSR collapsed
End of Cold War
 The United States under President Ronald
Reagan increased diplomatic, military, and
economic pressure on the Soviet Union, which
was already suffering from severe economic
stagnation.

 Gorbachev’s internal reforms had meanwhile


weakened his own Communist Party and
allowed power to shift to Russia and the other
constituent republics of the Soviet Union.
U.S. President Ronald Reagan and Soviet General Secretary Mikhail
Gorbachev signing the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty at the
White House in 1987.
It was to eliminate their Intermediate-Range and Shorter-Range Missiles.
On December 8, 1987, the Intermediate Nuclear
Forces (INF) Treaty was signed

On November 10, 1989, one of the most famous


symbols of the Cold War came down: the Berlin
Wall.

By mid-1990, many of the Soviet republics had


declared their independence.

In late 1991 the Soviet Union collapsed and 15


newly independent nations

On December 8, 1991, the Soviet Union ceased to


exist.
AND The
War IT’s
OVER!