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STOCKHOLM, SWEDEN 2018

Assessment of Seakeeping

Performance

SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES

Parametric Hull Form Variation and Assessment of Seakeeping Performance

AINA PONS ROSER

TRITA TRITA-SCI-GRU 2018:299

Course SD271X, Degree Project in Naval Architecture

Stockholm, Sweden 2018

KTH Royal Institute of Technology

SE-100 44, Stockholm

Sweden

Telephone: +46 8 790 60 00

Front cover illustration: Aina Pons Roser with the help of Shipflow

Abstract

This Master Thesis is about the assessment of the seakeeping performance of different ships subjected

to hull parametric variations. The latest version of the potential flow CFD software Shipflow in

combination with a CAD platform (CAESES) have been used to carry out the evaluations. Two ships

are studied: a simple one that can be mathematically defined, the Wigley hull, and the KVLCC2, a

realistic oil tanker.

The software is validated, comparing it to experimental results and other CFD solvers, showing a good

agreement with the rest of the data; the mesh dependence studies also show only small variations

between the used meshes and finer ones. Then, first the performance in calm water is evaluated for both

ships by looking at the wave resistance. With the results of the original hulls as a reference, they are

parametrically modified in different ways and evaluated as well to see which trends lead to an improved

resistance. With the parametrization applied in the Wigley hull big changes can be appreciated, as the

variation in wave resistance due to different parametric modifications ranges between -6% and 14%.

For the KVLCC2, two different parametrizations are tested. The first one, focusing mainly on the bulb,

produces changes that are generally smaller than for the Wigley hull, especially the ones due to bulb

modifications; and the negative effects over the wave resistance due to variations affecting the general

shape of the hull are larger than the positive effects. The second parametrization mimics the one used

for the Wigley hull, focusing on the general forebody: the results obtained with this approach are very

similar to the ones of the Wigley hull, also reaching wave resistance reductions of about a 6%.

After that, the evaluation is moved to the ships in regular head waves, where the added resistance due

to waves is studied; in a range of wavelengths going from 30% to a 200% of the length of the ship for

the Wigley hull, while the study of the KVLCC2 is focused around the wavelength where the resistance

is higher, at a 120% of the ship’s length and extending to 100% and 140%. Here the differences of the

effect a same parametric variation has over the resistance in calm water and waves are assessed. The

results of the Wigley hull show many interesting facts: some of the parametrically modified designs that

performed worse in calm water have a consistent better behaviour at the wavelengths analysed; while

the best designs in calm water exhibit both large positive and negative added resistance variations

depending on the wavelength observed. The first KVLCC2 parametrization approach presents again

smaller deviations in resistance, frequently even minor than in calm water; despite that, most of the

parametric variations that worked well in calm water display also a reduction of added resistance in

waves. On the other hand, the results obtained with the second parametrization of the KVLCC2 show

the same trends and behaviour as for the Wigley hull.

I

Preface

This Master Thesis is a degree project in Naval Architecture, with course code SD271X at the KTH

Royal Institute of Technology. It has been performed in collaboration with SSPA Sweden AB,

Gothenburg. Its finalization will allow me to graduate in the Nordic Master in Maritime Engineering,

which I have studied for the past two years at KTH and at the Technical University of Denmark, DTU.

I would like to thank SSPA and especially my supervisor, Alex Shiri, for the help and guidance during

these months. Many thanks to my other supervisors too, Hans Liwång at KTH and Poul Andersen at

DTU, for their support and advice. And of course thanks to my family, who despite being far away is

the best one could wish for, and to my friends, both those who have stood with me for some part of these

two years and those who have been at the other side of a screen; life is a greater journey thanks to all of

you.

Aina

II

Contents

1. Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 1

2. Theoretical background ................................................................................................................... 3

2.1. Seakeeping performance ......................................................................................................... 3

2.2. Resistance and added resistance .............................................................................................. 3

2.3. CFD simulation methods ......................................................................................................... 5

2.4. Ship hull form optimization..................................................................................................... 6

2.4.1. Transformation functions ................................................................................................ 7

2.4.2. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)................................................................................ 7

2.4.3. Particle Swarm Without Velocity equation (PSWV) ...................................................... 7

2.4.4. Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP)...................................................................... 7

2.4.5. Arbitrary Shape Deformation (ASD) .............................................................................. 8

2.4.6. Genetic Algorithms (GA) ................................................................................................ 8

2.5. Ship hulls of the study ............................................................................................................. 8

2.5.1. Wigley hull ...................................................................................................................... 9

2.5.2. KVLCC2 ......................................................................................................................... 9

3. Parametrization of hulls................................................................................................................. 11

3.1. Wigley hull ............................................................................................................................ 11

3.2. KVLCC2 ............................................................................................................................... 16

3.2.1. Initial approach .............................................................................................................. 16

3.2.2. Second approach............................................................................................................ 21

4. Software validation........................................................................................................................ 23

4.1. Validation setup ..................................................................................................................... 23

4.2. Validation results and evaluation .......................................................................................... 24

5. Resistance in calm water ............................................................................................................... 27

5.1. Wigley hull ............................................................................................................................ 27

5.1.1. Original Wigley hull ...................................................................................................... 27

5.1.2. Modified Wigley hull designs ....................................................................................... 28

5.2. KVLCC2 ............................................................................................................................... 31

5.2.1. Original KVLCC2 ......................................................................................................... 31

5.2.2. Modified KVLCC2, first approach................................................................................ 32

5.2.3. Modified KVLCC2, second approach ........................................................................... 34

6. Resistance in regular head waves .................................................................................................. 36

6.1. Wigley hull ............................................................................................................................ 36

III

6.1.1. Setup of cases and results .............................................................................................. 36

6.1.2. Mesh dependence study................................................................................................. 39

6.1.3. Discussion of results ...................................................................................................... 42

6.2. KVLCC2 ............................................................................................................................... 45

6.2.1. Setup of simulations and results .................................................................................... 45

6.2.2. Mesh dependence study................................................................................................. 46

6.2.3. Discussion of results ...................................................................................................... 48

7. Summary and conclusions ............................................................................................................. 52

7.1. Encountered difficulties......................................................................................................... 52

7.2. General conclusions .............................................................................................................. 54

8. References ..................................................................................................................................... 57

9. Appendix A ................................................................................................................................... 60

10. Appendix B................................................................................................................................ 64

11. Appendix C................................................................................................................................ 65

IV

List of Figures

Figure 1: Main components of hull resistance ........................................................................................ 4

Figure 2: Radiating waves from the ship induced by vertical oscillation................................................ 4

Figure 3: Body plan and 3D view of the Wigley hull ............................................................................. 9

Figure 4: Body plan and profiles of KVLCC2 [18]............................................................................... 10

Figure 5: Lateral view of Wigley hull and control grid of the forebody surface ................................... 11

Figure 6: Multiplying factors for the High, Medium, Underwater_high, Low and Underwater_low

Wigley hull parameters ......................................................................................................................... 12

Figure 7: Longitudinal multiplying factor for the Wigley hull parametrization ................................... 13

Figure 8: Body plan of the 20 Wigley modified designs. From left to right, on 1st row from 1 to 5; on

2nd row, from 6 to 10; on 3rd row, from 11 to 15; on 4th row, from 16 to 20 ......................................... 15

Figure 9: Bulb of KVLCC2 and line controlling its length and height ................................................. 16

Figure 10: Original and modified hull shape with Bulb_length=-2 on the left, Bulb_length=2 on the

right ....................................................................................................................................................... 17

Figure 11: Original and modified hull shape with Bulb_height=-2 on the left, Bulb_height=2 on the

right ....................................................................................................................................................... 17

Figure 12: Original and modified hull shape with Bulb_position=-1 on the left, Bulb_position=1 on the

right ....................................................................................................................................................... 17

Figure 13: Point controlled surface to define the width of the bulb ...................................................... 18

Figure 14: Surface control grid for the WL_angle parameter ................................................................ 19

Figure 15: Longitudinal multiplying factor for the WL_angle parameter ............................................. 19

Figure 16: Longitudinal multiplying factor for the Flare_angle parameter .......................................... 20

Figure 17: Original and modified hull shape with Flare_angle=-2 on the left, Flare_angle=2 on the

right ....................................................................................................................................................... 20

Figure 18: Point control grid for the second approach of parametrization of the KVLCC2 ................. 21

Figure 19: Body plan of the KVLCC2 modified designs applying the Wigley parametrization. From

left to right, on 1st row, designs 1 and 5; on 2nd row, designs 12 and 14; on 3rd row, design 18 ........... 22

Figure 20: Added wave resistance coefficient against wavelength for experiments (named as EFD, in

blue colours), CFD simulations (in green colours) and own results with Shipflow (in red) ................. 25

Figure 21: Wave pattern of the original Wigley hull in calm water at Fn=0.316.................................. 27

Figure 22: Results of experimental and numerical results of CW at different Froude numbers for the

Wigley hull of Chen and Noblesse [22] ................................................................................................ 28

Figure 23: Wave Resistance and Displacement of the 20 Wigley modified designs and original ........ 30

Figure 24: Modified Wigley design 1, with best wave resistance in calm water .................................. 31

Figure 25: Wave pattern of KVLCC2 in calm water at design speed ................................................... 31

Figure 26: Pressure distribution on the hull with Bulb_height=-2 on the left, Bulb_height=2 on the

right ....................................................................................................................................................... 33

Figure 27: Added wave resistance for designs 1-5 ................................................................................ 37

Figure 28: Added wave resistance for designs 6-10 .............................................................................. 37

Figure 29: Added wave resistance for designs 11-15 ............................................................................ 38

Figure 30: Added wave resistance for designs 16-20 ............................................................................ 38

Figure 31: Wave resistance of the Wigley hull in calm water as a function of the number of panels .. 39

Figure 32: From top to bottom, appearance of meshes of the Wigley hull study in waves with fine

mesh, fine mesh with panel density factor 1.2, fine mesh with panel density factor 1.5 and fine mesh

with panel density factor 2 .................................................................................................................... 40

Figure 33: Wave resistance of the Wigley hull in head regular waves of wavelength 30% of LPP as a

function of the number of panels ........................................................................................................... 41

V

Figure 34: Wave resistance of the Wigley hull in head regular waves of wavelength 120% of LPP as a

function of the number of panels ........................................................................................................... 42

Figure 35: Body plan of design number 9 ............................................................................................. 44

Figure 36: Added wave resistance for the modified KVLCC2 designs applying the second

parametrization ...................................................................................................................................... 46

Figure 37: Wave resistance of the KVLCC2 in calm water as a function of the number of panels ...... 47

Figure 38: Wave resistance of the KVLCC2 in head regular waves of wavelength 120% of LPP as a

function of the number of panels ........................................................................................................... 48

List of Tables

Table 1: Main particulars of the KVLCC2 ship .................................................................................... 10

Table 2: Values given to the parameters of Wigley hull for the generation of 20 new designs ............ 14

Table 3: Values given to the parameters of KVLCC2 to adapt the five previous designs from the

Wigley hull ............................................................................................................................................ 21

Table 4: Settings of validation with KVLCC2 ...................................................................................... 23

Table 5: Characteristics of the waves used in simulations of KVLCC2 to perform validation of

Shipflow ................................................................................................................................................ 23

Table 6: Total wave resistance and added wave resistance for the calm water case and regular head

waves cases at different wavelengths .................................................................................................... 24

Table 7: Results of simulation of the original Wigley hull in calm waves ............................................ 28

Table 8: Displacement, wave resistance coefficient and wave resistance for the 20 modified Wigley

hulls and original ................................................................................................................................... 29

Table 9: Resistance results in calm water of KVLCC2 giving positive and negative values to each

parameter ............................................................................................................................................... 32

Table 10: Calm water wave resistance for the 5 KVLCC2 modified designs and original ................... 34

Table 11: Percentages of variation in wave resistance produced by each modified design for the

Wigley hull and the KVLCC2 ............................................................................................................... 35

Table 12: Cases of regular head waves simulated for the Wigley hull ................................................. 36

Table 13: Results of mesh dependence study of Wigley hull in calm water ......................................... 39

Table 14: Results of mesh dependence study of Wigley hull in selected regular head waves .............. 41

Table 15: Maximum percentage of difference in added resistance due to waves between designs at

studied cases .......................................................................................................................................... 43

Table 16: Added resistance due to waves results in waves of wavelength 120% of LPP of KVLCC2

giving positive and negative values to each parameter ......................................................................... 45

Table 17: Results of mesh dependence study of KVLCC2 in calm water ............................................ 47

Table 18: Results of mesh dependence study of KVLCC2 in regular waves of wavelength 120% of

LPP ........................................................................................................................................................ 48

Table 19: Added resistance due to waves results in waves at selected wavelengths with modified

designs of KVLCC2 .............................................................................................................................. 51

VI

Introduction

1. Introduction

This project addresses the topic of seakeeping performance of ships, studying it through the analysis of

the added resistance due to waves. To assess the performance of ships, their hulls are parametrized and

subjected to modifications, which will have an effect over the resulting wave resistance. The main

objective is then to observe how these parameters and the variations they produce in the hull’s form

affect the resistance.

To carry out this evaluation, the latest version of the CFD software Shipflow is used. It is a fully

nonlinear potential flow solver, able to simulate with accuracy the behaviour of a ship in water. The

simulations with this software are done for calm water conditions and for regular head waves with

different wavelengths and wave heights. Combining the results of these, looking at the difference

between the wave resistance in calm water and in waves, the added resistance due to waves can be

obtained. Calculating it for a wide range of wavelengths makes possible to observe how it changes as a

function of the sea conditions.

In this project the performance of two ships subjected to these parametric hull form modifications is

studied. After introducing in a more detailed way what are the wave resistance and the added

resistance due to waves, the existing types of CFD software are described; the current methods of ship

hull form variation and optimization are shown too, and then the hulls analysed are presented. After

that the hulls are parametrized, combining different techniques and applying different strategies

depending on the type of ship. The parametrization strategy that showed larger improvements in one

of the ships is adapted to the second one; this will allow to evaluate if the parametric changes affect

both ships in the same way.

Before advancing to the assessment of the performance, it is necessary to validate the software against

other data. This is done by taking a ship and a case setup already widely present in the literature

related to the subject. By replicating this setup with Shipflow and verifying that the outcome agrees

with the results of the previous research it can be checked that the software is reliable.

First the ships are simulated in calm water, in a study that includes the original shapes and several hull

form variations. The results of the wave resistance are analysed and evaluated, examining the

influence of each parameter used and the trends that appear. Next come the simulations in waves of all

the original and modified hull forms, performed at specific wavelengths in a selected range; here the

added resistance due to waves is extracted and the results are analysed again. Comparisons are done,

both between different modified designs and between the performance in calm water and in waves.

There is a mesh dependence study too, which evaluates the influence of the number of panels used in

the simulations in calm water and in waves over the final results. It all ends with a summary of the

steps followed along the process, together with discussions about the bigger difficulties encountered

and the conclusions and outcomes of the project.

This report is structured in several chapters, each one dealing with one of these specific parts of the

work done. These chapters are:

Theoretical background: It consists of a brief exposition of the theory behind the project. It

shows the current state of related development and research and introduces the ship hulls to be

used.

Parametrization of hulls: It shows how the parameters of each ship are defined and how

changing them affects the surface of the hull. Different designs produced and the

recommended range of values are also included.

1

Introduction

Software validation: It compares the results produced by the software used in a specific set of

conditions to experimental results and other CFD solvers, in order to evaluate how reliable the

software can be.

Resistance in calm water: It comprises the results of the simulations in calm water for the

original designs and the ones produced by the parametric variations, together with analysis of

the results.

Resistance in regular head waves: It contains the setup of the simulations, the outcomes for all

original and modified designs, and evaluations, comparisons and discussions of the results. It

also includes the mesh dependence studies for the original hulls.

Summary and conclusions: It recapitulates the steps followed during the project, listing the

most important problems encountered and how they have been tackled. It ends summarizing

the main conclusions obtained out of all the thesis.

References: It lists all the papers, publications and other documents that have been consulted

during the project.

Appendix A: It includes all the numerical data obtained from the modified Wigley hull

simulations.

Appendix B: It contains all the numerical results of the Wigley hull mesh dependence study.

Appendix C: It has all the numerical figures of the modified KVLCC2 simulations with the

second parametrization approach.

2

Theoretical background

2. Theoretical background

2.1. Seakeeping performance

Seakeeping is a broad term that covers all the features of a vessel that can be analysed related to its

ability to be safely at sea in all the conditions for which it has been designed, while at the same time

carrying out its intended mission. There could equally be a hundred definitions for the word

performance, depending on to which field this term is applied. In this project, an appropriate one

would be the accomplishment of a given task or mission, measured against known standards and

averages of goals such as accuracy, time or efficiency.

Knowing these two terms separately, then the seakeeping performance of a ship can be assessed by

looking at several aspects: stability, strength, manoeuvrability, endurance, response motions…These

traits of a ship are evaluated under its current conditions (such as sea state, speed, age, displacement,

hull coating state…), which affect the results, and compared to requirements of Class Societies, the

average expected for each kind of ship and conditions, a previous hull design for this vessel or any

other parameter that can act as a reference value. By looking at the results of these comparisons for

one or more aspects, the seakeeping performance can be determined.

The resistance of the ship is one of these aspects that can be evaluated in order to assess the

seakeeping performance. The minimization of the resistance, especially the hull resistance, is

nowadays one of the main aims in ship design; this resistance depends mainly on the speed of the

vessel and the sea and weather conditions. However, many more other parameters and circumstances

also play relevant parts.

A reduction of resistance has associated many advantages that are usually sought after in ship design.

To start, it will mean less discomfort of the crew and danger to the ship structure, which will benefit

both the human and economic aspects of the business. But obviously, the main goal behind the always

present desire of reducing the resistance is to reduce the needed power. A lower resistance means less

power required to propel the ship in the same conditions, thus less fuel will be needed. And requiring

less fuel is always a prime aim for many reasons, the main one being money; and with the fluctuating

oil price market it is beneficial to have as small effects as possible due to sudden rises in oil prices. On

the other hand, there is the environmental impact, as less fuel will mean also less contaminant

emissions; and with many legislations focused on making stricter rules and reducing pollution as much

as possible, paying attention to this issue in the amount of fuel consumption is vital too.

The hull resistance of a ship can be divided in many components, and different divisions can be found

depending on the criteria followed to separate them. In Figure 1 it is possible to see a general division

of the main components of the total resistance of a ship’s hull and the relationships between them.

However, in the part of the wave resistance, a difference must be noted between when the ship is

navigating in calm water or in waves. In calm water, the wave resistance is mostly due to the wake-

making and wave-breaking resistances, and spray generation. In waves, either regular or irregular,

there is an increase in the wave resistance created by the actual waves that the ship is encountering.

This extra resistance is called added wave resistance.

Added wave resistance is generated by the energy supplied by the ship to the water, energy that is

created by its oscillation due to the encountered waves. This energy is mainly transmitted through the

3

Theoretical background

waves radiating from the ship, which are generated through its vertical oscillations as Figure 2 shows.

The effects of viscous damping are so small that they are neglected, meaning that the added resistance

is assumed to be a completely non-viscous phenomenon; this allows to use potential flow theory to

explain it.

In long waves the ship motions are big, and the added resistance is mostly due to this radiation

induced resistance of Figure 2; and it can be calculated directly from the pressure integration.

However, it is different in a situation with short waves. There the ship motions are smaller and the

wave frequencies high, and the biggest contribution to the added resistance is caused by the reflection

of incident waves.

importance to quantify it in short waves, because most of the time a large ship travels in small sea

states. The International Towing Tank Conference (ITTC) standard procedure requires an estimate of

the added resistance in waves for the calculation of sea margins, but it does not specify a particular

method. The latest Ship Performance Index (SPI) proposed by the International Maritime Organization

(IMO) includes the added resistance in waves, but for the prediction of added resistance in short

waves, which involves more complexity, this index requires either model tests or what is called “an

equivalent formula with considerable accuracy”.

4

Theoretical background

There are many methods that have been and still are used to calculate all these different components of

the resistance of a vessel: many formulas and processes existing to calculate them have evolved

through decades (see for example the ITTC formula to calculate friction resistance, dating of 1957),

and model experiments in towing tanks are still widely used and considered to be the most highly

reliable resistance estimations. Lately, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are becoming

more commonly used, as their performance and accuracy keeps improving; CFD is going to be used in

this project to calculate the resistances of a ship and to assess the seakeeping performance.

The types of CFD simulation that are used to simulate a ship hull in water can be basically divided

into two categories: viscous flow solvers and potential flow solvers, each one with its advantages and

disadvantages.

On one hand, viscous flow simulations are commonly done by solving the Reynolds Averaged Navier-

Stokes equations (RANS), either by using the steady or the unsteady approach (URANS). Both

options result in products that are high-fidelity CFD solvers. They employ fine grids and are found to

be using some of the various advanced turbulence models. They give good quantitative predictions,

but at the same time they require advanced techniques and sufficient grid resolution, which leads to

long calculation times. The main advantages are that the simulators capture global and local wave

patterns, including complex breaking waves; and they are also capable of capturing viscous effects at

full scale. Some examples of application of these kind of solvers can be found in Wu et al. (2011) [1],

who apply it to a high speed trimaran in head waves; in Zhang et al. (2018) [2], who use RANS to

optimize hull forms; or in Raven et al. (2008) [3], who study the accuracy of viscous flow simulators

compared to model tests.

On the other hand, potential flow simulations use fully non-linear codes based on Rankine panels, a

method that has been extensively used in ship design since the 1990s. The main advantages of these

solvers lay in that they can capture global wave patterns and predict dynamic trim and sinkage well in

most cases. Also the codes are very fast if they are compared to the viscous flow solvers: with

potential flow, processes for grid generation and computation are fully automated and computational

times are short. Thus, they are faster and more economic than viscous flow solvers. This allows these

to be easily used for optimization problems, as they can solve various hull forms accurately in a

relatively short period. At the same time, they obviously have some disadvantages: the codes can

reach limits of applicability for flows with breaking waves, semi-planning or planning boats, and in

extreme non-linearity. Some typical critical cases where problems may appear are emerging bulbous

bows and immersing transom sterns, which come with an associated complex wave breaking. Also

viscous effects (such as a recirculation zone at the stern or wave-boundary layer interaction) cannot be

modelled correctly, and so they are considerably neglected. Some CFD research with these kind of

solvers can be seen in Choi (2015) [4], who used CFD based on potential flow to optimize the hull of a

container ship; Grigoropoulos and Chalkias (2010) [5] also used it to optimize a ship’s hull in both

calm and rough water; or Yang et al. (2008) [6], who used it to calculate the wave making resistance

of a Wigley ship.

In some cases both methods are partially combined, with the aim to benefit from the best qualities of

each one. For example, it is possible to find simulators where the general situation is solved with

potential flow, while the RANS are used to solve the flow around the stern and in the wake or in

particular problematic areas. This way, the simulation is done relatively fast, while the areas with more

complex wave interaction are solved with a higher precision. An example is seen in Tzabiras and

Kontogiannis (2010) [7], who created a hybrid method to estimate the resistance of low-CB ships.

5

Theoretical background

Traditionally, the simulation of ship motion in water had been carried out assuming calm water

conditions. Situations with waves are discarded, and consequently the added wave resistance they

create is ignored. The latest CFD research and software developed are starting to include waves in

their calculations for resistance, which is a wise choice; depending on the circumstances, added

resistance due to waves can represent a huge percentage of the total ship resistance. Work by Fang and

Chen (2008) [8], Castiglione et al. (2011) [9], Sun et al. (2014) [10], Guo and Steen (2011) [11] or

Kim et al. (2017) [12] are evident examples of this.

As it can be seen, CFD simulations can be used for a wide selection of purposes, especially when

combined with the appropriate methods. It has been mentioned that potential flow CFD solvers are

particularly apt for optimization purposes, as they can reach a solution relatively fast. For the aim of

this project of improving the seakeeping performance and thus, minimizing the resistance of a vessel,

ship hull optimization methods can be used.

The software used to carry out this project is Shipflow, version 6.4, and more concretely the Shipflow

Motions module. Shipflow is a CFD software present worldwide that simulates hull motion in water. It

comprises different solvers, including potential flow and RANS. Shipflow is designed to be very

efficient to simulate standard flows around a hull, and one of its main advantages is the automatic

generation of meshes and grids from the hull shape. Many shapes can be handled, such as monohulls,

multihulls, twin skeg hulls, sailing yachts… Moreover, Shipflow can apply an efficient overlapping

grid technique to use with appendages. All this has lead Shipflow to be one of the world standard CFD

software for ship hydrodynamics over the last twenty years.

In this project, only potential flow theory and its correspondent solver in Shipflow will be used. Fully

nonlinear boundary element method is used to estimate non-viscous added resistance in waves, as well

as sinkage and trim in calm water. This CFD solver is used in combination with the CAESES

framework, which allows to easily parametrize, modify and optimize the surface of the hull.

The ship hull form optimization consists of finding a new shape for the hull, starting from an original

(or also called parent) design, yielding a better result than the first one for one or more of the features

than must be improved (also called the objective functions). These objective functions vary depending

on many aspects. These can be in which sea conditions is the hull being optimized, which changes in

the hull are possible, why it is being optimized… Some objective functions that have already been

used in research are resistance coefficients, vertical motions, resistance in calm water or wave-making

resistance. The added resistance in head waves, or the coefficient associated to it, has been used lately

in some approaches as objective function.

To perform this hull optimization, its form has to be iteratively modified, so it can be evaluated in

every step. There are several methods to create new hull shapes that can be used for optimization

processes, which include more or less complex formulas and procedures. However, the first step is

common to all of them despite the diversity in terms of complexity that can be found. It consists of the

hull surface definition: sometimes this is done by points, sometimes by spline approximated lines, and

it can be parametrized by some of the main features of the hull. Affecting one of these control points

or lines will make a change in the surface in a specific way. Then the optimization method will take

care of modifying the rest of the hull, as a function of this change, in a smooth manner.

When the hull surface is defined, and parametrized when necessary, an optimization algorithm is used.

There exist many of these, which will perform the hull changes in many different ways. These

methods can be mainly divided into two categories: gradient optimization algorithms and global

6

Theoretical background

optimization algorithms. Each one has its characteristic limitations and advantages, which also depend

of how the algorithm itself is. At the same time, many of them have been developed into improved

algorithms, or into hybrid combinations of some of them. This has been done in order to overcome

some of these limitations such as search capability, convergence speed and calculation time. Some of

the more general hull form optimization methods that are being used are the ones explained below.

Being one of the simplest methods, this one actually needs someone that chooses how the hull is going

to be changed. With the surface of an original hull parametrized, and given some range limits for the

values of these parameters, a change of one parameter is done (e.g. the bulb length is reduced, or the

flare angle is increased). Then the surface is remodelled to a new shape similar to the previous one, but

with the changed parameter set to the new value. At the same time, the other parameters stay within

the limits of how they can be changed. Work by Koechert (2007) [13] is an example of application.

Belonging to the global optimization algorithms, when this method is used the full design space is

represented by points or particles, where the chosen objective function is evaluated. The PSO

simulates the social behaviour of a group of individuals by sharing their information during the

exploring of design space. Each particle of the swarm remembers the places visited during the

exploration, and the swarm has its own collective memory to memorize the best location ever visited

by any of the particles. The particles have an adaptable velocity and investigate the design space

analysing their own ﬂying experience, and the one of all the particles of the swarm. This is done by

computing the particle’s velocity vectors with:

Where χ is the speed limit and w is the inertia of the particles. The second and third terms, weighted

with c1 and c2, are the individual and collective contributions, respectively, and r1 and r2 are random

coefﬁcients uniformly distributed in [0, 1]. After calculating these vectors, the position of each particle

is updated according to:

This process is repeated until a determined convergence criteria is matched, yielding the optimum

positions of all particles [14].

There are different attempts to improve the PSO, being the PSWV one of the most relevant and with

best results. These improved algorithms introduce new parameters or conditions, or reduce some steps

to make it more efficient. The PSWV, developed by Tungadio et al. (2016) [15], works by eliminating

the velocity of the particles from the equations. Besides that, PSWV and the other developed versions,

such as the IPSO (Improved Particle Swarm Optimization), function generally like the original

method.

It is an efficient, gradient-based, local optimization algorithm. This method is based in searching for

the best results along the steepest descendent direction from one point. The gradient at the design

variable in which the objective function decreases is found. Although it is quite efficient by itself, it

7

Theoretical background

depends strongly on the initial point, so it is likely to end in a local solution. Because of that, and

having as aim to improve its results, it has been commonly used to develop a hybrid algorithm, by

combining a modified version of the SQP algorithm (a version called the Non-Linear Programming by

Quadratic Lagrangian algorithm, NLPQL) and the algorithm known as the Optimal Latin Hypercube

Design (OptLHD): this last one is used to generate an initial design matrix and then update it through

element exchange. Optimal space filling is obtained by the principle of max-min distance. While the

NLPQL has the advantages of fast convergence and high stability, the OptLHD designs the new

shapes with improved uniformity, space filling and equilibrium [16].

This is a more basic method which simply creates a new similar geometry to the original hull. Here,

the surface is generated by a number of control points. Changing randomly the position of a control

point will regenerate a new, smooth surface. In order to use it for optimization purposes, currently it is

combined with the NLPQL algorithm and the OptLHD. These, as explained above, will work together

to reach a global solution. The study by Zhang et al. (2018) [16] is a good example of the combination

of all these techniques.

Being the most complex global optimization algorithms, the genetic algorithms are part of the

Evolutionary Algorithms, inspired by the biological evolution theory. The idea behind this technique

is to consider a population of individuals; the environmental pressure causes natural selection which

leads to an increase in the fitness of the population. A set of candidate solutions can be randomly

generated; the objective function can be used as a measure of how individuals have performed in the

problem domain (an abstract fitness measure), the lower the better. According to this fitness, some of

the better solutions are selected to seed the next generation through application of recombination and

mutation operators. The recombination (also called crossover) operator is used to generate new

candidate solutions (offspring) from existing ones, taking two or more selected candidates (parents)

from the population pool and exchanging some parts of them to form one or more offspring. Mutation

operators are used to generate one offspring from one parent by changing some parts of the candidate

solution. Applying recombination and mutation operators causes a set of new candidates (the

offspring) competing based on their fitness with the old candidates (the parents) for a place in the next

generation. This procedure can be iterated until a solution with sufficient quality (fitness) is found, or

until a convergence criteria is matched [17].

These algorithms, combined with non-linear programming, are useful to locate global optimum

solutions. They are especially adequate when more than one objective function is taken into account.

In this project, the most complex optimization methods will be overlooked, and a more manageable

approach will be used. Working in a similar way to the transformation functions, the hull surface will

be defined by points, which will be altered as a function of several parameters. These parameters will

be changed manually; and one objective function, the wave resistance, will be studied. However, it

will not be included directly in the optimization procedure, but as a part of post-processing of the

results of the simulations.

There are two original hull forms that are going to be studied in the project: the Wigley hull and the

KVLCC2.

8

Theoretical background

The first ship is the Wigley hull. It is a simple hull mathematically defined by a function, having

length (L), beam (B) and draft (T) defined as parameters, as it can be seen below:

𝐵 2𝑥 2 2𝑧 2

𝑦 = ± [1 − ( ) ] [1 − ( ) ]

2 𝐿 𝑇

It is typical for the Wigley hull to have a slender shape, which is generally accomplished by having a

relationship between length, breadth and draught of L/B=10 and B/T=1.6 (which are the most common

values observed in the literature research); these numbers will result in the shape shown in Figure 3.

The Wigley hull has mainly academic interest due to its simplicity. Though it is rarely used at real

scales, it is commonly found at different model sizes, as well as tested with several Froude numbers. It

is used regularly for tests and validation work of new CFD software as well as for theoretical studies.

It can also be usually seen in the Symposiums on Naval Hydrodynamics. There exist a great number of

experimental results from towing tank tests, some of them even from decades ago, performed by many

different institutions. These give an excellent reference frame when results need to be evaluated.

Moreover, the slenderness of the Wigley hull makes it able to be easily adapted to design multihull

ships, as this type of vessels are usually formed by slender bodies. Its basic design is also an advantage

in order to perform hull optimization studies: there are few parameters to control and the modification

of the ship’s surface can be done without many restrictions or smoothness problems.

2.5.2. KVLCC2

The KVLCC2 hull is an oil tanker typical hull, whose profile and body plan can be observed in Figure

4. Its main particulars are listed in Table 1. It is the second variant (following KVLCC1) of a ship

originally called MOERI tanker, with more U-shaped stern frame-lines.

9

Theoretical background

The original hull form of the KVLCC2 was conceived by the Korean Institute of Ships and Ocean

Engineering (KRISO), as a modern (ca. 1997) tanker ship with bulbous bow. Its purpose was to be

used as a model to test new methods for modelling of flow around the hull, in order to provide data for

both explanation of flow physics and CFD validation. It has been used in numerous workshops since

then, like in the SIMMAN 2008 and 2014 workshops in Copenhagen. The objective of those was to

benchmark the capabilities of different ship manoeuvring simulation methods including systems and

CFD based methods. The KVLCC2 has also been part regularly of the programme in the series of

workshops held alternatively between Gothenburg (2000, 2010) and Tokyo (2005, 2015). These have

the purpose to assess the state of the art in CFD for hydrodynamic applications. Due to the large

number of studies, experiments and research done with this hull, it becomes an easy ship to work with,

for which a lot of data is available.

Table 1: Main particulars of the KVLCC2 ship

Length between perpendiculars, Lpp [m] 320

Length at waterline, Lwl [m] 325.5

Beam at waterline, Bwl [m] 58

Depth, D [m] 30

Draft, T [m] 20.8

Displacement, Δ [m3] 312622

Surface without rudder [m2] 27194

Block coefficient, CB 0.8098

Midship coefficient, CM 0.998

Longitudinal centre of buoyancy, LCB [%] 3.48

Design speed, U [kn] 15.5

Froude number at design speed, Fn 0.142

10

Parametrization of hulls

3. Parametrization of hulls

The wave resistance generated on a ship at a certain speed and conditions depends mostly on the bow

surface: it is the part of the hull that has a bigger interaction with the encountered water and the

upcoming waves. The assumption done in this project is that the studied waves will be regular, head

waves, so with even more reason the focus should be in the front part of the ship. Due to this, both the

parametrization of the Wigley hull and the KVLCC2 will be done only focusing on the forebody. In

this chapter, first the parametrization of the Wigley hull is explained, followed by the KVLCC2. For

the second ship, the two parametrization approaches used are described.

The Wigley hull, with its symmetrical and simple shape, can be easily parametrized with a point

controlled surface. With this design control the original surface of the hull is linked to a grid of points.

The points can be moved along the transversal direction through the input of several numerical values,

corresponding to different parameters.

As only the frontal part of the ship is important, just the half forward part of the hull will be covered

by the point grid. In order to control the hull surface with some flexibility, a sufficient number of

points will have to be distributed along the longitudinal and vertical directions. These requirements

lead to having a 9x9 grid (so 81 total points) as seen in Figure 5.

Figure 5: Lateral view of Wigley hull and control grid of the forebody surface

The control points are numbered from 1 to 9, from the midship to the bow in the longitudinal

direction, and from the baseline to the top in the vertical direction. Then, each one of these points is

defined by a combination of up to five parameters. The parameters used in the entire design of the

Wigley hull control, each one alone, the entrance angle at a certain depth of the hull. As a secondary

effect they change the flare angle too; these variations do not happen only at a restricted depth, but

they affect a wider part of the surface.

The five parameters used are called High, Medium, Low, Underwater_high and Underwater_low.

These names identify the height of the hull where they affect the most. The three main ones are High,

which acts above the water; Medium, which affects the most at the waterline level; and Low, which

controls the general surface under the water. At the same time, Underwater_high and Underwater_low

have their biggest influence just above and below Low, respectively, as more precision and capacity of

shape modification is desired under the water. Each one of the five parameters can be given an

independent value, which will modify significantly the entrance angle at its height of maximum action.

Its effect will also propagate to near points and heights; this will make a smooth change along the

entire surface, while at the same time altering the flare angle.

In order to be able to produce this smooth variation along the vertical direction, the position of each

point of the control grid is defined by a combination of the five parameters. At the same time, they are

multiplied by numerical factors. These factors have the task of attenuating the influence of the

parameters when they act away from their maximum effect height; and still ensuring that the resulting

11

Parametrization of hulls

surface of the parameters combination is feasible. In Figure 6 it is possible to see how these factors are

distributed for each one of the five parameters. This structure is repeated through all the columns of

the grid.

9 9

8 8

7 7

6 6

Point

Point

5 5

4 4

3 3

2 2

1 1

0.0 0.5 1.0 0.0 0.5 1.0

Factor Factor

9 9 9

8 8 8

7 7 7

6 6 6

Point

Point

Point

5 5 5

4 4 4

3 3 3

2 2 2

1 1 1

0.0 0.5 1.0 0.0 0.5 1.0 0.0 0.5 1.0

Factor Factor Factor

Figure 6: Multiplying factors for the High, Medium, Underwater_high, Low and Underwater_low Wigley

hull parameters

It must be noted that the sole application of these parameters and attenuation factors would affect the

entire grid equally, from the midship to the bow. Nevertheless, it is stressed that the focus of the hull

variation should be on the fore part of the ship. The direct use of this parametrization would affect up

12

Parametrization of hulls

to the front 50% of the Wigley hull. In order to put more emphasis in the forward 25% of the ship,

which would comply more with this focusing on the bow requisite, another attenuation parameter is

included; in the longitudinal direction in this occasion, as it can be seen in Figure 7.

Longitudinal factors

1

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

Factor

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Point

The inclusion of this longitudinal factor (which is used in all the rows of the grid) ensures that the

bigger variations in shape are happening in the forward 25% part of the ship. Meanwhile, the effects of

the five parameters previously introduced get attenuated as the surface gets closer to the midship

section. This factor progression guarantees that the transition of the new shape of the hull along the

longitudinal direction will also be smooth, as it already is in the vertical direction.

As an example, the point (5, 5) will have a contribution from all five parameters, multiplied by its

respective factors; it will all be multiplied by the longitudinal factor. This will result in a transversal

displacement of this point defined as (5, 5) = 0.9*(0.6*High + 1*Medium + 0.6*Underwater_high +

0.6*Low + 0.2*Underwater_low). Moreover, it can be noticed that the column corresponding to the

bow and the row corresponding to the baseline have always a value of zero. This is done in order to

avoid the separation of the surfaces of the two halves of the ship; it would cause bigger inaccuracies

and problems in the future simulations.

These parameters can get either positive or negative values. The length of the Wigley hull model used

for this parametrization is of 1 meter, and the maximum breadth is of 0.1 meters; so an acceptable

range of values is between -0.004 and 0.004. Higher or lower numbers could result in too big

deformations, too difficult to smoothen even with the attenuation factors. They would also lead to

strange shapes. The values of the parameters are combined in every point, which also means that the

value of one parameter can add up to another one; this yields bigger deformations than the value of

each parameter independently would suggest. It is also something relevant to remember when values

to define hull new shapes are given. When a positive value is given to a parameter, the entrance angle

at its depth and nearby is increased, while it is reduced with a negative value. A combination of a few

positive values will give the hull a more rounded shape, especially underwater; negative values will

transform it into a sharper hull. Alternating between positive and negative values in the same design

will result into a little more complex shape: it will not be simply rounded or sharp, but the surface area

13

Parametrization of hulls

close to the bow will present soft undulations. These will obviously depend on the value and sign of

the parameters controlling it. When it comes to the flare angle, though it can be affected by all the

parameters, the ones that have a bigger influence over it are Underwater_high, Low and

Underwater_low, the ones under the waterline. Again, giving them a positive value will result in a

bigger flare angle, and a negative will give a smaller angle; a combination of positive and negative

would depend on which value is larger.

Knowing all this, 20 different designs are generated from the original shape of the Wigley hull, using

as diverse combinations of values for its parameters as possible. Special attention is paid to the Low,

Underwater_high and Underwater_low values, focusing on getting several different combinations of

these three: the changes happening under the water are known to have the highest impact in the future

resistance results. At the same time, the new designs are created while the displacement is controlled;

with this parametrization method it is not possible to keep a constant displacement, but the values

given to the parameters can be adapted so it is kept in an acceptable range. Out of the designs

generated, whose parameters definition is on Table 2, the maximum variation in displacement

observed is of 1.14%; a deviation small enough to be accepted. A general overview of the body plan of

these new designs is in Figure 8.

Table 2: Values given to the parameters of Wigley hull for the generation of 20 new designs

1 -0.003 -0.003 -0.003 0.003 0.003

2 -0.003 0 -0.003 0.003 0

3 0 -0.003 0 0 0.003

4 0.003 0.004 -0.002 0 -0.002

5 0.003 0.003 0 -0.003 0.002

6 -0.002 0 0 0.003 -0.002

7 0.001 0.002 -0.003 0.003 -0.003

8 0 -0.002 0.003 -0.003 0.003

9 -0.002 0 0.003 0.003 -0.006

10 -0.003 -0.003 0.002 0.002 0

11 -0.001 -0.003 0.002 0 0.002

12 0 0.001 0.003 0 -0.004

13 -0.001 0 -0.003 0 0.004

14 0.002 0.002 -0.002 -0.003 0.004

15 0.001 0.004 -0.002 -0.001 0

16 0.002 0.003 -0.003 0 0

17 0.002 -0.004 0.003 0 0

18 -0.004 -0.004 0 0.002 0.003

19 0.002 0.003 0 -0.001 -0.002

20 0 0.003 0 0 -0.003

14

Parametrization of hulls

st nd

Figure 8: Body plan of the 20 Wigley modified designs. From left to right, on 1 row from 1 to 5; on 2

rd th

row, from 6 to 10; on 3 row, from 11 to 15; on 4 row, from 16 to 20

15

Parametrization of hulls

3.2. KVLCC2

As an oil tanker, the KVLCC2 has a more complex surface than the Wigley hull, especially in the

forebody. The shape of the bow can change in many different ways, and the design of the bulb is of

big relevance. The research done in hull form optimization of big ships yields works such as the

performed by Choi (2015) [4], Park et al. (2015) [19] or Kim et al. (2016) [14], where the main focus

is put in parametrizing the bulb and to a certain extent, the general shape and entrance angle of the

bow. This is an approach that will be initially applied in this project too; later a second approach will

be introduced, due to the conclusions extracted of the first round of simulations.

In order to parametrize this ship from zero, two methods have been combined. On one hand, there is

the point controlled surface technique, already used for the Wigley hull. This has been applied to

produce the changes that affect to major areas, such as the flare and the entrance angles (which

directly affect the general front shape of the hull) and also the width of the bulb. Overall, this method

is mostly useful for changes that happen mainly in the transversal direction, modifying surfaces.

On the other hand, there are other parameters that are controlled through spline lines. This method is

more useful when concrete parameters need to be defined, such as the bulb height, length or vertical

location. This one does not affect surfaces but positions, creating changes mostly in the longitudinal

and vertical directions.

In total, the parameters used to define the forebody of KVLCC2 are six: Bulb_length, Bulb_height,

Bulb_position, Bulb_width, WL_angle and Flare_angle. The first three affect the ship through spline

lines, while the last three have their effect through point controlled surfaces.

Figure 9: Bulb of KVLCC2 and line controlling its length and height

Bulb_length controls directly, as its name indicates, the total length of the bulb. The shape of the bulb

is linked to a spline line defined by three points that covers its entire length, as it can be seen in Figure

9. The foremost point of this control line depends on the Bulb_length parameter; if a positive value is

given to it, the line will extend and the length of the bulb will increase. A negative value will reduce

the line and make the bulb shorter, as seen in Figure 10.

16

Parametrization of hulls

Figure 10: Original and modified hull shape with Bulb_length=-2 on the left, Bulb_length=2 on the right

Bulb_height works in a similar way to Bulb_length. This parameter is actually controlling the height of

the bulb tip, which is linked to a spline line. The line is defined by three points that have the same

initial positions as the one used for Bulb_length, the same as in Figure 9. In this case the foremost

point is linked to the Bulb_height parameter. A positive value will increase the height of the tip,

modifying the rest of the bulb shape smoothly to fit with the new position. A negative value, on the

other hand, will lower the tip position, as shown in Figure 11.

Figure 11: Original and modified hull shape with Bulb_height=-2 on the left, Bulb_height=2 on the right

Bulb_position moves the entire bulb up and down. This movement is also controlled by a spline line

similar to the used for changing height and length, defined by three points. Again the bulb surface is

linked to the location of the last point of the line. While a positive value of the parameter will put the

bulb higher, a negative value will make it go lower, like Figure 12 shows.

Figure 12: Original and modified hull shape with Bulb_position=-1 on the left, Bulb_position=1 on the

right

17

Parametrization of hulls

Bulb_width influences, as the name suggests, the width of the bulb. This width is controlled by a point

defined surface, using a grid of 4x4 points as seen in Figure 13. This surface needs to be smaller than

the actual bulb, otherwise problems with the simulations and unreasonable results will appear; also,

when the bulb moves up and down or becomes shorter, a too big grid would lead to unfeasible shapes.

Here the transversal displacement of the four inner points is controlled by the Bulb_width parameter;

the others will not move. It must be noted that instead of making the entire bulb thinner or thicker, this

parameter controls the width at the central area: a positive value will increase it, making the bulb more

rounded transversally, while a negative value will make it more flat in this plane.

Figure 13: Point controlled surface to define the width of the bulb

WL_angle affects the shape of the hull turning it into a more U or V type of ship, depending on the

value given. It has the maximum effect at the waterline level. This parameter controls the surface

through a grid of points of 7x3, which cover the forward 25% of the hull except for the bulb as seen in

Figure 14. WL_angle only affects the transversal displacement of the points in the central row (which

coincides with the waterline). It also needs to be multiplied by attenuation factors, which will make the

change smooth. The values of these factors, following the style of the ones used for the Wigley hull,

are represented in Figure 15. Again, it must be noted that the displacement at the bow point must be

zero in order to prevent simulation problems. It is a big ship and the control points have a considerable

space between them, so there is no need to have so many attenuation factors to ensure that the shape

change is feasible; the big distances attenuate it anyways. Also, the lower row must be slightly above

the baseline. It has been observed that having it at the depth of the baseline creates calculation

problems too.

18

Parametrization of hulls

Giving a positive value to the WL_angle parameter will make the forebody of the ship more rounded,

or to take a shape more similar to a U type hull. Conversely, a negative value will turn it into a V type

hull, with sharper forms.

1

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

Factor

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Point

The last parameter used is Flare_angle. This one, as its name suggests, will affect the front area of the

ship focusing on the flare. This is done through another point controlled surface, formed by a point

grid of 8x3 similar to the one used to parametrize the hull as function of the WL_angle. Each row has

the same vertical position and the starting and ending lengths of the surface are the same, but the

spacing between the control points in the longitudinal direction is smaller.

In order to be able to change the hull affecting the angle, the Flare_angle parameter is applied in the

middle and top rows. The middle row is multiplied by a factor of 0.5, which gives the control surface a

certain inclination that will affect in a similar way the hull shape. One more time, a series of factors

multiplying the parameter must be applied to ensure the gradual change through the length of the ship,

as it is reflected in Figure 16. A positive value of the parameter will increase this angle, affecting the

surface through all the heights; on the other hand, a negative value will decrease the angle, as seen in

Figure 17.

19

Parametrization of hulls

1

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

Factor

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Point

Figure 17: Original and modified hull shape with Flare_angle=-2 on the left, Flare_angle=2 on the right

The range of values that is acceptable for each parameter varies from one to another. The

parametrization of KVLCC2 is done with real dimensions, so it must be taken into account that the

units used are meters, and that the length and breadth of the ship are of 320 and 58 meters,

respectively.

Bulb_length and Bulb_height have a wide range, which can safely go from -2 to 2 or even higher

positive values without compromising the design. When it comes to Bulb_position the range should be

reduced to -1 to 1. The surface transition between the bulb group and the rest of the hull gets worse the

bigger the value is; beyond these it starts not being smooth enough to guarantee a good quality of the

produced design. For Bulb_width, the same range from -1 to 1 applies, and it would be recommended

to reduce it even more if other bulb parameters are changed at the same time (especially if they

involve reducing the length of the bulb or increasing the height: the control surface could get too

deviated from the area where it is supposed to act). It is acting along the transversal direction of a

relatively thin element, so too big values could deform the shape of the bulb to unfeasible results.

20

Parametrization of hulls

WL_angle works better with a range going from -2 to 2. Higher values affect negatively the upper part

of the hull, yielding some unrealistic shapes. Finally, Flare_angle is the one with a wider range, as it

could go from -3 to 3 safely without causing too many problems to the resulting design. Nevertheless,

giving big values to this parameter has a larger effect over the displacement of the ship than any other.

If it is wanted to keep the displacement between a certain range, these values should be chosen

carefully too.

The second parametrization approach consists of applying the parametrization strategy initially used

for the Wigley hull. This is done due to conclusions that will be extracted and duly explained in later

stages of the project. The parametrization of the Wigley hull can be replicated in the KVLCC2 easily,

but it requires some adaptations.

To begin with this approach, the same control grid of 9x9 points is used to parametrize the hull of

KVLCC2, covering the 50% front surface of the ship (excluding the bulb), as seen in Figure 18. The

same five parameters of the Wigley hull High, Medium, Low, Underwater_high and Underwater_low

are used. They work and are combined as already explained in section 3.1. The attenuation factors

used for the Wigley hull are introduced here too to make the changes smoother along the hull.

Figure 18: Point control grid for the second approach of parametrization of the KVLCC2

Then five representative designs of the ones created from the Wigley hull are chosen to be copied for

the KVLCC2. The selected designs are seen in Table 3: Values given to the parameters of KVLCC2 to

adapt the five previous designs from the Wigley hullTable 3¡Error! No se encuentra el origen de la

referencia., together with the values given to the parameters to make them equivalent to the Wigley

hull versions.

Table 3: Values given to the parameters of KVLCC2 to adapt the five previous designs from the Wigley

hull

1 -1.74 -1.74 -1.74 1.74 1.74

5 1.74 1.74 0 -1.74 1.16

12 0 0.58 1.74 0 -2.32

14 1.16 1.16 -1.16 -1.74 2.32

18 -2.32 -2.32 0 1.16 1.74

The values given to these designs are different from the ones given with the Wigley hull, and that is

because the models used have different sizes. Giving the Wigley hull parameters values in a range of

0.001-0.006 meant a transversal variation of 2-12%. In order to maintain these percentages constant,

21

Parametrization of hulls

the values given for the KVLCC2 must be in the range of 0.58-3.48. Doing this, it will result in the

hull forms seen in Figure 19.

Figure 19: Body plan of the KVLCC2 modified designs applying the Wigley parametrization. From left to

st nd rd

right, on 1 row, designs 1 and 5; on 2 row, designs 12 and 14; on 3 row, design 18

It must be noted that these parametric variations affect more the hull than the initial parametrization

approach. They change the surface in different ways depending on the height instead of modifying the

hull as a whole. This results in more complex shapes, where some of them might be uncommon or

difficult to build.

22

Software validation

4. Software validation

Like any other new CFD software or version, a validation test of the software is needed to ensure that

the results obtained will be accurate enough to be acceptable. This validation needs to be carried out

recreating similar conditions to the ones that will be simulated later, so calm water and regular head

waves situations are studied; this will confirm if the software works correctly for the purposes of the

project.

To perform the validation, the KVLCC2 ship is used as the object of study. Tests are performed with

the settings shown in Table 4; besides these, it should be mentioned that the water is fresh and the

surge of the ship is fixed, while the other degrees of freedom are let free. A fine mesh is used, with a

total number of panels of 35,405.

Table 4: Settings of validation with KVLCC2

[kn] number number [m/s] [ºC]

15.5 0.142 68 0.9665 17

An initial test in calm water is carried out first. Later simulations of head regular 5 th order Stokes

waves with wavelengths in a range going from 30% to 200% of the length of the ship are done, as seen

in Table 5. The most important results of these simulations will be the wave resistances in each case.

Table 5: Characteristics of the waves used in simulations of KVLCC2 to perform validation of Shipflow

λ/L Steepness λ [m] H [m] λ [m] H½ [m]

H/λ Full scale Full scale Model scale Model scale

0.3 1/50 96 1.92 1.412 0.014

0.5 1/50 160 3.2 2.353 0.024

0.7 1/50 224 4.48 3.294 0.033

0.9 1/50 288 5.76 4.235 0.042

1 1/100 320 3.20 4.706 0.024

1.2 1/100 384 3.84 5.647 0.028

1.4 1/100 448 4.48 6.588 0.033

1.6 1/100 512 5.12 7.529 0.038

2 1/100 640 6.40 9.412 0.047

As the KVLCC2 is a ship commonly used for benchmarking of CFD software, there is abundant

research about it. Many authors have performed towing tank tests in different sets of wavelengths;

while others have developed CFD software able to predict quite correctly the behaviour of a ship in

these situations.

23

Software validation

The results obtained with the Shipflow simulations are compared to some of these studies, which

include both experimental and CFD results. In the experimental part, there are included the results of

experiments performed in towing tanks by Guo and Steen (2011), Lee et al. (2013), Sadat-Hosseini et

al. (2013) and by the Osaka University (2010) [11][12][20]. There are as well results of CFD

simulations, carried out using different software. Guo et al. (2011) used a software based on RANS;

Kim et al. (2017) used a potential flow CFD solver; and Sadat-Hosseini et al. (2013) developed a CFD

in-house code based on URANS [21][12].

In these papers, the added resistance due to waves of the KVLCC2 is studied at some velocities, being

the most relevant the design speed with Froude number of 0.142. Their results show the added wave

resistance coefficient, CAW, depending on the wavelength, λ. At the same time the wavelength is made

non-dimensional, and it is presented as a function of the length of KVLCC2; in papers where the focus

is on short wavelengths it is represented as L/λ, while when the general spectrum is studied it is more

common to find it as λ/L. As in this project a wide range of wavelengths is considered, this last

approach will be adopted.

Shipflow Motions gives as a result in simulations in regular head waves the mean total wave

resistance, RW. From this the added wave resistance, RAW, can be extracted just by subtracting the

wave resistance in calm water, which the initial simulation yields to be 1.473 N. For the cases of

waves simulated, this results in the added wave resistances that are presented in Table 6.

Table 6: Total wave resistance and added wave resistance for the calm water case and regular head

waves cases at different wavelengths

λ/L Total wave resistance, RW [N] Added wave resistance, RAW [N]

0 1.473 —

0.3 2.151 0.678

0.5 3.568 2.096

0.7 5.792 4.319

0.9 13.413 11.941

1.0 6.811 5.338

1.2 10.097 8.624

1.4 8.429 6.956

1.6 5.410 3.937

2.0 3.530 2.057

Knowing the added wave resistance, its coefficient is obtained by applying the formula:

𝑅𝐴𝑊

𝐶𝐴𝑊 =

𝜌𝑔𝐴2 𝐵2

𝐿

Where ρ is the fresh water density at 17 degrees, taken as 998.74 kg/m3; g is the gravity, 9.81 m/s2; A

is the wave amplitude at model scale; B and L are the breadth and the length between perpendiculars

of the ship also at model scale, taken as 0.853 m and 4.702 m, respectively.

With these conversions applied, the actual comparison of all the experimental and computational

results provided by the papers and the obtained with Shipflow Motions can be observed in Figure 20.

24

Software validation

It can be noticed that even among the experiments in towing tanks conducted by different research

groups there are significant differences. These could be explained due to the different experimental

setups, models used or the characteristics of the towing tanks, as the experiments were carried out in

many locations.

8

5

CAW

0

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0

λ/L

EFD Guo and Steen, 2011 CFD Guo et al., 2011

EFD Lee et al., 2013 CFD Kim et al., 2017

EFD Sadat-Hosseini et al., 2013 CFD Sadat-Hosseini et al., 2013

EFD Osaka University, 2010 CFD ShipFlow

Figure 20: Added wave resistance coefficient against wavelength for experiments (named as EFD, in blue

colours), CFD simulations (in green colours) and own results with Shipflow (in red)

As it can be observed in the plot, the results obtained with Shipflow follow the general trend marked

by all other experiments and software. They fit well with both computational and experimental results.

In the lower wavelengths, Shipflow predicts a resistance smaller than the measured in the experiments;

a value possibly influenced by the wave-breaking resistance around the bow, neglected in potential

flow calculations and significant when compared to the total resistance with short waves. As the

wavelength increases the added resistance predicted by Shipflow grows closer to the rest of results,

being in the range of results obtained in the different experiments.

It is also possible to notice that Shipflow is at least as accurate as the other CFD solvers presented. It is

even closer at many evaluation points to the experimental results than the other CFD calculations; for

medium wavelengths the fitting with the experimental results by Guo and Steen is good. For the

higher wavelengths Shipflow fits better than any other CFD solution with the experimental resistances

of Sadat-Hosseini et al. and Osaka University. If Shipflow is compared to the other developed

software, it is seen that the pattern they all follow is similar. Although at low wavelengths the results

25

Software validation

are more variable, showing how difficult it is to predict the added resistance in this area, the maximum

resistance for all of them is around the wavelength of 1.2 times the length of KVLCC2. Actually, at

this exact wavelength the added resistance coefficient given by Shipflow is close to the one predicted

by the solver of Sadat-Hosseini et al., despite it being based on viscous flow.

All in all, it can be concluded that Shipflow is a useful tool to estimate the resistance of a ship in the

sea. It has proven to be particularly good in the studied case, analysing the added wave resistance in

regular head waves. The curve of the added wave resistance coefficient as a function of the

wavelength follows the pattern signalled by experiments performed in different researches. Also, at

several specific wavelengths where this resistance is evaluated Shipflow gives a coefficient close to, at

least, one of the experimental results. In many occasions, Shipflow also shows to be even more

accurate than the other CFD options it is compared to. All these observations lead to determine that the

results obtained with Shipflow are reliable when it comes to analyse the performance of a ship in

waves.

26

Resistance in calm water

In order to evaluate the seakeeping performance of a ship in waves, first it is essential to observe its

behaviour in calm water. Due to this, in this chapter the wave resistance in calm water will be obtained

for the two ships and all their derived designs. First comes the Wigley hull, due to its simplicity, and

the KVLCC2 is second. Both follow the same evaluation structure, presenting initially the original

results followed by the outcome of the modified designs and a discussion of the influence of

parameters in the final wave resistance. For the KVLCC2, the modified designs with the initial

parametrization will be presented first, followed by the outcome of applying the Wigley

parametrization and modifications.

The Wigley hull, being a ship shape generally used for academic purposes, benchmarking and

evaluation of software, does not have a defined design speed and a real life size like the KVLCC2 has.

Due to that, selecting the Froude number at which the simulations will be carried out is a part of the

project too.

On one hand, the research found studying the performance of the Wigley hull uses a wide range of

Froude numbers. These go approximately from 0.15 to 0.5, paying more attention to the range

between 0.2 and 0.4. Following these papers, many values inside this range could be chosen and there

would still be enough data to compare the results to. On the other hand, the software used to perform

the simulations comes along with a variety of tutorials and examples of different ships and conditions;

these files have been tested and proved to work correctly. Among all these examples there is one

featuring the Wigley hull, in which a Froude number of 0.316 is used. This Froude number proposed

by Shipflow in its example falls in the range used in the mentioned papers. Taking everything into

account, the Froude number chosen for the rest of the Wigley hull study is 0.316.

At the same time, the mentioned example of Shipflow with of the Wigley hull suggests using a

Reynolds number of 107. As the software used is a potential flow solver and the Reynolds number is

related to the viscous flow, this number does not really affect the wave resistance result. However, it

will do define the length of the Wigley hull model used in the simulations.

The simulation of the original Wigley hull in calm water is done with Froude and Reynolds numbers

according to section 5.1. A fine mesh resulting in 51,981 panels is used, and the fluid is set to be fresh

water at 17 degrees Celsius; the surge is fixed as well. This gives the wave pattern seen in Figure 21,

while the resultant main dimensions of the Wigley at model size and the numerical results can be

observed in Table 7.

Figure 21: Wave pattern of the original Wigley hull in calm water at Fn=0.316

27

Resistance in calm water

Model Model Model

displacement speed resistance resistance

length [m] breadth [m] depth [m]

[kg] [m/s] [N] coefficient

4.924 0.492 0.308 330.84 2.20 16.146 1.86*10-3

It is good to double check this calm water result with the research done by Chen and Noblesse (1983)

[22]. This document contains a huge number of data of both experiments and theoretical predictions of

wave resistance for the Wigley hull. Their results yield that for a Froude number of 0.313, close to the

one used for this project, the average wave resistance coefficient, CW, of the numerical predictions is

of 1.72*10-3. At the same time, the average of the experimental tests is of 1.7*10-3, with a range of

results that goes from 1.4*10-3 to 1.9*10-3, as it can be seen in Figure 22. The CW that Shipflow gives

for almost the same Froude falls into this range. This confirms again that it is a valid result and that the

software has an adequate accuracy for this project, also when it comes to working with the Wigley

hull.

Figure 22: Results of experimental and numerical results of CW at different Froude numbers for the Wigley

hull of Chen and Noblesse [22]

Once the original hull is tested, it is possible to simulate the parametrically modified hulls designed in

section 3.1. With these simulations, it is seen which combination of parameters leads to a better calm

28

Resistance in calm water

water wave resistance. This is a section with special relevance, as a better performance in calm water

does not necessarily mean a better wave added resistance.

It must be noted that before performing the investigation of the twenty modified designs, the influence

of each one of the five parameters over the wave resistance was tested independently. Positive and

negative values were given to one of them while maintaining the rest unchanged. In these conditions,

the results obtained are logical and straightforward: a negative value for any of the parameters, besides

reducing the entrance angle, will also reduce the displacement of the ship. If only one change happens

in the surface of the hull, and it directly leads to a minor displacement, it will unavoidably reduce the

resistance too. On the other hand, giving a positive value to one parameter will increase the

displacement, and with it the wave resistance will also be larger.

This is what happens when each parameter is tested individually. However, when they are combined

the situation changes, and a bigger displacement is not directly related to a higher wave resistance. The

results of wave resistance in calm water and its coefficient, together with the displacement of the

modified models, for the twenty designs generated can be seen in Table 8. In a more graphical way the

resistance and displacements are presented in Figure 23. There is also included the difference in

percentage of the resistance of each design compared to the original Wigley hull. The results of the

original design are included too to make these comparisons easier.

Table 8: Displacement, wave resistance coefficient and wave resistance for the 20 modified Wigley hulls

and original

1 331.31 1.74 15.156 -6.13

2 331.10 1.80 15.602 -3.37

3 331.05 1.79 15.564 -3.60

4 332.82 2.06 17.964 11.25

5 334.61 2.11 18.404 13.98

6 334.48 2.00 17.402 7.78

7 331.97 1.96 17.046 5.57

8 330.52 1.82 15.756 -2.41

9 332.51 1.97 17.124 6.06

10 333.06 1.86 16.198 0.32

11 332.69 1.87 16.210 0.39

12 331.06 1.94 16.904 4.69

13 331.99 1.84 15.994 -0.94

14 331.39 1.91 16.567 2.61

15 332.44 2.00 17.430 7.95

16 331.97 1.98 17.174 6.36

17 330.79 1.84 15.987 -0.98

18 332.12 1.77 15.369 -4.80

19 331.26 1.99 17.293 7.10

20 330.63 1.93 16.777 3.90

Original 330.84 1.86 16.146 —

29

Resistance in calm water

From these results, it is seen that there are seven designs with a smaller wave resistance in calm water

than the original Wigley hull. A maximum reduction of around a 6% is reached. Five of these have a

bigger displacement than the original while the other two have a slightly smaller one; although these

last two designs are not the ones yielding the best results of these seven. However, the designs that

actually have a significantly higher displacement do have some of the worst resistance results.

Nevertheless, a displacement smaller than the original hull does not ensure a better resistance, as it can

be seen from design 20.

335.0 20.0

334.5 19.5

334.0 19.0

333.5 18.5

Displacement [kg]

333.0 18.0

RW [N]

332.5 17.5

332.0 17.0

331.5 16.5

331.0 16.0

330.5 15.5

330.0 15.0

Design

RW [N] Displacement [kg]

Figure 23: Wave Resistance and Displacement of the 20 Wigley modified designs and original

Analysing the shapes of the designs better than the original some trends can be observed. In general,

these designs have positive values (in a few cases neutral) for their Low and Underwater_low

parameters: this means rounded shapes and big entrance and flare angles under the waterline, and

especially close to the baseline. The opposite features can be observed in the shape above the water:

the parameters High and Medium of the best designs usually take negative values. Only a couple of

them have a neutral value of zero, with just one positive value. This means that the shapes here are

sharp and with small entrance angles, particularly at the waterline level. These tendencies are

represented in Figure 24, depicting the modified design 1, which yields the lowest wave resistance in

calm water of all the studied designs.

The reason behind this difference between the values the best designs have above and under the water

is that rounded shapes below the waterline are the best in order to improve resistance. But if this round

shape is extended to the rest of the hull, if the main dimensions of the ship have to be maintained, it

will mean a substantial increase of the displacement. It is seen that a higher displacement does not

produce directly a worse resistance; even though, reducing this displacement without affecting the

round shape underwater will definitely benefit the resistance. Here is where the upper parameters

intervene, as negative values can accomplish exactly that.

30

Resistance in calm water

In these best designs, the parameter with more changing values is Underwater_high. It takes positive,

negative and zero values almost equitably. This parameter acts as a middle step between the rounded

bottom shapes and the sharp upper ones, taking the most convenient value.

Figure 24: Modified Wigley design 1, with best wave resistance in calm water

Taking a look at the designs worse in resistance than the original also yields some interesting trends. It

is seen that a negative value for the Underwater_low parameter leads unavoidably to bad designs, so

small flare angles are totally not recommended. In these cases the parameters Underwater_high and

Low are both quite variable; so they depend more on the other parameters they are combined with than

just on themselves. The High and Medium parameters here have mostly positive values. The rounded

shapes above water are, as the best designs were suggesting, generally a bad idea if the wave

resistance in calm water is to be improved.

5.2. KVLCC2

For the KVLCC2 the speed and dimensions are defined by design. The evaluation of the original hull

in calm water has already been carried out for the software validation part. The resistance obtained, of

1.473 N at the design speed and with a scale number of 68, has proven to be in agreement with

experimental results and other CFD software. The wave pattern that is created can be seen in Figure

25.

31

Resistance in calm water

When the result with the original model is clear, then it is possible to start evaluating what happens

when the defined parameters are changed. With the KVLCC2 many of the parameters do not affect

that significantly to the displacement, unlike what happens with the Wigley hull; there giving a

negative value to a certain parameter and not altering the others would unavoidably lead to a smaller

displacement and lower resistance. With the KVLCC2 even when changing the parameters that have

the bigger effects on the hull the displacement variation will be relatively small. As an example, giving

the parameter WL_angle a value of ±2 will modify the displacement of the KVLCC2 less than a 0.5%;

the changes it can produce in the wave resistance are significantly bigger. In these conditions, it is the

specific shape of the forebody the one that influences the resistance, more than the weight of the ship.

Due to this, it is possible to evaluate independently each one of the parameters controlling the hull

surface. In Table 9 the resistance results of altering every parameter are seen, both in absolute values

and as a percentage of variation compared to the original KVLCC2. The values given to the

parameters and producing those results are also shown.

Table 9: Resistance results in calm water of KVLCC2 giving positive and negative values to each

parameter

Parameter

RW [N] RW [%] RW [N] RW [%] RW [N] RW [%] RW [N] RW [%]

1.481 0.63 1.478 0.37 Bulb_length 1.474 0.08 1.474 0.09

1.465 -0.46 1.468 -0.34 Bulb_height 1.494 1.46 1.510 2.60

— — 1.450 -1.49 Bulb_position 1.531 3.99 — —

— — 1.498 1.75 Bulb_width 1.498 1.77 — —

1.470 -0.16 1.450 -1.56 WL_angle 1.577 7.09 1.776 20.66

1.400 -4.88 1.445 -1.86 Flare_angle 1.562 6.10 1.682 14.25

It is seen that either giving a positive or negative value to Bulb_length makes the wave resistance

worse for the entire range of values used, from -2 to +2. The variations are small (especially with the

positive values, which make the bulb longer), so they could be considered to be a product of the

margin of error. Despite that, it means that the variations produced by changing this parameter do not

have an influence big enough over the wave resistance to be relevant. It also looks like the current

length of the bulb is close to the optimum. Although the percentages of variation are little, all of them

are positive and not suggesting any possibility of improvement.

The Bulb_height parameter uses the range of values from -2 to +2. The results show that increasing the

height of the tip will increase the wave resistance, while lowering the tip has a small beneficial effect

over it. Although the percentages of change observed are still small, especially when it comes to the

variations that improve the resistance, they are larger than for the Bulb_length. They also show a clear

trend. When it comes to incrementing the resistance it is quite lineal, however the improvements

produced due to the opposite changes are significantly smaller. It can be said that giving this

parameter a positive value will surely increase the resistance, while using negative values will

probably marginally make it better. Figure 26 is given as an example here: it is easy to observe how

this parameter changes the shape of the bulb and the pressure distribution on the surface of the hull,

affecting with that the total wave resistance.

32

Resistance in calm water

Figure 26: Pressure distribution on the hull with Bulb_height=-2 on the left, Bulb_height=2 on the right

When it comes to the Bulb_position, only the value of ±1 is given. Modifying it more could lead to a

surface transition between the bulb and the rest of the hull not smooth enough. It is seen that by

making the value of the parameter negative the resistance is reduced, while positives values make the

resistance higher. Thus, positioning the bulb lower, closer to the bottom, is beneficial in order to

reduce resistance. Bringing it closer to the surface will only increase it.

For the Bulb_width again only values of ±1 are used, as changing the surface of the bulb to a bigger

extent is not feasible. Here the situation of the Bulb_length is repeated, as both increasing and

decreasing the width of the bulb will increment the wave resistance. Moreover, it can be noticed that

the increase in resistance is practically the same when this parameter is given the same value with a

positive or a negative sign. It indicates that the original width of the bulb is close to the ideal design.

WL_angle uses the full range of values, as the general forebody surface can endure larger changes than

some aspects of the bulb. One of the most striking findings regarding these results is how big the

variation in the resistance is, depending on if the parameter is increased or decreased. Giving it

positive values will increase the resistance up to a 20%, while values with a negative sign will not

improve the wave resistance beyond a 2%. The possible improvement obtained is in the order of the

rest of parameters, but on the other hand the consequences of modifying the form in wrongly are more

relevant. The ship already has a marked U-shape, so the conclusion is that making it even more

rounded would only have a harmful effect. Making it more V-shaped would have a small (positive)

impact; it is seen that even giving this parameter a value of -2 has a smaller influence than using a

value of -1, so an adequate shape change should not be very big either.

Flare_angle also uses the values ranging from -2 to +2, and it shows similar results to WL_angle.

Using positive values, increasing the angle, will have a bad, big effect over the wave resistance, while

using negative values will have smaller, good effects. Nonetheless, changing this parameter with the

value of -2 results in the larger resistance improvement of all the analysed. It reaches almost a 5%

wave resistance reduction. But like for the WL_angle, even this variation is small compared to the

negative effects of changing the shape in the incorrect way. As a conclusion, making the flare angle

sharper would reduce the resistance, and it would be the parameter having the most substantial effect

over the wave resistance.

All in all, some conclusions can be learnt from the analysis of KVLCC2 in calm water. First, that the

parameters controlling the general shape features of the hull are the ones that produce bigger variations

in the wave resistance, more important than changing the bulb. The variations observed when

changing the parameters seem to indicate that the shape of KVLCC2 is already quite optimized for

33

Resistance in calm water

calm water; that is because in general the positive effects in resistance obtained are significantly

smaller than the negative effects. Another detail sustaining this idea is the fact that changing either the

length or the width of the bulb will always lead to a worse resistance.

The small improvements that result in a better wave resistance consist mainly of reducing the flare

angle. Changing the entrance angle at the waterline, making the ship slightly more V-shaped there,

also works towards a beneficial contribution; this aligns with the results obtained with the Wigley hull,

where the shape of the hull turned sharper at the waterline. The effects of changes in the bulb do not

have a point of comparison in the Wigley hull; and it is seen that the only variations that seem to have

a good influence are lowering both the position of the tip and the general vertical position of the bulb.

Combining all these parameters and giving them the values leading to better results independently, it

could be possible then to obtain a hull better in all the features that show room for improvement. It

must be also noted that for many of the parameters, the limit of optimization is set by the designer, and

by the choice of what is the maximum a parameter can be changed: a bulb with a tip many meters

below the original could yield a good resistance result, but it would not be that easy to build, practical

for other purposes or even feasible. Or maybe reducing the flare to five times the original would

improve the resistance; but it would also probably produce a shape that would make the hull not look

like a real ship at all.

Finally, it must be noted how small the resulting variations for most of the parametric changes done

are. For thirteen out of the twenty modifications done the variation is under a 2%, and for most of the

other ones they are not much higher. Due to this, the results obtained only can be trusted to a certain

extent, as they could easily be due to the margin of error of the simulations. What can be completely

trusted is that increasing the flare angle and making the ship even more U-shaped (as the original

KVLCC2 shape has already a clear U shape) would increase the resistance severely; and the effect

would be bigger than applying the opposite changes to reduce the resistance.

In section 5.2.2, the results produced by the parametric changes of the initial approach used with

KVLCC2 are compared to the results obtained with the parametrically modified designs of the Wigley

hull. Doing this, it is seen that the improvements accomplished with this last parametrization can be

higher than the ones produced by the parametric variations of the KVLCC2. Due to this, it is decided

to reproduce the parametrization of Wigley hull in the KVLCC2; and the sets of parameters that were

defining some of the designs of the Wigley hull are adapted to the KVLCC2. This allows to replicate

the same parametric modifications; and to observe if the results will be alike for both ships. Five

designs are chosen, representing different results in calm water (and also in waves) for the Wigley

hull. They are initially simulated in calm water; the rest of the settings are kept as in previous

computations. The results of wave resistance obtained for the modified designs are seen in Table 10.

Table 10: Calm water wave resistance for the 5 KVLCC2 modified designs and original

1 1.373 -6.70

5 1.680 14.13

12 1.554 5.55

14 1.581 7.38

18 1.399 -4.95

Original 1.473 —

34

Resistance in calm water

From this table it can be observed that the changes in resistance produced are generally larger than

with the initial KVLCC2 parametrization. It is especially visible when it comes to the improvements:

with the original parametrization the biggest resistance reduction was of less than a 5%, while with

design 1 it goes beyond a 6%. At the same time, these variations produced by the parametric changes

can be compared to the resistance variation results obtained with the same designs applied to the

Wigley hull. This comparison is shown in Table 11.

Table 11: Percentages of variation in wave resistance produced by each modified design for the Wigley

hull and the KVLCC2

Design RW variation for the Wigley hull [%] RW variation for the KVLCC2 [%]

1 -6.13 -6.70

5 13.98 14.13

12 4.70 5.55

14 2.61 7.38

18 -4.81 -4.95

It is interesting to notice how similar the percentages are for each design in most of the cases, taking

into account how different the initial shapes and the speeds of the ships are. And despite this, the

parametric modifications that lead to a better performance of the Wigley hull in calm water do the

same for the KVLCC2. The reductions are even larger than with the initial parametrization, which was

simpler and more focused on the bulb. The designs that increased the resistance of the Wigley hull

also make the resistance of the KVLCC2 larger; and the designs that make resistance only a bit worse

are the ones yielding bigger differences between the Wigley hull and the KVLCC2.

35

Resistance in regular head waves

Once the evaluation of results of wave resistance in calm water is done, it provides a starting point and

a reference frame in order to study what happens when these same ships are put in waves. The main

focus will be on the Wigley hull: it is easier and has more room for improvement and optimization

than the KVLCC2. The added resistance due to waves will be analysed for the original Wigley hull

and the modified designs at several specific wavelengths among a wide range; next the KVLCC2 will

be studied around the wavelength were the added resistance proved to be bigger during the software

validation. Despite this difference, the structure of the chapter is similar for both ships. First the cases

simulated will be explained, followed by the presentation of the results (for the KVLCC2, for both

parametrizations); then the performed mesh dependence study is presented; each section will end with

the analysis and discussion of these results, evaluating the influence of the parameters and making

comparisons with the calm water situations.

The study of the performance of the Wigley hull in regular head waves is conducted through a series

of wavelengths similar to the used to validate the software with the KVLCC2. They can be seen in

Table 12, ranging from a 30% to a 200% of the length of the ship. The speed is kept the same as

previously, with Fn=0.316, and the same settings and mesh are used as defined in section 5.1.

Table 12: Cases of regular head waves simulated for the Wigley hull

λ/L Wave Steepness H/λ Model Wave Length λ [m] Model Wave Height H [m]

0.3 1/50 1.477 0.029

0.5 1/50 2.461 0.049

0.7 1/50 3.446 0.069

1 1/100 4.923 0.049

1.2 1/100 5.908 0.059

1.3 1/100 6.401 0.064

1.4 1/100 6.892 0.069

1.6 1/100 7.877 0.079

2 1/100 9.847 0.098

The original Wigley hull and all the modified designs are tested in all these cases, from which the

wave resistance for each design under each condition can be extracted. Finding the difference between

this wave resistance result and the one obtained during the calm water evaluation of every design, it is

possible to extract the added resistance due to waves. Doing this for so many different cases of regular

waves allows to find out around which wavelengths is the added resistance higher and where it is

almost irrelevant; more attention can be paid to the cases where the differences are more significant.

These simulations will result in a set of twenty curves, one for each design (plus one more curve

corresponding to the original Wigley hull), representing the wave added resistance through all the

studied wavelengths, as it can be seen in Figure 27, Figure 28, Figure 29 and Figure 30. The modified

36

Resistance in regular head waves

designs are divided in groups of five, to make the plots clearer; and the original Wigley is included in

all four figures in order to act as a common reference and to make comparisons easier. Each line

representing a design is painted following a colour scheme: the designs that are better than the original

in calm water have green tones, while the designs with orange and red colouring have a bigger wave

resistance in calm water than the original. The full numerical results can be found in Appendix A.

R AW i n %, de s i gns 1 -5

Design 1 Design 2 Design 3 Design 4 Design 5 Original

65

55

45

35

%

25

15

λ/L

R AW i n %, de s i gns 6 -1 0

Design 6 Design 7 Design 8 Design 9 Design 10 Original

65

55

45

35

%

25

15

λ/L

37

Resistance in regular head waves

R AW i n %, de s i gns 11 -1 5

Design 11 Design 12 Design 13 Design 14 Design 15 Original

65

55

45

35

%

25

15

-5

λ/L

R AW i n %, de s i gns 1 6 -2 0

65

55

45

35

%

25

15

-5

λ/L

38

Resistance in regular head waves

All these simulations have been conducted using the default fine mesh setting of Shipflow. For the

Wigley hull, this means running the simulations with 51,981 panels and 52,785 nodes. Using a mesh

already defined as fine presupposes that the results obtained have a good accuracy and are quite loyal

to reality, to the extent of what CFD software can do; however, it is of interest to investigate how big

the changes in the resistance results are when the precision of the mesh varies.

Shipflow includes other two possible default settings for the mesh besides the fine option: these are the

coarse and medium choices. And if that is not enough, it also allows to increase the panel density

beyond the fine mesh by introducing a multiplying factor. By running the same simulations with these

different meshes it is possible to quantify the influence that the number of panels has over the total

wave resistance results.

Starting with the study with the Wigley in calm water, extra simulations are done with the default

coarse and medium meshes. The numerical results obtained of these computations can be observed in

Table 13. In a more graphical approach, the wave resistance as a function of the number of panels can

be seen in Figure 31.

Table 13: Results of mesh dependence study of Wigley hull in calm water

Coarse 12,544 15.884 -1,62

Medium 32,482 16.033 -0,70

Fine 51,981 16.146 —

From these mesh dependence results, it is noticed that the variations among meshes are quite small.

The absolute difference in wave resistance at this model size is of less than 0.3 N among the fine and

the coarse mesh; in percentage that represents barely a 1.6%. The figure shows too that the slope is

reduced in the second sector, so it tends to convergence. The variations in resistance observed for the

parametrically modified designs of the Wigley hull are larger than this. Taking everything into

account, it can be said that the accuracy of the mesh will not interfere with the validity of the results.

16.20

16.15

16.10

16.05

RW [N]

16.00

15.95

15.90

15.85

0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000

Panels

Figure 31: Wave resistance of the Wigley hull in calm water as a function of the number of panels

39

Resistance in regular head waves

In order to focus more on the results of the resistance in waves, the study has been continued at a

couple of representative wavelengths with meshes of higher panel density. To do so, the fine mesh has

been used as a base and then the mentioned multiplying factors have been introduced with values of

1.2, 1.5 and 2. Visually, this results in a progressive refinement of the free surface mesh as seen in

Figure 32.

Figure 32: From top to bottom, appearance of meshes of the Wigley hull study in waves with fine mesh,

fine mesh with panel density factor 1.2, fine mesh with panel density factor 1.5 and fine mesh with panel

density factor 2

The simulations of the original Wigley hull have been run again at the wavelengths of 30% and 120%

of the length of the ship; they have been done using these new refined meshes, plus with the default

coarse and medium meshes. The results are listed in Table 14; percentages of variation are calculated

taking as a reference the results with the fine mesh, as it is the one that has been used in the whole

40

Resistance in regular head waves

project for the rest of computations. Figure 33 and Figure 34 show graphically the evolution of the

wave resistance as the number of panels increase in both wavelengths.

Table 14: Results of mesh dependence study of Wigley hull in selected regular head waves

Deviation Deviation

Mesh Panels wavelength 30% LPP wavelength 120% LPP

[%] [%]

[N] [N]

Coarse 12,544 15.847 -1.48 23.513 -0.78

Medium 32,482 15.879 -1.28 23.596 -0.43

Fine 51,981 16.086 — 23.699 —

Fine x1.2 72,674 16.260 1.07 23.889 0.79

Fine x1.5 110,338 16.328 1.50 24.041 1.44

Fine x2 194,755 16.438 2.18 24.220 2.19

From all these mesh dependence results, it is possible to observe that even increasing almost 4 times

the number of panels, the wave resistance does not change excessively. The deviation of the result

obtained with the default fine mesh and the finest one is of only about a 2.2% for both wavelengths.

Taking into account the computational power needed to run a simulation with almost 200,000 panels,

the accuracy of the fine mesh is good enough for the optimisation purposes of the project. And

especially at the wavelength of 120% of the length of the ship, where the differences between designs

show deviations in resistance of up to an 18%, this variation as a function of the mesh panels is

certainly minor.

16.5

16.4

16.3

16.2

16.1

RW [N]

16.0

15.9

15.8

15.7

15.6

15.5

0 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 120000 140000 160000 180000 200000

Panels

Figure 33: Wave resistance of the Wigley hull in head regular waves of wavelength 30% of LPP as a

function of the number of panels

41

Resistance in regular head waves

24.3

24.2

24.1

24.0

23.9

RW [N]

23.8

23.7

23.6

23.5

23.4

23.3

0 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 120000 140000 160000 180000 200000

Panels

Figure 34: Wave resistance of the Wigley hull in head regular waves of wavelength 120% of LPP as a

function of the number of panels

It is worth mentioning that the lower the number of panels, the lower the total wave resistance is.

Coarser meshes always predict a smaller resistance than the finer ones. This happens not only for the

calm water case and at the depicted wavelengths, but also at the other cases of regular waves; the mesh

dependence study has been conducted for the rest of wavelengths with the default coarse and medium

meshes. They show that the deviations among meshes are similar at all the wavelengths, not only for

the ones in this section. The numerical results of the rest of the cases in waves can be consulted in

Appendix B.

In the plots of section 6.1.1, the added resistance due to waves is presented as a percentage. It indicates

how big this added resistance is compared to the calm water wave resistance of the same design;

mathematically expressed, it is RAW / RW, calm water.

One of the things standing out in these results is that at the lower wavelengths the added wave

resistance appears to be sometimes negative, which does not seem to be logical. Nonetheless, this

already appears in the research performed by Sun et al. (2014) [10]. He studied the added wave

resistance of the Wigley hull with different Froude numbers, wave amplitudes and wavelengths, and

the added resistance is seen to be negative under certain circumstances. So this is not a new result, but

a characteristic feature of the Wigley hull at determined conditions.

Another striking observation comes when it is seen that the higher value of added resistance due to

waves is not produced at the same wavelength for all designs. For the KVLCC2, the larger added

resistance was found when the wavelength was 1.2 times the length of the ship; the peak of added

wave resistance for the original Wigley hull is when the wavelength equals 1.3 times the length of the

Wigley. For the rest of the Wigley modified designs, this higher resistance is found in a wavelength

between 1.2 and 1.4 times the length of the ship. This is an important finding, because it shows how

wrong the conclusions could be if, following the example of KVLCC2, the Wigley hull study was

performed only with a wavelength of a 120% of the length of the ship.

42

Resistance in regular head waves

Looking at the general trends of the results of the Wigley hull added resistance, it is observed that the

lowest and highest wavelengths are of small interest: the differences noted between designs are too

low. In Table 15 it is possible to see these maximum variations at each wavelength in the added

resistance; so for example, at a wavelength that equals 200% of the length of the ship the difference in

this resistance will be of barely 1% among the designs with the best and worst results. This table also

shows how in the middle area the differences start to grow, skyrocketing at a wavelength of 140% of

the ship’s length, reaching a maximum variation of above 30%.

Table 15: Maximum percentage of difference in added resistance due to waves between designs at

studied cases

Wavelength λ

between designs [%]

30% of LPP 1.49

50% of LPP 1.60

70% of LPP 2.02

100% of LPP 5.78

120% of LPP 18.55

130% of LPP 19.17

140% of LPP 30.98

160% of LPP 10.14

200% of LPP 1.04

Seeing these results, the focus is put in the resistance in the wavelengths between 120% and 160% of

the Wigley hull’s length, as in this area the differences are considered important. Then, it is seen that

there are many interesting aspects and features that can be pointed out.

First, the designs that were better than the original Wigley in calm water are observed. These seven

designs (1, 2, 3, 8, 13, 17 and 18) are all better than the original at the wavelength of 120%, and some

of them are even noticeably better, showing an increase of resistance about a 10% lower.

Nevertheless, when the wavelength is increased all these designs turn out to be suddenly worse,

displaying the bigger added wave resistance variations seen in all the results.

Secondly, it can be appreciated that there are four designs that have a better percentage of wave added

resistance than the original for all the relevant wavelengths: those are designs 5, 6, 9 and 12. What is

interesting about these designs is the fact that all of them have a significantly higher resistance than

the original Wigley in calm water; design number 5 even was the one yielding the larger resistance in

calm water of all the modified hulls. When looking at the characteristic features of these designs, some

common traits can be appreciated: they have at least one parameter out of Low and Underwater_low

taking a negative value; this means that the shape near the baseline is sharp and the flare angle is

small. However, the parameters Underwater_high and Medium take either a neutral or a positive

value, making the ship more rounded especially at the waterline; a trend that is kept until a certain

point in the surface up to one third below it, where the transition between these two clearly different

shapes usually takes place. When it comes to the High parameter it is seen that it takes every possible

value, so there is no specific trend defining it. An example of one of these shapes yielding good added

resistance through all the important wavelengths is seen in Figure 35, where the body plan of design

number 9 is shown.

43

Resistance in regular head waves

The rest of the designs appear to have better added wave resistance than the original at some

wavelengths and worse at some other ones; the seven designs mentioned before as better in calm water

also fall in this category. This is a common result, and it is where routing needs to be taken into

account.

Routing implies that the itinerary that the ship will follow, or at least the areas where it will navigate,

are known beforehand. If this knowledge is provided then it is also possible to find out how is the

profile of the sea conditions in these areas, so the most common wavelengths and wave amplitudes are

known. This way, the form of the hull can be optimized for a specific operation.

For example, if the ship will be navigating always in calm water, using a hull with the shape of design

1 would be the best option. If it is known that it will also have to go through relatively small waves,

with a wavelength never exceeding 120% of the ship’s length, then a hull like design 18 would be

even a better option; it presents both good results in calm water and a lower wave added resistance up

to this wavelength. On the other hand, if the ship will have to sail in an area that has commonly rough

sea, with waves of many wavelengths present and especially bigger than a 120% of the length, then a

better choice would be design 6; this one performs well in all wavelengths and also has the lower

peaks of maximum added resistance. In the case that the area of navigation has unknown sea

conditions or very unpredictable ones, then design 12 would be a good compromise solution; it has an

average wave resistance in calm water and a good performance through all wavelengths.

Finally, there could be also the option of carrying out a more exhaustive study, analysing the statistics

of waves and combining that with the results of added wave resistance. Doing so, it could be possible

to calculate in a more specific way the average of reduction of wave resistance of a design for a

detailed sea profile.

The conclusion of all this implies that there are some designs with specific shapes that are better on

average in waves; however, it is not possible to choose an optimum design based only on this

knowledge. The choice depends on many other parameters, mainly concerning the sea conditions of

the route and area where the ship will operate. At the same time, other factors such as the speed or a

44

Resistance in regular head waves

limit in the displacement variation might also play an important role, so choosing the best design is not

an easy task.

6.2. KVLCC2

For the study of the added resistance due to waves of the KVLCC2, the ship and its modified designs

produced by the first parametrization approach are tested in head regular waves. The wavelength is of

a 120% the ship’s length, and the wave amplitude of one hundredth of that value. This wave setting is

the same used in one of the cases of the software validation; to be precise, it corresponds to the case

where the wave added resistance showed the largest for this ship.

The studies with the Wigley hull showed that it is not advisable to analyse the wave added resistance

at just one wavelength; different hull designs might show the maximum resistance value at different

wavelengths. Despite that, it is considered that this is not a concern here; these modifications applied

on the hull surface of KVLCC2 are less severe than the ones of the Wigley hull, and the resulting

variations of the hull are smaller too and do not affect the general forebody shape. However, the

second approach of parametrization produces variations in the hull significantly larger, which may

change the wavelength at which this higher value is produced. Due to this, the simulations in waves of

the second parametrization approach are also carried at the wavelengths of 100% and 140%.

After taking these decisions, the simulations are started; as in the previous sections using the

KVLCC2, the design speed of 15.5 knots is kept, which results in a Fn=0.142. The mesh

configuration, Reynolds number, water temperature and the rest of simulation settings are also kept as

in chapter 4. The result of the original KVLCC2 in waves of wavelength 1.2 times its length is of a

total wave resistance RW=10.097 N, for the model size used. The added resistance due to waves is

obtained subtracting from this the wave resistance in calm water, yielding a result of RAW=8.625 N.

Following the same reasoning, the added wave resistance at the wavelengths of 100% and 140% is

5.339 N and 6.957 N, respectively.

For the first approach of parametrization, each one of the six parameters is tested independently, being

given different values while the others remain unchanged; again the range of values used will be

between ±2 and ±1, as done in calm water in section 5.2.2. In Table 16 are presented the results for all

the cases of modified designs tested in this approach, showing the value given to each parameter and

the added wave resistance obtained for every modification. The resistances are given as absolute

values in Newton and as a percentage compared to the added wave resistance of the original hull.

Table 16: Added resistance due to waves results in waves of wavelength 120% of LPP of KVLCC2 giving

positive and negative values to each parameter

RAW RAW RAW RAW Parameter RAW RAW RAW RAW

[N] [%] [N] [%] [N] [%] [N] [%]

8.490 -1.56 8.567 -0.66 Bulb_length 8.716 1.07 8.801 2.04

8.623 -0.02 8.640 0.18 Bulb_height 8.633 0.10 8.620 -0.05

— — 8.600 -0.28 Bulb_position 8.687 0.73 — —

— — 8.632 0.09 Bulb_width 8.701 0.89 — —

8.305 -3.71 8.473 -1.75 WL_angle 8.814 2.20 8.979 4.12

8.254 -4.30 8.451 -2.01 Flare_angle 8.819 2.26 8.988 4.21

45

Resistance in regular head waves

For the second approach, the same five modified designs used in calm water in section 5.2.3 are

simulated. The focus is still on the wavelength of a 120% of the ship’s length; but some of these

designs applied to the Wigley hull had the higher resistance value at another wavelength. Due to this,

the simulations of the modified KVLCC2 designs are extended to the consecutive wavelengths of

100% and 140% of the length of the ship. This will avoid ignoring the possibility of having the larger

values of added resistance somewhere else and to evaluate accurately these designs. The results of

these simulations can be seen in Figure 36, presented in the same style as the previous Wigley hull

results in section 6.1.1: the percentage of the left axis represents how big is the added resistance due to

waves in relation to the calm water wave resistance of the same design. The colour identification of

designs is also the same used for the Wigley hull plots: green indicates good performance in calm

water, while the red and orange tones point to a worse behaviour in those conditions. The complete

numerical results represented here can be found in Appendix C.

R AW i n % of KV LCC2

Design 1 Design 5 Design 12 Design 14 Design 18 Original

700

600

500

400

%

300

200

100

0

0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

λ/L

Figure 36: Added wave resistance for the modified KVLCC2 designs applying the second parametrization

It is also relevant to point out that the percentages of added resistance compared to the calm water

wave resistance are higher for the KVLCC2 than for the Wigley hull; that happens even with the

shapes as a function of the wavelength being practically the same. This is due to the difference of

speed between the two ships: the KVLCC2 has a Froude number that is approximately half the one of

the Wigley hull, and it is completely a displacement ship. That means a lower resistance in calm water,

so when the wave resistance increases with the waves, the rise is relatively big.

All the KVLCC2 simulations have been performed with the default fine mesh of Shipflow, like for the

Wigley hull. With this ship, using the fine mesh means using a total number of 35,405 panels and

36,270 nodes. In order to examine the accuracy of the results obtained in both calm water and in

46

Resistance in regular head waves

waves, a mesh study has been conducted too for the KVLCC2. The simulations with the original hull

are run again with the default coarse and medium settings for the mesh; moreover, a refined mesh

using a panel density factor of 1.2 has been added too.

The results of this study in calm water are shown in Table 17; the percentages are given in relation to

the wave resistance obtained with the fine mesh, as it is the one that has been used for the rest of the

project. The change in the result of wave resistance as a function of the number of panels of the

simulation is represented graphically in Figure 37.

Table 17: Results of mesh dependence study of KVLCC2 in calm water

Coarse 8,413 1.778 20.78

Medium 22,011 2.157 46.54

Fine 35,405 1.472 —

Fine x1.2 46,599 1.450 -1.47

2.2

2.0

1.8

RW [N]

1.6

1.4

1.2

0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 40000 45000 50000

Panels

Figure 37: Wave resistance of the KVLCC2 in calm water as a function of the number of panels

Looking at the table and plot, it stands out how big the deviations are for the coarse and medium

meshes; especially striking is the deviation presented by the medium mesh, reaching almost a 50%.

However, when the mesh is refined from the fine default version to the one with the increased panel

density, the percentage of variation turns immediately smaller; then it is in the order of what was

observed for the Wigley hull in section 6.1.2. Seeing this, it can be concluded that using some of the

coarser meshes would yield distant, unreliable results for the KVLCC2 in calm water. On the other

hand, improving the quality of the mesh from the used fine to the more refined one would only

produce a not so relevant minor change, while the computational time would definitely increment.

Nevertheless, in regular waves the differences observed among meshes are not that relevant, as the

results in Table 18 show. Here the results of the wave resistance in regular head waves of a

wavelength of 120% of the ship’s length are presented, and it is seen that the percentages of variation

47

Resistance in regular head waves

become smaller, below 3.3% even for the coarser mesh. For the refined mesh, the percentage is in the

same order than the observed previously in the Wigley hull. Finally, Figure 38 shows how the wave

resistance at this wavelength changes with the number of panels; this demonstrates how the slope

between segments gets reduced at the last section, approaching a steadier value.

Table 18: Results of mesh dependence study of KVLCC2 in regular waves of wavelength 120% of LPP

Mesh Panels Wave resistance at wavelength 120% LPP [N] Deviation [%]

Coarse 8,413 10.427 3.27

Medium 22,011 10.393 2.94

Fine 35,405 10.097 —

Fine x1.2 46,599 10.158 0.60

10.45

10.40

10.35

10.30

RW [N]

10.25

10.20

10.15

10.10

10.05

0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 40000 45000 50000

Panels

Figure 38: Wave resistance of the KVLCC2 in head regular waves of wavelength 120% of LPP as a

function of the number of panels

It should be mentioned that unlike in the Wigley hull study, the wave resistance does not continuously

grow (or decrease) as a function of the number of panels; instead, it is more variable and goes up and

down, displaying larger differences and changes of signs of the percentages of deviation. Finally, these

percentages are quite small when the simulations go beyond 30,000 panels, so the accuracy of the fine

mesh used appears to be good. However, this consideration also depends on the variations observed

with the parametrically modified hulls; percentages that are in this order or smaller could not be too

reliable.

Starting with the results of the first parametrization approach, it is seen in section 6.2.1 that giving

Bulb_length a negative value will reduce the added wave resistance; while making the bulb longer will

increase it. It is also possible to appreciate from the percentages of Table 16 that the changes

produced, despite being small, are quite linear in the range used, which eliminates many uncertainties

48

Resistance in regular head waves

concerning the accuracy of these results. The behaviour of this parameter in waves is different from

the calm water situation, where it was seen that neither making the bulb shorter or longer would make

improvements. In this case, shortening the bulb shows a clear tendency of reducing the added wave

resistance, at least up to a certain length; there will presumably be some point where the bulb is too

short to have any positive influence over the ship’s resistance.

However, with the Bulb_height the situation is quite different. It can be appreciated that changing the

value of the parameter to ±1 will result in a larger resistance and giving it a value of ±2 will reduce it;

this does not sound logical. Despite that, it can be observed that the variations produced by this

parameter are small, not even reaching a 0.2%. Therefore it cannot be assured that changing the height

of the tip of the bulb in any direction will have a positive or negative impact over the added wave

resistance. At the same time, this also shows a change from the calm water results; there lowering the

position of the tip of the bulb meant improving the resistance, but here that does not necessarily mean

any positive effect.

The Bulb_position parameter only takes values of ±1, and the percentage of variation of the added

wave resistance that these values yield is approximately in the order of the rest of the bulb parameters.

Giving it a negative result, lowering the overall position of the bulb, will slightly improve the

resistance. Doing the opposite will make it marginally worse. It must be noted that this parameter

behaves in the same way in calm water and in waves, as there giving positive and negative values also

resulted in the same pattern of changes in the resistance. Despite this, the variations observed in waves

are significantly smaller, being just around a fifth of the ones observed in calm water.

For the Bulb_width parameter, using only values of ±1, the situation observed in waves at this

wavelength of 120% is the same that in calm water. Both giving it positive and negative values will

make the added resistance due to waves larger, as it already happened in calm water. Also here the

variation produced is smaller than the ones seen in waves. The results obtained here, showing an

increase of wave added resistance of less than a 1%, could be a product of the margin of error.

The WL_angle parameter also shows the same behaviour in regular head waves and in calm water,

with some considerations to take into account. First, when positive values are given and the shape

turns more into a U, the added wave resistance increases; but the variation is smaller than the observed

in calm water, as already observed for many parameters. The percentage is of a 4% compared to a

20%. With negative values and a more V shape the resistance is decreased, but it turns out that in this

case the variation observed is bigger than in calm water, something more uncommon. At the same

time, it can be observed that the variation between different values is more linear than it was in calm

water; the percentages are almost the same for a value with different signs, a totally opposite case from

the extreme differences seen in calm water. Nevertheless, the variations in resistance observed for this

parameter are still significantly higher on average than for the rest of bulb parameters; even if the

difference has been reduced.

Finally, the Flare_angle performs in a manner similar to the WL_angle. Negative values improve the

added resistance due to waves and positive values make it larger, like it happened in calm water too.

However, the variations seen here are far away from the maximum increase of 14% found in calm

water. Here the maximum increment barely rises above a 4%, which is also about the same percentage

of maximum resistance reduction. This points out another trait in common with the WL_angle, as the

flare also shows a more linear resistance variation when subjected to changes in waves than in calm

water. But when it comes to resistance reduction, it can be noticed that the percentages obtained are

similar for both calm water and in waves. All this indicates that the Flare_angle parameter, together

49

Resistance in regular head waves

with the WL_angle, still have a bigger influence on the added resistance due to waves and on the

overall wave resistance than the bulb parameters.

Analysing the results of all parameters in these conditions in waves, it can be seen that most of them

follow the same patterns they had in the study in calm water. The parameters controlling the flare

angle and the entrance angle are still the ones having bigger effects. At the same time, it is noticed that

the percentage of variation that a parametric modification causes is generally smaller in regular waves

than it was in calm water. This is clearly seen with the two parameters changing the main shape of the

hull, whose influence when they are given positive values is radically reduced. And despite this drastic

fall, the variations they cause in the added wave resistance are still at least twice as big as the ones

produced by the rest of bulb parameters. The parameter showing a more different behaviour from the

calm water evaluation is the Bulb_length; this one did not appear to have a too big effect previously

over the wave resistance, but in waves it has showed to have a trend of improvement when the length

is reduced (even if the reduction is small). On the other hand, the parameters controlling the bulb’s

height, position and width have shown to have an almost irrelevant influence over the added wave

resistance in the range studied. The variations they produce are of less than a 1%, while in calm water

they had a more significant effect.

In calm water it was already warned that the changes produced by most of the parametric variations

were too small to be completely trusted, as they can be just a result of the margin of error of the

simulations; that warning is even more severe here. It has been mentioned many times that the

percentages of variation observed in this section are on average even smaller than in calm water, and

in the order of accuracy of the mesh according to the mesh dependence study. This means it is quite

possible that many of the closer results are not accurate enough. As a consequence, many data should

be treated with a moderate scepticism. What can be assumed as quite certain is that both reducing the

flare angle and the entrance angle will have a moderate positive impact on the added resistance due to

waves; and to a certain extent, it is probable that reducing the length of the bulb will help too.

Moving to the second parametrization approach, Figure 36 shows practically the same results as

observed for the Wigley hull. As it already happened with the first ship, the designs that were better in

calm water are also better in waves just until a certain wavelength. When this barrier, situated after a

wavelength of 120% of the ship’s length, is crossed, then these designs turn to be worse than any other

option. At the same time, the other designs also show similar behaviours to the Wigley hull cases:

designs 5 and 12 get better performance as the wavelength increases, having significantly better

performance than the original hull in waves when the differences between designs grow larger. Design

14 exhibited a more variable behaviour depending on the studied wavelength with the Wigley hull, but

here it still depicts a performance not far away from the original KVLCC2.

The similarities in the wave resistance results of applying the same parametric variations to the Wigley

hull and the KVLCC2 were already seen in calm water in section 5.2.3. Then, the last results in waves

demonstrate that in these cases the parallelism still exists; and all the conclusions that were extracted

from the effects of parametric variation of the hull form of the Wigley hull also can be applied to the

KVLCC2.

In order to compare the results from the two different parametrization approaches to the KVLCC2,

Table 19 is a great help (and especially the central columns, corresponding to the wavelength of 120%

of the length of the ship) as it presents the results of the second parametrization in a similar style to the

results of the first parametrization, in Table 16. The added resistance due to waves is numerically

given for each design and wavelength, both as an absolute value in Newton and as a percentage

relative to the added resistance of the original KVLCC2.

50

Resistance in regular head waves

Table 19: Added resistance due to waves results in waves at selected wavelengths with modified designs

of KVLCC2

Design

RAW [N] RAW [%] RAW [N] RAW [%] RAW [N] RAW [%]

Original 5.339 — 8.625 — 6.957 —

1 3.616 -32.26 7.128 -17.34 8.853 27.26

5 6.494 21.64 8.996 4.31 6.653 -4.36

12 6.160 15.39 8.773 1.72 6.599 -5.13

14 5.674 6.29 8.786 1.87 6.862 -1.34

18 3.462 -35.14 6.844 -20.64 9.013 29.56

Focusing on the common wavelength of 120% of LPP, it is seen again that the variations in resistance

are larger with the second approach than with the initial one: the maximum reduction goes from a 4%

to a 20%. Out of the selected designs there is none displaying such a large increase at this wavelength;

however, moving to some of the other wavelengths present on the table these percentages grow even

larger. All in all, this shows large differences in the added resistance between designs, percentages

definitely bigger than for the first approach. With the second approach, there is higher room for

improvement and reduction of the wave resistance of the KVLCC2 in waves; even if the designs used

as example are not good enough due to too large shape variations or other reasons, this

parametrization with other values yielding minor hull form changes would still be a good tool to find

shapes with significantly big resistance reductions.

51

Summary and conclusions

This project has consisted of analysing the changes in the seakeeping performance of two ships when

they are subjected to parametric hull form variations. To do so, the wave resistance has been the focus

of the project. First it was observed in calm water; later, in regular head waves, from whose difference

the added resistance due to waves was extracted and used as the object of study. The first ship used

has been the Wigley hull, a simple model for which an extensive work has been performed, both in

waves and in calm water. The second one has been the KVLCC2, an oil tanker, for which a parallel

study was conducted focusing on the most interesting scenarios. Due to the conclusions extracted from

the Wigley hull and initial simulations with this ship, some features from the first one were later

replicated with the KVLCC2 to analyse the similarities.

All in all, it must be noted how time consuming this project has been. In total, 336 simulations have

been carried out (236 for the Wigley hull and 100 for the KVLCC2), counting the ones performed with

original hulls, modified designs, all sea conditions tested and mesh dependence studies; and that does

not include all the previous simulations part of the learning process of how to use the software.

Depending on the shape of the hull and the condition simulated, a single simulation with a fine mesh

can last between four and eight hours as an average. A normal computer allows to run up to four

simulations in parallel, speeding the process about one third; however, the chance of using the SSPA

cluster, which allows to carry out many more simulations at the same time, has reduced significantly

the time spent on computation.

The simulations have been performed with the ships at model size. The Wigley hull uses a length of

4.924 meters, while the length of KVLCC2 is of 4.706 meters, so the numerical values in Newton of

resistance correspond to that size. Despite that, as the module of Shipflow is a potential flow solver,

ignoring the viscous effects, the only step necessary to translate those results to real size is to apply the

scale factor. However, the percentages of variation in results are kept the same, no matter what the

actual size of the model is. That is why these can be accurately analysed, and the conclusions extracted

can be applied to all ship sizes.

This project has presented many challenges at all stages. To begin with one, it would be the choice of

the Froude number used for the Wigley hull study. With such an academic type of hull, there is not a

defined design speed, and a wide range of velocities have been used in many previous studies. But

only one could be chosen for the project, and the benefits of choosing the final Fn=0.316 were many.

First, it was already included in the Shipflow pack as a part of the examples and tutorials, so it was

proven to work correctly. At the same time, this value fell comfortably in the range of most used

speeds in the literature, and it was close to a velocity for which there was a lot of reliable data for

comparison. And finally, while the KVLCC2 has a Froude number typical of big displacement ships,

this one for Wigley is too high for it; this speed falls in the range of semi-displacement ships, which

are ordinarily smaller craft than oil tankers. This difference brings variety to the project, but at the

same time it must be taken into account when comparisons are to be stablished between the two ships:

what could be an improvement at a Froude number of 0.142, could mean something different at

Fn=0.316.

Many more problems appeared during the parametrization phase of the hulls. Parametrizing some

aspects as the length and height of the bulb was fairly simple and straightforward, as tutorials have it

easily described. However, when it comes to the main surface of the hull, deciding how to do the

52

Summary and conclusions

parametrization was trickier. Controlling it through spline lines did not yield successful results, so the

point control grid was used as the best alternative. Then, first for the Wigley hull, it had to be decided

how many parameters to use and how to integrate them with the control grid. The first attempts often

ended in hull forms that did not look like a ship at all or in infeasible designs; then the attenuation

factors were introduced and all parameters were set to have influence at most parts of the hull, it being

smaller or bigger depending on these multiplier factors. As the parametrization of both ships was

carried out almost in parallel, the KVLCC2 was parametrized paying more attention to the bulb and

using the simpler WL_angle and Flare_angle parameters for the forebody, following most of the

literature approaches. When the results were analysed, it was observed that the influence of the

changes in the bulb was significantly smaller than the ones of the general hull. Then it was decided to

adapt the parametrization used for the hull of the Wigley hull to the KVLCC2, in order to try to find

larger variations in the resistance than the ones with the initial approach.

Another issue with the parametrization appeared when the parameters used did not change the hull in

the desired form. The best example of this is the WL_angle of the KVLCC2, which was intended to

simply vary the entrance angle at the waterline. Instead of that, it ended changing the entire general

shape of the forebody of the ship; although it still affects the entrance angle, it mostly makes the hull

form change between a V and U type of ship. Another case, also with the KVLCC2, was produced

when the angle between the bulb and the bow in the vertical plane was tried to be parametrized. Many

efforts were put into it, but the best results only accomplished to modify the bulb and bow together;

when different values where given to this parameter, the resistance results obtained turned out to be

exactly the same that the ones produced by the Bulb_position parameter, so this line of work was

ended.

Other difficulties appeared in the phase of simulations. Once the speed was decided, the simulations in

calm water were straightforward. However, in waves there were some decisions to be made. The range

of wavelengths was chosen to be between a 30% and a 200% of each ship’s length because these

wavelengths are the most commonly studied. Then, the exact cases chosen to be simulated for the

initial software validation with the KVLCC2 were due to those cases also being quite popular in the

studies found for the ship. When the setup of cases had to be done for the Wigley hull, it was only

logical to follow the same one already used. But looking at the results of the first cases simulated with

the Wigley, it was quickly seen that some changes could be introduced. The most interesting area was

between the wavelengths of 100% and 160% of the Wigley’s length; it did not appear to be necessary

to include the wavelength of 90% (widely seen in the literature research of the KVLCC2), but instead

it seemed to be more interesting to introduce an extra case at a wavelength of 130%. Here the

differences between designs could be more relevant; later it was observed that the larger added wave

resistance value for most of the designs tested appeared at this last wavelength.

The focus of the simulations in waves of the KVLCC2 was on the wavelength of 1.2 times the ship’s

length, because the software validation showed that the peak of added resistance due to waves is

produced around here. As the study of the Wigley hull has shown, the larger differences in added

resistance appear close to this peak; so it is good enough to pay attention to this area and ignore the

results at the less relevant wavelengths at the ends. However, if only the wavelength where the peak is

produced is analysed, it can lead to an error: the Wigley hull shows that a certain modification in the

hull can be good to improve resistance at a certain wavelength, but terribly bad for a close value. Thus,

disregarding too the wavelengths similar to 120% could cause that these variations are not taken into

account. The hull form variations produced for the initial parametrization of KVLCC2 are considered

to be too similar to the original hull to change too much the wavelength of the larger resistance value,

but there could still be some error; on the other hand, the second approach, in the stage introducing the

53

Summary and conclusions

Wigley hull parametrization, creates hull forms different enough to actually alter this peak. That is

why not only the wavelength of 1.2 is simulated, but the simulations are done also at 1 and 1.4,

showing that the peak gets displaced to higher wavelengths for certain parametric variations.

Then comes the question of how trustworthy all these results obtained from the simulations are. The

software validation performed with the original KVLCC2 shows a good accuracy of Shipflow results

compared to all the other data available in regular waves. The original Wigley hull in calm water also

has a wave resistance coefficient in agreement with the results of other researchers. This alone already

proves that the results will be loyal to reality, but the performed mesh dependence studies help to

confirm this supposition. For the Wigley hull, the results of wave resistance change around a 2% as

maximum when the number of panels used for the simulation are either divided or multiplied by 4.

This is a small percentage, considering how much the number of panels (and the computation time

needed) change at the same time. For the KVLCC2, the findings are curious: in calm water, coarser

meshes than the one used show variations of almost a 50% of the wave resistance, while with the next

finer mesh the variation will be of only about 1.5%. And in regular head waves, the percentages vary

quite a lot depending on the wavelength observed. However, for the most relevant wavelengths

between 100-140% of the ship’s length the variations are smaller and point to reliable results: with a

mesh four times coarser than the one used the wave resistance never changes more than a 5%, while

improving its precision about one third will not change the result more than 1%.

Taking all these issues into account, it has also to be remembered that the seakeeping performance of

the ships is evaluated only assuming calm water and regular head waves simulations, the latter being

unusual in open seas. Irregular sea states and side waves are ignored. The influence of the amplitude of

the waves is not studied either, as it is kept as a constant percentage through the different cases (2% of

the wavelength when this one is smaller than the length of the hull, 1% when it is larger). And also

only one speed is evaluated, while normally the ship would change it depending on the sea state

encountered. These situations act as limitations of the project, reminding that there are many aspects of

a ship’s real performance that are simplified in order to obtain manageable results.

Starting with the Wigley hull, it has been seen that although a change in the displacement is normally

related to a direct change in the wave resistance, especially with the bigger variations, with small

changes it is not necessarily like that. A bigger displacement will not automatically indicate a larger

resistance, if the new shape is better than the old one; as an example, in calm water many of the

designs better than the original have a greater displacement. Continuing in the calm water part of the

evaluation, it has been noticed that despite the best designs having differences between them, they also

have some common features: the hull is more rounded under the water, especially close to the

waterline, but it transitions to a sharper shape with smaller entrance angles at the waterline and above

it.

At the same time, these Wigley designs present larger resistance variations when they are evaluated in

the full range of head waves than the original hull; they also have larger resistance than many other

designs. Their performance is tricky, as up to a wavelength of 120% of the ship’s length they appear to

have a good added wave resistance. However, when the wavelength rises above this value, the

performance of these designs gets suddenly bad. On the other hand, some of the designs that did not

perform so well in calm water have a smaller wave added resistance through the studied wavelengths,

some of them even being better than the original Wigley in all cases. The characteristic features of

these hulls with better added resistance due to waves are a sharp entrance angle near the baseline,

which turns to a more rounded shape when it approaches the waterline.

54

Summary and conclusions

With the first parametrization approach of the KVLCC2, the one focusing mostly on bulb

modifications, the changes produced by parametric variation in the displacement of the model are of

less than a 0.5% even for the bigger modifications; this is considered to be a too small change to have

a direct effect over the wave resistance. What is seen in the section 5.2.2 is that the results of

parametric variations, especially the ones in the bulb, have also a small influence, with many cases

yielding a change of wave resistance lower than 2%. However, there is one thing that can be assured,

and it is that increasing even slightly the WL_angle and Flare_angle parameters will have a large,

negative effect over the resistance. On the other hand, reducing them, as well as lowering the bulb

position and the height of its tip, would have a beneficial influence; but it would be considerably small

compared to the consequences of altering the first two in that way.

In regular head waves, the results of these parametric hull form variations of the KVLCC2 are smaller

than in calm water. Even changing the parameters that had a bigger influence in calm water yields a

variation in added wave resistance of only about a 4%; still, the variations they produce are about

twice as big as the ones created by the other parametric modifications. Despite the reduction in the

percentages, the trends seen in calm water are mostly kept. Improvements in added wave resistance are

produced by reducing the flare angle and making the ship more V-shaped; shortening the bulb also

seems to have a positive effect. On the other hand, the most significant change is seen in the height

and length of the bulb: while in calm water changing the length had no effect and reducing the height

was good, the opposite happens at this wavelength. Here changing the height does not affect the result,

while reducing the length has a good influence on the resistance.

After seeing this, the KVLCC2 was parametrized again following the same strategy used for the

Wigley hull. With that parametrization, the KVLCC2 was given values that mimic some of the most

representative modified designs used with the Wigley hull: a couple that are better than the original in

calm water, another one clearly worse in calm water, and other two regular in calm water but with a

fairly good performance in waves. Simulating the modified KVLCC2 with these hull forms shows

that, in calm water, the percentages of change of the wave resistance are practically the same as the

observed with the Wigley hull: a reduction of over a 6% is reached, something impossible with the

original parametrization. The simulations in regular head waves also exhibit practically the same

trends here of the Wigley hull and larger variations in the numerical results, with the best designs in

calm water performing good up to a certain wavelength (one of them even giving a reduction of added

wave resistance over a 20% compared to the 4% obtained with the previous parametrization) clearly

worsening after it. At the same time, the worst designs get better with increasing wavelengths,

showing better behaviours than the original KVLCC2 around the peaks of higher resistance.

In general, these last results show that the same parametric modifications would affect in similar ways

the Wigley hull and the KVLCC2, producing similar shapes in order to improve wave resistance in

both calm water and regular head waves. This happens despite the differences between the original

hulls: the Wigley hull is sharp, while the KVLCC2 has a clear U-shape. Also, the presence of the bulb

in KVLCC2 is something that has a big influence over the ship’s wave resistance, and it cannot be

mirrored in the Wigley hull. Besides all that, the speeds used are also different, with the Wigley hull’s

Froude number being around twice the KVLCC2’s, which makes the two ships work in different

regimes. Even with all this, the results show that the best shapes in calm water are more rounded

underwater and especially near the baseline, while they should get thinner when they approach the

waterline, where the entrance angle should be sharper. These shapes will also produce good results in

regular waves, reducing the added wave resistance significantly, up to a wavelength of 120% of the

length of the ship; after that, their performance drops abruptly. On the other hand, when these hulls

have sharper shapes near the baseline and the more rounded part is upper, closer to the waterline, the

55

Summary and conclusions

performance can be slightly worse in calm water; however, they exhibit a better behaviour in waves

almost independently of the wavelength, showing smaller variations and larger improvements.

All things considered, this project has helped me to deepen my understanding in seakeeping

performance of different kinds of ships. I learnt a lot more about added resistance in waves, and how

big and important is the role it plays compared to the total resistance. It has also been useful to observe

how some small variations in the surface of a hull can have a large impact on the resistance it will

have when navigating in waves; but also to see how some larger changes can barely have any effect.

As a consequence, the existing techniques of ship hull optimization have been analysed and applied in

a fitting way. And last but not least, I have experienced how to work with CFD software for a large

task, learning about troubleshooting, functioning, configurations and more, gaining an invaluable

knowledge.

56

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Optimisation methodology in ship design, Computer-Aided Design 42 (2010) 1013-1027.

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59

Appendix A

9. Appendix A

Results of Wigley data obtained from the simulations with Shipflow. There is presented the wave

resistance, RW, for all 20 modified designs and the original hull at its model size; first, for the

simulations in calm water, and then for the different regular head waves cases. From their difference it

is obtained the added resistance due to waves, Raw, in both Newton and as a percentage.

Design RW [N] RW [N] Raw [N] Raw [%] RW [N] Raw [N] Raw [%]

60

Appendix A

Design RW [N] Raw [N] Raw [%] RW [N] Raw [N] Raw [%] RW [N] Raw [N] Raw [%]

Original 16.216 0.06913 0.43 17.966 1.8199 11.27 23.7 7.55356 46.78

61

Appendix A

Design RW [N] Raw [N] Raw[%] RW [N] Raw [N] Raw [%] RW [N] Raw [N] Raw [%]

Original 24.948 8.80186 54.51 21.244 5.09738 31.57 17.318 1.17190 7.26

62

Appendix A

63

Appendix B

10. Appendix B

Full results of the Wigley hull mesh dependence study in regular head waves. The wave resistance

results with the default coarse, medium and fine meshes of Shipflow are presented. The percentages of

deviation are given compared to the fine mesh results.

Panels 12,544 32,482 51,981

RW with waves 30% LPP [N] 15.847 15.879 16.086

Deviation [%] -1.48 -1.28 —

RW with waves 50% LPP [N] 15.363 15.447 15.609

Deviation [%] -1.57 -1.03 —

RW with waves 70% LPP [N] 15.967 16.058 16.215

Deviation [%] -1.52 -0.97 —

RW with waves 100% LPP [N] 17.603 17.804 17.966

Deviation [%] -2.01 -0.90 —

RW with waves 120% LPP [N] 23.513 23.596 23.699

Deviation [%] -0.78 -0.43 —

RW with waves 130% LPP [N] 24.795 24.894 24.948

Deviation [%] -0.61 -0.21 —

RW with waves 140% LPP [N] 21.056 21.048 21.243

Deviation [%] -0.88 -0.92 —

RW with waves 160% LPP [N] 17.168 17.108 17.318

Deviation [%] -0.86 -1.21 —

RW with waves 200% LPP [N] 16.211 16.320 16.581

Deviation [%] -2.22 -1.57 —

64

Appendix C

11. Appendix C

Numerical results of the simulations of parametrically modified KVLCC2 in regular head waves.

These results are obtained with the second parametrization approach, the same used for the Wigley

hull. First there is the displacement and the calm water resistance, both given as absolute values for the

model size used and as a percentage (relative to the original hull). Then there are the results for the

different regular head waves cases, where the absolute wave resistance and the added resistance due to

waves are presented. This last one is given both in Newton and as a percentage relative to each

design’s wave resistance in calm water.

Displacement Calm water RW

Design RW [N] Raw [N] Raw [%]

[kg] [%] [N] [%]

Original 992.658 — 1.472 — 6.811 5.33850 362.53

1 993.230 0.06 1.373 -6.70 4.990 3.61627 263.20

5 999.431 0.68 1.680 14.13 8.174 6.49417 386.41

12 992.913 0.03 1.554 5.55 7.714 6.16043 396.34

14 993.982 0.13 1.581 7.38 7.255 5.67473 358.87

18 994.330 0.17 1.399 -4.95 4.862 3.46245 247.38

Design RW [N] Raw [N] Raw [%] RW [N] Raw [N] Raw [%]

Original 10.097 8.62456 585.69 8.429 6.95676 472.43

1 8.5025 7.12862 518.83 10.228 8.85365 644.38

5 10.677 8.99671 535.32 8.334 6.65310 395.87

12 10.327 8.77348 564.45 8.154 6.59956 424.59

14 10.367 8.78638 555.66 8.444 6.86290 434.02

18 8.2438 6.84421 488.99 10.413 9.01361 643.98

65

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