Certificate in
Power System Modeling and Analysis
Training Course in
Course Outline
1
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 3
2
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 5
θ V
V = V ∠0o volts
( )
I = I ∠ − θ o amperes
3
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 7
+
+ R (Resistance)
jω t i(t) VL
VS = Vmε
 L (Inductance)

di ( t ) jω t
Applying Kirchoff’s voltage law, Ri ( t ) + L = Vmε
dt
The first order linear differential equation has a particular
jω t
solution of the form i ( t ) = K ε .
jω t jω t jω t j = −1
Hence, RK ε + j ω LK ε = Vmε
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
4
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 9
+
+ R (Resistance)
jω t i(t) VL
VS = Vmε
 C (Capacitance)

R
For Capacitive Circuit, .1 φ
1
Z = R − j( ) ωC
Z
ωC
Z= Zejφφ or φ + jsinφ
Z = Z(cosφ φ) or Z = Z∠φ
∠φ
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
ωt + 30°) volts
v = 141.4 cos(ω
ωt) amperes
i = 7.07 cos(ω
Vmax = 141.4 V = 100 ∠30
V = 100∠
Imax = 7.07 I = 5 ∠0
I = 5∠
100 ∠ 30
Z = = 20 ∠ 30
5 ∠0 20
10
30°
Z = 20(cos 30 + j sin 30 ) = 17.32 + j10 )
17.32
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
5
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 11
Electrical Symbols
ThreeLine and SingleLine Diagram
Equivalent Circuit of Power System
Components
Impedance and Admittance Diagram
Bus Admittance Matrix
G Generator Switch
Circuit Breaker
or Transformer
Fuse
Transmission or
Distribution Line
Bus Node
6
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 13
CTs
Circuit Breaker
Distribution Lines
Main Bus
R Relays
a b c
R R
R
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
7
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 15
Bus
Transformer
CB Distribution Line
Node
R
CT and Relay
Ea
Eb + Ia +
Ec Ib
Eg Va
Zb Zc b 
Ic 
c
ThreePhase Equivalent SinglePhase Equivalent
8
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 17
SinglePhase Equivalent
 
ThreePhase Equivalent
9
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 19
∆l
10
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 21
Z = (r + jx L )l
+• • +
Vs Is = IR VR
• • 
SinglePhase Equivalent
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
11
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 23
Capture
Unbalanced
Characteristics ThreePhase Equivalent
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
12
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 25
Representation
Ia ZR
of a Balanced a a
ThreePhase o n
Eao = E∠0° V ZR
System ZR
Ia ZR
Eao = E∠ 0° V
o n
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
13
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 27
Ea za Ea Ec Eb
1 za zc zb
Generator
1 3 2
0 zd ze
z13 zf zh
zg
1 3
Line
4
0 Impedance Diagram
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
14
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 29
VL VL
Zg
+ Eg = ISZP
Eg Is Zp
IL IL Zg = Zp

0
I1 = Ea/za
y01 = 1/za I1 I3 I2
y01 y03 y02
I2 = Eb/zb
y02 = 1/zb 1 3 2
I3 = Ec/zc y13 y23
y03 = 1/zc y14
y24
y13 = 1/zd y14 = 1/zf
y23 = 1/ze y24 = 1/zg 4
y34 = 1/zh Admittance Diagram
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
15
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 31
16
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 33
Actual Value
Percent =
100
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
17
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 35
18
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 37


Determine Vs
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
19
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 39
 
The magnitude of the voltage at the substation is
1.05 p.u. x 2540 Volts = _______ Volts
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
20
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 41
Base Power
Base Current =
Base Voltage
Pbase(1φ) Pbase(3φ)
Ibase =  Ibase = 
Vbase(1φ) √3Vbase(LL)
Vbase(1φ) Vbase(LN)
Zbase =  Zbase = 
Ibase(1φ) Ibase(L)
[Vbase(1φ)]² [Vbase(LL)]²
=  = 
Pbase(1φ) Pbase(3φ)
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
21
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 43
22
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 45
X L( Ω )
X L ( pu ) =
Z base
X C( Ω )
X C ( pu ) =
Z base
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
23
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 47
24
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 49
Example:
Consider a threephase transformer rated 20
MVA, 69 kV/13.2 kV voltage ratio and a reactance
of 7%. The resistance is negligible.
25
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 51
SOLUTION:
a) Pbase = 20 MVA
Vbase = 69 kV (high voltage)
( kV)²
Zbase = = ________ ohms
( MVA)
Xhigh = Xp.u. x Zbase = _______ x _______= _______ ohms
SOLUTION:
b) Pbase = 20 MVA
Vbase = 13.2 kV (low voltage)
( kV)²
Zbase = = ________ ohms
( MVA)
Xlow = Xp.u. x Zbase = _______ x _______= _______ ohms
26
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 53
300 Ω/ φ
SOURCE A B C LOAD PF=100 %
AB BC
27
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 55
300 Ω/ φ
VA Vc PF=100%
AB BC
13.8/138 kV 138/69 kV
28
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 57
VNL  VL
V.R. =  x 100%
VL
29
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 59
Z pu 1 ⋅ Z base 1 = Z pu 2 ⋅ Z base 2
Z
Z pu 2 = Z pu 1 ⋅ base 1
Z base 2
30
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 61
base Power
Then, (kV LL , base 1 ) 2
MVA 3 φ , base 1
Z = Z
pu 2 pu 1
(kV LL , base 2
2
)
MVA 3 φ , base 2
2
or, kV MVA 3 φ ,base 2
Z pu 2 = Z pu 1 LL ,base 1
MVA
kV LL ,base 2 3 φ ,base 1
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
Example
A threephase transformer is rated 400 MVA, 220Y/22 ∆ kV.
The impedance measured on the lowvoltage side of the
transformer is 0.121 ohms (approx. equal to the leakage
reactance). Determine the perunit reactance of the transformer
for 100 MVA, 230 kV base values at the high voltage side of the
transformer.
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
31
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 63
( )
X= = ________ pu
( )2
( )
( )2
X=( )x x ( = )________ pu
( )2
32
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 65
33
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 67
E1 E2 E3
Base Power:
Sub
Vbase (kV) Zbase (Ohm) Ibase (Amp)
System
34
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 69
G2:
G3:
L1:
T1:
T2:
Advantages of
PerUnit Quantities
The computation for electric systems in perunit
simplifies the work greatly. The advantages of Per Unit
Quantities are:
1. Manufacturers usually specify the impedances of
equipments in percent or perunit on the base of the
nameplate rating.
2. The perunit impedances of machines of the same type and
widely different rating usually lie within a narrow range.
When the impedance is not known definitely, it is generally
possible to select from tabulated average values.
35
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 71
Advantages of
PerUnit Quantities
3. When working in the perunit system, base voltages can be
selected such that the perunit turns ratio of most
transformers in the system is equal to 1:1.
4. The way in which transformers are connected in three
phase circuits does not affect the perunit impedances of
the equivalent circuit, although the transformer connection
does determine the relation between the voltage bases on
the two sides of the transformer.
5. Per unit representation yields more meaningful and easily
correlated data.
Advantages of
PerUnit Quantities
6. Network calculations are done in a much more handier
fashion with less chance of mixup
• between phase and line voltages
• between singlephase and threephase powers, and
• between primary and secondary voltages.
36
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 73
Symmetrical Components
Sequence Components of
Unbalanced Phasor
In a balanced Power System,
Generator Voltages are threephase balanced
Line and transformer impedances are balanced
Loads are threephased balanced
37
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 75
Sequence Components of
Unbalanced Phasor
In a practical Power Systems,
Lines are not transposed.
Singlephase transformers used to form threephase
banks are not identical.
Loads are not balanced.
Presence of veephase and single phase lines.
Faults
Singlephase Representation and Analysis
cannot be use for an unbalanced threephase
power system.
Sequence Components of
Unbalanced Phasor
Any unbalanced threephase system of phasors
may be resolved into three balanced systems of
phasors which are referred to as the symmetrical
components of the original unbalanced phasors,
namely:
a) POSITIVESEQUENCE PHASOR
b) NEGATIVESEQUENCE PHASOR
c) ZEROSEQUENCE PHASOR
38
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 77
Sequence Components of
Unbalanced Phasor
REFERENCE PHASE SEQUENCE: abc
Phase c
Positive Sequence Phasors are
120° threephase, balanced and have
120° Phase a the phase sequence as the
120° original set of unbalanced
phasors.
Phase b
Negative Sequence Phasors are threephase, balanced but with a
phase sequence opposite to that original set of unbalnced
phasors.
Sequence Components of
Unbalanced Phasor
Each of the original unbalanced phasor is the sum
of it’s sequence components. Thus,
39
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 79
Sequence Components of
Unbalanced Phasor
OPERATOR “a”
An operator “a” causes a rotation of 120° in the
counter clockwise direction of any phasor.
a = 1 ∠ 120° a² = 1 ∠ 240° a³ = 1 ∠ 0°
Vb in terms of Va Vc in terms of Va
Vb = a² Va Vc = a Va
Vb1 = a² Va1 Vc1 = a Va1
Vb2 = a Va2 Vc2 = a2 Va2
Vb0 = Va0 Vc0 = Va0
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
Sequence Components of
Unbalanced Phasor
Writing again the phasors in terms of phasor Va
and operator “a”,
Va = Va0 + Va1 + Va2
Vb = Va0 + a²Va1 + aVa2
Vc = Va0 + aVa1 + a²Va2
Computing for Va0, Va1 & Va2
V a0 =
1
3
[V a + V b + V c ] 1
[
V a 1 = V a + aV b + a 2 V c
3
]
V a2 =
1
3
[
V a + a 2 V b + aV c ]
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
40
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 81
Sequence Components of
Unbalanced Phasor
Vc = 8 ∠143.1 EXAMPLE:
Determine the symmetrical
components of the following
unbalanced voltages.
Va = 4 ∠0
Vb = 3 ∠90
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
Sequence Components of
Unbalanced Phasor
For Phasor Va:
1
V a0 = ( V a + V b + V c )
3
1
= ( 4 ∠ 0 + 3 ∠  90 + 8 ∠ 143.1)
3
= 1 ∠ 143.05
1
V a 1 = ( V a + aV b + a 2V c )
3
1
= [4 ∠ 0 + (1 ∠ 120)(3 ∠  90) + (1 ∠ 240)(8 ∠ 143.1) ]
3
= 4.9 ∠ 18.38
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
41
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 83
Sequence Components of
Unbalanced Phasor
For Phasor Va:
1
V a 2 = ( V a + a 2Vb + aV c )
3
1
= [4 ∠0 + (1 ∠ 240)(3 ∠  90) + (1 ∠120)(8 ∠143.1) ]
3
= 2.15 ∠ − 86.08
Sequence Components of
Unbalanced Phasor
Components of Vb can be obtained by operating the
sequence components of phasor Va.
V b0 = V a0
= 1 ∠ 143.05 = 1 ∠ 143.05
V b1 = a 2V a 1
= (1 ∠ 240)(4.9 ∠ 18.38)
= 4.9 ∠ 258.38
= 4.9 ∠  101.62
V b2 = aV a2
= (1 ∠ 120)(2.15 ∠  86.08)
= 2.15 ∠ 33.92
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
42
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 85
Sequence Components of
Unbalanced Phasor
Similarly, components of phasor Vc can be obtained by
operating Va.
V c0 = V a0
= 1 ∠ 143.05 = 1 ∠ 143.05
V c1 = aV a 1
= (1 ∠ 1 2 0)(4.9 ∠ 18.38)
= 4.9 ∠ 1 3 8.38
V c2 = a 2 V a2
= (1 ∠ 2 4 0)(2.15 ∠  86.08)
= 2.15 ∠ 1 5 3.92
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
Sequence Components of
Unbalanced Phasor
Vc1 Va0 Vb0 Vc0
Va2
Negative Sequence Components
Vb1
Positive Sequence Components
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
43
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 87
Sequence Components of
Unbalanced Phasor
The results can be checked either mathematically or
graphically.
V a = V a0 + V a1 + V a2
= 1 ∠ 143 . 05 + 4.9 ∠ 18.38 + 2.15 ∠  86.08
= 4 ∠0
V b = V b0 + V b1 + V b2
= 1 ∠ 143.05 + 4.9 ∠  101.62 + 2.15 ∠ 33.92
= 3 ∠  90
V c = V c0 + V c1 + V c2
= 1 ∠ 143 . 05 + 4.9 ∠ 138.38 + 2.15 ∠ 153.92
= 8 ∠ 143.1
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
Sequence Components of
Unbalanced Phasor
Add Sequence Components Graphically
Va1
Va2 Vb0
Va = 4 ∠0
Va0
Vc2 Vb1 Vb = 3 ∠90
Components of Va
Vc1
Vc = 8 ∠143.1 Vb2
Vc0 Components of Vb
Components of Vc
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
44
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 89
Sequence Impedance of
Power System Components
Sequence Networks
F F F
+ + +
Ia1 Ia2 Ia0
Z1 Z2 Z0
Va1 Va2 Va0
+
Vf
  
Sequence Impedance of
Power System Components
In general,
Z1 ≠ Z2 ≠ Z0 for generators
Z1 = Z2 = Z0 for transformers
Z1 = Z2 ≠ Z0 for lines
45
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 91
IA0 Ia0
A a
IC0 B Ic0 b
C 3I0 c 3Io
IB0 Ib0
46
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 93
47
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 95
a c b
Bus Gen Line 1 3 2
1 a 13
2 b 23
3 c 14
4 24
34
4
Single Line Diagram
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
Ea za Ea Ec Eb
1 za zc zb
Generator
1 3 2
0 zd ze
z13 zf zh
zg
1 3
Line
4
0 Impedance Diagram
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
48
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 97
0
I1 = Ea/za
y01 = 1/za I1 I3 I2
y01 y03 y02
I2 = Eb/zb
y02 = 1/zb 1 3 2
I3 = Ec/zc y13 y23
y03 = 1/zc y14 y24
y13 = 1/zd y14 = 1/zf
y23 = 1/ze y24 = 1/zg 4
y34 = 1/zh Admittance Diagram
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
Network Equations
Applying Kirchoff’s Current Law
at node 1:
I 1 = V 1 y 01 + (V 1 − V 3 ) y 13 + (V 1 − V 4 ) y 14
at node 2:
I 2 = V 2 y 02 + (V 2 − V 3 ) y 23 + (V 2 − V 4 ) y 24
at node 3:
I 3 = V 3 Y03 + (V 3 − V 2 ) y 23 + (V 3 − V 4 ) y 34 + (V 3 − V 1 ) y 13
at node 4:
0 = (V 4 − V1 ) y 14 + (V 4 − V 2 ) y 24 + (V 4 − V 3 ) y 34
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
49
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 99
Network Equations
Rearranging the equations,
I 1 = V 1 ( y 01 + y 13 + y 14 ) − V 3 y 13 − V 4 y 14
I 2 = V 2 ( y 02 + y 23 + y 24 ) − V 3 y 23 − V 4 y 24
I 3 = V 3 ( y 03 + y 23 + y 34 + y 13 ) − V 2 y 23 − V 4 y 34 − V 1 y 13
0 = V 4 ( y 14 + y 24 + y 34 ) − V 1 y 14 − V 2 y 24 − V 3 y 34
In matrix form,
I1 y01 + y13 + y14 0  y13  y14 V1
I 0 y02 + y23 + y24  y23  y24 V
2 = 2
I3  y13  y23 y03 + y23 + y34 + y13  y34 V3
0 − y14 − y24 − y34 y14 + y24 + y34V4
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 100
Network Equations
The standard form of n independent equations:
I1 Y 11 Y 12 Y 13 L Y 1 n V 1
Y 21 Y 23 L Y 2 n V 2
I2
Y 22
I3 = Y 31 Y 32 Y 33 L Y 3 n V3
M M M M M M
I Y n 1 Yn2 Y n 3 L Y nn V
n n
[ I ] = [Ybus][V]
50
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 101
Network Equations
Y 11 Y 12 Y 13 L Y 1 n
Y 21 Y 22 Y 23 L Y 2 n
[YBUS] = Y 31 Y 32 Y 33 L Y 3 n
M M M M
Y n 1 Yn2 Y n 3 L Y nn
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 102
Matrix Representations of
System of Equations
System of n Linear Equations
In the following system of equations:
51
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 103
Matrix Representations of
System of Equations
Writing again the phasors in terms of phasor Va
and operator “a” (Symmetrical Components),
Va = Va0 + Va1 + Va2
Vb = Va0 + a²Va1 + aVa2
Vc = Va0 + aVa1 + a²Va2
Rearranging and writing in matrix form
Va 1 1 1 Va 0
V = 1 a 2 a Va1
b
Vc 1 a a 2 Va 2
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 104
Matrix Representations of
System of Equations
Let 1 1 1
A = 1 a2 a
1 a a 2
Using the numerical techniques, the inverse of A can be
obtained as,
1 1 1
1
A −1 = 1 a a 2
3
1 a 2 a
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
52
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 105
Matrix Representations of
System of Equations
The symmetrical sequence components can be obtained by
premultiplying the original phasors (Va, Vb and Vc) by the
inverse of A,
Va 0 1 1 1 Va
V = 1 a
1
a 2 Vb
a1 3
Va 2 1 a 2 a Vc
Thus,
V a0 =
1
3
[V a + V b + V c ] Va1 =
1
3
[
V a + aV b + a 2 V c ]
V a2 =
1
3
[
V a + a 2 V b + aV c ]
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 106
Matrix Representations of
System of Equations
53
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 107
Matrix Representations of
System of Equations
x1 y1
X = x2 and Y = y2
x3 y3
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 108
Matrix Representations of
System of Equations
System of Equations in Matrix Form
The system of equations in matrix notation is
AX = Y
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
54
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 109
Definition of a MATRIX
A matrix consists of a rectangular array of elements
represented by a single symbol.
[A] is a shorthand notation for the matrix and aij
designates an individual element of the matrix.
A horizontal set of elements is called a row and a
vertical set is called a column.
The first subscript i always designates the number of
the row in which the element lies.
The second subscript j designates the column.
For example, element a23 is in row 2 and column 3.
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 110
Definition of a MATRIX
a11 a12 a13 K a 1n
a a22 a23 K a2n
21
[A] = [a ij ] = a31 a32 a33 K a3n
M M M
am1 am2 am3 K amn
The matrix has m rows and n columns and is said to
have a dimension of m by n (or m x n).
[aij]mxn
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
55
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 111
Definition of a Vector
A vector X is defined as an ordered set of elements. The
components x1, X2…, Xn may be real or complex
numbers or functions of some dependent variable.
x1
x
X = 2
M
xn
“n” defines the dimensionality or size of the vector.
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 112
c1
c
C = 2
R = [r1 r2 L rn ] M
cm
Thus, R is a row vector of dimension n while C is a
column vector of dimension m.
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
56
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 113
Type of Matrices
Square Matrix
Upper Triangular Matrix
Lower Triangular Matrix
Diagonal Matrix
Identity or Unit Matrix
Symmetric Matrix
Skewsymmetric Matrix
Null Matrix
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 114
Type of Matrices
A square matrix is a matrix in which m = n.
57
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 115
Type of Matrices
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 116
Type of Matrices
l11 0 0
L = l21 l22 0
l31 l32 l33
58
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 117
Type of Matrices
A diagonal matrix is a square matrix where all
elements off the diagonal are equal to zero.
Note that where large blocks of elements are zero,
they are left blank.
d11 0 0
D= 0 d22 0
0 0 d33
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 118
Type of Matrices
An identity or unit matrix is a diagonal matrix where
all elements on the main diagonal are equal to one.
1 0 0
I = 0 1 0
0 0 1
59
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 119
Type of Matrices
A symmetric matrix is one where aij = aji for all i’s and j’s.
5 1 2 a12 = a21 = 1
S = 1 3 7 a13 = a31 = 2
2 7 8 a23 = a32 = 7
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 120
Type of Matrices
A skewsymmetric matrix is a matrix which has the
property aij = aji for all i and j; this implies aii = 0
0 −5 3
K = 5 6
a12 = −5
0
a 21 = +5
− 3 −6 0
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
60
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 121
Type of Matrices
0 0 0
N = 0 0 0
0 0 0
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 122
Matrix Operations
Addition of Matrices
Product of a Matrix with a Scalar
Multiplication of Matrices
Transpose of a Matrix
Kron Reduction Method
Determinant of a Matrix
Minors and Cofactors of a Matrix
Inverse of a Matrix
61
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 123
Addition of Matrices
Two matrices A = [aij] and B = [bij] can be added
together if they are of the same order (mxn). The sum
C = A + B is obtained by adding the corresponding
elements.
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 124
Addition of Matrices
Example:
1 4 0 5 2 6
A = B =
2 7 3 0 1 1
then,
(1 + 5) (4 + 2) (0 + 6) 6 6 6
A+ B= =
(2 + 0) (7 + 1) (3 + 1) 2 8 4
(1 − 5) (4 − 2) (0 − 6) − 4 2 − 6
A− B = =
(2 − 0) (7 − 1) (3 − 1) 2 6 2
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
62
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 125
Addition of Matrices
Example:
1+ j2 4 − j1 6 − j3 3 + j2 2 − j1 7 + j5
A = 4 + j1 5 + j3 1 + j1 B = 2 + j1 4 + j6 5 + j4
6 + j3 1 − j1 8 + j9 7 − j5 5 − j4 6 + j5
then,
(1+ j2) +(3+ j2) (4− j1) +(2− j1) (6 − j3) +(7 + j5)
A+ B= (4+ j1) +(2+ j1) (5+ j3) +(4+ j6) (1+ j1) +(5+ j4)
(6 + j3) +(7 − j5) (1− j1) +(5− j4) (8+ j9) +(6 + j5)
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 126
Addition of Matrices
4 + j4 6 − j2 13+ j2
A + B = 6 + j2 9 + j9 6 + j5
13− j2 6 − j5 14+ j14
− 2 + j0 2 + j0 −1− j8
A− B = 2 + j0 1− j3 − 4 − j3
−1+ j8 − 4 + j3 2 + j4
63
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 127
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 128
4 3 12 9
B = kA = 3 5 2 B = 15 6
6 1 18 3
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
64
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 129
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 130
Multiplication of Matrices
65
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 131
Multiplication of Matrices
An easy way to check whether two matrices can
be multiplied.
[A ]m x l [B ]l x n = [C ]m x n
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 132
Multiplication of Matrices
Example: a11 a12
b b
A = a21 a22 and B = 11 12
a31 b21 b22 2 x 2
a32 3 x 2
then
a11 a12
b b12
C = A B = a 21 a22 11
b21 b22
a31 a32
cij = ∑ aik bkj c 11 = a 11 b 11 + a 12 b 21
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
66
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 133
Multiplication of Matrices
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 134
Multiplication of Matrices
Example:
1 4 7 8
and B=
A = 2 5
9 0 2 x 2
3 6 3 x 2
then
1 4
7 8
C = AB = 2 5
0
6
9
3
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
67
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 135
Multiplication of Matrices
( 1x7 + 4 x9 ) ( 1x8 + 4 x0 )
C = AB = ( 2 x7 + 5 x9 ) ( 2 x8 + 5 x0 )
( 3 x7 + 6 x9 ) ( 3 x8 + 6 x0 )
43 8
C = 59 16
75 24
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 136
Multiplication of Matrices
Example:
1+ j2 4− j1 6 − j3 3+ j2 2− j1 7 + j5
A= 4+ j1 5+ j3 1+ j1 B= 2+ j1 4+ j6 5+ j4
6 + j3 1− j1 8 + j9 7 − j5 5− j4 6 + j5
68
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 137
Multiplication of Matrices
Example:
c 21 = (4 + j 1 )(3 + j 2 ) + (5 + j 3 )(2 + j 1 ) + (1 + j 1 )(7 − j 5 ) = 29 + j 24
c 22 = (4 + j 1 )(2 − j 1 ) + (5 + j 3 )(4 + j 6 ) + (1 + j 1 )(5 − j 4 ) = 20 + j 41
c 23 = (4 + j 1 )(7 + j 5 ) + (5 + j 3 )(5 + j 4 ) + (1 + j 1 )(6 + j 5 ) = 37 + j73
c 31 = (6 + j 3 )(3 + j 2 ) + (1 − j 1)(2 + j 1) + (8 + j 9 )(7 − j 5 ) = 116 + j 43
c 32 = (6 + j 3 )(2 − j 1) + (1 − j 1)(4 + j 6 ) + (8 + j 9 )(5 − j 4 ) = 101 + j 15
c 33 = (6 + j 3 )(7 + j 5 ) + (1 − j 1)(5 + j 4 ) + (8 + j 9 )(6 + j 5 ) = 39 + j 144
35 − j 41 44 − j16 72 + j 42
[A] x[B] = 29 + j 24 20 + j 41 37 + j73
116 + j 43 101 + j15 39 + j144
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 138
Transpose of a Matrix
If the rows and columns of an m x n matrix are
interchanged, the resultant n x m matrix is the
transpose of the matrix and is designated by AT.
a a21 a31
For the matrix A = 11
a12 a22 a32 2 x 3
a11 a12
The transpose is AT = a21 a22
a31 a32 3 x 2
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
69
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 139
Transpose of a Matrix
Example:
1 3 5
A=
then, 2 4 6 2 x 3
1 2
AT = 3 4
5 6 3 x 2
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 140
Transpose of a Matrix
Example:
1 + j 4 3 − j6 5 + j 2
A=
2 − j 5 4 + j1 6 − j 3
then,
1 + j 4 2 − j 5
AT = 3 − j 6 4 + j 1
5 + j 2 6 − j 3
70
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 141
Determinant of a Matrix
Determinant of a 2 x 2 Matrix
The solutions of two simultaneous equations:
a11 x1 + a12 x2 = y1 (1)
a21 x1 + a22 x2 = y2 (2)
can be obtained by eliminating the variables one
at a time. Solving for x2 in terms of x1 from the second
equation and substituting this expression for x2 in the
first equation, the following is obtained:
y2 a21
x2 = − x1
a22 a22
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 142
Determinant of a Matrix
Determinant of a 2 x 2 Matrix
substituting x2 and solving for x1
y 2 a21
a11 x1 + a12 ( − x1 ) = y1
a22 a22
a11 a22 x1 + a12 y 2 − a12 a21 x1 = a22 y1
( a11 a22 − a12 a21 ) x1 = a22 y1 − a12 y2
a22 y1 − a12 y2
x1 =
a11 a22 − a12 a21
71
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 143
Determinant of a Matrix
Determinant of a 2 x 2 Matrix
Then, substituting x1 in either equation (1) or (2), x2 is
obtained
a11 y2 − a21 y1
x2 =
a11a22 − a12a21
The expression (a11a22 – a12a21) is the value of the
determinant of the coefficient matrix A, denoted by A.
a11 a12
 A =
a21 a22
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 144
Determinant of a Matrix
Minors and Cofactors of a Matrix
Example:
a11 a12 a13
a a13
a 21 a22 a 23 = 12
a32 a33
a31 a32 a33
The minor of a 21 = ( a 12 a 33 − a 32 a 13 )
72
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 145
Determinant of a Matrix
Minors and Cofactors of a Matrix
The cofactor of an element aij designated by Aij is
Aij = ( − 1 ) i + j (minor of a ij )
Example: A21 = ( − 1 ) 2 + 1 ( the min or of a 21 )
= (1) 3 ( the min or of a 21 )
A21 =  1 (the minor of a 21 )
Since the minor of a 21 = ( a 12 a 23 − a 32 a 13 )
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 146
Determinant of a Matrix
Minors and Cofactors of a Matrix
1 1 2
1
Example: A =  1 2
 6 4 2
1 1 2
A11 = ( −1 )1+1 − 1 −2 1 = 1[( −2 )( 2 ) − ( 1 )( 4 )] = −8
−6 4 2
1 1 2
A12 = ( −1 ) − 1
1+ 2
−2 1 = −1[( −1 )( 2 ) − ( 1 )( −6 )] = −4
−6 4 2
73
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 147
Determinant of a Matrix
Minors and Cofactors of a Matrix
1 1 2
A13 = ( −1 )1+3 − 1 − 2 1 = 1[( −1 )( 4 ) − ( −2 )( −6 )] = −16
−6 4 2
1 1 2
A21 = ( −1 ) 2 +1
−1 −2 1 = −1[( 1 )( 2 ) − ( 4 )( 2 )] = 6
−6 4 2
1 1 2
A22 = ( −1 ) 2+ 2
−1 −2 1 = 1[( 1 )( 2 ) − ( 2 )( −6 )] = 14
−6 4 2
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 148
Determinant of a Matrix
Minors and Cofactors of a Matrix
1 1 2
A23 = ( −1 ) 2 +3
−1 −2 1 = −1[( 1 )( 4 ) − ( 1 )( −6 )] = −10
−6 4 2
1 1 2
A31 = ( − 1 ) 3+1
−1 −2 1 = 1[( 1 )( 1 ) − ( −2 )( 2 )] = 5
−6 4 2
1 1 2
A32 = ( −1 ) 3+ 2
−1 −2 1 = −1[( 1 )( 1 ) − ( −1 )( 2 )] = −3
−6 4 2
74
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 149
Determinant of a Matrix
Minors and Cofactors of a Matrix
1 1 2
A33 = ( −1) − 13+3
−2 1 = 1[(1 )( −2 ) − ( −1 )(1 )] = −1
−6 4 2
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 150
Determinant of a Matrix
Minors and Cofactors of a Matrix
− 8 −4 − 16
A= 6 14 − 10
5 −3 − 1
75
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 151
Inverse of a Matrix
Division does not exist in matrix algebra except in the
case of division of a matrix by a scalar. However, for a
given set of equations.
a 11 x 1 + a 12 x 2 + a 13 x 3 = y 1
a 21 x 1 + a 22 x 2 + a 23 x 3 = y 2
a 31 x 1 + a 32 x 2 + a 33 x 3 = y 3
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 152
Inverse of a Matrix
If the determinant of A is not zero, the equations can
be solved for x ’s as follows;
A 11 A 21 A 31
x1 = y1 + y2 + y3
 A  A  A
A 21 A 22 A 32
x2 = y1 + y2 + y3
 A  A  A
A 13 A 23 A 33
x3 = y1 + y2 + y3
 A  A  A
where A11, A12, …, A33 are cofactors of a11, a12,,a33 and A
is the determinant of A.
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
76
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 153
Inverse of a Matrix
Thus,
A 11 A 21 A 31
 A   A   A 
A+
B = A 1
A
= 12
A 22 A 32 or A = 1
 A   A   A   A
A 13 A 23 A 33
 A   A   A 
A+ is called the adjoint of A. It should be noted that the
elements of adjoint A+ are the cofactors of the elements of
A, but are placed in transposed position.
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 154
Inverse of a Matrix
Example: Get the inverse of A
1 1 2
A =  1 2 1 A 1 =
A+
 A
 6 4 2
the Adjoint of A is
77
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 155
Inverse of a Matrix
The determinant of A is
1 1 2
 A = − 1 − 2 1
−6 4 2
−2 1 −1 1 −1 −2
 A = ( −1 )1+1 1 + ( −1 )1+2 1 + ( −1 )1+3 2
4 2 −6 2 −6 4
 A = 1( − 2 )( 2 ) − ( 1 )( 4 )( 1 ) − ( 1 )( − 1 )( 2 )
+ ( 1 )( − 6 )( 1 ) + ( 2 )( − 1 )( 4 ) − ( 2 )( − 6 )( − 2 )
= − 4 − 4 + 2 − 6 − 8 − 24 = 2 − 46
 A = − 44
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 156
Inverse of a Matrix
Hence, the inverse of matrix A is
−8 6 5 −−448 6 5
−4 −44 −44
= −−444
14 − 3 14 −3
+ − 16 − 10 − 1 −44 −44
=
A
A −1 =
A − 44 −−16
44
−10
−44
−1
−44
−8 6 5
= − − 4 14 − 3
1
A −1
44
− 16 − 10 − 1
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
78
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 157
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 158
[Y ] = ([ A ] − [ A ][ A ] [ A ])[ X ]
1 1 2 4
−1
3 1
79
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 159
Example: y1 1 2 3 4 x1
y 8 7 6 5 x2
2 =
y3 3 4 5 6 x3
0 2 4 7 8 x4
1 2 3 4
[Y1 ] = 8 7 6 − 5[8] [2
−1
4 7 ][ X 1 ]
3 4 5 6
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 160
Example:
1 2 3 4
1
[Y1 ] = 8 7 6 − 5 [2
8
4 7 ][ X 1 ]
3 4 5 6
1 2 3 0.5
[Y1 ] = 8 7 6 − 0.625[2
4 7 ][ X 1 ]
3 4 5 0.75
1 2 3 1 2 3.5
[Y1 ] = 8 7 6 − 1.25
2.5 4.375 [ X 1 ]
3 4 5 1.5 3 5.25
80
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 161
0 0 − 0.50
∴ [Y1 ] = 6.75 4.5 1.625 [ X 1 ]
1.50 1.0 − 0.25
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 162
Direct Solutions
of System of Equations
Cramer’s Rule
Matrix Inversion Method
Gaussian Elimination Method
GaussJordan Method
81
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 163
Solutions of System of
Equations by Cramer’ s Rule
The system of three linear equations in three
unknowns x1, x2, x3:
a11 x1 + a12 x 2 + a13 x3 = y1
a 21 x1 + a 22 x 2 + a 23 x3 = y 2
a31 x1 + a 32 x 2 + a 33 x3 = y 3
written in matrix form as :
a11 a12 a13 x1 y 1
a a 22 a 23 x 2 = y 2
21 or AX = Y
a 31 a 32 a 33 x3 y 3
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 164
82
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 165
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 166
1 1 2 x1 3
 1  2 1 x2 = 7
 6 4 2 x 3 14
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
83
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 167
1 1 2 1 1 2
A =  1 2 1  A= 1 −2 1 = − 44
 6 4 2 −6 4 2
y1 a 12 a 13 3 1 2
y2 a 22 a 23 7 −2 1
y3 a 32 a 33 14 4 2 88
x1 = x1 = = = −2
 A  44 − 44
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 168
84
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 169
Solutions of System of
Equations by Matrix Inversion
The system of equations in matrix form can be
manipulated as follows:
AX = Y
A 1 AX = A 1Y
IX = A 1Y
X = A 1Y
Hence, the solution X can be obtained by multiplying
The inverse of the coefficient matrix by the constant
matrix Y.
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 170
Solutions of System of
Equations by Matrix Inversion
Example:
x 1 + x 2 + 2x 3 = 3
 x 1 − 2x 2 + x 3 = 7
 6x 1 + 4x 2 + 2x 3 = 14
1 1 2
A =  1 2 1
 6 4 2
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
85
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 171
Solutions of System of
Equations by Matrix Inversion
−8 6 5
A1 = − − 4 − 3
1 From slide no. 173
14
44
− 16 − 10 − 1
−8 6 5 3
1
X =A Y =− 1
−4 14 − 3 7
44
− 16 − 10 − 1 14
− 8( 3 ) + 6( 7 ) + 5( 14 )
1
X =A Y =−
1
− 4( 3 ) + 14( 7 ) + − 3(14)
44
− 16( 3 ) + − 10( 7 ) + − 1( 14 )
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 172
Solutions of System of
Equations by Matrix Inversion
88 − 2
X = A 1Y = −
1 44 = − 1
44
− 132 3
Therefore:
x1 =  2
x2 =  1
x3 = 3
86
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 173
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 174
1 1 2 M 3
0 −1 3 M 10
0 10 14 M 32
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
87
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 175
1 1 2 M 3
0 −1 3 M 10
0 0 44 M 132
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 176
0x1 + 0 x2 + 44 x3 = 132
0 x1 − x2 + 3( 3 ) = 10
x1 + ( −1 ) + 2( 3 ) = 3
Therefore:
x3 = 3 x2 =  1 x1 = 2
88
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 177
Gauss Elimination:
forward elimination a"33 M c3"
& back substitution.
⇓
The primes indicate
the number of times x3 = c3" / a"33
that the coefficients Back
and constants have
x2 =( c'2 −a'23x3 ) / a'22 substitution
been modified. x1 =( c1 −a12x2 −a13x3 ) / a11
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 178
GaussJordan Method
From Gauss Elimination Method slide
no.192
1 1 2 M 3
0 −1 3 M 10
0 0 44 M 132
Multiply row 2 by 1.
1 1 2 M 3
0 1 −3 M − 10
0 0 44 M 132
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
89
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 179
GaussJordan Method
Divide row 3 by 44.
1 1 2 M 3
0 1 −3 M − 10
0 0 1 M 3
Multiply row 2 by 1 then add to row 1 to get row 1.
1 0 5 M 13
0 1 −3 M − 10
0 0 1 M 3
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 180
GaussJordan Method
Multiply row 3 by 5 then add to row 1 to get row 1.
Multiply row 3 by 3 then add to row 2 to get row 2.
1 0 0 M − 2
0 1 0 M − 1
0 0 1 M 3
90
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 181
GaussJordan Method
Therefore: 1 0 0 x1 − 2
0 1 0 x2 = − 1
0 0 1 x 3 3
Then, x1 = − 2
x2 = −1
x3 = 3
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 182
GaussJordan Method
The GaussJordan method is a variation of
Gauss Elimination. The major differences is
that when an unknown is eliminated in the
GJM, it is eliminated from all other equations
rather than just the subsequent ones.
In addition, all rows are normalized by
dividing them by their pivot elements. Thus,
the elimination steps results in an identity
matrix rather than a triangular matrix.
91
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 183
a 11 a 12 a 13 M c1
GaussJordan a a 22 a 23 M c2
Method 21
a 31 a 32 a 33 M c 3
↓
Graphical depiction of the
GaussJordan Method. 1 0 0 M c 1(n)
The superscript (n) means 0 1 0 M c 2(n)
that the elements of the
0 0 1 M c 3(n)
righthandside vector
have been modified n ↓
times (for this case, n=3). x1 = c 1(n)
x2 = c 2(n)
x3 = c 3(n)
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 184
Iterative Solutions
of System of Equations
92
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 185
Iterative Solutions
of System of Equations
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 186
Iterative Solutions
of System of Equations
93
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 187
a) x1 0 = x 2 0 = x3 0 = 0.0
b) x1 0 = x 2 0 = x 3 0 = 0.5
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 188
94
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 189
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 190
95
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 191
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 192
96
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 193
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 194
97
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 195
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 196
98
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 197
x 1 = 0.9995
x 2 = 0.9998
x 3 = 0.9998
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 198
99
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 199
x1 2 =
x2 2 =
x3 2 =
∆x11 =
∆x21 =
∆x31 =
max ∆x 1 =
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 200
x1 3 =
x2 3 =
x3 3 =
∆x12 =
∆x22 =
∆x32 =
max ∆x 2 =
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
100
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 201
x1 4 =
x2 4 =
x3 4 =
∆x13 =
∆x23 =
∆x33 =
max ∆x 3 =
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 202
x1 5 =
x2 5 =
x3 5 =
∆x14 =
∆x24 =
∆x34 =
max ∆x 4 =
101
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 203
x1 6 =
x2 6 =
x3 6 =
∆x15 =
∆x25 =
∆x35 =
max ∆x 5 =
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 204
x1 7 =
x2 7 =
x3 7 =
∆x16 =
∆x26 =
∆x36 =
max ∆x 6 =
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
102
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 205
x18 =
x2 8 =
x3 8 =
∆x17 =
∆x27 =
∆x37 =
max ∆x7 =
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 206
x 1
=
x 2
=
x 3
=
103
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 207
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 208
104
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 209
1
xj = ( b j − ∑ i = 1 a ji x i )
n
equation “a”
a jj i≠ j
j = 1, 2,K n
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 210
k +1 y1 a a a
= − 12 x 2 − 13 x 3 − ... − 1n x n
k k k
x1
a 11 a 11 a 11 a 11
k +1 y2 a k a k a k
x2 = − 21 x 1 − 23 x 3 − ... − 2n x n
a 22 a 22 a 22 a 22
k +1 yn a a a
= − n1 x 1 − n2 x 2 − ... − n, n  1 x n  1
k k k
xn
a nn a nn a nn a nn
where k is the iteration count
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
105
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 211
1
x kj + 1 = ( b j − ∑ i=1 a
n
ji
xk ) equation “b”
a jj i≠ j
i
j = 1, 2,K n
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 212
∆ x k = x kj + 1 − x kj equation “c”
j = 1, 2,K n
The iteration process is terminated when
max  ∆ x kj  < ε (convergen t)
k = itermax (non  convergent )
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
106
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 213
GaussSeidel Method
Example: Solve the system of equations using the
GaussSeidel method. Used a
convergence index of ε = 0.001
4x 1
− x2 + x3 = 4
x 1 + 4x 2
+ x3 =6
x 1 + x 2 + 3x 3
= 5
x 1 0 = x 2 0 = x 3 0 = 0.5
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 214
GaussSeidel Method
Solution:
a) The system of equation must be expressed
in standard form.
1
x 1k + 1 = ( 4 + x 2k  x 3k )
4
1
x 2k + 1 = ( 6  x 1k + 1  x 3k )
4
1
x 3k + 1 = ( 5  x 1k + 1  x 2k + 1 )
3
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
107
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 215
GaussSeidel Method
with x 1 0 = x 2 0 = x 3 0 = 0.5
Iteration 1 (k =0): 1
x11 = ( 4 + 0.5  0.5 ) = 1.0
4
1
x 21 = ( 6  1.0  0.5 ) = 1.125
4
1
x31 = ( 5  1.0  1.125 ) = 0.9583
3
∆ x 10 = 1 − 0 . 5 = 0 . 50
∆ x 20 = 1 . 125 − 0 . 50 = 0 . 625
∆ x 30 = 0 . 9583 − 0 . 50 = 0 . 4583
max  ∆ x 20  = 0.625
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 216
GaussSeidel Method
Iteration 2 (k = 1):
1
x1 2 = ( 4 + 1.125  0.9583 ) = 1.0417
4
1
x2 2 = ( 6  1.0417  0.9583 ) = 1.0
4
1
x3 2 = ( 5  1.0417  1.0 ) = 0.9861
3
∆x1 = 1.0417 − 1 = 0.0417
1
108
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 217
GaussSeidel Method
Iteration 3 (k = 2):
1
x1 3 = ( 4 + 1.0  0.9861 ) = 1.0035
4
1
x 2 3 = ( 6  1.0035  0.9891 ) = 1.0026
4
1
x 3 3 = ( 5  1.0035  1.0026 ) = 0.9980
3
∆ x1 = 1 .0035 − 1 .0417 = − 0 .0382
2
∆ x 22 = 1 .0026 − 1 = 0 .0026
∆ x 32 = 0 .9980 − 0 .9861 = 0 .0119
max  ∆ x 32  = 0.0119
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 218
GaussSeidel Method
Iteration 4 (k = 3):
1
x1 4 = ( 4 + 1.0026  0.9980 ) = 1.0012
4
1
x2 4 = ( 6  1.0012  0.9980) = 1.0002
4
1
x3 4 = ( 5  1.0  1.0012  1.0002) = 0.9995
3
∆x13 = 1.0012 − 1.0035 = 0.0023
∆x23 = 1.0002 − 1.0026 = −0.0024
∆x33 = 0.9995 − 0.9980 = 0.0015
max  ∆x23  = 0.0024
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
109
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 219
GaussSeidel Method
Iteration 5 (k = 4):
1
x1 5 = ( 4 + 1.0002  0.9995 ) = 1.0002
4
1
x 2 5 = ( 6  1.0002  0.9995) = 1.0001
4
1
x 3 5 = ( 5  1.0002  1.0001) = 0.9999
3
∆ x14 = 1 .0002 − 1 .0012 = −0 .001
∆ x 24 = 1 .0001 − 1 .0002 = −0 .0001
∆ x 34 = 0 .9999 − 0 .9995 = 0 .0004
max  ∆ x 4  = 0.001 < ε
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 220
GaussSeidel Method
x 1 = 1.0002
x 2 = 1.0001
x 3 = 0.9999
110
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 221
GaussSeidel Method
The GaussSeidel method is an improvement over the
Gauss iterative method. As presented in the previous
section, the standard form of the jth equation may be
written as follows.
1
xj = (bj − ∑
n
i=1
a ji x i ) j = 1, 2, K n
a jj i≠ j
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 222
GaussSeidel Method
Note that within an iteration, the latest computed
values are used in computing for the remaining
unknowns. In general, at iteration k,
1 α
x k +1 = (bj − ∑
n
i=1
a ji
xi )
j
a jj i≠ j
j = 1, 2, K n
where α = k if i > j
= k + 1 if i < j
After each iteration, a convergence check is
conducted. The convergence criterion applied is the
same with Gauss Iterative Method.
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
111
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 223
GaussSeidel Method
An improvement to the Gauss Iterative Method
k +1 y1 a k a k
x1 = − 12 x 2 − ... − 1n x n
a 11 a 11 a 11
k +1 y a k +1 a k
x2 = 2 − 21 x 1 − ... − 2n x n
a 22 a 22 a 22
k+1 y aij k+1 a k+1 a k+1 a k+1
xi = i − xi −...− i,i1 xi1 − i,i+1 xi+1 − in xn
aii aii aii aii aii
k +1 yn a k +1 a k +1
xn = − n1 x 1 − ... − n, n  1 x n  1
a nn a nn a nn
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 224
Newton Method
Example:
Find the root of f ( x ) = e−x − x
Note: the equation is nonlinear and can not be solved by the
direct and iterative methods for solving linear equations.
112
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 225
Newton Method
f(x)
f ( xi +1 ) ≅ f ( xi ) + f ' ( xi )(xi+1 − 1)
f(xi)
the x  axis, f ( x i + 1 ) = 0
Xi+1
(xi – xi+1)
f (x i )
xi +1 = xi −
f ' (xi )
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 226
Newton Method
The first order Taylor Series expansion of f ( x ) = −e − x − x
can be obtained by getting the first derivative
f ' ( x ) = −e − x − 1
At the intersection of the slope (i.e., derivative) with
the original function, f ( x i + 1 ) = 0 , hence
f ( x i + 1 ) = f ( x i ) + f ' ( x i )( x i − x i + 1 )
0 = f ( x i ) + f ' ( x i )( x i − x i + 1 )
f ( xi )
x i+1 = xi −
f ' ( xi )
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
113
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 227
Newton Method
e − xi − x i xi+1 = xi −
f ( xi )
Substituting, x i +1 = xi − f ' ( xi )
− e − xi − 1
Using initial guess x0=0
e −0 − 0 1
x1 = 0 − −0
=− = 0 .5 ∆ x = 0 .5 − 0 = 0 . 5
−e −1 −1−1
The next estimate is
e − 0 .5 − 0 . 5
x 2 = 0 .5 − = 0 .566311
− e − 0 .5 − 1
∆ x = 0 . 566311 − 0 . 50 = 0 . 066311
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 228
Newton Method
x3 = ∆ x = _________ − ________ =
x4 = ∆ x = _________ − ________ =
x5 = ∆ x = _________ − ________ =
114
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 229
NewtonRaphson Method
Example: Solve the nonlinear equation
x12 − 4x2 = 4
2x1 − x2 = 2
use: x1 = 1, x2 = −1
0 0
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 230
NewtonRaphson Method
In Matrix form
∂f 1 ( x ) ∂f 1 ( x 0 )
0
y − f ( x ) = ∂f ( x 0 )
∂f 2 ( x 0 ) ∆x2
2 2 0 2
∂x1 ∂x2
Jacobian Matrix
4 − ( x12 − 4 x2 ) 2 x1  4 ∆x1
2 − ( 2 x − x ) =
1 2
2
− 1 ∆x2
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
115
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 231
NewtonRaphson Method
Iteration 0:
f 1 ( x 0 ) = 12 − 4( −1 ) = 5 , y1 = 4
∂f 1
= 2(1) = 2
∂x1
∂f 1
= −4 f 2 ( x 0 ) = 2( 1 ) − ( − 1 ) = 3 , y 2 = 2
∂x2
∂f 2
=2
∂x1
∂f 2
= −1
∂x 2
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 232
NewtonRaphson Method
The equations are: In matrix form:
4 − 5 = ( 2 )∆x1 + ( −4 )∆x2
0 0
− 1 2 − 4 ∆ x10
− 1 = 2
− 1 ∆ x 2 0
2 − 3 = ( 2 )∆x1 + ( −1 )∆x2
0 0
Solving,
∆ x1 = − 0 .5
0
∆ x = 0
0
1
2
Thus, x1 = 1 + ( −0.5 ) = 0.5
1
x2 = −1 + 0 = −1
116
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 233
NewtonRaphson Method
Repeating the process with the new estimates,
Iteration 1:
f 1 ( x1 ) = ( 0.5 )2 − 4( −1 ) = 4.25 , y1 = 4
∂f 1 ( x1 )
= 2( 0.5 ) = 1.0
∂x1
∂f 1 ( x1 ) f 2 ( x 1 ) = 2 ( 0 .5 ) − ( − 1 ) = 2 , y2 = 2
= −4 ∂f 2 ( x 1 )
∂x2 = 2
∂x1
∂f 2 ( x 1 )
= −1
∂x2
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 234
NewtonRaphson Method
The equations are: In matrix form:
0 = 2
− 1 ∆x 2 1
2 − 2 = 2 ∆ x1 − ∆ x 2
1 1
Solving,
∆ x 1 = 0 . 03571
1
∆ x 2 = 0 . 07143
1
Thus,
x 1 = 0 .5 + 0 .03571 = 0 .53571
2
x 2 = − 1 + 0 .07143 = − 0 .92857
2
117
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 235
NewtonRaphson Method
Repeating the process with the new estimates,
Iteration 2:
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 236
NewtonRaphson Method
The equations are:
4 − 4 . 001265 = 1 . 07142 ∆ x 1 − 4 ∆ x 2
2 2
2 − 2 .0 = 2 ∆ x1 − ∆ x 2
2 2 In matrix form:
− 0 .001265 1 .07142 − 4 ∆ x1 2
=
− 1 ∆ x 2 2
0 2
Solving,
∆ x 1 = − 0 . 00018
2
∆ x 2 = 0 . 00036
2
118
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 237
NewtonRaphson Method
Substituting to the original equation:
y 1 − f 1 = − 0 . 0025
y 2 − f 2 = 0 . 00072 Therefore,
x 1 = 0 .53553
x 2 = − 0 .92893
Note the rapid convergence of the NewtonRaphson
Method.
U. P. National Engineering Center Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric
National Electrification Administration Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 238
NewtonRaphson Method
The NewtonRaphson method is applied when the
system of equations is nonlinear.
Consider a set of n nonlinear equations in n unknowns.
y 1 = f 1 ( x 1 , x 2 ,K , x n )
y 2 = f 2 ( x 1 , x 2 ,K , x n )
M
y n = f n (x 1 , x 2 , K , x n )
119
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 239
NewtonRaphson Method
The system of nonlinear equations can be linearized
using Taylor’s Series
∂f1 0 ∂f ∂f
y1 = f1 ( x0 ) + ( x )∆x1 + 1 ( x0 )∆x2 + K + 1 ( x0 )∆xn
0 0 0
M M M M
∂f n 0 ∂f ∂f
yn = f n ( x0 ) + ( x )∆x1 + 1 ( x0 )∆x2 + K+ 1 ( x0 )∆xn
0 0 0
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 240
NewtonRaphson Method
Where:
X0 = (x10,x20, …, xn0)
= set of initial estimates
120
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 241
NewtonRaphson Method
The equation may be written in matrix form as
follows:
f 1 ( x 0 ) 1∂x1 ∆x 0
∂f ( x o ) ∂f 1 (x 0 ) ∂f 1 (x 0 )
y1 − ∂x 2 K ∂x n
1
0
∂f 2 ( x 0 ) ∂f 2 ( x 0 ) 0
y2 − f 2 ( x 0 ) ∂f 2∂(xx ) K ∆ x
= 1 ∂x 2 ∂x n
M
2
M
M0 M M
0
∂f n ( x 0 ) 0
y n − f n ( x 0 ) ∂f n∂(xx ) K ∂f n∂(xnx ) ∆xn
1 ∂x 2
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 242
NewtonRaphson Method
At the kth iteration:
k =1
x j = x j + ∆x j j = 1, 2,...,n
k k
y j − f j ( xk ) ≤ ε 1 j = 1,2,...,n
or
∆x j ≤ ε 2 j = 1, 2, ..., n
k
121
Training Course in Fundamental Principles and Methods in Power System Analysis 243
122