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Functions

Chapter 5

Angles and Their

Measure

Section 5.1

Basic Terminology

Ray: A half-line starting at a vertex

V

vertex

Basic Terminology

Initial side and terminal side: The

rays in an angle

Angle shows direction and amount of

rotation

Lower-case Greek letters denote angles

Basic Terminology

Positive angle: Counterclockwise

rotation

Negative angle: Clockwise rotation

Coterminal angles: Share initial and

terminal sides

Basic Terminology

Standard position:

Vertex at origin

Initial side is positive x-axis

Basic Terminology

Quadrantal angle: Angle in standard

position that doesn’t lie in any

quadrant

Lies in quadrant IV

Measuring Angles

Two usual ways of measuring

Degrees

360± in one rotation

Radians

2¼ radians in one rotation

Measuring Angles

Right angle: A quarter revolution

A right angle contains

90±

¼

2

radians

Measuring Angles

Straight angle: A half revolution.

A straight angle contains:

180±

¼ radians

Measuring Angles

Negative angles have negative

measure

Degrees, Minutes and Seconds

One complete revolution = 360±

One minute:

One-sixtieth of a degree

One minute is denoted 10

1± = 600

One second:

One-sixtieth of a minute

One second is denoted 1 00

10 = 6000

Degrees, Minutes and Seconds

Example. Convert to a decimal in degrees

Problem: 64±3502700

Answer:

Example. Convert to the D±M0S00 form

Problem: 73.582±

Answer:

Radians

Central angle: An angle whose vertex

is at the center of a circle

Central angles subtend an arc on the

circle

Radians

One radian is the measure of an

angle which subtends an arc with

length equal to the radius of the circle

Radians

IMPORTANT!

Radians are dimensionless

If an angle appears with no units, it

must be assumed to be in radians

Arc Length

Theorem. [Arc Length]

For a circle of radius r, a central angle of

µ radians subtends an arc whose length s

is

s = rµ

WARNING!

The angle must be given in radians

Arc Length

Example.

Problem: Find the length of the arc of a

circle of radius 5 centimeters subtended

by a central angle of 1.4 radians

Answer:

Radians vs. Degrees

1 revolution = 2¼ radians = 360±

180± = ¼ radians

1± = 1¼8 0 radians

180 ±

1 radian = ¼

Radians vs. Degrees

Example. Convert each angle in

degrees to radians and each angle in

radians to degrees

(a) Problem: 45±

Answer:

(b) Problem: {270±

Answer:

(c) Problem: 2 radians

Answer:

Radians vs. Degrees

Measurements of common angles

Area of a Sector of a Circle

Theorem. [Area of a Sector]

The area A of the sector of a circle of

radius r formed by a central angle of µ

radians is

1

A = 2

r 2µ

Area of a Sector of a Circle

Example.

Problem: Find the area of the sector of a

circle of radius 3 meters formed by an

angle of 45±. Round your answer to two

decimal places.

Answer:

WARNING!

The angle again must be given in

radians

Linear and Angular Speed

Object moving around a circle or

radius r at a constant speed

Linear speed: Distance traveled divided

by elapsed time

s

v = t

t = time

µ = central angle swept out in time t

s = rµ = arc length = distance traveled

Linear and Angular Speed

Object moving around a circle or

radius r at a constant speed

Angular speed: Angle swept out divided

by elapsed time

µ

! = t

v = r!

Linear and Angular Speed

Example. A neighborhood carnival

has a Ferris wheel whose radius is 50

feet. You measure the time it takes

for one revolution to be 90 seconds.

(a) Problem: What is the linear speed (in

feet per second) of this Ferris wheel?

Answer:

(b) Problem: What is the angular speed

(in radians per second)?

Answer:

Key Points

Basic Terminology

Measuring Angles

Degrees, Minutes and Seconds

Radians

Arc Length

Radians vs. Degrees

Area of a Sector of a Circle

Linear and Angular Speed

Trigonometric

Functions: Unit

Circle Approach

Section 5.2

Unit Circle

Unit circle: Circle with radius 1

centered at the origin

Equation: x2 + y2 = 1

Circumference: 2¼

Unit Circle

Travel t units around circle, starting

from the point (1,0), ending at the

point P = (x, y)

the trigonometric functions of t

Trigonometric Functions

Let t be a real number and P = (x, y)

the point on the unit circle

corresponding to t:

Sine function: y-coordinate of P

sin t = y

Cosine function: x-coordinate of P

cos t = x

Tangent function: if x 0

Trigonometric Functions

Let t be a real number and P = (x, y)

the point on the unit circle

corresponding to t:

Cosecant function: if y 0

Secant function: if x 0

Cotangent function: if y 0

Exact Values Using Points on

the Circle

A point on the unit circle will satisfy

the equation x2 + y2 = 1

Use this information together with

the definitions of the trigonometric

functions.

Exact Values Using Points on

the Circle

Example. Let t be a real number and

P= the point on the unit

circle that corresponds to t.

Problem: Find the values of sin t, cos t,

tan t, csc t, sec t and cot t

Answer:

Trigonometric Functions of

Angles

Convert between arc length and

angles on unit circle

Use angle µ to define trigonometric

functions of the angle µ

Exact Values for Quadrantal

Angles

Quadrantal angles correspond to

integer multiples of 90± or of

radians

Exact Values for Quadrantal

Angles

Example. Find the values of the

trigonometric functions of µ

Problem: µ = 0 = 0±

Answer:

Exact Values for Quadrantal

Angles

Example. Find the values of the

trigonometric functions of µ

Problem: µ = = 90±

Answer:

Exact Values for Quadrantal

Angles

Example. Find the values of the

trigonometric functions of µ

Problem: µ = ¼ = 180±

Answer:

Exact Values for Quadrantal

Angles

Example. Find the values of the

trigonometric functions of µ

Problem: µ = = 270±

Answer:

Exact Values for Quadrantal

Angles

Exact Values for Quadrantal

Angles

Example. Find the exact values of

(a) Problem: sin({90±)

Answer:

(b) Problem: cos(5¼)

Answer:

Exact Values for Standard

Angles

Example. Find the values of the

trigonometric functions of µ

Problem: µ = = 45±

Answer:

Exact Values for Standard

Angles

Example. Find the values of the

trigonometric functions of µ

Problem: µ = = 60±

Answer:

Exact Values for Standard

Angles

Example. Find the values of the

trigonometric functions of µ

Problem: µ = = 30±

Answer:

Exact Values for Standard

Angles

Exact Values for Standard

Angles

Example. Find the values of the

following expressions

(a) Problem: sin(315±)

Answer:

(b) Problem: cos({120±)

Answer:

(c) Problem:

Answer:

Approximating Values Using a

Calculator

IMPORTANT!

Be sure that your calculator is in the

correct mode.

Approximating Values Using a

Calculator

Example. Use a calculator to find the

approximate values of the following.

Express your answers rounded to two

decimal places.

(a) Problem: sin 57±

Answer:

(b) Problem: cot {153±

Answer:

(c) Problem: sec 2

Answer:

Circles of Radius r

Theorem.

For an angle µ in standard position, let

P = (x, y) be the point on the terminal

side of µ that is also on the circle

x2 + y2 = r2. Then

Circles of Radius r

Example.

Problem: Find the exact values of each of

the trigonometric functions of an angle µ

if ({12, {5) is a point on its terminal

side.

Answer:

Key Points

Unit Circle

Trigonometric Functions

Exact Values Using Points on the

Circle

Trigonometric Functions of Angles

Exact Values for Quadrantal Angles

Exact Values for Standard Angles

Approximating Values Using a

Calculator

Key Points (cont.)

Circles of Radius r

Properties of the

Trigonometric

Functions

Section 5.3

Domains of Trigonometric

Functions

Domain of sine and cosine functions is

the set of all real numbers

Domain of tangent and secant

functions is the set of all real

numbers, except odd integer multiples

of = 90±

Domain of cotangent and cosecant

functions is the set of all real

numbers, except integer multiples of

¼ = 180±

Ranges of Trigonometric

Functions

Sine and cosine have range [{1, 1]

{1 · sin µ · 1; jsin µj · 1

{1 · cos µ · 1; jcos µj · 1

({1, {1] [ [1, 1)

jcsc µj ¸ 1

jsec µj ¸ 1

functions is the set of all real numbers

Periods of Trigonometric

Functions

Periodic function: A function f with

a positive number p such that

whenever µ is in the domain of f, so is

µ + p, and

f(µ + p) = f(µ)

(Fundamental) period of f: smallest

such number p, if it exists

Periods of Trigonometric

Functions

Periodic Properties:

sin(µ + 2¼) = sin µ

cos(µ + 2¼) = cos µ

tan(µ + ¼) = tan µ

csc(µ + 2¼) = csc µ

sec(µ + 2¼) = sec µ

cot(µ + ¼) = cot µ

Sine, cosine, cosecant and secant have

period 2¼

Tangent and cotangent have period ¼

Periods of Trigonometric

Functions

Example. Find the exact values of

(a) Problem: sin(7¼)

Answer:

(b) Problem:

Answer:

(c) Problem:

Answer:

Signs of the Trigonometric

Functions

P = (x, y) corresponding to angle µ

Definitions of functions, where defined

Quadrant I: x > 0, y > 0

Quadrant II: x < 0, y > 0

Quadrant III: x < 0, y < 0

Quadrant IV: x > 0, y < 0

Signs of the Trigonometric

Functions

Signs of the Trigonometric

Functions

Example:

Problem: If sin µ < 0 and cos µ > 0, name

the quadrant in which the angle µ lies

Answer:

Quotient Identities

P = (x, y) corresponding to angle µ:

Quotient Identities

Example.

Problem: Given and

, find the exact values of

the four remaining trigonometric

functions of µ using identities.

Answer:

Pythagorean Identities

Unit circle: x2 + y2 = 1

(sin µ)2 + (cos µ)2 = 1

sin2 µ + cos2 µ = 1

tan2 µ + 1 = sec2 µ

1 + cot2 µ = csc2 µ

Pythagorean Identities

Example. Find the exact values of

each expression. Do not use a

calculator

(a) Problem: cos 20± sec 20±

Answer:

Answer:

Pythagorean Identities

Example.

Problem: Given that and that

µ is in Quadrant II, find cos µ.

Answer:

Even-Odd Properties

A function f is even if f({µ) = f(µ)

for all µ in the domain of f

A function f is odd if f({µ) = {f(µ)

for all µ in the domain of f

Even-Odd Properties

Theorem. [Even-Odd Properties]

sin({µ) = {sin(µ)

cos({µ) = cos(µ)

tan({µ) = {tan(µ)

csc({µ) = {csc(µ)

sec({µ) = sec(µ)

cot({µ) = {cot(µ)

Cosine and secant are even functions

The other functions are odd functions

Even-Odd Properties

Example. Find the exact values of

(a) Problem: sin({30±)

Answer:

(b) Problem:

Answer:

(c) Problem:

Answer:

Fundamental Trigonometric

Identities

Quotient Identities

Reciprocal Identities

Pythagorean Identities

Even-Odd Identities

Key Points

Domains of Trigonometric Functions

Ranges of Trigonometric Functions

Periods of Trigonometric Functions

Signs of the Trigonometric Functions

Quotient Identities

Pythagorean Identities

Even-Odd Properties

Fundamental Trigonometric Identities

Graphs of the

Sine and Cosine

Functions

Section 5.4

Graphing Trigonometric

Functions

Graph in xy-plane

Write functions as

y = f(x) = sin x

y = f(x) = cos x

y = f(x) = tan x

y = f(x) = csc x

y = f(x) = sec x

y = f(x) = cot x

Variable x is an angle, measured in radians

Can be any real number

Graphing the Sine Function

Periodicity: Only need to graph on

interval [0, 2¼] (One cycle)

Plot points and graph

Properties of the Sine Function

Domain: All real numbers

Range: [{1, 1]

Odd function

Periodic, period 2¼

x-intercepts: …, {2¼, {¼, 0, ¼, 2¼, 3¼, …

y-intercept: 0

Maximum value: y = 1, occurring at

Transformations of the Graph

of the Sine Functions

Example.

Problem: Use the graph of y = sin x to

graph

Answer: 4

3 2 5 3

2 2 2 2

-2

-4

Graphing the Cosine Function

Periodicity: Again, only need to graph

on interval [0, 2¼] (One cycle)

Plot points and graph

Properties of the Cosine

Function

Domain: All real numbers

Range: [{1, 1]

Even function

Periodic, period 2¼

x-intercepts:

y-intercept: 1

Maximum value: y = 1, occurring at

x = …, {2¼, 0, 2¼, 4¼, 6¼, …

Minimum value: y = {1, occurring at

x = …, {¼, ¼, 3¼, 5¼, …

Transformations of the Graph

of the Cosine Functions

Example.

Problem: Use the graph of y = cos x to

graph

Answer: 4

3 2 5 3

2 2 2 2

-2

-4

Sinusoidal Graphs

Graphs of sine and cosine functions

appear to be translations of each

other

Graphs are called sinusoidal

Conjecture.

Amplitude and Period of

Sinusoidal Functions

Graphs of functions y = A sin x and

y = A cos x will always satisfy

inequality {jAj · y · jAj

Number jAj is the amplitude

Amplitude and Period of

Sinusoidal Functions

Graphs of functions y = A sin x and

y = A cos x will always satisfy

inequality {jAj · y · jAj

Number jAj is the amplitude

4 4

2 2

3 2 5 3 3 5

2 3

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

-2 -2

-4 -4

Amplitude and Period of

Sinusoidal Functions

Period of y = sin(!x) and

y = cos(!x) is

4 4

2 2

3 2 5 3 3 2 5 3

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

-2 -2

-4 -4

Amplitude and Period of

Sinusoidal Functions

Cycle: One period of y = sin(!x) or

y = cos(!x)

4 4

2 2

3 2 5 3 3 2 5 3

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

-2 -2

-4 -4

Amplitude and Period of

Sinusoidal Functions

Cycle: One period of y = sin(!x) or

y = cos(!x)

Amplitude and Period of

Sinusoidal Functions

Theorem. If ! > 0, the amplitude and

period of y = Asin(!x) and

y = Acos(! x) are given by

Amplitude = j Aj

Period = .

Amplitude and Period of

Sinusoidal Functions

Example.

Problem: Determine the amplitude and

period of y = {2cos(¼x)

Answer:

Graphing Sinusoidal Functions

One cycle contains four important

subintervals

For y = sin x and y = cos x these are

Graphing Sinusoidal Functions

Example.

Problem: Graph y = {3cos(2x)

Answer:

4

3 2 5 3

2 2 2 2

-2

-4

Finding Equations for

Sinusoidal Graphs

Example.

Problem: Find an equation for the graph.

Answer:

6

3 5 2 3 3 2 5 3

2 2 2 2 2 2

-2

-4

-6

Key Points

Graphing Trigonometric Functions

Graphing the Sine Function

Properties of the Sine Function

Transformations of the Graph of the

Sine Functions

Graphing the Cosine Function

Properties of the Cosine Function

Transformations of the Graph of the

Cosine Functions

Key Points (cont.)

Sinusoidal Graphs

Amplitude and Period of Sinusoidal

Functions

Graphing Sinusoidal Functions

Finding Equations for Sinusoidal

Graphs

Graphs of the

Tangent, Cotangent,

Cosecant and Secant

Functions

Section 5.5

Graphing the Tangent

Function

Periodicity: Only need to graph on

interval [0, ¼]

Plot points and graph

Properties of the Tangent

Function

Domain: All real numbers, except odd

multiples of

Range: All real numbers

Odd function

Periodic, period ¼

x-intercepts: …, {2¼, {¼, 0, ¼, 2¼, 3¼, …

y-intercept: 0

Asymptotes occur at

Transformations of the Graph

of the Tangent Functions

Example.

Problem: Use the graph of y = tan x to

8

graph 6

Answer:

2

3 2 5 3

2 2 2 2

-2

-4

-6

-8

Graphing the Cotangent

Function

Periodicity: Only need to graph on

interval [0, ¼]

Graphing the Cosecant and

Secant Functions

Use reciprocal identities

Graph of y = csc x

Graphing the Cosecant and

Secant Functions

Use reciprocal identities

Graph of y = sec x

Key Points

Graphing the Tangent Function

Properties of the Tangent Function

Transformations of the Graph of the

Tangent Functions

Graphing the Cotangent Function

Graphing the Cosecant and Secant

Functions

Phase Shifts;

Sinusoidal Curve

Fitting

Section 5.6

Graphing Sinusoidal Functions

y = A sin(!x), ! > 0

Amplitude jAj

Period

y = A sin(!x { Á)

Phase shift

Phase shift indicates amount of shift

To right if Á > 0

To left if Á < 0

Graphing Sinusoidal Functions

Graphing y = A sin(!x { Á) or

y = A cos(!x { Á):

Determine amplitude jAj

Determine period

Graphing Sinusoidal Functions

Graphing y = A sin(!x { Á) or

y = A cos(!x { Á):

Divide interval into four

subintervals, each with length

five key points

Graphing Sinusoidal Functions

Graphing y = A sin(!x { Á) or

y = A cos(!x { Á):

Extend the graph in each direction to

make it complete

Graphing Sinusoidal Functions

Example. For the equation

Answer:

Answer:

Answer:

Finding a Sinusoidal Function

from Data

Example. An experiment in a wind tunnel

generates cyclic waves. The following data is

collected for 52 seconds.

Let v represent the wind speed in feet per second

and let x represent the time in seconds.

0 21

12 42

26 67

41 40

52 20

Finding a Sinusoidal Function

from Data

Example. (cont.)

Problem: Write a sine equation that

represents the data

Answer:

Key Points

Graphing Sinusoidal Functions

Finding a Sinusoidal Function from

Data

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