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Trigonometric

Functions
Chapter 5
Angles and Their
Measure

Section 5.1
Basic Terminology
 Ray: A half-line starting at a vertex
V

 Angle: Two rays with a common


vertex
Basic Terminology
 Initial side and terminal side: The
rays in an angle
 Angle shows direction and amount of
rotation
 Lower-case Greek letters denote angles
Basic Terminology
 Positive angle: Counterclockwise
rotation
 Negative angle: Clockwise rotation
 Coterminal angles: Share initial and
terminal sides

Positive angle Negative angle Positive angle


Basic Terminology
 Standard position:
 Vertex at origin
 Initial side is positive x-axis
Basic Terminology
 Quadrantal angle: Angle in standard
position that doesn’t lie in any
quadrant

Lies in quadrant II Quadrantal angle

Lies in quadrant IV
Measuring Angles
 Two usual ways of measuring
 Degrees
 360± in one rotation
 Radians
 2¼ radians in one rotation
Measuring Angles
 Right angle: A quarter revolution
 A right angle contains
 90±
¼

2
radians
Measuring Angles
 Straight angle: A half revolution.
 A straight angle contains:
 180±
 ¼ radians
Measuring Angles
 Negative angles have negative
measure

 Multiple revolutions are allowed


Degrees, Minutes and Seconds
 One complete revolution = 360±
 One minute:
 One-sixtieth of a degree
 One minute is denoted 10
 1± = 600

 One second:
 One-sixtieth of a minute
 One second is denoted 1 00
 10 = 6000
Degrees, Minutes and Seconds
 Example. Convert to a decimal in degrees
Problem: 64±3502700
Answer:
 Example. Convert to the D±M0S00 form
Problem: 73.582±
Answer:
Radians
 Central angle: An angle whose vertex
is at the center of a circle
 Central angles subtend an arc on the
circle
Radians
 One radian is the measure of an
angle which subtends an arc with
length equal to the radius of the circle
Radians
IMPORTANT!
 Radians are dimensionless
 If an angle appears with no units, it
must be assumed to be in radians
Arc Length
 Theorem. [Arc Length]
For a circle of radius r, a central angle of
µ radians subtends an arc whose length s
is
s = rµ

WARNING!
 The angle must be given in radians
Arc Length
 Example.
Problem: Find the length of the arc of a
circle of radius 5 centimeters subtended
by a central angle of 1.4 radians
Answer:
Radians vs. Degrees
 1 revolution = 2¼ radians = 360±
 180± = ¼ radians
 1± = 1¼8 0 radians
180 ±
 1 radian = ¼
Radians vs. Degrees
 Example. Convert each angle in
degrees to radians and each angle in
radians to degrees
(a) Problem: 45±
Answer:
(b) Problem: {270±
Answer:
(c) Problem: 2 radians
Answer:
Radians vs. Degrees
 Measurements of common angles
Area of a Sector of a Circle
 Theorem. [Area of a Sector]
The area A of the sector of a circle of
radius r formed by a central angle of µ
radians is
1
A = 2
r 2µ
Area of a Sector of a Circle
 Example.
Problem: Find the area of the sector of a
circle of radius 3 meters formed by an
angle of 45±. Round your answer to two
decimal places.
Answer:
WARNING!
 The angle again must be given in
radians
Linear and Angular Speed
 Object moving around a circle or
radius r at a constant speed
 Linear speed: Distance traveled divided
by elapsed time
s
v = t

t = time
µ = central angle swept out in time t
s = rµ = arc length = distance traveled
Linear and Angular Speed
 Object moving around a circle or
radius r at a constant speed
 Angular speed: Angle swept out divided
by elapsed time
µ
! = t

 Linear and angular speeds are related


v = r!
Linear and Angular Speed
 Example. A neighborhood carnival
has a Ferris wheel whose radius is 50
feet. You measure the time it takes
for one revolution to be 90 seconds.
(a) Problem: What is the linear speed (in
feet per second) of this Ferris wheel?
Answer:
(b) Problem: What is the angular speed
(in radians per second)?
Answer:
Key Points
 Basic Terminology
 Measuring Angles
 Degrees, Minutes and Seconds
 Radians
 Arc Length
 Radians vs. Degrees
 Area of a Sector of a Circle
 Linear and Angular Speed
Trigonometric
Functions: Unit
Circle Approach
Section 5.2
Unit Circle
 Unit circle: Circle with radius 1
centered at the origin
 Equation: x2 + y2 = 1
 Circumference: 2¼
Unit Circle
 Travel t units around circle, starting
from the point (1,0), ending at the
point P = (x, y)

 The point P = (x, y) is used to define


the trigonometric functions of t
Trigonometric Functions
 Let t be a real number and P = (x, y)
the point on the unit circle
corresponding to t:
 Sine function: y-coordinate of P
sin t = y
 Cosine function: x-coordinate of P

cos t = x
 Tangent function: if x  0
Trigonometric Functions
 Let t be a real number and P = (x, y)
the point on the unit circle
corresponding to t:
 Cosecant function: if y  0

 Secant function: if x  0

 Cotangent function: if y  0
Exact Values Using Points on
the Circle
 A point on the unit circle will satisfy
the equation x2 + y2 = 1
 Use this information together with
the definitions of the trigonometric
functions.
Exact Values Using Points on
the Circle
 Example. Let t be a real number and
P= the point on the unit
circle that corresponds to t.
Problem: Find the values of sin t, cos t,
tan t, csc t, sec t and cot t
Answer:
Trigonometric Functions of
Angles
 Convert between arc length and
angles on unit circle
 Use angle µ to define trigonometric
functions of the angle µ
Exact Values for Quadrantal
Angles
 Quadrantal angles correspond to
integer multiples of 90± or of
radians
Exact Values for Quadrantal
Angles
 Example. Find the values of the
trigonometric functions of µ
Problem: µ = 0 = 0±
Answer:
Exact Values for Quadrantal
Angles
 Example. Find the values of the
trigonometric functions of µ
Problem: µ = = 90±
Answer:
Exact Values for Quadrantal
Angles
 Example. Find the values of the
trigonometric functions of µ
Problem: µ = ¼ = 180±
Answer:
Exact Values for Quadrantal
Angles
 Example. Find the values of the
trigonometric functions of µ
Problem: µ = = 270±
Answer:
Exact Values for Quadrantal
Angles
Exact Values for Quadrantal
Angles
 Example. Find the exact values of
(a) Problem: sin({90±)
Answer:
(b) Problem: cos(5¼)
Answer:
Exact Values for Standard
Angles
 Example. Find the values of the
trigonometric functions of µ
Problem: µ = = 45±
Answer:
Exact Values for Standard
Angles
 Example. Find the values of the
trigonometric functions of µ
Problem: µ = = 60±
Answer:
Exact Values for Standard
Angles
 Example. Find the values of the
trigonometric functions of µ
Problem: µ = = 30±
Answer:
Exact Values for Standard
Angles
Exact Values for Standard
Angles
 Example. Find the values of the
following expressions
(a) Problem: sin(315±)
Answer:
(b) Problem: cos({120±)
Answer:
(c) Problem:
Answer:
Approximating Values Using a
Calculator
IMPORTANT!
 Be sure that your calculator is in the
correct mode.

 Use the basic trigonometric facts:


Approximating Values Using a
Calculator
 Example. Use a calculator to find the
approximate values of the following.
Express your answers rounded to two
decimal places.
(a) Problem: sin 57±
Answer:
(b) Problem: cot {153±
Answer:
(c) Problem: sec 2
Answer:
Circles of Radius r
 Theorem.
For an angle µ in standard position, let
P = (x, y) be the point on the terminal
side of µ that is also on the circle
x2 + y2 = r2. Then
Circles of Radius r
 Example.
Problem: Find the exact values of each of
the trigonometric functions of an angle µ
if ({12, {5) is a point on its terminal
side.
Answer:
Key Points
 Unit Circle
 Trigonometric Functions
 Exact Values Using Points on the
Circle
 Trigonometric Functions of Angles
 Exact Values for Quadrantal Angles
 Exact Values for Standard Angles
 Approximating Values Using a
Calculator
Key Points (cont.)
 Circles of Radius r
Properties of the
Trigonometric
Functions
Section 5.3
Domains of Trigonometric
Functions
 Domain of sine and cosine functions is
the set of all real numbers
 Domain of tangent and secant
functions is the set of all real
numbers, except odd integer multiples
of = 90±
 Domain of cotangent and cosecant
functions is the set of all real
numbers, except integer multiples of
¼ = 180±
Ranges of Trigonometric
Functions
 Sine and cosine have range [{1, 1]
 {1 · sin µ · 1; jsin µj · 1
 {1 · cos µ · 1; jcos µj · 1

 Range of cosecant and secant is


({1, {1] [ [1, 1)
 jcsc µj ¸ 1
 jsec µj ¸ 1

 Range of tangent and cotangent


functions is the set of all real numbers
Periods of Trigonometric
Functions
 Periodic function: A function f with
a positive number p such that
whenever µ is in the domain of f, so is
µ + p, and
f(µ + p) = f(µ)
 (Fundamental) period of f: smallest
such number p, if it exists
Periods of Trigonometric
Functions
 Periodic Properties:
sin(µ + 2¼) = sin µ
cos(µ + 2¼) = cos µ
tan(µ + ¼) = tan µ
csc(µ + 2¼) = csc µ
sec(µ + 2¼) = sec µ
cot(µ + ¼) = cot µ
 Sine, cosine, cosecant and secant have
period 2¼
 Tangent and cotangent have period ¼
Periods of Trigonometric
Functions
 Example. Find the exact values of
(a) Problem: sin(7¼)
Answer:
(b) Problem:
Answer:
(c) Problem:
Answer:
Signs of the Trigonometric
Functions
 P = (x, y) corresponding to angle µ
 Definitions of functions, where defined

 Find the signs of the functions


 Quadrant I: x > 0, y > 0
 Quadrant II: x < 0, y > 0
 Quadrant III: x < 0, y < 0
 Quadrant IV: x > 0, y < 0
Signs of the Trigonometric
Functions
Signs of the Trigonometric
Functions
 Example:
Problem: If sin µ < 0 and cos µ > 0, name
the quadrant in which the angle µ lies
Answer:
Quotient Identities
 P = (x, y) corresponding to angle µ:

 Get quotient identities:


Quotient Identities
 Example.
Problem: Given and
, find the exact values of
the four remaining trigonometric
functions of µ using identities.

Answer:
Pythagorean Identities
 Unit circle: x2 + y2 = 1
 (sin µ)2 + (cos µ)2 = 1

sin2 µ + cos2 µ = 1
tan2 µ + 1 = sec2 µ
1 + cot2 µ = csc2 µ
Pythagorean Identities
 Example. Find the exact values of
each expression. Do not use a
calculator
(a) Problem: cos 20± sec 20±

Answer:

(b) Problem: tan2 25± { sec2 25±

Answer:
Pythagorean Identities
 Example.
Problem: Given that and that
µ is in Quadrant II, find cos µ.

Answer:
Even-Odd Properties
 A function f is even if f({µ) = f(µ)
for all µ in the domain of f
 A function f is odd if f({µ) = {f(µ)
for all µ in the domain of f
Even-Odd Properties
 Theorem. [Even-Odd Properties]
sin({µ) = {sin(µ)
cos({µ) = cos(µ)
tan({µ) = {tan(µ)
csc({µ) = {csc(µ)
sec({µ) = sec(µ)
cot({µ) = {cot(µ)
 Cosine and secant are even functions
 The other functions are odd functions
Even-Odd Properties
 Example. Find the exact values of
(a) Problem: sin({30±)
Answer:
(b) Problem:
Answer:
(c) Problem:
Answer:
Fundamental Trigonometric
Identities
 Quotient Identities

 Reciprocal Identities

 Pythagorean Identities

 Even-Odd Identities
Key Points
 Domains of Trigonometric Functions
 Ranges of Trigonometric Functions
 Periods of Trigonometric Functions
 Signs of the Trigonometric Functions
 Quotient Identities
 Pythagorean Identities
 Even-Odd Properties
 Fundamental Trigonometric Identities
Graphs of the
Sine and Cosine
Functions
Section 5.4
Graphing Trigonometric
Functions
 Graph in xy-plane
 Write functions as
 y = f(x) = sin x
 y = f(x) = cos x
 y = f(x) = tan x
 y = f(x) = csc x
 y = f(x) = sec x
 y = f(x) = cot x
 Variable x is an angle, measured in radians
 Can be any real number
Graphing the Sine Function
 Periodicity: Only need to graph on
interval [0, 2¼] (One cycle)
 Plot points and graph
Properties of the Sine Function
 Domain: All real numbers
 Range: [{1, 1]
 Odd function
 Periodic, period 2¼
 x-intercepts: …, {2¼, {¼, 0, ¼, 2¼, 3¼, …
 y-intercept: 0
 Maximum value: y = 1, occurring at

 Minimum value: y = {1, occurring at


Transformations of the Graph
of the Sine Functions
 Example.
Problem: Use the graph of y = sin x to
graph

Answer: 4

3 2 5 3
2 2 2 2

-2

-4
Graphing the Cosine Function
 Periodicity: Again, only need to graph
on interval [0, 2¼] (One cycle)
 Plot points and graph
Properties of the Cosine
Function
 Domain: All real numbers
 Range: [{1, 1]
 Even function
 Periodic, period 2¼
 x-intercepts:
 y-intercept: 1
 Maximum value: y = 1, occurring at
x = …, {2¼, 0, 2¼, 4¼, 6¼, …
 Minimum value: y = {1, occurring at
x = …, {¼, ¼, 3¼, 5¼, …
Transformations of the Graph
of the Cosine Functions
 Example.
Problem: Use the graph of y = cos x to
graph

Answer: 4

3 2 5 3
2 2 2 2

-2

-4
Sinusoidal Graphs
 Graphs of sine and cosine functions
appear to be translations of each
other
 Graphs are called sinusoidal
 Conjecture.
Amplitude and Period of
Sinusoidal Functions
 Graphs of functions y = A sin x and
y = A cos x will always satisfy
inequality {jAj · y · jAj
 Number jAj is the amplitude
Amplitude and Period of
Sinusoidal Functions
 Graphs of functions y = A sin x and
y = A cos x will always satisfy
inequality {jAj · y · jAj
 Number jAj is the amplitude
4 4

2 2

3 2 5 3 3 5
2 3
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

-2 -2

-4 -4
Amplitude and Period of
Sinusoidal Functions
 Period of y = sin(!x) and
y = cos(!x) is

4 4

2 2

3 2 5 3 3 2 5 3
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

-2 -2

-4 -4
Amplitude and Period of
Sinusoidal Functions
 Cycle: One period of y = sin(!x) or
y = cos(!x)

4 4

2 2

3 2 5 3 3 2 5 3
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

-2 -2

-4 -4
Amplitude and Period of
Sinusoidal Functions
 Cycle: One period of y = sin(!x) or
y = cos(!x)
Amplitude and Period of
Sinusoidal Functions
 Theorem. If ! > 0, the amplitude and
period of y = Asin(!x) and
y = Acos(! x) are given by
Amplitude = j Aj
Period = .
Amplitude and Period of
Sinusoidal Functions
 Example.
Problem: Determine the amplitude and
period of y = {2cos(¼x)
Answer:
Graphing Sinusoidal Functions
 One cycle contains four important
subintervals
 For y = sin x and y = cos x these are

 Gives five key points on graph


Graphing Sinusoidal Functions
 Example.
Problem: Graph y = {3cos(2x)
Answer:
4

3 2 5 3
2 2 2 2

-2

-4
Finding Equations for
Sinusoidal Graphs
 Example.
Problem: Find an equation for the graph.

Answer:
6

3 5 2 3 3 2 5 3
2 2 2 2 2 2
-2

-4

-6
Key Points
 Graphing Trigonometric Functions
 Graphing the Sine Function
 Properties of the Sine Function
 Transformations of the Graph of the
Sine Functions
 Graphing the Cosine Function
 Properties of the Cosine Function
 Transformations of the Graph of the
Cosine Functions
Key Points (cont.)
 Sinusoidal Graphs
 Amplitude and Period of Sinusoidal
Functions
 Graphing Sinusoidal Functions
 Finding Equations for Sinusoidal
Graphs
Graphs of the
Tangent, Cotangent,
Cosecant and Secant
Functions
Section 5.5
Graphing the Tangent
Function
 Periodicity: Only need to graph on
interval [0, ¼]
 Plot points and graph
Properties of the Tangent
Function
 Domain: All real numbers, except odd
multiples of
 Range: All real numbers
 Odd function
 Periodic, period ¼
 x-intercepts: …, {2¼, {¼, 0, ¼, 2¼, 3¼, …
 y-intercept: 0
 Asymptotes occur at
Transformations of the Graph
of the Tangent Functions
 Example.
Problem: Use the graph of y = tan x to
8

graph 6

Answer:
2

3 2 5 3
2 2 2 2

-2

-4

-6

-8
Graphing the Cotangent
Function
 Periodicity: Only need to graph on
interval [0, ¼]
Graphing the Cosecant and
Secant Functions
 Use reciprocal identities
 Graph of y = csc x
Graphing the Cosecant and
Secant Functions
 Use reciprocal identities
 Graph of y = sec x
Key Points
 Graphing the Tangent Function
 Properties of the Tangent Function
 Transformations of the Graph of the
Tangent Functions
 Graphing the Cotangent Function
 Graphing the Cosecant and Secant
Functions
Phase Shifts;
Sinusoidal Curve
Fitting
Section 5.6
Graphing Sinusoidal Functions

 y = A sin(!x), ! > 0
 Amplitude jAj
 Period
 y = A sin(!x { Á)
 Phase shift
 Phase shift indicates amount of shift
 To right if Á > 0
 To left if Á < 0
Graphing Sinusoidal Functions
 Graphing y = A sin(!x { Á) or
y = A cos(!x { Á):
 Determine amplitude jAj

 Determine period

 Determine starting point of one cycle:

 Determine ending point of one cycle:


Graphing Sinusoidal Functions
 Graphing y = A sin(!x { Á) or
y = A cos(!x { Á):
 Divide interval into four
subintervals, each with length

 Use endpoints of subintervals to find the


five key points

 Fill in one cycle


Graphing Sinusoidal Functions
 Graphing y = A sin(!x { Á) or
y = A cos(!x { Á):
 Extend the graph in each direction to
make it complete
Graphing Sinusoidal Functions
 Example. For the equation

(a) Problem: Find the amplitude

Answer:

(b) Problem: Find the period

Answer:

(c) Problem: Find the phase shift

Answer:
Finding a Sinusoidal Function
from Data
 Example. An experiment in a wind tunnel
generates cyclic waves. The following data is
collected for 52 seconds.
Let v represent the wind speed in feet per second
and let x represent the time in seconds.

Time (in seconds), x Wind speed (in feet per second), v


0 21
12 42
26 67
41 40
52 20
Finding a Sinusoidal Function
from Data
 Example. (cont.)
Problem: Write a sine equation that
represents the data
Answer:
Key Points
 Graphing Sinusoidal Functions
 Finding a Sinusoidal Function from
Data