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Engr. Ernesto S.

Bombay, MSST
DLSU-D, CEAT
TEXT BOOK REFERENCE: CHAPTERS 1 & 2
 Cement
◦ Portland Cement (ASTM C150)
◦ Others (ASTM C595M, ASTM C 845, ASTM C 618, ASTM C 618,
ASTM C 618, ASTM C989)
 Water
◦ Potable (in accordance to local regulations)
 Aggregates
◦ ASTM C 33
◦ Light weight aggregates – ASTM C 330
 Steel
◦ ASTM A615M (Most common); ASTM A 706 M for earthquake
resistant structures.
◦ Others: ASTM 1035, ASTM A 184M, ASTM A 496M, ASTM A 185M,
ASTM A497M and ASTM specs for coated reinforcement.
 Admixtures – will not be discussed in detail in this course and is left
to the student to do personal studies.
CONCRETE (CEMENT, SAND,
AGGREGATES) SECTION

CONCRETE (SAND AND


CEMENT) SECTION

AGGREGATES – USUALLY
CRUSHED VOLCANIC ROCK
 Hydration is the process where water reacts with
cement (typically Portland cement) in an
exothermic process to form a rock like material.

 Read distributed reference on hydration from


internet
 Aggregates (both course and fine) are used to cheaply fill up space. These
materials have to be stronger than the cementing material.
 Cement reacting with water forms a porous gel and binds these materials
together.
◦ Over mixing weakens the resulting concrete.
◦ Too much water leaves un-reacted water which dries up as pores in the
cement mix resulting to a weaker concrete. 25% water by weight is needed
for complete hydration however, 40%-50% water is necessary for
workability.
◦ As the concrete forms (or hardens) laitance is formed at the top.
◦ Release of heat can impact concrete strength (read text).
 Stress and strain relationships
◦ Compressive strength occurs at a strain between
0.002 to 0.003.
◦ Stress strain curve in compression is relatively
straight at the start then curves towards the
horizontal until it reaches its peak.
◦ The direct tensile strength is around 5% to 10% of
the compressive strength (f’c).
◦ The initial modulus of elasticity Ec is given by:
Ec = 33wc 1.5 √ f’c ; wc = unit weight of concrete (pcf)
= 0.043wc 1.5 √ f’c ;NSCP 408.6.1
For normal sand and stone concrete (ACI/ NSCP 2001
formula)
Ec = 57,000 √ f’c (psi)
Ec = 4,700 √ f’c (MPa) ;NSCP 408.6.1

 Shrinkage
◦ Shrinkage is strongly related to the excess water
(beyond 0.25 of cement weight. The normal
workable water cement ratio by weight is around 0.4
to 0.6 for which the cement portion shrinkage is
0.0006 to 0.0013
◦ Cement to aggregate ratio influences shrinkage as
well
fu tensile
strength

Note: A615 is the most commonly used reinforcement type X

 Strong in both tension and compression X


 Elastic strain is about 1/20 of plastic range strain
 fu is more than 1.25 fy
Strain
 Es (modulus of elasticity of steel) = hardening
region
29,000,000 (psi)
200,000 (MPa) ; NSCP 408.6.2

ZOOMED
IN X 10

fy90

fy75

fy60

fy40
Elastic range
Plastic /yield
plateau range

Vinnakota Nilson
 Definition
◦ The design method wherein structural members are “proportioned so that
stresses in the steel and concrete resulting from (maximum expected)
normal service loads are within specified (allowable) stress limits.
 Other terms of the same meaning
◦ Working Stress design, Service load design
 Currently this philosophy is gaining less popularity. In NSCP 2010 this design
method has been just placed as an alternative method and is contained in
Section 424 – Alternate Design Method
 Definition
◦ The design method wherein structural members are proportioned “so that
member strengths are adequate to resist forces resulting from certain
hypothetical overload stages, significantly above loads expected actually
to occur in service ”.
 Other terms of the same meaning
◦ Load and Resistance Factored Design, Strength Design
 General format of formula

Σ[Load Factor]i [Maximum Service load]i = [Strength reduction factor] Ultimate Strength
Note: This NSCP 2010 contains 2
factored load combination with the
same requirements.
Note: This NSCP 2010 contains 2
factored load combination with the
same requirements.
Related textbook chapters for reading:
Chapters 2 (All sections)
Chapter 3 (All sections)
1st short quiz (TBD)